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Consultancy for

M/s CNC Technics Pvt. Ltd,


Hyderabad

Design and Analysis of Composite


Monopole Subjected To Wind
Pressures.

M.V.S.R ENGINEERING COLLEGE


NADERGUL, HYDERABAD
TELANGANA
Project Team:
1. Dr.M.Madhavi , Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
M.V.S.R Engineering college, Hyderabad
2. K. Karthik Rajashekar, Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, M.V.S.R Engineering College, Hyderabad.
Design Specifications of Tower:
1. Length of the pole = 9m
2. Top Inner Diameter of the Pole = 120mm
3. Bottom Inner Diameter of the pole = 255mm
4. Angle of Winding = 6.5 degrees
5. Materials Used = Epoxy YD128 & Hardener HY951
For three cases of wind speeds 100 km/hr, 150 km/hr, 200 km/hr.
1. Layup sequence for a 9 meter pole with a deflection value of 1350 mm.
2. Values of bending strength, Torsional strength etc.
Layup sequence for a 9 m pole is as follows
1. Helical @ 6.5 deg
2. Helical @ 6.5 deg
3. Helical @ 6.5 deg
4. Helical @ 6.5 deg
5. Hoop

Load Conditions: The Deflection of the tower should not exceed 5% of the
total height of the tower.

Total number of Layers: 9


Material Properties of Composite :

Units ( in N/m2)
Ex 110e9
Ex 8.7e9
Ex 8.7e9
PRXY 0.27
PRYZ 0.27
PRZX 0.27
GXY 2.7e9
GYZ 2.7e9
GZX 2.7e9

Note: Lower angles are considered for practical limitation


Introduction:
Static wind pressures on towers:
Towers are generally considered as rigid structures and hence static wind pressures are
computed as per the Indian standard code. In computing the wind pressures variation
along the height, exposed areas of the columns and braces are considered.

Gust pressures on towers:

Tanks supported on staging are treated as point like structures. As the height of the
staging is increased the tower becomes slender. The fundamental frequency of this point
like structure mainly depends on the mass concentrated at the top. The value of the
frequency gets reduced with the increase in the height of the tower.

Design of Towers in accordance with IS 875-(Part 3)-1987:


Wind pressures acting at any height on a structure are computed by the methods
recommended by the IS code (IS 875-(Part 3)-1987). The code has recommended two
methods for computing the wind pressures based on the requirement.

Static method: Design wind speed (Vz) at any height can be calculated as follows:
Vz=Vb*K1*K2*K3,
Where Vz = Design wind speed at any height z in m/sec,
Vb=Basic wind speed for any site,
K1 = probability factor (risk coefficient),
K2 = Terrain, height and structure size factor and
K3 = Topography factor
K1, K2 and K3 are given by means of tables in the code. The design wind pressure at
any height above mean ground level shall be obtained by the following relationship
between wind pressure and wind velocity.
Pz=0.6VZ2, Where Pz = Design wind pressure in N/m2 at height z,
Vz = Design wind velocity in m/s height z.

Gust effectiveness factor method


Hourly mean wind:
The variation of hourly mean wind speed with height shall be calculated as follows.
VZ=Vb*K1*K2*K3.
Where Vz =hourly mean wind speed in m/s at height z.
Vb = regional basic wind speed in m/s;
K1 = probability factor.
K2 = terrain and height factor.
K3= topography factor.
These factors are given in the code.

Along wind load:

Along wind load on structure on strip area (Ae) at any height (Z) is given by:
Fz= Cf*Ae*Pz*G

Where, Fz = along wind load on the structure at any height z corresponding to strip
area Ae,

Cf = force coefficient for the building,

Ae = effective frontal area considered for the structure at height z,

Pz = design pressure at height z due to hourly mean wind obtained as 0.6*vz2 (N/m2),
G= gust factor (peak load /mean load) and is given by:

G=1+gf r* sqrt (B (1+ (Φ)) 2+SE/β)

gfr = peak factor defined as the ratio of the expected peak value to the root mean
value of a fluctuating load, and r= roughness factor which is dependent on the size of
the structure in relation to the ground roughness.

The value of 'gfr' is obtained from (Fig. 8 of the code).

B = background factor indicating a measure of slowly varying component of fluctuating


wind load and is obtained from Fig. 9 of the code .

S= size reduction factor is obtained from Fig.10 of the code.

E = measure of available energy in the wind stream at the natural frequency of the
structure is obtained from Fig.11 of the code.

β= Damping coefficient (as fraction of critical damping) of the structure (Table 34 of


the code).

Φ= gfr*sqrt((B)/4) and is to be accounted only for buildings less than 75 m height in


terrain category 4 and for buildings less than 25 m high in terrain category 3, and is to
be taken as zero in all other cases.

λ= Cy b/Cz h and Fo = Cz *fo*h/Vh

Where Cy = lateral correlation constant which may be taken as 10 in the absence of


more precise load data,

Cz = longitudinal correlation constant which may be taken as 12 in the absence of more


precise load data,

B = breadth of a structure normal to the wind stream,

H = height of a structure,
Vh = Vz = hourly mean wind speed at height z,

fo - natural frequency of the structure, and L (h) = a measure of turbulence length scale.

Details of present study:


The present study deals with the computation of deflection, torsional strength, bending
strength on towers of 9m height. The wind pressures are computed by using both the
methods as already described. Towers with height 9m and varying speeds 100 km/hr,
150 km/hr, 200 km/hr are considered for wind pressure analysis SUBJECTED TOgust
loads. The details are as follows:

Calculation of wind pressure by static method:


For Speed 100km/hr: 100*(5/18) = 27.77 m/sec
As per clause 5.3 of code, the design wind speed is given by Vz = Vb * K1* K2* K3.
Where, Risk coefficient (K1) = 1.0 (Table 5.3.1 of the code).
Topography factor (K3) =1.0 (as per clause 5.3.3of the code) .
Terrain factor (K2) = 0.978 (at 9m high tower, as per Table 2.3 of the code) .
Design Wind Speed Vz = 27.7* 1.0* 0.978*1.0 = 27.09m/sec. Design Wind Pressure at
9m high water tower = Pz = 0.6* Vz2 = 0.6* (27.09) 2 = 440.32 N/Sq.m.

Wind pressures by Gust effectiveness factor method:


The basic wind speed (Vb) at 9m height is 27.7 m/sec.

Risk coefficient (K1) = 1.0 (Table 2.2 of the code).

Topography factor (K3) = 1.0 (as per clause 5.3.3 of the code).

Terrain factor (K2) = 1.0 (for category 3 at 9 m high tower, as per the code) and as per
clause 8.2.1 of the code.

Hourly Mean Wind Speed in m/sec at height ‘z’ is

Vz = Vb * K1* K2* K3. = 27.7* 1.0* 1.0* 1.0 = 27.7 m/sec.

Mean wind pressure at 9m height = Pz = 0.6* Vz2 = 0.6 * (27.7)2 = 460.374 N/Sq.m.

G = gust factor) (Peak Load/Mean Load), and is given by: G = 1+ gf r Sqrt (B (1+ø) 2
+ SE/β) From Fig. 5 of the code, peak and roughness factor gf r = 1.125 at 9 m height.
From Fig. 5 of the code Turbulence length scale L (h) = 1125 at 9 m height.
Where, Cy = lateral correlation constant = 10,
Cz = longitudinal correlation constant = 12, h = height of a structure = 9 m,
‫( = גּ‬10*0.1935)/ (12*9) = 0.01791 and
Cz *h/L (h) = (12*9)/1125 = 0.096
From fig. 9 of the code, background factor ‘B’ = 0.82 at 9m height.
Reduced frequency Fo = Cz *fo*h/Vh
Where, natural frequency of 9 m high water tower = fo = 0.9 cycles/sec
Vz = Hourly mean wind speed at 9 m height = 27.7 m/sec.
Fo = (12*0.9*9)/27.7 = 3.50
From fig.10 of the code, Size reduction factor ‘S’ = 0.4 at 9 m height.
fo*L(h)/Vh = (0.9*1125)/27.7 = 36.55
ø = gf r. Sqrt(B)/4 = 1.125*Sqrt(0.82)/4 = 0.25
From fig. 11 of the code, the gust energy factor ‘E’ = 0.05.
Damping coefficient of the structure β = 0.020

As per code, gust factor G=1+ gf r Sqrt (B (1+ ø)² + SE/β)

= 1+1.125 Sqrt (0.82 (1+0.25) ² + (0.4*0.05)/0.020) = 2.69


F= Cf*Ae*Pz*G
= 1.2*1*460.374*2.69
= 1486.08 N

For Speed 150 km/hr: 150*(5/18) = 41.66 m/sec


As per clause 5.3 of code, the design wind speed is given by Vz = Vb * K1* K2* K3.
Where, Risk coefficient (K1) = 1.0 (Table 2.2 of the code) (4). Topography factor (K3)
=1.0 (as per clause 5.3.3of the code).
Terrain factor (K2) = 0.978 (at 9m high tower, as per Table 2.3 of the code).
Design Wind Speed Vz = 41.66* 1.0* 0.978*1.0 = 40.74m/sec. Design Wind Pressure
at 9m high water tower = Pz = 0.6* Vz2 = 0.6* (40.74) 2 = 995.8 N/Sq.m.

Wind pressures by Gust effectiveness factor method:


The basic wind speed (Vb) at 9m height is 41.66 m/sec.

Risk coefficient (K1) = 1.0 (Table 2.2 of the code).

Topography factor (K3) = 1.0 (as per clause 5.3.3 of the code).
Terrain factor (K2) = 1.0 (for category 3 at 9 m high tower, as per the code) and as per
clause 8.2.1 of the code.

Hourly Mean Wind Speed in m/sec at height ‘z’ is

Vz = Vb * K1* K2* K3. = 41.66* 1.0* 1.0* 1.0 = 41.66 m/sec.

Mean wind pressure at 9m height = Pz = 0.6* Vz2 = 0.6 * (41.66)2 = 1041.3 N/Sq.m.

G = gust factor) (Peak Load/Mean Load), and is given by: G = 1+ gf r Sqrt (B (1+ø) 2
+ SE/β) From Fig. 5 of the code peak and roughness factor gf r = 1.125 at 9 m height.
From Fig. 5 of the code Turbulence length scale L (h) = 1125 at 9 m height.
Where, Cy = lateral correlation constant = 10,
Cz = longitudinal correlation constant = 12, h = height of a structure = 9 m,
‫( = גּ‬10*0.1935)/ (12*9) = 0.01791 and
Cz *h/L (h) = (12*9)/1125 = 0.096
From fig. 9 of the code, background factor ‘B’ = 0.82 at 9m height.
Reduced frequency Fo = Cz *fo*h/Vh
Where, natural frequency of 9 m high water tower = fo = 0.9 cycles/sec
Vz = Hourly mean wind speed at 9 m height = 41.66 m/sec.
Fo = (12*0.9*9)/41.66 = 2.33
From fig.10 of the code Size reduction factor ‘S’ = 0.5 at 9 m height.
fo*L(h)/Vh = (0.9*1125)/41.66 = 24.30
ø = gf r. Sqrt(B)/4 = 1.125*Sqrt(0.82)/4 = 0.25
From fig. 11 of the code, the gust energy factor ‘E’ = 0.053.
Damping coefficient of the structure β = 0.020
As per code, gust factor G=1+ gf r Sqrt (B (1+ ø)² + SE/β)

= 1+1.125 Sqrt (0.82 (1+0.25) ² + (0.5*0.053)/0.020) = 2.816


F= Cf*Ae*Pz*G
= 1.2*1*1041.3*2.816
= 3518.76 N

For Speed 200 km/hr: 200*(5/18) = 55.55 m/sec


As per clause 5.3 of code, the design wind speed is given by Vz = Vb * K1* K2* K3.
Where, Risk coefficient (K1) = 1.0 (Table 2.2 of the code). Topography factor (K3) =1.0
(as per clause 5.3.3of the code).
Terrain factor (K2) = 0.978 (at 9m high tower, as per Table 2.3 of the code).
Design Wind Speed Vz = 55.55* 1.0* 0.978*1.0 = 54.32 m/sec.
Design Wind Pressure at 9m high water tower Pz = 0.6* Vz2
= 0.6* (54.32) 2 = 1770.39 N/Sq.m.

Wind pressures by Gust effectiveness factor method:


The basic wind speed (Vb) at 9m height is 55.55 m/sec.

Risk coefficient (K1) = 1.0 (Table 2.2 of the code).

Topography factor (K3) = 1.0 (as per clause 5.3.3 of the code).

Terrain factor (K2) = 1.0 (for category 3 at 9 m high tower, as per the code) and as per
clause 8.2.1 of the code (4).

Hourly Mean Wind Speed in m/sec at height ‘z’ is

Vz = Vb * K1* K2* K3. = 55.55* 1.0* 1.0* 1.0 = 55.55 m/sec.

Mean wind pressure at 9m height = Pz = 0.6* Vz2 = 0.6 * (55.55)2 = 1851.4 N/Sq.m.

G = gust factor) (Peak Load/Mean Load), and is given by: G = 1+ gf r Sqrt (B (1+ø) 2
+ SE/β) From Fig. 5 of the code peak and roughness factor gf r = 1.125 at 9 m height.
From Fig. 5 of the code Turbulence length scale L (h) = 1125 at 9 m height.
Where, Cy = lateral correlation constant = 10,
Cz = longitudinal correlation constant = 12, h = height of a structure = 9 m,
‫( = גּ‬10*0.1935)/ (12*9) = 0.01791 and
Cz *h/L (h) = (12*9)/1125 = 0.096
From fig. 9 of the code, background factor ‘B’ = 0.82 at 9m height.
Reduced frequency Fo = Cz *fo*h/Vh
Where, natural frequency of 9 m high water tower = fo = 0.9 cycles/sec
Vz = Hourly mean wind speed at 9 m height = 55.55 m/sec.
Fo = (12*0.9*9)/55.55 = 1.74
From fig.10 of the code Size reduction factor ‘S’ = 0.6 at 9 m height.
fo*L(h)/Vh = (0.9*1125)/55.55 = 18.22
ø = gf r. Sqrt(B)/4 = 1.125*Sqrt(0.82)/4 = 0.25
From fig. 11 of the code, the gust energy factor ‘E’ = 0.055.
Damping coefficient of the structure β = 0.020

As per code, gust factor G=1+ gf r Sqrt (B (1+ ø) ² + SE/β)

= 1+1.125 Sqrt (0.82 (1+0.25) ² + (0.6*0.053)/0.020) = 2.92


F= Cf*Ae*Pz*G
= 1.2*1*1851.4*2.816
= 6256.25 N

Conversion of Force into Pressure on elemental strip:

All Dimensions are in mm


Along vertical the given line is divided into 50 parts
Each part along vertical = 9000/50 =180 mm
Along the circumference the given line is divided to 50 parts = π D/50
= (3.1417*120)/50
= 7.54008 mm
Pressure = Force / Area
= (1486.08/50) / (180*7.54008)
= 0.021 N/mm2
= 0.021*106 N/m2
S.No Speed(m/sec) Force (N) Pressure( N/m2)

1. 27.7 1486.08 0.021*106


2. 41.66 3518.76 0.051*106
3. 55.55 6256.25 0.092*106

Deflection of Steel vs. Composite:


Steel = wl4/ (8Es (π /64(Ds -1204))
Composite = wl4/ (8Ec (π /64(Dc -1204))

wl4/ (8Es (π /64(Ds -1204)) = wl4/ (8Ec (π /64(Dc -1204))


Ec (Dc4 -1204) = Es (Ds4 – 1204)
Dc4 – 1204 = Es / Ec (Ds4 – 1204)
Dc4 = 200/110 (Ds4 – 1204) +1204
Dc4 = 1.8 Ds4 – 1.8*1204 +1204
Dc4 = 1.8 Ds4 + (1204) (1-1.8)
Dc4 = 1.8 Ds4- 0.8*(1204)
Dc4 = 1.8 (132)4- 0.8*(1204) (Total thickness = 12mm)
Dc4 = 546.4*106- 165.8*106
Dc4 = 380.6*106
Dc= 139.67 mm (140-120 = 20 mm)
Thickness of composite = 10 mm

Deflection of steel = wl4 / 8EI


w= 1486.08/9
= 165.12 N/m
= 165.12*94 / (8*200*109((π/64) (0.1324 – 0.1204)
= 0.143 m (or) 143 mm
Deflection of Composite = wl4 / 8EI
=165.12*94 / (8*110*109((π/64) (0.139.674 – 0.1204)
= 0.143 m (or) 143 mm

Numerical analysis through FEM for Steel material:


Deflection at speed 100 km/hr:
Deflection at speed 150 km/hr:

Deflection at speed 200 km/hr:


For Composite material:
Layup sequence:

Deflection at speed 100 km/hr:


Deflection at speed 150 km/hr:

Deflection at speed 200 km/hr:


Comparison of Deflections between Steel and Composite:
Material Deflection at speeds ( in mm)
S.No 100 km/hr 150 km /hr 200 km/hr
1 Steel 15.244 37.021 68.961
2 Composite 15.491 37.62 67.866

Graph:

Speed Vs. Deflection 68.961mm

69
66
63
60 67.866mm
57
54
51
48
45
Deflection

42 37.021mm
39
36 37.62mm
33
30
27
24
21
15.224mm
18
15
15.491mm
12
9
6
3
0
100 150 200
Composite 15.491 37.62 67.866
Steel 15.224 37.021 68.961
Speed

Composite Steel
Bending stress at 100 km/hr:
SMISC 39

SMISC 40
SMISC 41

Minimum values (In N/m2):


ELEM 7499 7546 7250
VALUE -0.21509E+07 -0.71588E+06 -0.24936E+06

Maximum values (In N/m2):


ELEM 2449 2549 2450
VALUE 0.19913E+07 0.41323E+06 0.23387E+06
Bending stress at 150 km/hr:
SMISC 39

SMISC 40
SMISC 41

Minimum values (In N/m2):


ELEM 7499 7546 7250
VALUE -0.52235E+07 -0.17386E+07 -0.60559E+06

Maximum values (In N/m2):


ELEM 2449 2549 2450
VALUE 0.48361E+07 0.10036E+07 0.56796E+06
Bending stress at 200 km/hr:
SMISC 39

SMISC 40
SMISC 41

Minimum values (In N/m2):


ELEM 7546 7499 7250
VALUE -0.31362E+07 -0.94228E+07 -0.10924E+07

Maximum values (In N/m2):


ELEM 2549 2449 2450
VALUE 0.18104E+07 0.87240E+07 0.10246E+07
Fatigue Analysis:
Four load cases are applied to the two corners of the free end
a. 1468.08 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is 10
seconds
b. -1468.08 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is
20 seconds
c. 1468.08 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is
30 seconds
d. -1468.08 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is
40 seconds

The material fatigue properties are described by


Number of cycles , N Fatigue strength, Sf

<103 0.9Su

103 to 106 (0.9𝑆𝑢)2


N-(1/3)log(0.9Su/Se)
𝑆𝑒
>106 Se

Where Su is the ultimate strength and Se is the endurance limt (Fatigue


limit). Assume the ratio of Su/Se is equal to 0.6.
Location: Anode in the model for which fatigue stresses are stored.
Event: A set of stress conditions that occur at different times during stress
cycle
Loading: one of the stress conditions that is a part of event
The events to be used in the analysis are
Event No. Load No. Loading Number of Scale factor
Repetitions
1 1 1468.0 N 500,000 1
1 2 -1468.0 N 500,000 1
2 1 1468.0 N 5000 1
2 2 -1468.0 N 5000 1
For 100 Km /hr:
At Free end:

At Middle
At Fixed end:

Location 3 Node 35 Fixed end


The combination of event 2 , load 1 and event 2, load 2 produces an
alternating stress intensity of 0.45992*107 N/m2, It was subjected to 5000
cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles that are
allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value, 0.00500
is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The combination of event 1 , load 1 and event 1, load 2 produces an


alternating stress intensity of 0.45992*107 N/m2, It was subjected to
50,000 cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles
that are allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value,
0.50000 is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The cumulative fatigue usage is the sum of the partial usage factors (Miner’s
Rule)
For Speed 150 Km/hr:
At Free end:

At Middle:
At Fixed end:

Location 3 Node 35 Fixed end


The combination of event 2 , load 1 and event 2, load 2 produces an
alternating stress intensity of 0.11024*108 N/m2, It was subjected to 5000
cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles that are
allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value, 0.00500
is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The combination of event 1 , load 1 and event 1, load 2 produces an


alternating stress intensity of 0.11024*108 N/m2, It was subjected to 50,000
cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles that are
allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value, 0.50000
is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The cumulative fatigue usage is the sum of the partial usage factors (Miner’s
Rule)
For Speed 200 Km/hr:
At Free end:

At Middle:
At Fixed end:

Location 3 Node 35 Fixed end


The combination of event 2 , load 1 and event 2, load 2 produces an
alternating stress intensity of 0.1000*10-29 N/m2, It was subjected to 5000
cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles that are
allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value, 0.00500
is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The combination of event 1 , load 1 and event 1, load 2 produces an


alternating stress intensity of 0.19600*108 N/m2, It was subjected to
50,000 cycles while from the S-N table , the maximum number of cycles
that are allowed at that stress intensity is 0.1*107 . The partial usage value,
0.50000 is the ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The cumulative fatigue usage is the sum of the partial usage factors (Miner’s
Rule)