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RATIO AND PROPORTIONS

Ratio
A ratio is a comparison of two quantities that have the same units. The Quotient of two
𝑎
quantities is a number in the simplest from, such as : the 𝑏 or a : b which is read the ratio of
a to b, where a and b are positive integers.
𝑎
Writing a ratio is the same as writing a fraction, that is, it is expressed in the form 𝑏.
𝑎
The form for a ratio means comparing a quantity or a number to the other quantity or
𝑏
𝑎
number, while the form for a fraction means a part of the whole.
𝑏

Example #1: If one store has 360 items and another store has 100 of the same items,
express the ratio of the items.
360
or 360 : 100 or 360 to 100
100
Ratios are usually written in lowest terms; therefore, the above example would reduce in
this way:
360 360÷20 18
= = 5
100 100÷20

Example #2: John earns $350 a week. His take-home pay, however, is $295. What is the
ratio of his gross pay to his take-home pay.
350 70
= 59
295

Proportion
A proportion is a statement that two ratios or rates are equal. It can be given as a
sentence in words, but most often a proportion is an algebraic equation. On the Proportions
there are the direct and inverse Propotions.
1. Direct Proportions
𝑎 𝑐
The form of the proportion 𝑏 = 𝑑 where b ≠ 0 and d ≠ 0, can be changed into the form
of multiplication as follows.
𝑎 𝑐
=𝑑
𝑏
𝑎 𝑐
bd × 𝑏 = bd × 𝑑 multiply both sides by bd

ad = bc or a×d=b×c
a. Cross multiplication
𝑎 𝑐
Changing the direct proportion in the form 𝑏 = 𝑑 into the multiplication form
a × d = b × c can be done in following way.
𝑎 𝑐
In the proportion 𝑏 = 𝑑, a is cross-multiplied by d, and b is cross-multiplied by
c, so that we get a × d = b × c. This procedure is called the cross-multiplication.
Example :
Determine the values of p, x, and y in the following proportions !
𝑝 72
1) 5 = 8

2) 4 : 3 = 12 : ( y + 5 )
Answer :
𝑝 72
1) =
5 8

P x 8 = 5 x 72
5 𝑥 72
P= 8
P = 45

2) 4 : 3 = 12 : ( y + 5 )
4 (y + 5) = 3 x 12
4y + 20 = 36
4y = 36 – 20
4y = 16
Y=4

b. Extremes and means


Consider the Following proportion !

extreme a:b=c:d extreme

means

In the proportion above, a and d are called the extremes, while b and c are called
the means.
At the beginning of this section, we have discussed that the form of proportion
𝑎 𝑐
= 𝑑 can be expressed in the multiplication form a × d = b × c. Since a : b = c : d
𝑏
𝑎 𝑐
is equivalent to 𝑏 = 𝑑 the the proportion a : b = c : d can also be changed into
a × d = b × c.
For the proportion a : b = c: d where b ≠ 0 and d ≠ 0 :
The product of extremes = The product of means
Thus, if a : b = c : d, then a x d = b x c.
Example :
Do 12 : 20 and 9 : 16 form a direct proportion ?
Answer :
The ratio are 12 : 20 and 9 : 16
Product of extremes = 12 x 16 = 192
Product of means = 20 x 9 = 180
Since the product of extremes is not equal to the product of means, then 12 : 20
and 9 : 16 do not from a direct proportion.

2. Inverse proportions
As with a direct Proportion, an inverse proportion can also be expressed literally.
See the following description!
3 6
2
is the inverse of 9, and
6 1 1
is also the inverse of 6 : 9, since :
9
1 1 1 1 9 3
: =6x9=6=2
6 9
1 1
Thus, 3 : 2 = 6 : 9
3 𝑎 6 𝑝 𝑎 𝑝
If the ratio 2 is replaced with 𝑏 and 9 is replaced with 𝑞 then is the inverse of 𝑞,
𝑏
1 1
and p/q is also the inverse of 𝑝 : 𝑞.
𝟏 𝟏
So, a : b = 𝒑 : 𝒒 = q : p
Example :
In the following questions, the ratio p : q is the inverse proportion of a : b
1) If a : b = 3 : 5 and q = 15, find the value of p !
2) If a : b = 7 : 4 and p = 12, find the value of q !
3) If a : b = (r + k) : 4, p = 20, and q = 25, find the value of r !
Answer
1) a : b = q : q
3 : 5 = 15 : p
3p = 5 X 15
𝟓 𝑿 𝟏𝟓
p= 𝟑
p = 25

2) a : b = q : p
7:4=q:p
4q = 7 X 12
𝟕 𝒙 𝟏𝟐
q= 𝟒
q = 21

3) a:b=q:p
(r + 3) : 4 = 25 : 20
20 x (r + 3) = 4 x 25
20r + 60 = 100
20r = 40
r=2