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Chapter 2

Dynamic Loading
Introduction to Fatigue in Metals
 Static conditions : loads are applied gradually, to give sufficient time
for the strain to fully develop.

 Variable conditions : stresses vary with time or fluctuate between

different levels, also called repeated, alternating, or fluctuating stresses.

 When machine members are found to have failed under fluctuating

stresses, the actual maximum stresses were well below the
ultimate strength of the material, even below yielding strength.

 Since these failures are due to stresses repeating for a large number of
times, they are called fatigue failures.

 When machine parts fails statically, the usually develop a very large
deflection, thus visible warning can be observed in advance; a fatigue
failure gives no warning!
Fatigue Failure in Metals
 A fatigue failure arises from three stages
of development:
 Stage I : initiation of micro-cracks due to cyclic
plastic deformation (these cracks are not
usually visible to the naked eyes).
 Stage II : propagation of micro-cracks to initiation
macro-cracks forming parallel plateau like
fracture surfaces separated by longitudinal
ridges (in the form of dark and light bands
referred to as beach marks).
 Stage III : fracture when the remaining
material cannot support the loads.
Fracture Patterns of Fatigue
Fatigue Life Methods in Fatigue
Failure Analysis
 Let N be the number of cycles to fatigue for a specified level of
 For 1≤ N ≤ 103, generally classified as low-cycle fatigue

 For N>103, generally classified as high-cycle fatigue

 Three major fatigue life methods used in design and analysis are
1. stress-life method : is based on stress only, least accurate especially
for low-cycle fatigue; however, it is the most traditional and easiest to
implement for a wide range of applications.
2. strain-life method : involves more detailed analysis, especially good
for low-cycle fatigue; however, idealizations in the methods make it
less practical when uncertainties are present.
3. linear-elastic fracture mechanics method : assumes a crack is
already present. Practical with computer codes in predicting in crack
growth with respect to stress intensity factor
Characterizing Fluctuating
 Fluctuating stresses often of
sinusoidal patters due to the
nature of some rotating

 The peaks of the wave are more

important than its shape.

 Fluctuating stresses are

described using a steady
component and an alternating
Cyclic Loading
Stress-Life Method : R. R. Moore
 The most widely used fatigue-testing
device is the R. R. Moore high-speed
rotating-beam machine.

 Specimens in R.R. Moore machines are

subjected to pure bending by means of
added weights.

 Other fatigue-testing machines are

available for applying fluctuating or
reversed axial stresses, torsional
stresses, or combined stresses to the
test specimens.
S-N Curve
 In R. R. Moore machine tests, a
constant bending load is applied,
and the number of revolutions of
the beam required for failure is

 Tests at various bending stress

levels are conducted.

 These results are plotted as an S-N


 Log plot is generally used to

emphasize the bend in the S-N
S-N diagram from the results of completely reversed axial
 Ordinate of S-N curve is fatigue fatigue test. Material : UNS G41300 steel.
strength, Sf , at a specific number
of cycles
Characteristics of S-N Curves for
 In the case of steels, a knee
occurs in the graph, and beyond
this knee failure will not occur,
no matter how great the number
of cycles - this knee is called the
endurance limit, denoted as Se
UNS G41300 steel.
 Non-ferrous metals and alloys do
not have an endurance limit,
since their S-N curve never
become horizontal.
Aluminum Alloy

 For materials with no endurance

limit, the fatigue strength is
normally reported at N=5x108

 N=1/2 is the simple tension test

Stress Life Method
 Useful for high cycle figure.

 Applied stress within elastic range

 No plastic strain occurs, anywhere than at the tips of fatigue cracks.

 Stress life calculations are much simpler.

𝜎𝑓′ 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑚𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑠, 𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ
b= fatigue strength coefficient or Basquin’s exponent (≈ -0.05 to -0.12)
2𝑁𝑓 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑠 𝑡𝑜 𝑓𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑒.
Fatigue Life
The Strain-Life Method
 Stress life approach is applicable to elastic limit or high cycle loading.
 Situation involving high stress, high temperature or stress
concentration, where significant plasticity is involved.
 Loading is characterised by the plastic strain amplitude 2

 Plot between log vs. log 2𝑁𝑓 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝑎 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑏𝑒ℎ𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑟, which can be

further explained with Coffin Manson relationship

𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒
𝜀𝑓′ fatigue ductility coefficient ≈ 𝜀𝑓
C is fatigue ductility exponent (-0.5 to -0.7 for many metals.
Stress/ Strain Life Method

Coffin Manson expression is used to express 2

Basquin Law (Stress life approach)

Manson-Coffin Relationship
 The total-strain amplitude is the sum of elastic and plastic strain
Transition in Analysis
 Strain Life Analysis:

If the amplitude of the total strain have significant plasticity component,

life time is likely very short. Low cycle fatigue.

 Stress Life Analysis:

If the stresses are low enough that the strain are elastic, the lifetime is

likely to be long.

 Transition State:

The transition life (2Nt) is found by setting the plastic strain amplitude

equal to the elastic strain amplitude.

Transition in Analysis
Transition in Analysis
 If N>> Nt, the elastic strain is more dominant and strength will

control performance.

 If N<< Nt, plastic strain dominates, and ductility will control


 In most materials improvements in strength lead to reduction in

ductility, and vice versa.

These total life approaches represent crack initiation life in smooth
specimens. However, engineering materials contain inherent
defects. Therefore, these approaches can lead to overestimation of
useful life.
Fatigue Varying Amplitudes
Palmgren Miner Linear Damage
 Common approach is the Palmgren-Miner linear damage summation rule.

2𝑛𝑖 𝑅𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝜎𝑎𝑖

𝑑= =
2𝑁𝑓𝑖 𝑅𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑎𝑙𝑠 𝑡𝑜 𝑓𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝜎𝑎𝑖

 Here, 2Nfi are number of cycles to failure at σai, d is the partial damage.

 Component fails when total damage equals 1.


It is assumed that the sequence of the loading has no significant impact on

the lifetime of the component. Practically, sequence will have significant
impact on the lifecycle of the component.
The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life

Mean stress exist if the

loading is of a repeating or
fluctuating type.

Sy Yield line

Gerber curve
stress Goodman line

Sy Sut m
Soderberg line
Mean stress
The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life
Modified Goodman Diagram
Sy Yield line

stress Goodman line
Safe zone

Sy Sut m
Mean stress
The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue
Life Modified Goodman Diagram
Sy Yield line


Goodman line
Safe zone Safe zone

- m - Syc Sy Sut + m
Fatigue Failure Criteria for
Fluctuating Stresses
Updated Equations
Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics
 Fatigue cracking consists
three stages

✓ Stage I : crack initiation, invisible

to the observer.

✓ Stage II : crack propagation, most

of a crack’s life

✓ Stage III : final fracture due to

rapid acceleration of crack
Paris Law for Crack Growth
 Assuming a crack is discovered early in stage II, the crack
growth can be approximated by the Paris equation as

 ΔKI is the variation in stress intensity factor due to

fluctuating stresses.
crack length

material constants

number of cycles
Endurance Limit for Steels
 For steels, the endurance limit
relates directly to the minimum
tensile strength as observed in
experimental measurements.

 From the observations, the

endurance of steels can be
estimated as:
Fatigue Strength : Basics
 Low-cycle fatigue considers the range from N=1 to about
1000 cycles.

 In this region, the fatigue strength Sf is only slightly

smaller than the tensile strength Sut .

 High-cycle fatigue domain extends from 103 to the

endurance limit life (106 to 107 cycles).
Endurance Limit Modifying
 The endurance limit of the rotating-beam specimen might differ from
the actual application due to the following differences from laboratory

 Material : composition, basis of failure, variability

 Manufacturing : method, heat treatment, fretting corrosion, surface

condition, stress concentration

 Environment : corrosion, temperature, stress state, relaxation times.

 Design : size, shape, life, stress state, stress concentration, speed,

fretting, galling

 Modifying factors of surface condition, size, loading, temperature,

and miscellaneous items are proposed by Marin to quantify these
Marin Modification Factors on
Endurance Limit

 where
– = surface condition modification factor
– = size modification factor
– = load modification factor
– = temperature modification factor
– = reliability factor
– = miscellaneous-effects modification factor
– = rotary-beam test specimen endurance limit
Surface and Loading Factors
 Surface Factor : the surface modification factor depends on the quality
of the finish of the actual part surface and on the tensile strength of the
part material. It can be calculated as

 Loading Factor : the axial and torsional loadings results in different

endurance limit than that of a standard rotating-bending test. The load
factor applies to other loading conditions as
Temperature Factor
 At temperatures lower than room
temperature, brittle fracture of a
component needs to be considered first;
at operating temperatures higher than
room temperature, yield should be

 If only tensile-strength data are available,

Fig.2-9 : yield stress drops with
polynomial fitting to the data could
provide the temperature factor at various
temperature values. For steels and
, we have

 If the rotating-beam endurance limit is

known at room temperature, we have
Miscellaneous-Effects Factor
 The miscellaneous factor intends to account for the
reduction in endurance limit due to all other effects, such
as residual stresses, different material treatments,
directional characteristics of operations, and corrosion.

 One should also treat the miscellaneous-effect factor as a

reminder that these must accounted for, because actual
values of Kf are not always available.
Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor
 The fatigue stress concentration factor from the existence of
irregularities or discontinuities in materials is defined a

• Let be the static stress concentration

factor, the relations between fatigue stress
concentration and the notch sensitivity is

for bending and axial loadings