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September 2010

SUPER STRENGTH: FOCUS ON FIBRES

German markets bounce back

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contents
04 Industry news
page 9

09 Deutschland delivers
As the world’s plastic industry gets ready to converge on Düsseldorf, AMI’s Carole
Kluth examines market trends in the German plastics industry.

19 The white stuff: trends in TiO2


A new TZMI report analyses trends in the titanium dioxide industry which impact on
page 19

the production of white masterbatch and compounds.

24 Bring in the reinforcements


Lilli Sherman reports on the latest developments in reinforcements for
thermoplastics, including new glass, carbon, aramid and natural fibres.
page 24

43 Selecting the right gear


Stefan Knieling of Henschel examines how gearboxes have been developed to
deliver extreme levels of torque for twin-screw extruders.

49 Fighting friction and winning the war against wear


Eric Salmon and Carsten Wehling of Superior Graphite have been testing PA 66
page 43

compounds incorporating their resilient and isotropic graphitic carbon.

54 The countdown to K 2010


Our K 2010 preview includes the pick of new developments from BASF, Coperion’s
record-breaking pelletizer and Clariant’s medical plans.
page 54

64 Compounder of the Month: Tisan Engineering Plastics

66 Dates for your diary

coming next issue


❙ K 2010 show issue ❙ European masterbatch markets ❙ Carbon black ❙ Compounding bioplastics
➤ Click here to make sure you get your copy

contact us
Applied Market Information Ltd Head of business publishing: Andy Beevers E-mail: abe@amiplastics.com
AMI House, 45-47 Stokes Croft, Contributing editors: Lilli Sherman E-mail: editorial@compoundingworld.com
Bristol, BS1 3QP, United Kingdom
Nadya Anscombe E-mail: editorial@compoundingworld.com
Tel:+44 (0)117 924 9442
Fax:+44 (0)117 989 2128 Advertisement manager: Claire Bishop E-mail: claire@amimagazines.com
www.amiplastics.com Direct tel: +44 (0)20 8686 8139

© Copyright Applied Market Information. No part may be reproduced without the prior written permission of the publisher.

www.compoundingworld.com  September 2010 | compounding world 


news

Cabot opens Dubai Kingfa plans


new plant
masterbatch plant in Jiangsu
Kingfa Technology is
planning to establish a new
compounding and materials
development operation in the
Kunshan Economic and Tech-
nological Development Zone
in Jiangsu Province, China.
The new subsidiary will be
called Jiangsu Kingfa
Technology Development and
the initial investment is
estimated at 640 million Yuan
($94 million), according to
Cabot’s new Dubai plant houses one compounding line with space for two more statement issued by the
board of directors on 31 July.
Cabot has opened its new 75,000 tonnes/year. The Dubai polyethylene and polypropyl- Kingfa is the largest
black masterbatch manufac- facility also includes laborato- ene compounds for use in plastics compounder in China
turing plant in the Jebel Ali ries and administration offices. building infrastructure for with plants in Guangzhou,
Free Zone in Dubai. The facility It will allow Cabot to meet water supply, electricity and Shanghai and Sichuan and an
has an initial capacity of 25,000 the growing demand for telecommunications projects. annual capacity in the region
tonnes/year and began masterbatch in the Middle These are key applications for of 1 million tonnes. It
production in August. East, Europe and Asia Pacific black masterbatch.” supplies the country’s
The plant currently houses regions. Sean Keohane, Cabot now operates appliance, consumer goods,
one masterbatch line based Cabot’s vice president and masterbatch plants in Dubai, electronics and automotive
around a Coperion twin-screw general manager for the Hong Kong, Belgium and Italy. markets with flame retardant
extruder, but there is space to performance segment, said: It closed its UK masterbatch and reinforced compounds as
add two further lines which “Within the Middle East there facility in 2009. well as masterbatches.
would take the total capacity to is already a strong demand for ❙ www.cabot-corp.com ❙ www.kingfa.net

Asahi Kasei PP compound competes with LFTs


Asahi Kasei Plastics North
America has developed a new
PP compound that its says can
compete with long-glass-fibre-
filled PP, while offering the
economic benefits of short-
glass-filled PP. Thermylene P8
is claimed to give superior
creep resistance at room
temperature and comparable
creep resistance at elevated
materials. module on the Jeep Liberty be moulded using long-fibre- This inner door module for
The compound has been SUV. One of the reasons for filled PP, was the compound’s the Jeep Liberty is being
selected by Faurecia Interior specifying Thermylene P8 for screw/torque retention. moulded using Asahi Kasei’s
Systems for the inner door this part, which would typically ❙ www.asahikaseiplastics.com PP compound

 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


International Trade Fair
news No. 1 for Plastics and
Rubber Worldwide

BASF and Astra


end plans for
anti-oxidant JV
BASF and Astra Polymer investing in local production
Compounding have ended for such products.
plans to form a joint venture “We are convinced of the
for the production of custom- strategic importance of the
er-specific anti-oxidant blends Middle East Region and the
in the Middle East. The plans need for a local production unit
were originally drawn up for customer specific blends,”
between Astra, which has its said John Frijns, senior vice
headquarters in Saudi Arabia, president plastic additives for
and Ciba prior to the latter Europe/EAWA at BASF. “A
company being acquired by thorough evaluation following
BASF in 2009. the integration of the legacy
A statement from BASF
said that the termination of the
Ciba Plastic additives business
into BASF has furnished new k-online.de
JV plans will have no impact options that will deliver more
on the existing tolling agree- value to both our customers
ment between the companies and BASF,” he added.
Buy your ticket now +++ at an attractive price +++
to produce customer-specific Astra is the leading
anti-oxidant blends for the manufacturer of masterbatch in the Online Ticket Shop +++ at www.k-online.de/2130
region. However, BASF is in the Middle East.
considering several options for ❙ www.basf.com

The mostt important tra ade fair


F&D Plastics boosts in the world for you !
masterbatch capacity “It’s K time” means that about 3,000 exhibitors from
over 50 countries present the latest products and
concepts – from standard to high-tech solutions.
F&D Plastics is increasing added at the Leominster plant
capacity for colour concen- and two at St Laurent; in total With its first-class range of exhibits, both in terms of
trates at its plants in Leomin- they will boost the company’s quantity and quality, K is the most important business
ster, Massachusetts, USA, and capacity by 37%. and contact platform for the industry worldwide.
in St-Laurent, Quebec, The company’s president, In 19 halls, everyone is represented, from the market
Canada. It is installing four Darren Rosbury says that the leaders to the niche market suppliers who decide the
brand new compounding lines new state-of-the-art lines will
future of the industry.
based on Coperion and help to meet growing demand
Be there when the world-class suppliers of plastics
Theysohn extruders with screw from the housewares, lawn
and rubber meet in Düsseldorf !
diameters from 26 to 50 mm. and garden, hardware and
The first new line was medical markets. F&D has
installed in July, two more are also added five new recruits to
being commissioned in its team, including three
October with the final one chemists and two technical Messe Düsseldorf GmbH
Postfach 10 10 06
scheduled for installation in sales representatives. 40001 Düsseldorf
November. Two are being ❙ www.fdplastics.com Germany
Tel. + 49 (0)2 11/45 60-01
Fax + 49 (0)2 11/45 60-6 68
www.compoundingworld.com www.messe-duesseldorf.de
news

Bankrupt EU poised to raise tariffs


compounder
leased by for Chinese glass fibre
So.F.Ter It is increasingly likely that the
EU will increase taxes on the
The increase has been
supported by fibreglass
increased tariff will leads to
material shortages and
So.F.Ter is leasing P Group, import of glass fibre from producers who have com- increase their costs.
an Italian compounder of China into Europe from 7% to plained about the dumping of India and Turkey have
engineering plastics that is 50.6%. The increase is Chinese material at illegally already imposed tariffs of
currently bankrupt. A court scheduled to come into effect low prices. 40.86% and 38% respectively
will decide later this year on 16 September on a However, it has been on glass fibre originating in
whether P Group can be temporary basis while further fiercely fought by the users of China with the aim of combat-
acquired by So.F.Ter or any investigations are carried out. fibreglass who believe that the ing dumping.
other interested parties. P

PCC opens new laboratory


Group compounds PP, PBT
and PA at its facilities in
Ferrara and has a sales office
in Germany.
So.F.Ter says that the Plastic Color Corporation “The opening of the new lab PCC has also achieved
agreement will strengthen its (PCC) has opened a new is just the beginning of our accreditation of its lab in
presence in the automotive research and development investment in a state-of-the-art Calumet City, Illinois, USA,
market, particularly in facility at its colour and customer development and from the American Association
Germany. It also says that it additive masterbatch plant in customer support centre in for Laboratory Accreditation.
complements its acquisition Asheboro, North Carolina, which new-age resins can be This organisation tests quality
of Matrixx Europe in 2008 and USA. The lab is equipped with developed upon request,” said control measures, record
will strengthen its portfolio of the latest analysis and testing PCC president, Doug Borgsdorf. keeping, calibration and
reinforced plastics. equipment and will be used to “We have more equipment on conformity to ISO/IEC
❙ www.softerspa.com help customers develop new order already that will keep us 17025:2005 requirements.
❙ www.p-group.biz products. at the leading edge.” ❙ www.plasticscolor.com

People on the move: new appointments


has been general manager for masterbatch business.
masterbatch in North America. Schulman has also announced
Roberto Lopez has been that Derek Bristow has been
promoted to the position of appointed as general manager
business unit leader of and COO of Asia. He was
masterbatch for the Americas. previously general manager
He was previously responsible for Australasia at ICO which
Gustavo Perez for the company’s Mexican was acquired by Schulman in Stanly L.K. Tan
April. He replaces Jack Taylor
A. Schulman has made who is retiring at the end of (SPC), replacing Cheah Sin
several senior management the year after 32 years with the Hua who is retiring after more
appointments in America and company. than 40 years with the
Asia. Gustavo Perez has company. Tan was previously
been named as general Teknor Apex has appointed with DSM Engineering
manager and COO of the Stanly L.K. Tan as the new Plastics as manager of its PA
Americas. He joined the com- managing director of Singa- 66 business in Asia. SPC was
pany in 1995 and since 2008 Derek Bristow pore Polymer Corporation acquired by Teknor in 2001.

 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


news

Schulman shifts production from UK


A. Schulman has announced Approximately 10,000 tonnes of Crumlin site with the loss of strategy, Schulman recently
that some production at its masterbatch production will be approximately 30 jobs. The invested $1.2 million in a
plant in Crumlin, Wales, UK, is moved to the larger, more plant will now focus on smaller versatile continuous mixer for
being relocated to the compa- cost-efficient plants. lots of colours and other specialised products at the
ny’s facilities in Bornem, Several production lines speciality compounds for the Crumlin plant.
Belgium and in Givet, France. will be shut down at the local market. As part of this ❙ www.aschulman.com

Solvay and Entegris combine Gabriel and


RAL devise
CNTs and PEEK new colour
Solvay Advanced Polymers and
Entegris are working together
standards
on carbon nanotube (CNT) Austrian masterbatch maker
enhanced PEEK compounds Gabriel Chemie is working
for applications in the medical, with the German colour
aerospace, automotive and oil matching organisation RAL to
and gas industries. implement new standard
Solvay is supplying its colours for plastics. The new
KetaSpire PEEK materials for colour range will be launched
the compounds which are These stock at the K 2010 exhibition in
produced by Entegris using its shapes are extruded Düsseldorf, Germany, next
proprietary technology for the using CNT-filled PEEK month.
uniform dispersion of CNTs in The RAL Plastics range
thermoplastics. The resulting said: “This partnership will recently introduced stock initially covers the 100 most
materials are aimed at spur greater use of our shapes made using CNT-filled frequently requested colours
applications requiring weight materials and open up new KetaSpire PEEK supplied by from the RAL Classic colour
reduction, enhanced physical end-use applications where Entegris. Its extruded rods and collection and there are plans
properties, thermal manage- consistent electrostatic plates can be used to replace to extend this to 200 colours.
ment and static discharge discharge properties and metal parts in semi-conductor Gabriel Chemie is responsi-
dissipation. improved thermal stability are materials handling and ble for the technical imple-
Greg Jack, senior business required”. chemical cleaning systems. mentation of these RAL
development representative Quantum Polymers of ❙ www.entegris.com colour standards.
for Solvay Advanced Polymers, Newark, Delaware, USA, ❙ www.solvay.com ❙ www.gabriel-chemie.com
Germany’s plastics industry | markets feature

As the world’s plastics industry gets ready to converge on Düsseldorf


for next month’s K show, Carole Kluth takes a close look at trends in
the German plastics market which is showing signs of recovery

Deutschland
delivers
Germany is the powerhouse of the European plastics
industry. It is the largest market both in terms of
production and demand, dominating nearly every
sector of the processing industry and accounting for
over 20% of thermoplastics demand.
The market performed strongly in the period
2005-2007, driven by the strength of the German
economy and strong demand from Central Europe.
However, the impact of the global recession saw
demand collapse for nearly all polymer materials in Q4
2008 with plastics processing activity remaining weak
throughout most of 2009. According to AMI data, after
reaching a peak in demand in 2007 of 8.6 million tonnes
of thermoplastics processed in Germany, the market
dropped by 6% in 2008 and nearly 8% again in 2009,
which effectively wiped out five years of growth for the
industry.
Production of plastics materials suffered an even
steeper 15% decline in volumes in 2009 according to the
trade association PlasticsEurope Deutschland. Both companies ceased to exist because of the retirement of
domestic and export demand figures were down, owners or because of plant rationalisations or mergers.
reducing Germany’s traditional trade surplus in Others chose to withdraw from processing activities
polymer materials. The impact of the global recession preferring to sub-contract out their moulding require-
has also been severe for German producers of capital ments or to refocus their activities on tooling, assembly
goods, such as plastics processing machinery, as or finishing operations.
companies around the world slashed their investment However, the trend for plastics processors to
spending. Sales of German plastics and rubber relocate to Eastern Europe or Asia has generally been
machinery were down 30% in 2009 according to the less evident in Germany than elsewhere in Western
industry association VDMA. Europe. Although German companies have established
The economic downturn has inevitably reduced the operations in Central Europe, this has not always been
number of plastics processing operations. In its survey at the expense of their home plants. Germany’s
of German injection moulders, AMI found there had proximity to Central Europe also benefited its proces-
been a net loss of 5% of companies over a three year sors prior to the downturn. The growth in demand for a
period. Over 60% of these were lost because of wide variety of products in Central Europe from
insolvency or because of transferring moulding packaging to technical components, could not always be
operations to Eastern Europe or China. A number of met by local processors, either because of capacity

www.compoundingworld.com  September 2010 | compounding world 


markets feature | Gemany’s plastics industry

photo: KraussMaffei
Germany’s constraints or a lack of competency. German companies Germany’s GDP grew by an impressive 2.2% in the
machinery were well placed to meet this shortfall in capacity or second quarter, the strongest three-monthly gain since
manufacturers technical know-how and are likely to benefit again, once reunification in 1990. The growth is being driven by
have seen a economic growth returns to the region. rising production levels and exports in areas such as
sharp increase Various government initiatives during 2009 sought to machinery, vehicles and chemicals. As result, business
in demand this mitigate the effects of the recession and they did have confidence has reached its highest level in three years.
year some impact on plastics demand. The car scrappage
scheme helped to sustain demand for new cars but Material movements
production still declined by 10%. However, this was con- The materials that appeared to have been least affected
siderably less than was seen in most other West by the downturn were PET and EPS where there was
European countries where car production was down relatively little loss of volume, although both these
anything from 20% to 50%. Government infrastructure materials had been experiencing strong growth up until
investments also helped to sustain some building the recession hit. The PET market had been driven by
product demand. As these measures are now ending, the move to PET bottles for one-way packaging
there are signs that the underlying strength of German replacing cans, glass bottles and cartons, led by the
manufacturing and engineering is helping to lift the discount stores such as Aldi and Lidl. EPS demand had
plastics industry out of recession quicker than in many been driven by initiatives to improve the energy
other countries and a more optimistic feel is beginning efficiency of buildings in line with the EU directive.
to emerge about the future prospects for Germany’s For most other polymer materials the story was one
plastics industry. Last month it was announced that of shrinking demand during 2009 with the scale of
decline dependent on the extent to which the market
was driven by packaging, building, automotive or
;^WgZ( Di]Zgh- consumer goods. The downturn in automotive produc-
end use
markets for L^gZXVWaZ& tion, although not as severe in Germany as
thermoplastics :aZXig^XVa$ZaZXigdc^X' elsewhere in Europe, still contributed to
in germany 2009 6eea^VcXZh( weak demand for most engineering
;aZm^WaZ
eVX`V\^c\&- polymers and PP compounds. Reduced
=djhZ]daY'
production of consumer electronic and
domestic appliances also led to steep
falls in the moulding and extrusion of
6jidbdi^kZ-
technical components and cable
G^\^YeVX`V\^c\
'- products. These markets all saw a
contraction in the region of 10-15% in
7j^aY^c\',
terms of polymer volumes used last
year. With the exception of insulation
materials, building product demand was
Source: AMI also weak through the year, despite some

10 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


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markets feature | Gemany’s plastics industry

DEMAND FOR
THERMOPLASTICS '&&&&
IN GERMANY
/&&&
2001-2009
.&&&
-&&&
J^ekiWdZjedd[i

,&&&
+&&&
*&&&
)&&&
(&&&
'&&&
&
(&&' (&&( (&&) (&&* (&&+ (&&, (&&- (&&. (&&/
Source: AMI

investment in infrastructure products. The collapse in offset by the demand for food packaging and hygiene
demand for profiles in Eastern Europe and Russia also films holding up.
badly affected the production of PVC window profiles. A similar story applied to HDPE resins with demand
Packaging, as is often the case through a recession, for smaller containers and closures holding up, while
was less affected but the market still declined by industrial containers, car fuel tanks and pipe production
between 5 and 7% overall largely due to weak demand have all seen significant drops over the past two years.
for industrial and transit packaging products with In polypropylene it is again the consumer packaging
consumer packaging demand holding steady. markets which have sustained some areas of demand
With its high reliance on building and wire and cable for products such as thin wall containers and BOPP
markets, PVC saw the largest falls in demand last year, films for food packaging. Automotive, electrical and
declining by around 15%. In addition to weak local consumer good sectors have all been weak as have
demand, profile producers also suffered from a collapse most fibre markets although hygiene and medical
in export sales to Eastern Europe and Russia which had markets have performed better.
grown significantly in the period to 2007, while PVC The decline in general-purpose high-impact
cable markets had been weak for sometime because of polystyrene was also not as severe as might be
a combination of substitution by polyolefins and the expected given the weak fundamentals this market has
growth in imports of cheap finished low-voltage cables been experiencing for several years. This has seen the
from Central Europe, which is the main market for PVC market decline from a peak of 430,000 tonnes of
cable compound. The drop in car production and demand in 2002 to around 380,000 tonnes currently.
electronics manufacturing further impacted on Volume had already been lost because of a decline in
demand. production of consumer electronics, the development of
The decline in demand for polyolefin materials last flat screen TVs and competition from PP and PET in
year was slightly less severe at around a 6% drop, some thin wall applications. The insulation trends that
thanks to the higher proportions of the market in have helped maintain the EPS market have helped drive
packaging applications. The weakest performance demand for XPS despite the downturn in the building
appears to have been for linear and low density grades market. Food packaging markets have also maintained
because of weak demand for agricultural, building and their demand for polystyrene packaging.
technical films which are significant markets in As would be expected given the size and sophistica-
Germany. Demand for protective films were weak tion of Germany’s plastic processing industry, the
because of the downturn in furniture and automotive country is an important market for the use and
markets. Agricultural film demand was affected by the development of engineering resins. Having enjoyed
long, cold winter and stretch film markets were weak strong growth in the period to 2007, which saw demand
because of a decline in demand for transportation reach nearly 1 million tonnes, there has been an
packaging. Pipe and cable demand was slashed estimated 150,000 tonne decline in volume across these
because of the slump in building activity. These were various materials, which include ABS/SAN, PA, PBT,

12 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


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Germany’s plastics industry | markets feature

Making more machines


Germany’s machinery makers have seen sharp increases in
'&&
demand in the first half of the year according to their industry
body, the VDMA Plastics and Rubber Machinery Association.
“Developments turned out much better than expected at the .& 97
beginning of the year,” says Thorsten Kühmann, managing JM
director of the Association. He adds: “[Our] members are also ,& <H
optimistic regarding the outlook for incoming orders in all
9D
customer regions in the second half of the year”.
*& 7J
The Association says that although exports fell sharply last
KI
year as a result of the global downturn, Germany still main-
tained its market leading position, accounting for 24% of global ?J
(&
deliveries. In Europe as a whole, Germany’s market share is @F

31%, according to the VDMA, while in Asia it is just under 24%, :;


&
placing the country ahead of the previous leader Japan. Sales (&&& (&&' (&&( (&&) (&&* (&&+ (&&, (&&- (&&. (&&/
across the Atlantic give Germany a market share of 26% of
global deliveries in North America, 18% in Central America Suppliers’ Shares in World Exports
and 20% in South America. In Africa, Germany has a 15% Source: VDMA/Federal Statistical Office
share, placing it behind China with 22% and Italy with 19%.
❙ www.kug.vdma.org

PC, PMMA and other high heat thermoplastics. business began to pick up again and since the end of
However, this is not surprising given their high reliance 2009 there has been at times a rapid and dramatic
on automotive, electrical and other technical sectors. recovery in demand, which some companies are
struggling to meet because of the cutbacks and
Compounds bounce back rationalisations in capacity that were made during the
Compounding production in Germany has naturally downturn and because of shortages of raw materials.
mirrored these trends in polymer demand. Thus from The weakest sectors during the recession were the
the end of the second quarter in 2008 the first bad signs technical compounds and PVC compound markets
began to emerge resulting in a catastrophic collapse in because of the downturn in automotive production,
demand for products in the final quarter. The first half appliance manufacturing and building activity. Injection
of 2009 continued in this high crisis mode with many moulding customers were the most affected, and some
businesses teetering on the edge of bankruptcy. of these smaller companies went out of business.
Government initiatives to help support wages during Output of compounds is estimated to have shrunk by
this time proved a lifeline for many of the major, well- more than 300,000 tonnes over the two-year period
established companies, enabling them to keep hold of 2007-2009. Even so, Germany still accounts for 25% of
s

staff while they rode out the storm. From mid-2009 compound production in Europe.
Opening up
new routes
to market
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deliver your sales messages to your target markets.

Now, more than ever, your marketing campaigns need to be:

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To tidy up the features list, please delete the following:

The text and brackets after Downstream equipment in April/May.

The word “market” after Global in April/May

The text and brackets after Die developments in Aug/Sept

The text and brackets after Materials handling equipment in Oct/Nov

Please also add the following feature to the top of the list for
April/May:

Views from the top: industry predictions

Here are some cover lines for the dummy issue:

Global outlook for PE films


Processing bioplastics
Choosing downstream equipment
Chinaplas exhibition preview

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On the back page, please add lr@filmandsheet.com for Lou’s e-mail
address.

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Germany’s plastics industry | markets feature

The collapse in production at the end of 2008 came PRODUCTION OF


after a period of steady growth of around 2%/year. As THERMOPLASTIC
the economy recovers, this is expected to be the growth COMPOUNDS IN
8dadjg
trend for industry going forward. Continuing trends for XdbedjcYh'( GERMANY 2009
PP and engineering resin compounds to replace metals :c\^cZZg^c\
and other traditional materials in automotive and XdbedjcYh(*
electrical applications will remain an important driver
BVhiZgWViX],
for the industry. Before the recession, PVC compounds
had a resurgence thanks to a boom in demand for
EK8XdbedjcYh
window profiles. It is hard to see this business bouncing IZX]c^XVa &(
back as rapidly given the weak state of the building edandaZ[^c
industry in Germany, which is mainly reliant at present XdbedjcYh''
on public sector spending. The masterbatch industry
Source: AMI
has probably seen the quickest recovery within the
compounding sector, thanks to its significant use in
packaging markets, which were less impacted by the industry as it will help to drive demand throughout the
downturn. The market will also continue to be driven by continent for some time to come.
the trend among resin producers to move away from
providing a variety of compound grades to supplying to This article is based on AMI’s 2009 European Plastics
the processor standard grades with a masterbatch. Industry Report and AMI’s guide to the thermoplastics
Germany is destined to remain the largest consumer compounding industry in Europe. Further information
and producer of plastics in Europe and its apparent available from:
recovery is good news for the rest of the European ❙ www.amiplastics.com

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Titanium dioxide | markets feature

photo: Huntsman
The white stuff:
trends in TiO2

Movements in the titanium dioxide


market have a direct impact on the
producers of white masterbatch and
compounds. A new report from TZMI
The TZMI Group launched the inaugural edition of its TiO2
Pigment Annual Review in July. The company has provides a valuable insight into how
published information on the US$11 billion global
titanium dioxide pigment industry since 1997, but this
the industry is shaping up
latest publication now adds an annually recurring update
on the dynamics of the TiO2 industry to TZMI’s regular
offering. Here we look at some of this year’s key findings. Pigment production Global TiO2
The global TiO2 pigment industry reached a record demand was
Pigment demand production level of 5.1 million tonnes in 2007. The 4.7 million
Global TiO2 demand was 4.7 million tonnes in 2009, down following two years have seen declining output; falling tonnes in 2009
3% over 2008 and 8% over the historical peak in 2007. In by more than 15% to 4.4 million tonnes in 2009. The and is forecast
the more mature Western markets, TiO2 pigment fourth quarter of 2008 was a turning point following the to grow at an
demand collapsed by more than 16% over the past two onset of the global financial crisis: worldwide output for average of 2.1%
years and it is not expected to recover before the end of the full year declined by 3.3% to 4.95 million tonnes. per annum over
the forecast period to 2015 (Figure 1). However, demand The first quarter of 2009 was one of the worst the the period
in the emerging regions contracted only marginally. The industry has ever encountered, with production down 2007-2015
strength of the emerging markets, particularly those in
Asia-Pacific and the Middle East, are expected to lift the
global pigment consumption rate to 2015 while mature Figure 1: Global demand annual growth rate: 2007-2015
economies are expected to remain static at best. Since 2007-2015
2000, China has emerged as the dominant growth Asia-Pacific 4.1%
market for TiO2 pigment, supported largely by the rise of
Central & South America 3.2%
a domestic sulphate-process TiO2 industry.
Central and Eastern Europe 2.4%
In recent years the ultrafine, or nano-TiO2, markets
Middle East & Africa 5.6%
have undergone significant growth, both in terms of
volume and scope of application. However, while these North America -0.1%
markets are currently highly profitable, the total Western Europe -0.4%
volumes are no more than 1% of the global marketplace. World 2.1%

www.compoundingworld.com  September 2010 | compounding world 19


markets feature | Titanium dioxide

traded. When the US housing market started to deflate


'"-+& *&
in 2006, domestic demand for TiO2 began to decline and

'"+&& )+ North America significantly increased TiO­2 exports into


Western Europe, Asia-Pacific and South and Central
)&
'"(+& America. The export rate (exports divided by production)
"&&&jedd[i

(+ increased from a level of approximately 20% to more


'"&&&
than 35% (Figure 2). TZMI expects the position of North
(&
-+& America as a major exporter to remain unchanged,
'+ based on excess production capacity and the relatively
+&&
'&
low regional manufacturing cost.
Western and Central Europe export similar quanti-
(+& + ties of pigment to each other; high-quality, high-cost
& & products flow into Central Europe from Western Europe,
(&&' (&&( (&&) (&&* (&&+ (&&, (&&- (&&. (&&/ while the relatively low-cost product from Central
Europe flows back into Western Europe.
Z[cWdZ   d[j[nfehji   [nfehjhWj[
Asia-Pacific is a net importer of TiO2 pigment,
although it has the largest manufacturing base of all
Figure 2: North American exports vs. demand: 2001-2009
regions. The imports tend to be of a higher quality than
is widely available within the region.
34% compared to the first quarter in 2008. Consumers
of TiO2 saw product sales drop off sharply in the fourth Capacity expansion
quarter of 2008 and as a result orders for pigment Over the past five years, industry transactions have
collapsed. Some pigment producers predicted the been executed at real 2009 US dollar capacity tonne
oncoming rise in inventories early and moved to trim values of US$1,500-2,000. This is in stark contrast with
production levels, while others were less reactive. The the cost of greenfield expansions which have averaged
latter group had to cut production even more drastically almost US$5,500 per tonne of annual capacity (real
in the first, and in some cases the second quarter of 2009 US dollar total investment basis including land
2009. While most plants were operating at full rates and support services).
again in the second half of the year, others did not Access to the newer chloride process has been tightly
survive the recession; the Grimsby (Huntsman) plant held by a handful of global manufacturing companies
was the first to be shut, closely followed by Savannah and those organisations that successfully licensed
(Tronox). The Baltimore (Cristal) plant was cold idled, technology from these companies during the 1970s and
and Cristal recently announced permanent closure of 1980s. No greenfield chloride route pigment plants have
base pigment production at this plant. been commissioned since 1994.
New processes for the manufacture of TiO2 pigment
Pigment trade are constantly under development, but no alternative
In international trade there are five main inter-regional manufacturing routes have been successfully commer-
s

routes, where more than 100,000 tonnes/year of TiO2 is cialised to date.

Figure 3: Real
)+&&
2009 US$
weighted
average global
H[Wb(&&/KIfh_Y_d]

TiO2 pigment
pricing )&&&

(+&&

(&&&
'/-+ '/.& '/.+ '//& '//+ (&&& (&&+ (&'&

20 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


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Titanium dioxide | markets feature

Pricing forces in the industry will be felt as


The long term real TiO2 global 2010 unfolds, so this new publication
pigment price has declined over is most timely in seeking to put all
the past 20 years in US dollar these items into perspective.
terms (Figure 3). However, there
are significant differences in the More information
pricing behaviour within different The content of the TZMI
regions and different end-use Group’s TiO2 Pigment Annual
markets. The declining price levels Review is structured as a combination
have resulted in margin erosion below of data presentation, interpretation and analysis,
re-investment economics, especially in the last three interspersed with some historical reference to give the
years. reader a context from which to draw their own
As a result of re-stocking, unplanned capacity perceptions. By not only providing historical and
outages and plant closures, the current supply for TiO2 forecast data on supply, demand, pricing and
has become very tight, despite the fact that demand has trade, but also providing the necessary back-
not fully recovered to pre-crisis levels. This has resulted ground information such as pigment properties,
in a deluge of price increase announcements by the quality requirements, demand fundamentals and
major producers and climbing prices throughout the manufacturing processes, the Review is
global markets. accessible and informative for all readers,
In most growth markets for TiO2 products, the global independent of prior experience with the
financial crisis of 2008/09 is a past memory, while in industry. Click here to download a six-page
other more mature markets the demand outlook is still brochure about the review
somewhat conservative. The full extent of the changing ❙ www.tzmi.com

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materials feature | Reinforcing fibres

Reinforcing fibres provide the hidden strength in high-performance


compounds. Lilli Sherman looks at how the market is growing,
reviews recent developments in glass, aramid, carbon and
natural fibres, and examines some novel alternatives

Bring in the reinforcements


The suppliers New developments in fibre reinforcements for thermo-

photo: 3b
of glass fibres plastics have continued at a steady pace despite the
are in an economic downturn. In addition, there has been some
upbeat mood recovery in demand for reinforced thermoplastics from
with new the beginning of this year in both the automotive and the
applications electrical and electronic (E&E) industries, the two major
emerging in a growth areas. Fibre suppliers and compounders agree
range of that while demand has not recovered to the levels of two
markets years ago, they expect 2010 to finish with positive growth.
Recent advances have been announced in glass,
carbon, aramid and natural fibres designed to give
thermoplastic compounds improved properties and
processing characteristics along with increased cost
competitiveness. There are also some innovative
technologies emerging as alternatives to conventional very strong at the moment. Not only in Europe but also in
fibre and filler reinforcements. Asia and the Americas,” says Co den Besten, global
Meanwhile, there are continued developments from marketing manager for chopped fibres at PPG Industries.
custom compounders well known for their strength in Manuel Agudo, global commercial & product leader
reinforced thermoplastics. These are aimed at meeting at Owens Corning, adds: “We see the automotive and
increasingly tough cost/performance requirements as E&E industries shifting to reinforced thermoplastics for
well as the drive towards improved sustainability and greater heat resistance, strength, durability and, very
recyclability. key, reduced systems costs. Many of these products can
be used in place of more expensive resins without sacri-
Market movements ficing performance.”
Fibre-reinforced thermoplastics have traditionally been One key trend driving increased demand for reinforced
largely dominated by nylon 6 and 66 with glass fibre thermoplastics in the automotive sector, according to
reinforcements aimed primarily at the automotive Agudo, is that the under-bonnet environment has become
sector. While that dominance still exists, a shift has hotter due to the drive to maximize space usage.
been taking place. Reinforced PP is making major Components located close to the engine need excellent
inroads in both exterior and interior automotive high-heat resistance for optimized performance, and
applications. There is also steadily increasing growth in exceptional resistance to chemicals such as oil and petrol
the broad E&E market sector where other fibre- to withstand corrosion and other potential damage. In
reinforced engineering resins have been gaining speed, addition, weight reduction is increasingly important to cut
ranging from PET, PBT and PC to high-performance fuel consumption and reduce emissions. Agudo notes
polymers like PEEK, PPO, and LCP. In addition, there is applications such as oil pans, air-intake manifolds,
an increasing demand for reinforced thermoplastics in radiators and other critical components, where glass fibre
consumer goods such as appliances. reinforced materials have been gaining an edge.
“The market for reinforced fibres for thermoplastics is Noting similar trends in this arena is Eric Martin,

24 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


thermoplastics product manager at
3B The Fibreglass Company. “Weight
reduction remains the central focus of
the automotive industry. This impacts all
vehicle areas”. He adds that the adoption of rein-
forced plastics is also strengthened by OEMs’ shifting
priorities. “Low-cost vehicles and engine downsizing
definitely translates to new requirements in thermal
stability. The development of hybrid electrical vehicles
also is clearly a segment for rapid plastics growth since
weight constraints will be more important for achieving
adequate efficiency”. Martin points out that hybrid
electrical vehicles are expected to represent 10% of
total vehicle volume by 2020, creating demand for mate-
rials that offer wear-friction resistance, thermal
conductivity, and fatigue resistance at high tempera-
tures. “Typical applications are start-stop systems,
bearing cages, solenoid caps and in the near future will
include battery trays, battery protection, convertors and
charging stations,” he explains.
Discussing opportunities in the E&E sector, Owens
Corning’s Agudo says: “We are essentially talking about
the manufacture of high-performance connectors, the
use of which cuts across several market sectors –
automotive, consumer electronics etc – and where the
trend is for greater miniaturisation. Glass-fibre-
reinforced thermoplastics play a major role here, as they
must deliver extreme high-heat resistance to protect
delicate circuitry as connectors become smaller.” This air intake is the first to be produced using PP and is a good example
Danny Wilms Floet, sales manager composites at of how demand for glass fibres is shifting. Mahle Filtersystems in the UK
Teijin Aramid, notes that in both the automotive and the is producing the part for VW using a 36% glass-fibre-reinforced PP
E&E market sectors, the trend is toward components compound from Borealis. The Xmod GB306SAF – 9502 grade was chosen
such as gear wheels, slide bearings and bushings that as it provides long-term resistance to chemicals and high temperatures.
are more compact, lighter, stronger and are subject to The part is being used on 1.4 and 1.6 litre engines in the VW Golf and
greater stresses such as higher temperatures and Polo, as well as Seat and Skoda models. The component is moulded
operating speeds. “Glass fibres are used to improve the using existing tooling and is generating significant cost savings
mechanical properties of thermoplastics. Aramid fibres compared to the previous PA version. Borealis says that it also provides
also improve some mechanical properties but their improved acoustic behaviour and a 15% weight saving.

www.compoundingworld.com  September 2010 | compounding world 25


materials feature | Reinforcing fibres

demand in the automotive segment for the second half


of 2010, the order books for reinforced thermoplastic
compounds for the third quarter seem to be at a
continued high level.” PPG estimates that demand in
2010 could be close to 50% stronger than in 2009, which
also means chopped fibre will be in tight supply for the
rest of 2010. “The pipe line is still relatively empty and
the industry will struggle to fill it up in 2010. This might
only happen in 2011, although it should be noted that
glass fibre suppliers have a number of furnace repairs
scheduled to take place in 2011,” says den Besten.
Overall, LFT applications are currently one-tenth the
size of the chopped strand market. However, LFTs are
beginning to replace glass-mat thermoplastics (GMT)
because of cost and production advantages.
The growth in main function is to reduce wear of a plastic part and Industry sources estimate that about 85% to 90% of
sales of hybrid minimize abrasion to the counter surface of the LFT goes into automotive applications compared to a
cars, such as application.” While glass fibres are lower in cost – maximum of 50% for chopped fibre reinforced plastics.
this Honda CR- typically by a factor of around 10 – they are more The other key markets for the latter are reinforced PA
Z, is expected abrasive and can erode the materials with which they and PBT in electronics housings and electrical tools,
to create a come into contact. plus reinforced PP compounds in washing machines.
range of Teijin Aramid has been putting considerable PPG’s den Besten says “Glass-filled PP has traditionally
opportunities development efforts toward furthering the expansion of been used only in lower-end automotives components,
for glass- aramid fibre reinforcement to the engineering plastics although Borealis made a breakthrough a couple of
reinforced composites market sector. The company has developed years ago with its glass-reinforced PP which was used
thermoplastics a special sizing and cutting process to manufacture to substitute a glass-reinforced nylon in the inlet
small rod-like pellets of its Twaron and Technora para- manifold of a new vehicle.”
aramid short-cut fibres specifically for engineering
plastics. The result is easy and precise dosing of these New product development
fibre reinforcements, allowing plastics compounders Glass fibre reinforcement suppliers say they have been
and processors to achieve the exact endurance expanding their glass fibre technologies to meet the
properties required for their particular applications. drive for lighter weight, greater strength, and excellent
Addressing glass fibre reinforcements in thermo-
plastics, PPG’s den Besten, says that there are really
two main segments. The first is short-glass-fibre-
reinforced thermoplastics based on chopped strand
products. The second segment is long-fibre thermo-
plastics (LFTs) based on long glass fibres. Although
LFTs are mainly used in automotive applications, this
segment has suffered the least of all glass fibre
segments in the economic downturn through 2009.
According to den Besten, this can be explained by
further penetration of LFT composites replacing metals
in many new models. “Despite the downturn in car
production, the use of LFT product stayed at a stable
level in 2009. In 2010, we have seen growth of more
than 15%, which is in line with previous years.” Electrical connectors are another important growth
This is in contrast with an unprecedented 30% drop market for glass-reinforced thermoplastic
in demand for the chopped fibre segment between compounds. These examples are SMT pin connectors
fourth quarter 2008 and through much of 2009. for use in domestic appliances. They are produced by
Nevertheless, recovery has been taking place through Stocko Contact using a flame retardant (UL94-V0),
the first half of this year. Den Besten explains: “Despite halogen-free, 30% glass-filled grade of Stanyl ForTii
some uncertainties in the market with respect to high heat PA from DSM Engineering Plastics.

26 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


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materials feature | Reinforcing fibres

PPG’s TufRov TufRov 4575 LFT Roving


4575 roving has
Improvement of 15 to 25% in all PP GLFT samples – 4575 vs 4599
been shown to
give improved
performance in
LFT applications

4599 verses 4575 unnotched impact strength vs.


% coupling agent and % glass in PP LFT

overall performance in both new and existing growth product. In many cases, it has replaced our older
markets. products. It offers additional value in hydrolytic
Addressing the LFT segment, den Besten of PPG says resistance as well as in impact modified and lubricated
that while the company’s success started with its compounds and has also proved to result in excellent
3B says its DS general-purpose product TufRov 4588, they have seen a performance in high-temperature nylons. HP 3610 is
2200-13P lot of market penetration with the company’s resin- now available from local manufacturing sources in
chopped strand specific LFT rovings TufRov 4599 for PP and TufRov 4510 North America, Europe and Asia,” says den Besten.
for PP offers an for PA in recent years. Last year, PPG introduced a next- PPG says that it will soon launch a hydrolytically-
excellent generation LFT roving, TufRov 4575 for use in PP. The use resistant product for PBT compounds. It has already
balance of of this reinforcement has been shown to give enhanced been demonstrated to provide enhanced performance in
stiffness/ performance in PP-LFT compounds. “This either results strength and impact properties in such compounds
toughness. It is in a higher performance in mechanical properties or, after immersion in hot water.
being used in when a certain level of properties is required, it can be According to den Besten, the growth of the market is
demanding achieved with less coupling agent, which can be a supported with recent investment in additional capacity
automotive significant cost saving,” explains den Besten. Future for chopped fibre in North America at the company’s
front end developments in PPG’s LFT product portfolio include plant in Shelby, North Carolina. This is scheduled for
applications plans to introduce resin-specific LFT products for PBT, production start-up in fourth quarter. Further capacity
PET and HDPE. expansions are envisioned for 2011 at the company’s
In the larger, chopped fibre plants in the Netherlands, China and the US. Mean-
reinforced thermoplastics seg- while, the growth of LFT rovings is supported with new
ment for PA 6 and 66, PPG has product development for PA, PBT, PET and HDPE. PPG
traditionally based its success has plans to add capacity for direct rovings for wind
on its general-purpose energy and LFT applications at its locations in North
products ChopVantage HP America and China, with announcements expected in
3540 and its hydrolytically- the near future.
resistant specialty product Reinforced PP compounds for automotive applications
ChopVantage HP 3660. have been a key focus at 3B The Fibreglass Company. In
However, there has been a addition to their widespread use in exterior and interior
shift with the introduction components, reinforced PP compounds are increasingly
of the company’s multi- being used in even more demanding applications which
purpose product ChopVantage have previously been dominated by reinforced PA. 3B’s
HP 3610 two years ago. “This Martin cites new reinforced PP air-intake manifolds and
product proved a very successful climate control units as perfect examples.
addition to our portfolio and now ac- In addition, chopped strand reinforced PP com-
counts for our highest selling pounds are replacing long fibre materials in some

28 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


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Dü ove
r 27 – N
Octobe

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Reinforcing fibres | materials feature

AGY has
demonstrated
that its S-1
Glass offers
improved
performance at
lower loadings
in PA 6 compared
to E-Glass.

structural applications, such as front-end carriers or tion to date is a reinforced PP front-end carrier.
door panels, as a result of their lower costs and parts For PA-based applications, 3B introduced a multi-
integration capabilities. “The reinforcement perform- purpose product – DS 1128-10N chopped strand – two
ance of the glass fibre product is key,” says Martin. “In years ago. Martin claims: “This product provides a
this context, it now has been established that 3B’s DS fantastic compromise of performance and handling/
2200-13P chopped strand has set a new standard with feeding properties.” In addition to providing strong
an unrivalled stiffness/toughness balance,” he claims. performance in a wide range of thermoplastic com-
According to the company, DS 2200-13P is approved pounds, including impact-modified and hydrolytically-
at major PP compounders because its innovative sizing resistant versions, this product can be used for glass-
technology has been shown to provide an increase in fibre bulk supply and high-speed pneumatic conveying,
stiffness of at least 10% and an increase in impact Martin adds. “GF conveying should never be underesti-
strength of 10-15% compared to conventional glass mated since the results of poor feeding on properties
fibre products used in automotive PP formulations. can be dramatic. 3B has more than 10 years experience
“There is no negative impact on viscosity and as such in GF bulk conveying. When plastics compounders and
cycle times are improved, which definitely supports the processors are looking to lower production costs and
switch to PP compounds,” adds Martin. In addition, DS optimize their supply chain, this unique expertise is
2200-13P is claimed to give enhanced mechanical definitely a benefit.”
properties at high temperature (above 100oC) as well as Soon to be launched by 3B is a new chopped strand
outstanding fatigue performance. Its use is currently product for PA that is specifically targeted for use in
being evaluated in high-end appliances such as high- under-the-hood automotive applications. “The future will
speed washing machines. The most innovative applica- be exciting as we have started work on very innovative

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materials feature | Reinforcing fibres

Walker explains that AGY has entered into long-term


development projects in North America and Europe for
application of its proprietary S-3 Glass in engineering
thermoplastics. For example, S-3 Glass has been used
in PEEK to produce dental crowns. In this application, it
offers the high impact of ceramic but at lower cost,
according to the company.

Arguments for aramid


Teijin Aramid says that its Twaron yarn fibres are five
times stronger than steel weight-for weight, whereas its
Technora yarns are eight times stronger than steel and
three times stronger than glass fibre, polyester or nylon
yarns. Specifically developed for engineering thermo-
Teijin Aramid options, including the addition of carbon nanotubes plastics, Teijin’s Twaron and Technora short-cut aramid
highlights the (CNTs) directly onto the surface of glass fibres,” says fibre reinforcements each bring a different combination
excellent wear Martin. Click here to see more details of 3B’s collabora- of properties. However, both reduce the wear and
properties of tion with Nanocyl on CNT sizing technologies. abrasion rates of plastic compounds, allowing moulders
its aramid Within the last year, two new products have emerged to produce strong, lightweight, compact mechanical
fibres from AGY, a global producer of glass fibre yarns and systems that require minimum maintenance.
high-strength glass reinforcements. The first is S-1 In addition, the aramid short-cut fibres can be
Glass high-performance glass rovings, primarily for use engineered precisely to the level of wear resistance
in LFT applications. According to Drew Walker , the required, without affecting and sometimes even
company’s vice president of sales & marketing, S-1 lowering the compound’s frictional coefficient. When
bridges the cost/performance gap between E-Glass and combined with PTFE, they reduce the frictional
higher performance glass such as S-2 Glass. coefficient even further. In addition, because Twaron
Designed for use with a range of engineering and Technora-based engineering compounds dissipate
thermoplastics such as PC, PEI, PBT and PA 66, energy efficiently, their damping properties reportedly
primarily in under-the-bonnet automotive applications, are significantly improved, making them well suited to
field trials with S-1 have demonstrated higher hydro- applications where controlled vibration is needed.
lytic stability, a 30% improvement in tensile properties Twaron has a more attractive price-to-performance
and an 18% improvement in tensile modulus compared ratio and as such has been getting more play in a wide
to traditional E-Glass solutions. Moreover, it has been range of automotive and E&E applications, according
demonstrated that a 32% S-1 glass fibre content in LFTs Wilms Floet. Technora, on the other hand, is said to be
can deliver the same performance as a 60% E-Glass the best option where maximum strength and rigidity
filled product. “Reduced fibre loadings translates into are required, such as dynamic performance applica-
higher impact levels, better surface
appearance and easier processing.
On the other hand, the use of higher
loading levels would allow for new
application opportunities due to the
increased mechanical performance
that can be obtained with S-1 Glass,”
explains Walker. The product is
available as a roving for use in LFT as
well as in chopped form for glass-
filled thermoplastic compounds, such
as PA 6 and 66.
AGY has also developed a
specialty chopped fibre product with
properties tailored for high-perform-
ance niche applications such as Teijin Aramid’s Twaron and Technora aramid fibres significantly
reduce the wear rate of PA66 even at relatively low loadings
medical implants.

32 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


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Reinforcing fibres | materials feature

tions that involve significant motion. The advantages of reclaimed fibres in a variety of
the company’s aramids in engineering plastics have engineered resins including
been extensively documented by the Netherlands prime, bioplastic, post-industrial
Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO). For and post-consumer recycled
example, experiments have shown that adding 10-15% feedstock. “Initial evaluations of
of Twaron to PA 66 results in a reduction in wear by a these compounds by Boeing have
factor of 20 while POM becomes twice as durable by demonstrated that their mechan-
adding 10-15% of the aramid fibres. Both Twaron and ical performance is excellent,”
Technora are available in a variety of lengths, and says Lamberson. RTP’s target
depending on the plastic matrix used, sized with either markets for these ‘green’
PUR or PET. Both are also offered without any sizing. materials include defence,
Twaron is available in lengths from 0.25 mm to 12 mm, aerospace, sporting goods,
while Technora comes in lengths from 1 mm to 6 mm. automotive and industrial.
Twaron is also available as a very fine, specially treated In addition to recycled content and bioplastic-based RTP’s VLF very
powder that allows for fine dispersion. compounds, RTP has recently introduced two new long glass fibre
products that address specific needs in the market. The thermoplastic
The compounders’ perspective company developed a VLF (very long fibre) thermoplas- material is
Global custom compounders and their customers lead tic masterbatch, which allows the moulder to utilize a being used by
the way in the development and innovative uses of PP concentrate that is reinforced with 60% long glass Hunan
fillers and reinforcements. As always, they are striving fibres by weight. VLF masterbatch is optimized for Zkenergy of
to deliver materials with excellent physical performance blending with neat PP during moulding to obtain 10% to China to
and processing properties. However, they are also 40% glass-fibre loadings that can be tailored to meet injection mould
responding to demands for compounds that are ‘green’ the requirements of a moulder’s specific application. the blades of
and ‘sustainable’. VLF concentrate is produced via a melt-impregnated this small-
Andrew Lamberson, corporate development manufacturing process that fully wets-out the fibre and scale wind
manager at RTP Company, says that the firm has been couples it with the resin. Resulting pellets reportedly offer turbine
working extensively on the use of bioplastics and superior physical properties, a resin-rich surface finish
recycled resins as well as recycled reinforcing fibres. without glass bundles, and minimal glass fibre fines
“We are now able to provide the market with very during handling for consistent quality moulding. The VLF
‘green’ high-performance structural products”, he route is especially suited to large parts and high-volume
states. These compounds – which the company can manufacturing without the investment and complexity of
manufacture at its plants in the US, Europe and China – direct in-line compounding. Standard VLF pellets are 12
give OEMs the opportunity to be ‘green’ while still mm long and can be custom cut from 8 to 25 mm.
meeting structural and impact specifications.” Another innovation from RTP is its Controlled
For example, RTP has been collaborating with Geometry Pellets (CGP) technology. This patent-
leading aerospace equipment Boeing Company on the pending compounding process provides engineered
use of reclaimed carbon fibres from the latter’s structural compounds for compression moulders that
manufacturing process. RTP is developing high- reportedly result in significant increases in product
performance structural compounds utilizing these performance and output from the moulding process. As

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materials feature | Reinforcing fibres

a fully compounded solution, the fibres and other materials have been shown to impart a distinctive,
additives in CGP are completely wetted with polymer. natural aesthetic to finished articles. Fully-compounded
Featuring precision width-to-thickness and length-to- products are sold under the AgriPlas brand name and
width ratios which allow the pellets to nest tightly, CGP are available from the company’s Engineered Plastics
grades can be used to produce stock shapes and thick- Division. Biofiller masterbatches are also available as
walled parts with superior mechanical properties. Polybatch Concentrates from the company.
Shapes made with CGP are more uniform and void- Schulman’s AgriPlas PP compound containing wheat
free. They boast better dimensional stability, less straw fibre bio-filler made its commercial debut in
moulded-in stress, and very low porosity, all of which Ford’s new Flex crossover vehicle. This first industrial
allow the production of precision parts with lower reject application of a wheat-straw-reinforced plastic is in the
rates. Initially available in PEEK and PPS compounds, injection-moulded storage bin and inner lid for the
the technology can be extended to other thermally- interior of the vehicle.
stable resins like PES, PEI and PPA. Advantages of the AgriPlas compound compared to
At A. Schulman, industry demands and environmen- talc- or glass-filled PP as demonstrated in this
tal pressures continue to drive the exploration of unique application include: weight savings of about 10%;
plastic modifiers and fillers, according to marketing increased dimensional stability; lower energy usage in
manager Chris Kerscher. One recent example is a line manufacturing due to lower machine temperatures; and
of products reinforced with agricultural bio waste, such a lower carbon footprint. Based on Ford’s analysis, it
as wheat-straw fibre which is a by-product of harvesting produces 1.30 kg less C02 per kg of product. Additional
wheat. It is claimed that these biofillers offer equivalent moulding applications are under evaluation within the
physical properties compared to traditional mineral- transportation, consumer goods and lawn and garden
based fillers and fibres as well as weight-reduction markets, according to Kerscher.
opportunities. In addition, some of Schulman’s biofiller So.F.teR, which has compounding plants in Italy,
Reinforcing fibres | materials feature

Mexico and Brazil, recently launched a new line of


Schulman’s AgriPlas PP
vegetable-fibre reinforced polyolefin compounds that
compound containing wheat
are claimed to offer very good properties. These fully straw fibre is being used to
recyclable compounds utilise fibres that originate from mould a storage bin for
long-leafed plants such as flax, sisal and hemp or are Ford’s Flex crossover
derived from wood flour and working scraps. vehicle
The company characterizes its new line of com-
pounds by their strength and lightness. Tests have
shown them to have properties equivalent to glass-
fibre-reinforced compounds, but with a 10% lower
weight advantage due to their lower density. Better
sound-deadening and anti-vibration properties along
with better shock- and high-temperature resistance are
also touted. So.F.teR sees them as ideal for automotive
applications, as the reduction in vehicle weight yields
lower emissions. Functionally, these compounds are
well suited to the production of interior parts and new goggles were launched in early 2010 by BlueSev-
panels, but the company also notes their application enty and were developed by the Blue Fuzion Group
potential for visible parts because they can provide based in Hong Kong.
“very innovative and good-looking aesthetic effects”. Blue Fuzion selected Teknor’s Beetle 66CF4 carbon
The UK division of Teknor Apex recently formulated fibre-reinforced PA66 instead of PC which is typically
a carbon fibre-reinforced PA 66 compound for the used in such applications. The new compound proved to
frames of swimming goggles. Called Carbon Race, the be both lighter and stronger than the PC, allowing the

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materials feature | Reinforcing fibres

balance of flexibility and stiffness is needed to combine


structural strength with user comfort.

Novel options to consider


Adding to the mix of innovative reinforcement options
on offer to compounders is Milliken’s Hyperform HPR
(High Performance Reinforcement) which is described
by the company as “an inorganic fibrous mineral”.
Launched at last year’s NPE show, the reinforcing agent
was specially developed for polyolefins used in moulded
automotive, appliance and consumer goods.
The first commercial grade, Hyperform HPR-803, is
primarily aimed at PP automotive applications where it
can replace fillers such as talc at lower loadings.
Milliken quotes loadings of 10% compared to 25-30%,
Teknor Apex designers to reduce the thickness of the frame, leading to weight reductions of up to 15%. It has been
formulated a particularly in the torsion points where other compo- shown to provide both better stiffness and higher HDT
carbon fibre- nents of the goggles come together, such as the nose than higher loadings of talc. While as a replacement for
reinforced PA bridge and the strap. The Carbon Race goggles report- chopped glass, HPR-803 is claimed to exhibit a
66 compound edly are 12 to 15% lighter than conventional goggles. noticeably better surface finish and improved weather-
for the frames Another Teknor Apex division, Chem Polymer has ability. According to Milliken, this makes it suitable for
of these Carbon been working on the challenge of achieving a good exterior components such as bumpers and door panels.
Race swimming surface appearance for parts moulded with glass- Another novel alternative is Neroplast from New
goggles reinforced thermoplastics. Its Chemlon 217 GI, a 17% Polymer Systems. The bio-based reinforcement is
glass-fibre-reinforced PA 6 compound, has been shown based on modified lignocellulose fibre, which also
to have an excellent surface finish while providing the occurs naturally in lignite coal. It is being launched as a
combination of strength and stiffness required for cost-effective alternative to conventional fillers that
injection-moulded applications that undergo challenging offers higher moisture and temperature resistance.
dynamic forces. Examples include office chairs, outdoor Company president Joachim Roesler explains: “We can
power equipment, outboard motor covers, and gun-stock produce a low-cost filler – more so than a reinforce-
components. In addition, the compound’s outstanding ment – in that it does have some improvement on
flow characteristics make it suitable for large parts, says mechanical properties and at half the weight if not quite
the company. at the strength level of glass. Essentially, we have a bio-
One of the initial commercial applications of a derived fibre that is much lighter than mineral fillers,
customised version of this compound is the one-piece but which is heat resistant and hydrophobic, unlike
moulded inner shell of office chairs, where the right other organic fillers.”
So far, the efficiency of this new ‘green filler’ has
Properties of Chemlon 217GI, a 17% glass-fibre- been shown in PP, HDPE and PA, but Roesler says there
reinforced nylon 6 compound is potential in other resins. “We are competing most
directly with wood flour, calcium carbonate and talc
fillers. This new filler is similar cost-wise, but half as
heavy as talc or calcium carbonate”.
In terms of processing Neroplast into thermoplas-
tics, it can be used in can be used in a wide range of
applications including injection moulding, sheet
extrusion and thermoforming, but not thin films or spun
fibres. Roesler says: “Someone with a single-screw
extruder would need a masterbatch of the product,
whereas it can be added directly in twin-screw extruder
processing”. He adds that Neroplast also has a broader
processing window than wood flour, working beyond
230˚C, equivalent to talc or calcium carbonate but at
Source: Chem Polymer, a unit of Teknor Apex Company half the weight – 2.5-2.7 g/cc for conventional talc and

38 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


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RECOMMENDED READING
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A Glossary of Plastics The Instant Expert: Plastics, Troubleshootingthe Extrusion


Terminology in 7 languages Processing and Properties Process:A Systematic Approach
(7th edn.) to Solving Plastic Extrusion
Problems
2010, by Glenz, 2010, by Goodship, 2010, by Noriega & Rauwendaal,
E89.00 or £74.00 or $112.00 E100.00 or £82.50 or $125.00 E100.00 or £83.00 or $125.00

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polymer composites Applications
2010, by White & Kyu, 2009, by Fu & Mai, 2009, by Leblanc,
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Reinforcing fibres | materials feature

calcium carbonate fillers compared to 1.3 g/cc for


Neroplast and 1.4 g/cc for wood flour.
One limitation of Neroplast is that the material’s
colour ranges from dark grey and brown to black.
Roesler explains “For a light-coloured exterior, it would
have to be co-extruded with a lighter colour on top.
Alternatively, it can also be a replacement for carbon
black pigments in certain applications.” Although
loading levels would be much higher for Neroplast
because of its larger particle size, it is significantly less
expensive by weight says Roesler. He cites as an
example a recycler of PE and PP that typically uses 1 to Click on the links for more information: Milliken is
2% of carbon black to achieve a uniform black coloured ❙ www.ppg.com targeting
product. “With as little as 5% of our filler, you can get ❙ www.owenscorning.com automotive
the black colour required at lower cost despite the ❙ www.3B-fibreglass.com exterior
higher use level, as a side benefit,” he explains. ❙ www.teijinaramid.com applications with
Mechanical properties that have been achieved with ❙ www.agy.com its Hyperform
Neroplast in PP include a 10-50% increase in tensile ❙ www.rtpcompany.com HPR-803
strength and a doubling of the tensile and flexural ❙ www.aschulman.com reinforcing agent
modulus of filled PP compared to neat resin. Within the ❙ www.softerspa.com that promises an
next three months, the company will be able to share ❙ www.teknorapex.com excellent surface
more accurate values on such mechanical property ❙ www.millikenchemical.com finish
advantages, according to Roesler. ❙ www.newpolymersystems.com

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Extruder gearboxes | machinery feature

Selecting the right gear

photo: century
Stefan Knieling of Henschel
Antriebstechnik provides an inside
view on how gearboxes for twin-screw
Unlike their relatively simple single-screw relations,
twin-screw extruders require highly sophisticated
gearboxes to drive the co- or counter-rotating extruder
screws. This is particularly true for parallel twin-screw
extruders have been developed to
extruders that require gearboxes to distribute the deliver the extreme levels of torque
highest possible torque evenly to both extruder screws
while taking up a minimal amount of space. Henschel demanded by today’s compounders
has been involved in manufacturing gearboxes for 38
years and here we examine how the latest designs have
been developed to meet increasingly tough demands for the centres of the screw shafts cubed:
the highest performance extruders. fMd = Tshaft / a3 [Nm/cm3]
Getting back to basics, the gearbox is an absolutely
essential component of the extruder. It reduces the Figure 1 shows the development of the torque factor
motor RPM to the required optimised speed for the for extruders over the course of the past 30 years with
extrusion process, and simultaneously builds up the the introduction of different Henschel gearbox series.
necessary torque on the screws. The driving forces have
to be distributed evenly to both screws and the gearbox
needs to withstand the high back-pressure forces from
the extrusion process.
The gearbox design is primarily influenced by the
relatively small centre distance of the output shafts and
the required output torque, while both specifications are
determined in turn by the extrusion process. The gap
between the extruder screws limits the allowable
distortion and the permissible axial deformation of the
gearbox output shafts in relationship to each other.
In order to have a specification for the torque density
of the extruder independent of the actual gearbox size,
the torque factor (fMd) was defined as measurement. To Figure 1: Over the past 30 years, considerable progress has been made in
calculate this torque factor, the output torque of an the torque factor per shaft for modern twin-screw extruders such as
extruder screw shaft is divided by the distance between Century’s Apex machine pictured at the top of the page.

www.compoundingworld.com  September 2010 | compounding world 43


machinery feature | Extruder gearboxes

Inside a co-rotating extruder gearbox. I - basic gearbox


with reduction gear unit (1) and power distribution (2).
II – thrust bearing housing with tandem bearing (3).
III – distributor gear unit with DOS-gear stage
(5 & 6). IV – adaptor housing with output shaft (7)
designed as throughput
shaft with axial
bearing (4).

These have been designed to meet the industry’s The gears are designed for maximum durability in
requirements for higher and higher torque levels. terms of tooth breakage, pitting, and scuffing. The
Such high torque outputs require special design appropriate safety and application factors, calculated
procedures for efficient and reliable power distribution, according to DIN 3990 and ISO 6336 respectively, are
while custom-designed thrust bearings absorb the agreed with the customer to meet the requirements of
back-pressure forces from the extrusion process. their application. The safety factors are typically set
between 1 and 2 for pitting, from 1.4 to 2.5 for tooth
Design solutions breakage and from 2 to 4 for scuffing. State-of-the-art
Over the years, a multitude of power distribution gear designs are produced using the latest technical
configurations have been developed with different standards, while the precise grinding process carried
designs distinguished by the number of shafts in the out for each gear tooth profile ensures that there are no
distribution gear unit. These can include two, three, defects, such as micro-pitting.
four or as many as seven shafts. Joined to the distributor gear unit is the set of thrust
Henschel’s view is that gearboxes that combine a bearings built to receive the axial forces from the
simple design of the distributor gear unit with high extrusion process. One of the two extruder screws is
torque density provide the best solution. It uses this supported by a multi-row axial cylindrical roller bearing
approach in its DOS-V and T1MAX gearboxes which (tandem bearing), which combines a minimal outside
deliver extremely high torque densities. diameter with a high load rating. The axial bearing of
The company’s twin-shaft extruder gearbox series is the second output shaft is located on the back of the
designed in a modular way that can be adapted easily to gearbox. As there is enough space available, the
customer specifications. The gearbox consists of four bearing is not limited in its outside diameter and can be
sections. The reduction gear unit transforms the motor designed in a single-row fashion.
RPM into the required output speed preparing for the The easy accessible design allows for straight-
proper output torque. Connected to the reduction gear forward servicing as well as easy mounting of pressure
unit is the thrust-bearing unit. This in turn is attached sensors and other instrumentation for process control.
to the distribution gear unit ending in the adapter This modular gearbox design is also the best option for
housing forming the connection to the extruder. The the thrust bearing unit, allowing a wide range of back-
distributor gear unit consists of a helical gear stage pressures to be handled from around 100 bar up to
capable of transmitting extreme torque. considerably more than 500 bar in special applications.
The separate mounting of each gear set with The reduction gear unit represents the link between
bearings helps to ensure long life spans, despite the the motor and the distribution gear unit. Depending on
limited space. Under full load, at least 20,000 hours or the drive method (direct-drive or belt-drive) gear ratios
s

even more than 40,000 hours can be easily achievable. of 0.8 through to 80 are normal for modern extruders.

44 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


First Class Corotating Twin Screw Extruder
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Extruder gearboxes | machinery feature

Counter rotating Co-rotating


Drive Direct or by belt Direct
Gear ratios 12-80 0.8-10
Output RPM ‹5-150min -1
(in special cases also above) 300-1200min-1 (in special cases also below)
Torque factor per shaft Up to 23 Nm/cm3 Up to 16 Nm/cm3
Back pressure from extrusion process Up to 500 bar (in special cases also above) Up to 250 bar (in special cases also above)

The torque distribution in the final stage is tailored to output shafts via coupling sleeves. The shafts are Figure 2: The
the type of extruder, either counter- or co-rotating. secured radially and, if necessary, also against axial wide range of
Figure 2 shows the diverse requirements placed on forces. specifications
counter- and co-rotating extruder gearboxes. Henschel continues to innovate and is a long-term, that can be
The design of the gears and the choice of bearings is active member of Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstech- handled by
based on the bearing capacity, efficiency, and the noise nik, the German research association for power counter- and
level in accordance with the latest research results. The transmission. co-rotating
forced lubrication is adapted to the individual applica- extruder
tion and guarantees superior heat dissipation and More information gearboxes
lubrication while obtaining the highest efficiency levels The author of this article, Stefan Knieling is divisional
from the gearbox. All gears are case hardened and director for extruder gearboxes at Henschel Antrieb-
precision-ground. stechnik, based in Kassel, Germany. Click here to
The connection to the processing unit of the extruder download the company’s 48-page catalogue of Durumax
is in form of an adapter housing or tie rods. The gearboxes for twin-screw extruders.
extruder screws are connected to the transmission ❙ www.henschel.eu
market information

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Reducing friction and wear | technical paper

Tests carried out by Superior Graphite demonstrate that its resilient


and isotropic graphitic carbon products have a positive effect on the
friction and wear properties of PA 66. Eric Salmon and
Carsten Wehling report on their company’s results

Fighting friction and


winning the war
against wear
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of it can be concluded that all four samples have a very Gears are one
the addition of different amounts of resilient graphitic close chemistry. Concerning average particle size, application
carbon (RGC) and isotropic graphitic carbon (IGC) on the grade A has a d50 value similar to IGC8503 while grade where friction
friction and wear properties of PA 66. Both RGC and IGC B resembles RGC39A. and wear
were compounded into PA 66 in two different amounts The resiliency of a material gives an indirect idea of properties can
(5 and 10 vol %). The tribological performances were the product morphology (porosity and shape) as well as be critical
compared to typical values of two synthetic graphites. In its degree of graphitization. The tests show that RGC39A factors in
order to attribute observed differences directly to the exhibits an extremely high resiliency of 108 % whereas compound
individual grades, no other additives or friction the other products range from 19-35%, which are formulation
modifiers such as carbon fibre or PTFE were added. typical values for synthetic graphite. X-ray diffraction
indicates that A and B are perfectly graphitized whereas
The products under test both IGC8503 and RGC39A exhibit graphitization in the
The two synthetic graphites tested (simply referred to range of 83-92%.
as Graphite A and B) are both standard commercial
materials widely used in polymer applications. The two Trial procedure
materials from Superior Graphite – IGC8503 and Breaking up agglomerates into individual particles and
RGC39A – are both thermally purified carbon products distributing them homogenously is a crucial issue. The
based on a different precursor. fillers were therefore incorporated into the PA 66 matrix
All four graphites are fine milled products with d50 (Schulamid 66 MV 3 from A. Schulman) using a
values between 3 and 10 µm, achieved by air jet milling Berstorff ZE25x44 co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The
or equivalent methods. Superior Graphite’s laboratory thoroughly pre-dried PA 66 and some of the fillers were
in Chicago, Illinois, USA, has analysed the four products fed via K-Tron gravimetric high-precision feeders
and the results are shown in Table 1. From the analysis through the extruder’s main feed throat. Fibres were

www.compoundingworld.com  September 2010 | compounding world 49


technical paper | Reducing friction and wear

Sample No. Graphite “A” Graphite “B” RGC39A IGC 8503


LOI (%) 99.98 99.98 99.99 99.95
Ash (%) 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.05
Moisture (%) ‹ 0.10 ‹ 0.10 ‹ 0.10 0.1
Sulfur (%) ‹ 0.005 ‹ 0.005 ‹ 0.005 ‹ 0.005
Resiliency (%) 19 35 108 25
Resistivity (ohm in.) 0.0416 0.0255 0.0203
Scott Volume (g/cu.in.) 0.93 1.38 1.99 0.83
Microtrac D95 (micron) 7.324 20.16
Microtrac D90 (micron) 5.976 16.59 21.21 7.06
Microtrac D50 (micron) 3.222 8.26 10.37 3.69
Microtrac D10 (micron) 1.209 2.966 3.08 1.57
Surface Area (m^2/g) 20.63 13.82 16.13 26.6

XRD Values
D002: 3.356 3.353 3.369 3.361
Graph Grade (Maire & Méring) 98% 101% 83% 92%
Crystallite Size : Angstroms 600 700 520 580

Table 1: introduced via a side feeder. Extrusion parameters were In order to assess the impact of the various fillers on
analysis of the optimised to achieve homogeneous dispersion of the the friction and wear behaviour of PA 66, block-on-ring
four samples fillers. The resulting granulate material was moulded wear tests were performed on all compounds in
into type 1A tensile bars (DIN EN ISO 3167) using an accordance with ASTM G 137. Wear test specimens
Arburg Allrounder 320S injection moulding machine. were machined from the tensile tests bars. Hardened
The mechanical properties of the materials were and ground 100Cr6 bearing steel rings were used as
studied by quasi-static tensile testing. Tests were counter bodies. The surface hardness was 60 HRc and
conducted using a Zwick 1485 universal testing machine surface roughness (Ra) was 0.1-0.2 µm. All tests were
according to DIN EN ISO 527-2 at an ambient tempera- conducted at standard ambient temperature (23˚C), and
ture of 23˚C. Young’s modulus was determined as the at a relative humidity of 50 %. The sliding speed was
secant modulus under static conditions at a strain of 1 m/s and the contact pressure was 145 psi. No
0.05 to 0.25 % with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. lubricants were used and test specimens and counter
After the determination of Young’s modulus, crosshead bodies were cleaned according to ASTM G 137.
speed was increased to 5 mm/min and kept at this rate Wear was detected by tracking the height loss of the
until the end of the test; i.e. at the point of rupture of test specimens by means of optical displacement
the test piece, where the tensile strength is obtained. measurement. The most important advantage of this
time resolved wear tracking is the possibility to clearly
see the running-in phase of the materials and the
Figure 1: Time steady state wear during the experiment. In this steady
'(&
If[Y_c[d^[_]^jbeiiΔhQμcS

resolved height
state, the differential wear rate w=∂h/∂t was computed.
loss data of the '&& It represents the specimen’s height loss over time
specimen (red)
and wear rate w .& measured in µm/h. Due to its mathematical definition it
as slope of the is equal to the slope of a linear regression of the time
linear
,& resolved height loss data (see Figure 1).
regression *& During the experiment, the friction force FF is also
(blue) of the recorded. Division by the applied normal force FN yields
height loss’s (&
the coefficient of friction µ:
steady state
& µ = FF
FN
#(&
& '& (& )& *& +& ,& Eight separate tests were conducted per material in
Ib_Z_d]Z_ijWdY[ac order to obtain a sufficient statistic reliability of the test
results. Each of these eight test samples was subjected

50 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


Free online seminar:
How to cut costs and green your supply chain
29 September 2010
Attend this FREE webinar to learn about a new source of
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Reducing the carbon footprint of mineral fillers, production
processes and finished products represents a significant
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This is your chance to learn about an award-winning
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functional additives based on two unique platforms,
l How RockTron’s proprietary process delivers a new
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anhydride copolymers. Both product families can
l The key physical properties of these spherical eco-
provide maleic anhydride functionality to your
minerals that can be used as fillers and extenders
application, or can be tailored to contain other
in a wide range of manufacturing processes
functional groups.
l How these low carbon minerals deliver comparable
or superior performance to conventional fillers
including talcs, silicas and barytes Use Cray Valley additives in your application as:
• Dispersing Aid • Chain Extender
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More about RockTron: Booth B27, Hall 7.1
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Webinar hosted by
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and
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468 Thomas Jones Way


Exton, PA 19341
technical paper | Reducing friction and wear

reduced by 35% with Graphite A and Superior Graphite’s


40
Pressure: 145 psi (1 Mpa) IGC8503 as well as RGC39A, which exhibit the lowest
Specific wear rate ws [μm / h]

Sliding speed: 1 m/s


Sliding distance: 21.600m absolute value, whereas 25% is achieved with Graphite B.
30 At 10% addition, the wear rate is significantly
reduced with all graphite fillers. Graphite B is the least
effective with a 33% reduction. Graphite A achieves a
20 55% reduction. The most effective fillers are IGC8503
and RGC39A, which reduce the wear by 80% and 85%
respectively. The coefficient of friction is lower for all
10 the 10% samples than with a 5% addition. However, due
to the variability of the data and limited number of
experiments, no clear statistical distinction can be
0 made among the graphite fillers.
0 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10
Concerning the compounds’ mechanical properties,
Filler content [Vol.-%]
the following observations have been made. For all
Figure 2: Specific wear rates of the PA66 compounds graphite fillers, a reduction of the tensile strength has
been observed at both 5 and 10% addition rates,
although the reduction is below 15%.
to statistical analysis according to ASTM E 178 in order Typically the reinforcement of the mechanical
to identify results that deviated markedly from the properties is not compatible with improving lubrication
others in the sample. These outlying results were and wear properties. At least here it can be concluded
eliminated and the corresponding tests were repeated. that some graphite fillers offer a great improvement in
terms of wear without losing too much in terms of
Results and discussion mechanical properties; this is the case with Superior
The wear rates and the coefficients of friction (listed in Graphite IGC8503 and RGC39A.
Table 2 and shown in Figures 2 and 3) were determined In contrast to a moderate modification of the tensile
in the steady states of the corresponding wear tests. strength, a significant increase of the tensile modulus
The numbers represent the arithmetic means of the was observed for all graphite fillers at both addition
samples, while the stated ranges represent the rates. The increase is close to linear with the percent-
corresponding confidence range. age of addition, except in the case of the RGC39A where
The comparison of the different PA66 compounds a decrease with increased filler is observed. Both
shows that a 5% addition of graphite has almost no samples A and B exhibit a quite strong increase of
impact on the specific wear rate for Graphite A or B, or modulus indicating that the compounded material is
for IGC 8503. However, with RGC39A, a reduction of more becoming more rigid and brittle. IGC 8503 and RGC39A
than 50% is observed. The coefficient of friction is also increase the modulus but to a lesser extent. With
RGC39A, it was observed that a 10% addition has less
influence than a 5% loading.
1 Pressure: 145 psi (1 Mpa)
The elongation at break is significantly reduced for
Sliding speed: 1 m/s all graphite fillers at both 5 and 10% addition rates,
Sliding distance: 21.600m
confirming that the PA 66 is becoming brittle. Both
Coefficient of friction μ

0.8
Graphite A and B have a similar effect at both addition
levels. For IGC8503 there is a clear difference between
0.6
5%, where the embrittlement is clearly lower than both
A and B, but the reverse occurs at 10% addition.
0.4 RGC39A has the highest elongation at break values at
both 5% and 10% addition levels and is consequently
0.2 the best filler in terms of embrittlement.

0
Conclusions
0 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 The wear tests conducted on the PA 66 compounds
Filler content [Vol.-%]
show that Superior Graphite’s IGC 8503 reduces wear to
Figure 3: Coefficient of friction of the investigated PA66 compounds a significantly greater extent than synthetic graphite.
However, RGC 39 A has been shown to be even more

52 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


Reducing friction and wear | technical paper

Material name Graphite/RGC Coefficient Tensile Young’s Elongation


type and content Sample Wear of friction strength modulus at break
[vol. %] size w [µm / h] µ [MPa] [GPa] [%]
Schulamid 66 MV3 Natur None 8 26.5 ± 6.9 0.74 ± 0.04 76 ± 3 3.05 ± 0.01 9.7
PA66/MV3-A/5 Graphite A/5 % 8 26.9 ± 6.4 0.46 ± 0.08 70 ± 1 3.83 ± 0.03 3.2
PA66/MV3-A/10 Graphite A /10 % 5 11.6 ± 3.7 0.41 ± 0.06 72 ± 1 4.69 ± 0.07 3.4
PA66/MV3-B/5 Graphite B /5 % 4 20.7 ± 5.3 0.54 ± 0.05 69 ± 1 3.85 ± 0.03 3.7
PA66/MV3-B/10 Graphite B /10 % 12 17.8 ± 6.0 0.36 ± 0.04 73 ± 1 5.24 ± 0.03 3.5
PA66/MV3-IGC8503/5 IGC8503/5 % 4 27.5 ± 5.6 0.47 ± 0.12 73 ± 3 3.61 ± 0.02 4.8
PA66/MV3-IGC8503/10 IGC8503/10 % 8 5.4 ± 1.7 0.42 ± 0.02 70 ± 3 4.13 ± 0.03 2.8
PA66/MV3-RGC39A/5 RGC 39A/5 % 8 13.1 ± 4.3 0.41 ± 0.02 73 ± 5 3.47 ± 0.03 5.7
PA66/MV3-RGC39A/10 RGC 39A/10 % 8 4.0 ± 1.0 0.39 ± 0.06 68 ± 1 3.11 ± 0.09 4.0

effective, reducing the wear of PA 66 by almost 85% at a pounds filled with Graphite A and B, but exhibit Table 2:
10% filling rate. significantly lower tensile moduli. This is an indication Numerical
Concerning friction, only slight numerical but no of an increased brittleness in the Graphite A and B results of the
statistically significant differences were observed. formulations. Compounds incorporating IGC8503 and friction, wear
Overall, the two Superior Graphite fillers outperform RGC39A are significantly less brittle than those using and tensile
the two graphite fillers in terms of their friction and Graphite A or B, giving the compounder greater tests
wear reduction capabilities. freedom to incorporate higher loadings and other fillers
The test compounds with IGC8503 and RGC39A have without making the material too brittle.
tensile strengths comparable to those of the com- ❙ www.superiorgraphite.com
event preview | K 2010

The countdown to K 2010


The countdown to the world’s largest plastics exhibition is well underway
with less than two months to go before the big event. K 2010 will fill all 19
halls at Messe Düsseldorf in Germany on 27 October to 3 November.
There will be around 3,000 exhibitors promoting their raw materials,
additives, semi-finished products, machinery, ancillary equipment and
services for the plastics industry.
Over the following pages we look at a range of the new products that
will be on show, including reports on companies that we met up with
over the summer at special pre-K press events in Germany and the
Netherlands.
We will be previewing lots more new product launches in our special
K show issue next month. If you are exhibiting at K, then please let us
know about the latest machinery and materials that you will be showing.
Send your press releases to abe@amiplastics.com.
❙ www.k-online.de

Kreyenborg promotes its PET projects


The Kreyenborg Group will be recycled material, its Crystal-
using K 2010 to highlight Cut underwater systems is
progress in its wide range of being specified on rPET
equipment that includes pelletizing lines for the in-line
screenchangers, pelletizers production of uniform
and infra-red dryers. The crystallised pellets.
company has been particularly In addition to the PET
successful in supplying these market, BKG says it has also
systems into the PET industry, been particularly successful in
both for the production of supplying its pelletizing
virgin and recycled material. systems for use on PA
For example, it says that its polymerisation lines with
four-channel back-flush throughputs of up to 20
screenchanger is the market- Kreyenborg’s latest batch infra-red drier can be used for tonnes/h. At K 2010 it will also
leading filtration technology in masterbatch production applications be promoting its large
applications involving the pelletizers for the production
extrusion of recycled PET largest IRD. It has a capacity of infrared drying technology as of EPS micro-pellets.
bottle flake. In total, Kreyen- 3,500 kg/h and it is being used the larger continuous versions It has also developed wear
borg has supplied more than to dry post-consumer PET but can efficiently handle reduction designs for pelletiz-
400 screenchangers for PET flakes at a European plant. batches from 10-400 kg. ing plastics filled with abrasive
extrusion applications. At the other end of the On the pelletizing front, the glass fibres. The machines
The company is also active scale, the company has Group’s BKG division says that feature exchangeable parts,
in this market with its infra- recently developed a batch IRD its underwater systems are including hardened, surface-
red dryers (IRD) which offer which is particularly suited to being widely used to pelletize coated and wear-resistant
fast and energy efficient the processing of master- virgin PET – it claims that components in both the
processing of PET. In March of batches and other special more than 6,000 tonnes of pelletizer and the drying unit.
this year the company products, including bioplastics. virgin PET is processed each ❙ www.kreyenborg.de
delivered what it claims is the It uses the same short-wave day using BKG equipment. For ❙ www.bkg.de

54 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


K 2010 | event preview

Polyscope pushes
SMA as an additive
Polyscope Polymers will use K suit different applications.
2010 to promote the benefits Polyscope says that Xiran
that its Xiran styrene maleic SMA’s high range of glass
anhydride (SMA) can deliver as transition temperatures (145-
an additive in amorphous and 175˚C) make it a cost-effective
to some extent crystalline way of boosting the high-
thermoplastics. The material temperature performance of
is well established as a high- PMMA and ABS, while also
performance plastic in its own improving dimensional
right, but increasingly it is stability. The addition of 1.5-
being used as a functional 3.3% SMA typically raises the
additive, particularly in ABS Vicat softening point of ABS by
and PMMA. around 1˚C, which makes it
The company says that SMA more economic than competi-
can be used in such resins to tive technologies such as N-
improve their thermal stability phenyl maleimide (NPI) or
and broaden their processing alpha-methyl styrene acryloni-
window. In addition, it can make trile (AMSAN) according to
parts easier to bond, paint, print Polyscope.
or plate, and it can be used as a In PMMA, the additive can
compatibiliser in resins that are improve thermal performance
normally immiscible, such as plus resistance to stress
PA and ABS. cracking and chemicals while
SMA’s special properties maintaining good optical
derive from its combination of properties. As little as 1.8-
polar maleic anhydride, which 2.3% SMA is needed to deliver
contributes stiffness, thermal a 1˚C increase in thermal
stability and chemical performance.
reactivity, plus non-polar SMA can also be used in
styrene, which provides the PVC to improve Vicat B values
ease of processing. The ratio for injection moulding
of these block copolymer applications, says the company.
components can be adjusted to ❙ www.polyscope.eu

SMA can be used as an additive


as well as a thermoplastic in its own right
event preview | K 2010

The best of the


2

bunch from BASF


BASF will be launching a whole host of new additives, polymers and compounds at K 2010,
including innovations from the former Ciba business which it acquired last year. Here’s our
selection of the top ten technologies to seek out on the company’s stand in Düsseldorf

1 New stabilizer for agricul- 2 Long-lasting orange triazines, CGX UVA 006 can be
tural film. BASF’s new Tinuvin pigment. Sicopal Orange K 2430 used in films or sheets made
XT200 fills a gap in the is a new highly-stable inorganic from PC, PET or PMMA.
company’s current line-up of mixed oxide pigment from 4 Heat-resistant PA 66. BASF
light stabilizers for agricultural BASF. It offers strong resistance has developed its Ultramid Ultradur FRee B4440 G5 and
film applications. It sits to UV and weathering and can Endure glass-fibre-reinforced B4450 G5 are PBT grades that
between the high-end Tinuvin withstand aggressive chemicals PA 66 for under-the-hood meet UL94 class V0, the former
NOR 371 and the more and high temperatures. The applications, replacing metal in at low thicknesses (0.4 mm),
economic Tinuvin 494. It offers pigment is also intensely parts very close to the engine. while the latter boasts a high
higher performance than the coloured with very good The company says that it tracking resistance (CTI of 600).
latter at a more affordable covering capacity; it is much combines outstanding resist- 6 Long-glass-fibre-rein-
price than the former. BASF redder than chromium titanates ance to heat aging with the good forced PA. BASF is launching
says that Tinuvin XT200 allows such as the company’s Sicotan processability of PA 66. Thanks Ultramid Structure LF, its first
the production of economical Yellow K 2001 or K 2112. The to the use of new stabilization long-glass-fibre-reinforced PA.
LDPE films that can withstand pigment has been given its own technology that forms a Produced using the pultrusion
severe agricultural chemical colour index – Pigment Orange protective outer layer, the new process, the material is
levels and provide a service life 82. It is stable at processing compounds resist continuous delivered as 12 mm long
of two or more years even temperatures above 320oC and use temperatures of 220oC as pellets that can be used on a
under intense sunlight. It also it can be used in PE, PP, PVC, well as spikes up to 240oC. This conventional injection
offers good performance when PS, ABS, PC, PET, PBT or PA. compares with 170 C long-term
o
moulding machine. The
in contact with wood and iron. BASF says that it is an option heat resistance for standard company says that this gives a
The additive has undergone for replacing products contain- Ultramid A3WG7 with the same three-dimensional network of
extensive laboratory and field ing lead or cadmium. glass content. Target applica- fibres which are mostly 3 to 6
tests around the world. 3 Highly-stable UV absorber. tions include the charge-air mm long in the finished part,
BASF has developed its CGX stage of diesel engines delivering strength and
7 UVA 006 UV absorber for including intercooler caps, stiffness combined with impact
transparent plastic glazing resonators and charge-air lines. and creep resistance. Target
used in applications such as 5 New flame-retardant PA applications include automo-
greenhouses, conservatories, and PBT grades. BASF’s new tive components such as
and the roofs of large shopping Ultramid FRee and Ultradur engine mounts, seat struc-
centres or stadiums. It is FRee grades are halogen-free tures and crash absorbers.
claimed to absorb more UV and light-coloured, allowing Ultramid Structure LF is
radiation than conventional electrical components to be initially being offered in PA 6
products while offering produced in a range of colour and PA 66 grades with fibre
extremely high resistance to tones. The first four grades levels between 40 and 60%.
light, heat and weathering. The include Ultramid FRee A3U40 7 High-flow PA 6. BASF is
additive’s low volatility and G5, a PA66 compound that completing its family of high-
good compatibility are also meets the latest IEC 60335-1 flow engineering plastics that
said to provide excellent household appliance safety already includes PBT and PA
processability. Based on a very standard, and Ultramid FRee 66 grades with the addition of
stable chromophore which B3U31 G4, a PA6 grade for new PA 6 compounds. The first
belongs to the class of circuit breaker applications. product to be launched is

56 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


K 2010 | event preview

8 3

Ultramid B3WG6 High Speed. ciently laser welded for the S3WG6 and A3HG6 with 30% grade is a blend of PA 610 with
In spiral flow tests it flows at first time. Higher welding fibre content, plus S3WG7 with PA66 and is aimed at applica-
least 50% further than speeds are now possible and 35% - are being offered in tions such as oil pans, oil filter
standard grades; with a spiral the processing window is sample quantities in Europe housings, radiator end caps
flow thickness of 2.5 mm, it is considerably wider. In tests, starting this month. BASF says and wheel speed sensors.
possible to achieve flow path using standard PBT with a that the compounds offer low 10 Heat-resistant, high-gloss
lengths of up to 1 m. The 1064-nm laser gave a welding density, reduced moisture ABS. A new addition to BASF’s
company says this means that speed of 5-12 mm/s, but this uptake and good dimensional High Heat ABS range, Terluran
large under-the-hood PA 6 was boosted to 10-70 mm/s stability as well as resistance HH 102 is claimed to combine
parts, such as engine covers with Ultradur Lux. Its trans- to hydrolysis and stress very high toughness and
and intake manifolds, can be parency also allows thicker cracking. The S grades can be flowability with a high-gloss
produced using lower injec- parts to be welded. used for over-moulding metal surface. It has a particularly
tion/filling pressures. 9 New glass-reinforced PA and electronic components low level of blooming, plus
8 PBT with enhanced laser 610 grades. BASF is expanding that come into contact with high scratch and abrasion
transparency. Ultradur Lux is its range of PA 610 products aggressive fluids. Other target resistance. It is currently being
a new PBT grade that BASF which are partly produced applications include transmis- launched commercially and is
has developed to offer 30-60% using castor oil. The new sion components, plus connec- being tested by a leading
higher laser transparency, Ultramid Balance glass-fibre- tors, tubing and reservoirs in vacuum cleaner manufacturer.
allowing the polymer to be effi- reinforced materials – S3EG6, coolant circuits. The A3HG6 ❙ www.basf.com
event preview | K 2010

Clariant highlights medical focus


Medical and pharmaceutical
applications will be a major
focus for Clariant at K 2010.
Steve Duckworth, head of
global marketing for medical
and consumer goods at
Clariant Masterbatches
explains that the market is
growing for a number of
reasons. “There is more
demand for colour in medical
applications, for example to
assist safe identification and
for improving visual appeal in Clariant is running dedicated clean compounding lines for medical applications
products such as insulin
pens”. He adds that there is plant in Lewiston, Maine, USA covers the formulation of a Class VI part 87 and 88. There
also a growing market for in September 2010. These masterbatch, incoming raw are differences between the
additive masterbatches for three locations have dedicated materials, production proc- methodologies used in ISO and
medical mouldings. Examples lines for medical materials and esses and the finished product. USP biological evaluations. For
include anti-microbial and can produce “harmonised Duckworth says that example, USP requires
laser-marking additives plus products” in all three regions. implementing ISO 13485 has extraction testing with four
products designed to reduce The IS0 13485 standard is taught the company lessons fluids compared to two for ISO.
friction in drug delivery devices widely applied by medical that are also useful in other To help bridge this gap,
Clariant is responding to device manufacturers and is markets such as packaging and Clariant has adopted the
these demands by implement- now being adopted by their toys. “It is much more rigorous approach of “ISO10993 plus 2”
ing ISO 13485 standards at suppliers who are implement- that ISO 9001,” he adds. in its evaluations using the
plants in Asia, Europe and ing GMP (Good Manufacturing Clariant has also developed missing extraction fluids.
America. It already has Practice). It includes evalua- a range of standard colours Customers switching between
accreditation for its facilities in tion of risk potential within the that are pre-tested to ISO the two standards can
Malmö, Sweden, and in manufacturing process and 10993 and/or where ingredi- therefore have confidence
Singapore, while it is on target establishing controls to ents have been biologically when comparing data.
to achieve approval for its address this. For Clariant, this evaluated according to USP ❙ www.clariant.com

Econ pushes pelletizing innovations


Econ will be running demonstrations of its patented underwater pelletizer system
each day at 11:30 and 15:30, showing the easy operation that its design provides.
The Austrian compay will also use K for the first public showing of its EUP 50 lab-
scale pelletizing line. As reported in Compounding World, June 2010, the new system
can run at rates from 1-70 kg/h and it uses the same unique die-plate
design as the company’s larger models. This separates the die-plate from
the nozzle to provide thermal insulation resulting in quick and easy start-
ups and improved temperature control across the die face.
The company also promises that it will be unveil its brand new EUP 150
underwater pelletizer at the K show. Watch this space for more details.
❙ www.econ.eu

Econ’s new lab pelletizer will make its public debut in Düsseldorf

58 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


BEAT THE CLOCK!
Nan-O-Sil ASD processing aid for cycle time reduction
 
Nan-O-Sil ASD is a unique, ultra-high-purity amorphous silicon dioxide with discrete spherical shaped particles that are easy to disperse.

Real benefits for injection molding compounds at low loadings*:


 
l Reduce cycle times by 20-30% in glass-filled Nylon 66 and unfilled Nylon 6, PBT, ABS and PP.
l Improve the tensile strength and flexural modulus of Nylons, PBT and PP resins by 3-8%.
l Reduce energy demands and motor torque levels in polymer processing.
l Improve color dispersion and reduce pigment requirements for molded Nylon and PP parts.
l Reduce flow lines and surface defects.

* recommended loading just 0.8% weight

Click here to read a Penn State technical study on the


positive effects of Nan-O-Sil ASD on cooling times

For more details visit www.nanosilasd.com


Worldwide exclusive distributor: Energy Strategy Associates, Old Chatham, NY, USA
Tel: +1 518-794-0082. info@nanosilasd.com
event preview | K 2010

Coperion customers reap


the benefits of FET

Coperion says that this is the world’s largest underwater pelletizer An FET system fitted to a ZS-B twin-screw side feeder

Coperion will be using K 2010 Since the technology’s In addition, FET has been compounds. In both cases
to highlight the benefits of its launch, FET systems have applied upstream on two downtime for maintenance and
Feed Enhancement Technology been built into new Coperion compounding lines producing cleaning has been reduced.
(FET), as well showing an machines as well as being halogen free flame retardant On the pelletizing front,
enhanced version of it twin- retro-fitted to existing lines. In (HFFR) cable compounds – a Coperion will be showing a
screw degassing unit plus the one example on a 240 mm ZSK 76 Megavolume Plus and die-plate from its new UG
die-plate of the world’s largest diameter ZSK twin-screw a ZSK 92 Megacompounder 1.250, the world’s largest
pelletizer. extruder processing polyolefin Plus. In both cases, back underwater pelletizer with a
The company launched FET powders, the throughput was venting was no longer required cutting diameter of 1.25 m and
at its Open House event in increased by 20% from 14 to 17 while the output of the ZSK 92 11,000 die holes. It can handle
January 2009 and the technol- tonnes/hour. Even bigger was lifted by 57% from 1.4 to throughputs of more than 100
ogy has now been successfully increases were achieved by a 2.2 tonnes/hour. tonnes/hour for PE and water
used to increase compounding customer producing talc-filled Coperion will also be flowrates as high as 1,500
throughputs with difficult compounds on a ZSK 92 showing a new improved m3/hour. The first UG 1.250 will
materials. It incorporates a machine. They increased version of its ZS-EG twin- go into production soon.
porous wall section in the throughputs by 40% from 2.4 screw degassing unit, Sticking with huge items of
feeding zone where a vacuum to 3.3 tonnes/hour at a filler featuring a variable speed equipment for polyolefin lines,
is applied to suck powdered loading of 20%, and by 30% drive and an optimised screw Coperion has extended its melt
bulk material into the from 1.1 to 1.4 tonnes/hour set. The standard models are pump range with its largest
extruder, compacting the with a 48% loading. designed for an absolute model, the MP 450, which can
material in the process. This Another application on a vacuum of up to 50 mbar with handle throughputs as high as
can considerably increase the pilot line at the Borealis Innova- lower degassing pressure 65 tonnes/hour. The first such
throughput of hard-to-handle tion HQ in Linz, Austria, available on request. unit is currently in the final
materials. involves a very fine talc used in One customer, Solvay stages of installation at a PP
In addition to being used on filled PP. Here throughput was Advanced Polymers in the USA plant where it will have a
the company’s ZSK twin-screw boosted by up to 200%. Tests is using a ZS-EG to boost throughput range of 30 to 50
extruders, FET can also be carried out by Coperion using throughput on a PPA com- tonnes/hour. Two more pumps
applied on its ZS-B twin-screw ZSK 40 and ZSK 50 lines have pounding line. In Germany, of the same type are being
side feeder that doses also shown very large increas- Bayer MaterialScience is using prepared for delivery to the
powdered materials directly es in throughput when handling one of the units to ensure high client and will be used to pump
into the melt. Such a system graphite, flame retardants or and uniform product quality PE at 40 to 50 tonnes/hour.
will be on show in Düsseldorf. hollow micro-spheres. when manufacturing PC ❙ www.coperion.com

60 compounding world | September 2010 www.compoundingworld.com


Video Showcase
JUST CLICK AND WATCH

Rocktron: ecominerals
This fascinating video looks at how
Rocktron is producing sustainable high-
performance mineral fillers from fly ash
from coal-fired power stations.

Running time: 3 1/2 minutes.

www.rktron.com

Arkema: nanotubes
This informative video looks at the production
and application of carbon nanotubes as well as
addressing health and safety issues.

Running time: 4 minutes.

www.arkema.com

STEER TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS


This informative video shows the production of
Steer Engineering’s twin-screw extruders. It
also has footage of a range of compounding
lines in operation.

Running time: 7 minutes

www.steerworld.com

If you would like your video to appear on this page, please contact
Claire Bishop. claire@amimagazines.com. Tel: +44 (0)20 8686 8139
event preview | K 2010

Automatik updates Sphero system


Automatik will be launching its opportunity to boost the energy
new generation of Sphero efficiency of the Sphero
underwater pelletizers at K systems with these new
2010. The new design features generation designs. The
a improved straight-line exit redesigned cutting chamber
for the pellet-water slurry, geometry reduces power
which ensures even better requirements, while the pellet
process water flow through the dryer blower uses 50% less
system. As a result, cleaning is energy than its predecessor,
simplified, wear levels are and further savings are
reduced and there is reduced delivered by the new SuperFlow
risk of clumping with materi- thermally-insulated die-plate.
als such as TPEs. The operating range of the
Another innovative feature Sphero family has also been
of the new generation Sphero extended with the addition of
is its redesigned interlock the Sphreo 560 which has a
device that allows the cutting throughput rate of up to 32
chamber to be flipped open In addition, the cutting head perfectly alligned to the die tonnes/hour compared to 18
using just one hand (pictured assembly has been redesigned plate. This increases the life of tonnes/hour for the previous
right). Automatik says that this with a new universal joint the knives by up to 30%. largest model.
is an industry first. which keeps the cutting edges Automatik has taken the ❙ www.automatikgroup.com

AMI Strategy Seminars 2010


These one-day seminars are given by an AMI director and provide invaluable insights into market trends and
industry strategies. They are held in small groups and provide ample opportunities for questions and discussions.

HOUSTON – COLOGNE – DUBAI

The Plastics Industry Strategy Seminar – 14 October 2010, Houston, Texas , USA
Click here to download the programme and booking form

The Plastics Industry Strategy Seminar – 26 October 2010, Cologne, Germany


Click here to download the programme and booking form

The Plastics Industry Strategy Seminar – 29 November 2010, Dubai, UAE


Click here to download the programme and booking form

Places are very limited, and these seminars frequently sell out.
Book your place now to avoid disappointment.
Europe & Middle East contact:
Katy Brotherhood. kb@amiplastics.com. +44 117 924 9442
USA contact: Marissa Hann. mh@amiplastics-na.com +1 610 478 0800
This month’s free
brochure downloads
Simply click on the brochure cover or link to download a PDF of the full publication

Buss Kneader technology Econ pelletizing case study


This 16-page brochure This five-page publication
examines how the Buss looks at the unique design
Kneader can be used for the Simply features of Econ’s
efficient compounding of Complex underwater pelletizers and
masterbatches, PVC Although we have been in the
examines how they are
compounding business for more

formulations, wire and cable than 40 years, and have always


endeavored to improve the processes,
delivering big benefits at
compounds, bioplastics, Horst Müller Kunststoffe’s
ECON succeeded to surprise us with
the ECON underwater pelletizer’s
enormous saving potential. Now it is

TPEs and a variety of other compounding plant in


up to us to make use of ECON’s
potential, by gradually exchanging the
pelletizers with the new efficient ECON

materials. underwater pelletizing system.

Citation
Germany.
Georg Ender
manager and head of development
at Müller Kunststoffe GmbH

➤ Click here to download ➤ Click here to download

Leistritz ZSE MAXX extruders Century Extrusion: total package


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This 12-page brochure from This six-page brochure from


LEISTRITZ EXTRUSIONSTECHNIK GMBH
CENTURY
Leistritz has details of its EXTRUSION Century Extrusion covers
Your Partner in Productivity

ZSE Maxx twin-screw the company’s twin-screw


Twin Screw Extruders,
extruders which combine extruders, its supply of
Corporate Capabilities

Replacement Parts,
and Services
high levels of torque with replacement parts for most
refreshing high free volumes to give leading brands of
e x t r u s i o n
technology increased throughputs and compounding lines, and its
flexible processing comprehensive support
capabilities. services for compounders.

ZSE MAXX SERIES


➤ Click here to download ➤ Click here to download

PLAS MEC mixer technology Wind Turbine Blade Manufacture


This 24-page corporate PBG=MNK;BG>
The first international AMI
brochure covers 

;E:=>F:GN?:<MNK>
+)*)
conference on Wind Turbine
PLAS MEC’s HC, RV and RO International conference on windmill blade manufacture from design,
through composites processing and materials, to in-service performance
Blade Manufacture takes
turbo-mixers, along with its place in Düsseldorf,
complete mixing lines for Germany, on 7-9 December
PVC compounding and 2010. Download the
masterbatch production. brochure to see its excellent
line-up of expert speakers.

7-9 December 2010


Maritim Hotel, Düsseldorf, Germany

Images courtesy of: repower Systems aG * + 19% German VAT

SpeCial OFFer: Save (100* if you register before 20th October 2010
Organised by: Sponsored by: Media sponsor:

➤ Click here to download ➤ Click here to download


Applied Market
Information Ltd

If you would like your brochure to be included on this page, please contact
Claire Bishop. cb@compoundingworld.com. Tel: +44 (0)20 8686 8139
compounder of the month

Tisan Engineering Plastics


Head office location: Istanbul (Alemdağ), Turkey

Date founded: 1975

CEO: Mr Mustafa Telli

Ownership: Privately-owned

No. of employees: 100

Plant location: Istanbul (Alemdağ),Turkey

Production 2009: 20,000 tonnes

Profile: Tisan Engineering Plastics is a family-owned business established in 1975.


Today it is one of the largest producers of technical compounds in Turkey and it
also exports materials to Italy, Germany, Egypt, Iran, Tunisia, Romania, Russia
and other countries. Its compounding plant features seven twin-screw and
three single-screw extrusion lines.

Product line: Tisan produces a comprehensive range of compounds based on PA 6, PA 66, PP,
ABS, PBT, PS, PC, PE, PBT and PET. These include glass- and mineral-filled
products as well as flame retardant, UV and antioxidant grades in various colours.
The company’s products are marketed under the following tradenames: Tislamid
(PA), Tisakril (ABS), Tisester (PBT), Tissan (SAN), Tisetilen (PE), Tisarbon (PC),
Tisren (PS), Tisapet (PET), Tisapom (POM) and Tisblend (PC/ABS).

Product strengths: With its R&D facilities and technical department, Tisan is well placed to support
the material development requirements of its customers. Target markets
include the automotive, durable goods, electrical appliances, furniture and
construction industries.

Forthcoming features
The next issues of Compounding World magazine will have special reports on the following subjects:

October 2010 November 2010


Compounding bioplastics Compounding nanocomposites
Carbon black Flame retardants
European masterbatch market Polypropylene market trends
K 2010 show issue K 2010 show review (part one)

Editorial submissions should be sent to Andy Beevers: abe@amiplastics.com


For information on advertising in these issues, please contact
Claire Bishop: claire@amimagazines.com Tel: +44 (0)20 8686 8139
Catch up on our recent
issues for free
Simply click on the cover to see the full magazine

Compounding World - July/August Compounding World – June


The July/August issue of The June edition of
Compounding World is packed Compounding World has
with features on wood-plastic features on wire and cable
composites, automotive market market trends, developments
trends, filler technology and in twin-screw extruders, and
new mixers for PVC the race to commercialise
compounds. carbon nanotubes.

➤ Click here to view ➤ Click here to view

Injection World – July/August Injection World – May/June


The July/August edition of The May/June issue of
Injection World boasts features Injection World has features
on developments in on bioplastics, medical
masterbatches, automotive materials, European market
market trends, temperature trends, materials handling
controllers and optimising equipment and screw speed
machine settings. selection.

➤ Click here to view ➤ Click here to view

Pipe and Profiles – July/August Film and Sheet – June/July


The July/August issue of Pipe The June/July edition of Film
and Profile Extrusion boasts and Sheet Extrusion is packed
articles on making it big in the with features on flexible
Middle East, specifying packaging market trends,
screenchangers, developments applications in photovoltaics,
in control systems and the additives for polyolefins and
latest additives for PVC. extruder die technologies.

➤ Click here to view ➤ Click here to view

Take out your own free subscriptions to any of the magazines.


Click on the logos below to simply register on-line.
dates for your diary

Global exhibition guide


4-8 October Colombiaplast, Bogota, Colombia www.colombiaplast.com
27 Oct – 3 Nov K 2010, Düsseldorf, Germany www.k-online.de
2-5 December Plast Eurasia 2010, Istanbul, Turkey www.plasteurasia.com
8-11 January Arab Plast 2011, Dubai, UAE www.arabplast.info
20-24 January Plastivision, Mumbai, India www.plastivision.org
25-28 January Interplastica 2011, Moscow, Russia www.interplastica.de
8-10 February PlasTec West, Anaheim, CA, USA www.plastecwest.com
16-18 February Nano Tech 2011, Tokyo, Japan www.nanotechexpo.jp/en
22-24 February Expo Plasticos, Monterrey, Mexico www.expoplasticos.com.mx
15-16 March MassPlastics, Fitchburg, MA, USA www.massplastics.com
26-28 April Plastic, Packaging and Print Asia, Pakistan www.plastpackasia.com
1-5 May ANTEC, Boston, MA, USA www.4spe.org
9-13 May BrasilPlast, Sao Paulo, Brazil www.brasilplast.com.br
12-18 May Interpack, Düsseldorf, Germany www.interpack.com
17-20 May Chinaplas 2011, Guangzhou, China www.chinaplasonline.com
24-27 May Ausplas, Melbourne, Australia www.ausplas.com

AMI conferences
14-15 September Medical Grade Polymers 2010, Philadelphia, PA, USA
20-22 September MERL Oilfield Engineering with Polymers, London, UK
12-13 October Stretch and Shrink Film 2010, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
22-24 November Agricultural Film 2010, Barcelona, Spain
29 Nov – 1 Dec Flexible Packaging Middle East, Dubai, UAE For information on all
30 Nov – 2 Dec Waterproof Membranes 2010, Cologne, Germany these events and other
1-2 December Minerals in Compounding, Atlanta, Georgia, USA conferences on film,
7-9 December Fire Resistance in Plastics 2010, Düsseldorf, Germany sheet, pipe and
7-9 December Thin Wall Packaging 2010, Cologne, Germany packaging applications, see
7-9 December Wind Turbine Blade Manufacture, Düsseldorf, Germany
www.amiplastics.com
1-3 February Thermoplastics Concentrates 2011, Phoenix, AZ, USA
7-9 February Pipeline Coating 2011, Vienna, Austria
15-17 February PVC Formulation 2011, Düsseldorf, Germany
15-17 March Cables 2011, Cologne, Germany

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