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CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION ii
SUPERVISOR CERTIFICATION iii
COORDINATOR CERTIFICATION iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi
ABSTRACT vii
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
LIST OF NOMENCLATURES x

CHAPTER 1 PROCESS BACKGROUND AND SELECTION 1


1.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF 1
BUTYL ACETATE
1.2 PROCESS BACKGROUND 2
1.3 PROCESS DESCRIPTION 8
1.4 PROCESS SELECTION 17
1.4 CONCLUSION 20

CHAPTER 2 MARKET ANALYSIS 23


2.1 INTRODUCTION 23
2.2 SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF BUTYL ACETATE 24
2.3 MALAYSIA IMPORT AND EXPORT OF BUTYL 30
ACETATE
2.4 RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY AND DEMAND 34
2.5 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 36
2.6 BREAKEVEN ANALYSIS 44
2.7 CONCLUSION 49
TITLE PAGE
CHAPTER 3 SITE SELECTION 51
3.1 INTRODUCTION 51
3.2 SITE CHARACTERISTIC OF EACH LOCATION 58
3.3 SELECTED SITE LOCATION 70
3.4 CONCLUSION 75

CHAPTER 4 MATERIAL BALANCE 77


4.1 THE GENERAL BALANCE EQUATION 77
4.2 MIXER BEFORE REACTOR 78
4.3 ESTERIFICATION COLUMN 80
4.4 DECANTER 81
4.5 FLASH COLUMN 83
4.6 CONCLUSION 87

CHAPTER 5 ENERGY BALANCE 89


5.1 INTRODUCTIOM 89
5.2 LIST OF EQUATIONS USED 90
5.3 CALCULATION OF ENERGY BALANCE AT 92
REACTOR
5.4 CALCULATION OF ENERGY BALANCE AT 100
ESTERIFICATION COLUMN
5.5 CALCULATION OF ENERGY BALANCE AT 109
REFINING COLUMN
5.6 CALCULATION OF ENERGY BALANCE AT FLASH 118
COLUMN
5.7 CONCLUSION 126

CHAPTER 6 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION 128


6.1 INTRODUCTION 128
6.2 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 132
6.3 SAFETY CONSIDERATION 133
6.4 HAZARD ANALYSIS 148
6.5 WASTEWATER TREATMENT 150
6.6 CONCLUSION 158
CHAPTER 7 SIMULATION 160
7.1 INTRODUCTION 160
7.2 PFD HYSYS 161
7.3 WORKBOOK 162