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© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

General Information & Introduction

 Lecturer: Dr Iftekhar Ahmad


 Office: Room 5.218, Joondalup Campus
 Phone: +61 8 6304 5458
 Email: i.ahmad@ecu.edu.au

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

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Tell us about You

• Name
• Major
• Expectation
• Future plan

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

Aim of the unit

By the completion of the unit you should be able to

 understand the fundamentals of analog and digital


communication
 design systems for generation and detection of typical
communication signals
 analyse the effects of noise on communication systems

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Applications
 fixed telephone networks
 cellular networks
 radio broadcast and reception
 television broadcast and reception
 satellite communication
 instrument landing systems
 navigation systems
 global positioning systems
 supervisory control and data acquisition
 sound and video recording and playback systems
 and many more …..

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

Assessment

 Test (2 tests) – 20%


 Lab (min 3 lab sessions) – 20%
 Exam – 60%

Do I need to attend the lecture and tutorial?

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Lecture 1: Spectral Density

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Overview

 Background Concept
 Energy spectral density
 Power spectral density
 White noise and thermal noise

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Learning Resources
 B.P. Lathi, “Modern Digital and Analog Communication
Systems”, 4th edition, Oxford University Press, 2009

 Ferrel G Stremler, Introduction to Communication


Systems (3rd Edition) , Addison Wesley, 1990

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

What is a Communication System?


 Communication Systems: A collection of individual
communications networks, transmission systems, relay
stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually
capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an
integrated whole.

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Data Communication
 Three basic elements:
 Sender

 Receiver

 Transmission media

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Fundamental Concepts in Communication

 Carrier Frequency
 Bandwidth
 Modulation/Demodulation
 Noise
 Time domain vs. Frequency domain representation

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Fundamental concepts cont…
 Carrier Frequency

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Fundamental concepts cont…


 Bandwidth
 Bandwidth is the communication capacity of an electronic pathway,
such as a communication pipeline. Data flows quickly and smoothly
when the amount of traffic travelling in the pipe is small relative to
the size of the pipe.

Bandwidth is counted

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Fundamental concepts cont…
 Modulation/Demodulation
 Modulation/Demodulation is all about how you are going to
organise/orient the data on a carrier signal

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Fundamental concepts cont…


 Noise
 Unwanted signals

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Fundamental concepts cont…
 Time domain vs. Frequency domain representation

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

A General Block Diagram for a


Communication System

Error
Source
Source control Modulation
coding Multiple Transmitter
coding
access /filters

C
From other
h
source
a
n
To other n
sink e
l
Error Multiple Receiver
Source access /filters
Sink control Demodulation
decoding
decoding

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Energy Spectral Density
 The energy spectral density of a signal is a function
that:
 gives the energy of the signal for each and all

frequencies, and
 when integrated over all frequencies it gives the total

energy of the signal

 Parseval’s theorem gives a relationship for calculating


the energy of a signal f(t) both from its time domain
representation and from its amplitude spectral density
(Fourier transform), F(ω):

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

Energy Spectral Density Cont…


∞ ∞
1
E f = ∫ | f (t ) | dt =
2
∫ | F (ω ) | dω
2

−∞
2π −∞

Energy content, Energy spectral density


assuming 1 Ohm or
resistor (normalised) energy density
 From the above equation we can deduce that F (ω ) 2
is the energy spectral density of the function f(t)
 Now, assuming that f(t) is the input of a LTI system, we
wish to obtain the energy spectral density of the output
of that system g(t)
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Energy Spectral Density Cont…
 For a LTI (Linear Time Invariant) system:
F (ω ) G (ω ) = F (ω ).H (ω )
H (ω )

 We can deduce that the (normalised) energy (spectral)


density of the output is
| G (ω ) |2 =| F (ω ) |2 . | H (ω ) |2
 Therefore the normalised energy of the output signal is:
∞ ∞
1
Eg = ∫ | g (t ) | dt =
2
∫ | F (ω ) | . | H (ω ) |
2 2

−∞
2π −∞

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

Energy Spectral Density Cont…


 The following figure shows how a multi-channel spectral
analyser measures the energy spectral density of a signal:

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Power Spectral Density (PSD)

 There are many signals that do not have finite energy,


but have finite time average of energy (power type
signals)
 The average power of such signal is given by:
T /2
1

2 2
P = f (t ) = lim f (t ) dt (1)
T →∞ T
−T / 2

Mean square
value of the signal

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

PSD Cont…
 The power spectral density (psd) function, Sf(ω), must
satisfy the following equation:

1
P=
2π ∫S
−∞
f (ω )dω

 Apply Parseval’s theorem to equation (1):


T /2
1

2 2
P = f (t ) = lim f (t ) dt
T →∞ T
−T / 2

1 1

2
= lim FT (ω ) d ω
T →∞ T 2π
−∞
where FT(ω) is the Fourier transform of the truncated
time domain signal
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PSD Cont…

FT (ω ) = Fourier transform of f (t ) rect(t / T )


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PSD Cont…
 From this we can deduce that (see the textbook):
2
| F (ω ) |
S f (ω ) = lim T
T →∞ T
 This is the power spectral density, or the power density
spectrum, or just power spectrum of f(t)
 For a periodic function it can be shown that:

S f (ω ) = 2π ∑|F
n =−∞
n |2 δ (ω − nω0 )

where Fn is the Fourier coefficient of the nth harmonic of


the Fourier series (exponential form) representation of
f(t)Ahmad
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PSD Cont…
 Now, assuming that f(t) is the input of a LTI system, and
knowing Sf(ω), the power spectral density of f(t), we
wish to obtain the power spectral density of the output
of that system g(t), denoted by Sg(ω)
 Let us use FT(ω) and GT(ω) to denote the Fourier
transforms of the input and the output respectively
GT (ω ) ≈ FT (ω ) H (ω )
2 2
GT (ω ) FT (ω ) H (ω )
S g (ω ) = lim = lim
T →∞ T T →∞ T
2
FT (ω )
= lim | H (ω ) |2
T →∞ T
= S f (ω ) | H (ω ) |2
© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

Break

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Time-Averaged Noise Representations
 Noise: any unwanted signals, random or deterministic,
which interfere with the faithful reproduction of a
desired signal in a system.
 The following definitions for mean value, mean-square
value, and AC component apply to noise signals (n(t))
as well as other signals:
 Mean value, often referred to as the DC or average:

T /2
1
T →∞ T ∫
n(t ) = lim n(t )dt
−T / 2

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

Noise Representations
 Mean-square value:
T /2
1

2
n (t ) = lim | n(t ) |2 dt
T →∞ T
−T / 2

Apart from the resistance scaling factor, this gives the


time-averaged power of n(t).

 Root-mean-square(rms) value: n 2 (t )

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Band-Limited White Noise
 The power spectrum function of white noise is constant,
ie. constant power for all frequencies

 If the noise signal n(t) has zero mean, and we have a


constant psd of η W/Hz measured over positive
frequencies, then the psd of white noise is:

S n (ω ) = η / 2 for all ω

 White noise has usage in


Audio Industry, Electric
Guitar

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

White Noise Cont…


 Strictly speaking, this model cannot be right because it
implies that the noise power is infinite:
∞ ∞
1 1 η
∫ S f (ω )dω = 2π −∞∫ 2 dω → ∞
2
Pn = n (t ) =
2π −∞

 But, this turns out to be a good model for all real cases
in which the bandwidth of the measuring device is
finite, and for these cases we can assume band-limited
white noise
 With the assumption of finite bandwidth we can
calculate the power of white noise across a bandwidth
B:
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White Noise Cont…
2π B
1 η
∫π
2
Pn = n (t ) = dω = η B W
2π −2 B
2

 If n(t) is a voltage signal developed across a resistor R,


then the mean-square noise voltage will be:
n 2 (t )
Pn = ∴ n 2 (t ) = Pn R = η RB V2
R
 If n(t) is a current signal, then through a resistor R we
will have a mean-square noise current of:

2 n 2 (t )
Pn = n (t )R = ∴ n 2 (t ) = Pn G = η GB A2
G
© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

Thermal Noise
 Thermal noise results from the thermally excited
random motion of electrons in a conducting medium
 The psd of thermal noise is given by

h |ω |
Sn (ω ) = ≅ 2kT for | ω |<< 2π kT / h
  h |ω |  
π exp   − 1
  2π kT  
T = temp. of the conducting medium in Kelvin (K)
k = Boltzmann's constant = 1.38 ×10−23 joule/K
h = Planck's constant = 6.625 ×10−34 joule-sec

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Thermal Noise
 Therefore, the mean-square (open circuit) voltage
generated by a resistor R in a bandwidth B is:
2π B
1
∫π
2
v (t ) = RPn = R 2kT d ω = 4kTRB V2
2π −2 B

 The mean-square current (short-circuit) generated by a


resistor R in a bandwidth B is:
2π B
1
∫π
2
i (t ) = GPn = G 2kT d ω = 4kTGB A2
2π −2 B

 On the basis of the above equations thermal-noise


equivalent circuit models can be developed:
© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

Thermal-Noise Equivalent Circuit Models


 A noisy resistor can be modelled as a noiseless resistor
in series with a voltage noise source, or, as a noiseless
resistor in parallel with a current noise source:

voltage model current model


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Transmission of Thermal Noise
Through Linear Systems
 Assume that we connect a resistor to the input terminals
of a linear system containing noiseless components:

 We can calculate the psd of output resulting from the


noisy resistor at the input

© Iftekhar Ahmad Communication Systems 1

 On a voltage basis:
Svi (ω ) = 2kTR V 2 / Hz
2
∴ Svo (ω ) = Svi (ω ) H (ω ) V 2 / Hz

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