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analysis of composite tower

- Fatigue in mechanical design
- Fatigue Life of Damaged Bridge Deck Panels Strengthened With Carbon Fiber
- mmdschemesyll
- Fatigue Testing
- fatiguecapacity-in-bulk+tanker-rules
- Importante
- IS-3177-1977
- Normativa Viento Republica Dominicana
- Rolling Contact Fatigue Life Assessment of Induction Hardened Raceway
- fatigue.pdf
- 2003 Novovic the Effect of Machined Topography and Integrity on Fatigue Life
- 8 WIND LOAD
- Wind Loading Explanation
- Fatigue Analysis
- Copy of 319729219-Open-Structure-Wind.xls
- 2008_P171
- Fatigue Failure New
- UH Forensics 2016 HW No. 2 Pylon Sign
- Design-Of-Mechanical-Test-Setup-To-Find-The-Endurance-Limit-Of-Coilcompression-SpringUsing-Modified-Slider-crank-Mechanism.pdf
- MSM IM36

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Hyderabad

Monopole Subjected To Wind

Pressures.

NADERGUL, HYDERABAD

TELANGANA

Project Team:

1. Dr.M.Madhavi , Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

M.V.S.R Engineering college, Hyderabad

2. K. Karthik Rajashekar, Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical

Engineering, M.V.S.R Engineering College, Hyderabad.

Design Specifications of Tower:

1. Length of the pole = 9m

2. Top Inner Diameter of the Pole = 120mm

3. Bottom Inner Diameter of the pole = 255mm

4. Angle of Winding = 6.5 degrees

5. Materials Used = Epoxy YD128 & Hardener HY951

For three cases of wind speeds 100 km/hr, 150 km/hr, 200 km/hr.

1. Layup sequence for a 9 meter pole with a deflection value of 1350 mm.

2. Values of bending strength, Torsional strength etc.

Layup sequence for a 9 m pole is as follows

1. Helical @ 6.5 deg

2. Helical @ 6.5 deg

3. Helical @ 6.5 deg

4. Helical @ 6.5 deg

5. Hoop

Load Conditions: The Deflection of the tower should not exceed 5% of the

total height of the tower.

Material Properties of Composite :

Units ( in N/m2)

Ex 110e9

Ex 8.7e9

Ex 8.7e9

PRXY 0.27

PRYZ 0.27

PRZX 0.27

GXY 2.7e9

GYZ 2.7e9

GZX 2.7e9

Introduction:

Static wind pressures on towers:

Towers are generally considered as rigid structures and hence static wind pressures are

computed as per the Indian standard code. In computing the wind pressures variation

along the height, exposed areas of the columns and braces are considered.

Tanks supported on staging are treated as point like structures. As the height of the

staging is increased the tower becomes slender. The fundamental frequency of this point

like structure mainly depends on the mass concentrated at the top. The value of the

frequency gets reduced with the increase in the height of the tower.

Wind pressures acting at any height on a structure are computed by the methods

recommended by the IS code (IS 875-(Part 3)-1987). The code has recommended two

methods for computing the wind pressures based on the requirement.

Static method: Design wind speed (Vz) at any height can be calculated as follows:

Vz=Vb*K1*K2*K3,

Where Vz = Design wind speed at any height z in m/sec,

Vb=Basic wind speed for any site,

K1 = probability factor (risk coefficient),

K2 = Terrain, height and structure size factor and

K3 = Topography factor

K1, K2 and K3 are given by means of tables in the code. The design wind pressure at

any height above mean ground level shall be obtained by the following relationship

between wind pressure and wind velocity.

Pz=0.6VZ2, Where Pz = Design wind pressure in N/m2 at height z,

Vz = Design wind velocity in m/s height z.

Hourly mean wind:

The variation of hourly mean wind speed with height shall be calculated as follows.

VZ=Vb*K1*K2*K3.

Where Vz =hourly mean wind speed in m/s at height z.

Vb = regional basic wind speed in m/s;

K1 = probability factor.

K2 = terrain and height factor.

K3= topography factor.

These factors are given in the code.

Along wind load on structure on strip area (Ae) at any height (Z) is given by:

Fz= Cf*Ae*Pz*G

Where, Fz = along wind load on the structure at any height z corresponding to strip

area Ae,

Pz = design pressure at height z due to hourly mean wind obtained as 0.6*vz2 (N/m2),

G= gust factor (peak load /mean load) and is given by:

gfr = peak factor defined as the ratio of the expected peak value to the root mean

value of a fluctuating load, and r= roughness factor which is dependent on the size of

the structure in relation to the ground roughness.

wind load and is obtained from Fig. 9 of the code .

E = measure of available energy in the wind stream at the natural frequency of the

structure is obtained from Fig.11 of the code.

the code).

terrain category 4 and for buildings less than 25 m high in terrain category 3, and is to

be taken as zero in all other cases.

more precise load data,

precise load data,

H = height of a structure,

Vh = Vz = hourly mean wind speed at height z,

fo - natural frequency of the structure, and L (h) = a measure of turbulence length scale.

The present study deals with the computation of deflection, torsional strength, bending

strength on towers of 9m height. The wind pressures are computed by using both the

methods as already described. Towers with height 9m and varying speeds 100 km/hr,

150 km/hr, 200 km/hr are considered for wind pressure analysis SUBJECTED TOgust

loads. The details are as follows:

For Speed 100km/hr: 100*(5/18) = 27.77 m/sec

As per clause 5.3 of code, the design wind speed is given by Vz = Vb * K1* K2* K3.

Where, Risk coefficient (K1) = 1.0 (Table 5.3.1 of the code).

Topography factor (K3) =1.0 (as per clause 5.3.3of the code) .

Terrain factor (K2) = 0.978 (at 9m high tower, as per Table 2.3 of the code) .

Design Wind Speed Vz = 27.7* 1.0* 0.978*1.0 = 27.09m/sec. Design Wind Pressure at

9m high water tower = Pz = 0.6* Vz2 = 0.6* (27.09) 2 = 440.32 N/Sq.m.

The basic wind speed (Vb) at 9m height is 27.7 m/sec.

Topography factor (K3) = 1.0 (as per clause 5.3.3 of the code).

Terrain factor (K2) = 1.0 (for category 3 at 9 m high tower, as per the code) and as per

clause 8.2.1 of the code.

Mean wind pressure at 9m height = Pz = 0.6* Vz2 = 0.6 * (27.7)2 = 460.374 N/Sq.m.

G = gust factor) (Peak Load/Mean Load), and is given by: G = 1+ gf r Sqrt (B (1+ø) 2

+ SE/β) From Fig. 5 of the code, peak and roughness factor gf r = 1.125 at 9 m height.

From Fig. 5 of the code Turbulence length scale L (h) = 1125 at 9 m height.

Where, Cy = lateral correlation constant = 10,

Cz = longitudinal correlation constant = 12, h = height of a structure = 9 m,

( = גּ10*0.1935)/ (12*9) = 0.01791 and

Cz *h/L (h) = (12*9)/1125 = 0.096

From fig. 9 of the code, background factor ‘B’ = 0.82 at 9m height.

Reduced frequency Fo = Cz *fo*h/Vh

Where, natural frequency of 9 m high water tower = fo = 0.9 cycles/sec

Vz = Hourly mean wind speed at 9 m height = 27.7 m/sec.

Fo = (12*0.9*9)/27.7 = 3.50

From fig.10 of the code, Size reduction factor ‘S’ = 0.4 at 9 m height.

fo*L(h)/Vh = (0.9*1125)/27.7 = 36.55

ø = gf r. Sqrt(B)/4 = 1.125*Sqrt(0.82)/4 = 0.25

From fig. 11 of the code, the gust energy factor ‘E’ = 0.05.

Damping coefficient of the structure β = 0.020

F= Cf*Ae*Pz*G

= 1.2*1*460.374*2.69

= 1486.08 N

As per clause 5.3 of code, the design wind speed is given by Vz = Vb * K1* K2* K3.

Where, Risk coefficient (K1) = 1.0 (Table 2.2 of the code) (4). Topography factor (K3)

=1.0 (as per clause 5.3.3of the code).

Terrain factor (K2) = 0.978 (at 9m high tower, as per Table 2.3 of the code).

Design Wind Speed Vz = 41.66* 1.0* 0.978*1.0 = 40.74m/sec. Design Wind Pressure

at 9m high water tower = Pz = 0.6* Vz2 = 0.6* (40.74) 2 = 995.8 N/Sq.m.

The basic wind speed (Vb) at 9m height is 41.66 m/sec.

Topography factor (K3) = 1.0 (as per clause 5.3.3 of the code).

Terrain factor (K2) = 1.0 (for category 3 at 9 m high tower, as per the code) and as per

clause 8.2.1 of the code.

Mean wind pressure at 9m height = Pz = 0.6* Vz2 = 0.6 * (41.66)2 = 1041.3 N/Sq.m.

G = gust factor) (Peak Load/Mean Load), and is given by: G = 1+ gf r Sqrt (B (1+ø) 2

+ SE/β) From Fig. 5 of the code peak and roughness factor gf r = 1.125 at 9 m height.

From Fig. 5 of the code Turbulence length scale L (h) = 1125 at 9 m height.

Where, Cy = lateral correlation constant = 10,

Cz = longitudinal correlation constant = 12, h = height of a structure = 9 m,

( = גּ10*0.1935)/ (12*9) = 0.01791 and

Cz *h/L (h) = (12*9)/1125 = 0.096

From fig. 9 of the code, background factor ‘B’ = 0.82 at 9m height.

Reduced frequency Fo = Cz *fo*h/Vh

Where, natural frequency of 9 m high water tower = fo = 0.9 cycles/sec

Vz = Hourly mean wind speed at 9 m height = 41.66 m/sec.

Fo = (12*0.9*9)/41.66 = 2.33

From fig.10 of the code Size reduction factor ‘S’ = 0.5 at 9 m height.

fo*L(h)/Vh = (0.9*1125)/41.66 = 24.30

ø = gf r. Sqrt(B)/4 = 1.125*Sqrt(0.82)/4 = 0.25

From fig. 11 of the code, the gust energy factor ‘E’ = 0.053.

Damping coefficient of the structure β = 0.020

As per code, gust factor G=1+ gf r Sqrt (B (1+ ø)² + SE/β)

F= Cf*Ae*Pz*G

= 1.2*1*1041.3*2.816

= 3518.76 N

As per clause 5.3 of code, the design wind speed is given by Vz = Vb * K1* K2* K3.

Where, Risk coefficient (K1) = 1.0 (Table 2.2 of the code). Topography factor (K3) =1.0

(as per clause 5.3.3of the code).

Terrain factor (K2) = 0.978 (at 9m high tower, as per Table 2.3 of the code).

Design Wind Speed Vz = 55.55* 1.0* 0.978*1.0 = 54.32 m/sec.

Design Wind Pressure at 9m high water tower Pz = 0.6* Vz2

= 0.6* (54.32) 2 = 1770.39 N/Sq.m.

The basic wind speed (Vb) at 9m height is 55.55 m/sec.

Topography factor (K3) = 1.0 (as per clause 5.3.3 of the code).

Terrain factor (K2) = 1.0 (for category 3 at 9 m high tower, as per the code) and as per

clause 8.2.1 of the code (4).

Mean wind pressure at 9m height = Pz = 0.6* Vz2 = 0.6 * (55.55)2 = 1851.4 N/Sq.m.

G = gust factor) (Peak Load/Mean Load), and is given by: G = 1+ gf r Sqrt (B (1+ø) 2

+ SE/β) From Fig. 5 of the code peak and roughness factor gf r = 1.125 at 9 m height.

From Fig. 5 of the code Turbulence length scale L (h) = 1125 at 9 m height.

Where, Cy = lateral correlation constant = 10,

Cz = longitudinal correlation constant = 12, h = height of a structure = 9 m,

( = גּ10*0.1935)/ (12*9) = 0.01791 and

Cz *h/L (h) = (12*9)/1125 = 0.096

From fig. 9 of the code, background factor ‘B’ = 0.82 at 9m height.

Reduced frequency Fo = Cz *fo*h/Vh

Where, natural frequency of 9 m high water tower = fo = 0.9 cycles/sec

Vz = Hourly mean wind speed at 9 m height = 55.55 m/sec.

Fo = (12*0.9*9)/55.55 = 1.74

From fig.10 of the code Size reduction factor ‘S’ = 0.6 at 9 m height.

fo*L(h)/Vh = (0.9*1125)/55.55 = 18.22

ø = gf r. Sqrt(B)/4 = 1.125*Sqrt(0.82)/4 = 0.25

From fig. 11 of the code, the gust energy factor ‘E’ = 0.055.

Damping coefficient of the structure β = 0.020

F= Cf*Ae*Pz*G

= 1.2*1*1851.4*2.816

= 6256.25 N

Along vertical the given line is divided into 50 parts

Each part along vertical = 9000/50 =180 mm

Along the circumference the given line is divided to 50 parts = π D/50

= (3.1417*120)/50

= 7.54008 mm

Pressure = Force / Area

= (1486.08/50) / (180*7.54008)

= 0.021 N/mm2

= 0.021*106 N/m2

S.No Speed(m/sec) Force (N) Pressure( N/m2)

2. 41.66 3518.76 0.051*106

3. 55.55 6256.25 0.092*106

Steel = wl4/ (8Es (π /64(Ds -1204))

Composite = wl4/ (8Ec (π /64(Dc -1204))

Ec (Dc4 -1204) = Es (Ds4 – 1204)

Dc4 – 1204 = Es / Ec (Ds4 – 1204)

Dc4 = 200/110 (Ds4 – 1204) +1204

Dc4 = 1.8 Ds4 – 1.8*1204 +1204

Dc4 = 1.8 Ds4 + (1204) (1-1.8)

Dc4 = 1.8 Ds4- 0.8*(1204)

Dc4 = 1.8 (132)4- 0.8*(1204) (Total thickness = 12mm)

Dc4 = 546.4*106- 165.8*106

Dc4 = 380.6*106

Dc= 139.67 mm (140-120 = 20 mm)

Thickness of composite = 10 mm

w= 1486.08/9

= 165.12 N/m

= 165.12*94 / (8*200*109((π/64) (0.1324 – 0.1204)

= 0.143 m (or) 143 mm

Deflection of Composite = wl4 / 8EI

=165.12*94 / (8*110*109((π/64) (0.139.674 – 0.1204)

= 0.143 m (or) 143 mm

Deflection at speed 100 km/hr:

Deflection at speed 150 km/hr:

For Composite material:

Layup sequence:

Deflection at speed 150 km/hr:

Comparison of Deflections between Steel and Composite:

Material Deflection at speeds ( in mm)

S.No 100 km/hr 150 km /hr 200 km/hr

1 Steel 15.244 37.021 68.961

2 Composite 15.491 37.62 67.866

Graph:

69

66

63

60 67.866mm

57

54

51

48

45

Deflection

42 37.021mm

39

36 37.62mm

33

30

27

24

21

15.224mm

18

15

15.491mm

12

9

6

3

0

100 150 200

Composite 15.491 37.62 67.866

Steel 15.224 37.021 68.961

Speed

Composite Steel

Bending stress at 100 km/hr:

SMISC 39

SMISC 40

SMISC 41

ELEM 7499 7546 7250

VALUE -0.21509E+07 -0.71588E+06 -0.24936E+06

ELEM 2449 2549 2450

VALUE 0.19913E+07 0.41323E+06 0.23387E+06

Bending stress at 150 km/hr:

SMISC 39

SMISC 40

SMISC 41

ELEM 7499 7546 7250

VALUE -0.52235E+07 -0.17386E+07 -0.60559E+06

ELEM 2449 2549 2450

VALUE 0.48361E+07 0.10036E+07 0.56796E+06

Bending stress at 200 km/hr:

SMISC 39

SMISC 40

SMISC 41

ELEM 7546 7499 7250

VALUE -0.31362E+07 -0.94228E+07 -0.10924E+07

ELEM 2549 2449 2450

VALUE 0.18104E+07 0.87240E+07 0.10246E+07

Fatigue Analysis:

Four load cases are applied to the two corners of the free end

a. 1468.08 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is 10

seconds

b. -1468.08 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is

20 seconds

c. 1468.08 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is

30 seconds

d. -1468.08 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is

40 seconds

Number of cycles , N Fatigue strength, Sf

<103 0.9Su

N-(1/3)log(0.9Su/Se)

𝑆𝑒

>106 Se

limit). Assume the ratio of Su/Se is equal to 0.6.

Location: Anode in the model for which fatigue stresses are stored.

Event: A set of stress conditions that occur at different times during stress

cycle

Loading: one of the stress conditions that is a part of event

The events to be used in the analysis are

Event No. Load No. Loading Number of Scale factor

Repetitions

1 1 1468.0 N 500,000 1

1 2 -1468.0 N 500,000 1

2 1 1468.0 N 5000 1

2 2 -1468.0 N 5000 1

For 100 Km /hr:

At Free end:

At Middle

At Fixed end:

The combination of event 2 , load 1 and event 2, load 2 produces an

alternating stress intensity of 0.45992*107 N/m2, It was subjected to 5000

cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles that are

allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value, 0.00500

is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

alternating stress intensity of 0.45992*107 N/m2, It was subjected to

50,000 cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles

that are allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value,

0.50000 is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The cumulative fatigue usage is the sum of the partial usage factors (Miner’s

Rule)

For Speed 150 Km/hr:

At Free end:

At Middle:

At Fixed end:

The combination of event 2 , load 1 and event 2, load 2 produces an

alternating stress intensity of 0.11024*108 N/m2, It was subjected to 5000

cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles that are

allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value, 0.00500

is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

alternating stress intensity of 0.11024*108 N/m2, It was subjected to 50,000

cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles that are

allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value, 0.50000

is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The cumulative fatigue usage is the sum of the partial usage factors (Miner’s

Rule)

For Speed 200 Km/hr:

At Free end:

At Middle:

At Fixed end:

The combination of event 2 , load 1 and event 2, load 2 produces an

alternating stress intensity of 0.1000*10-29 N/m2, It was subjected to 5000

cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles that are

allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value, 0.00500

is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

alternating stress intensity of 0.19600*108 N/m2, It was subjected to

50,000 cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles

that are allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value,

0.50000 is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The cumulative fatigue usage is the sum of the partial usage factors (Miner’s

Rule)

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