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CSSR Optimization for GSM and WCDMA

CSSR stands for Call Set up Success Rate that is one of important KPI(Key Performances
Indicator) in Optimization both GSM and UMTS/WCDMA. For the beginning we have to know
that KPI in WCDMA including CSSR are separated based on each Services such as : CSSR
CS( for Voice services), CSSR PS(for PS/Data Services), CSSR Video(for Video
Services),CSSR HSDPA(For HSDPA Services), CSSR HSUPA(for HSUPA Services). In GSM
there is only one type CSSR(Voice Services), For Data services usually called as
PDASR(Packet data Access Success Rate) or TBF Establishment Success Rate.There are
some tips how to optimizes CSSR in GSM and WCDMA.
1. GSM CSSR Optimization tips
-Make Sure no Hardware issue
Hardware checking is always the first step to check all KPI because you will have no impact
about your action if common problem like Hardware or Installation has occurred in your network.
Defect GRFU/CU(TRX Module) or Combiner will make CSSR degraded below 95%. Swap
module to other sector to identify the problem and replace bad module.Also make sure no
problem with Power or Transmission. Check for TCH availability and active alarm to make sure
no hardware issue.
-Make Sure no SD Blocking
Lack of SDCCH can make degradation in CSSR because SD Blocking included in CSSR
Formula, make sure no SD Blocking found in your cells. If found then you have to add SD
channel based on Erlang Calculation. If you lazy to calculate, just add 1 channel first :D ,then
increase 1 channel again if still found Blocking on SDCCH.
-Make Sure no Frequency Interference
Frequency Interference can make high SD drop in your cells.SD drop also included in CSSR
Formula,check for SD drop first if found then you need to clear the cells by re-tune/change
BCCH Frequency. Interference problem also will impact to other KPI like drop call
rate,Handover, etc
-Make Sure no Overshooting
Overshooting also will make your CSSR getting low and under threshold because to much
attempt at the edge of Coverage with low RX Level. You have to make sure no overshooting
occurred to make good CSSR. If found then you need to adjust your coverage by add Tilting
value(Down Tilt)
-Tuning Parameter
You need to change parameter smoothly if all main problem have cleared. Try to change wisely
related access parameter such as : RXLEVAMI/RXLEVACCMIN/AccMin(Different name
between Vendor),RACHBT,T200,MAXRETR,etc.Make sure no extreme setting to avoid bad
user perception :D.
-TRX Layering
Shifting traffic from bad TRX to Good TRX can improve your KPI included CSSR. Try to set
Good TRX as high priority and bad TRX as lowest priority to improve your CSSR. TRX BCCH
usually has better Quality to set as highest priority because Full Power(No Power Control).

2. WCDMA CSSR Optimization Tips


Continued here

You might also Need to know:


- How to Optimize Handover Success Rate in GSM Network
- Drop Call Rate Optimization in GSM and UMTS
- Power Control activation for Electricity Saving in Huawei GSM
WCDMA CSSR Optimization Tips
In this paper I would like to share how to improve Call set up Success Rate in
WCDMA system.
In WCDMA CSSR is split per services such as: CSSR CS(Voice services), CSSR
PS(Data services), CSSR Video(Video services) but the idea is same when we would
like to improve Call set up success rate.
Here are some tips how to improve CSSR in WCDMA:
- Make sure no Blocking resources: Code,Power,CE,IUB
As we know in 3G WCDMA there are some resources like Code,Power,CE(Channel
Element) and IUB. You have to make sure no blocking resources first to improve
your CSSR. If you found some blocking based on your counter then you have to
optimize. Here are some suggestion step to optimize blocking resources:
1. Code Blocking Optimization step:
1st action step: Physical Audit (involving TP analysis) : Make sure no
overlap/overshooting coverage
2nd Action: Modify DLHOCECODERESVSF to lower SF (e.g from SF32 to SF 64)
3rd Action: Reduce HSPDSCHMINCODENUM (e.g from 5 to 4)
4th Action: Reduce HSSCCHCODENUM (e.g from 4 to 3)
2. Power Blocking Optimization Step:
- UL- Power Blocking
1st Action: Physical Audit (involving TP analysis)
2nd Action: Increase ULTOTALEQUSERNUM (e.g from 160 to 180)
3rd Action: Turn-off NBMULCACALGOSELSWITCH (set to ALGORITHM_OFF)
- DL- Power Blocking/DL - Power High Util
1st action: Physical Audit (involving TP analysis)
2nd Action: Activate 40W, maintain existing PCPICH setting
Step activate 40W in Huawei System:
- Block board with script: BLK BRD:CN=1,SRN=4,SN=x;
- Remove Locell for 2nd carrier in nodeb with script : RMV LOCELL:LOCELL=x;
- Add Locell on 2nd carrier with script:
ADD
LOCELL:LOCELL=x,STN=x,SECN=x,SECT=LOCAL_SECTOR,ULGROUPNO=0,DLGROUP
NO=0,TTW=FALSE,CN1=1,SRN1=4,SN1=x,ANT1N=ANTB,ULFREQ=9638,DLFREQ=1
0588,MXPWR=460,HISPM=FALSE,RMTCM=FALSE,VAM=FALSE;
- Modify Power to 40 W for 1st carrier with script: MOD
LOCELL:LOCELL=x,SECT=LOCAL_SECTOR,MXPWR=460;
- Unblock Board with script: UBL BRD:CN=1,SRN=4,SN=x;
- Modify MAXTXPOWER in RNC level for F1 dan F2 with script: MOD
UCELL:CELLID=x,MAXTXPOWER=460;
- Check site Up or not with script: DSP UCELL:DSPT=BYNODEB,NODEBNAME="x";
3rd Action: Modify DL CAC parameters set to higher value. Parameters involved :
DLCONVAMRTHD, DLCONVNONAMRTHD, DLOTHERTHD, DLHOTHD, DLCELLTOTALTHD
3. CE Blocking Optimization Step:
1st action: Verify CE license and CE board capability. Commands involved : DSP
LICENSE, DSP BBPTC(Huawei LMT)
2nd Action: Physical Audit (involving TP analysis)
3rd Action: CE license and/or board upgrade
4th action: Modify LDR threshold. Sets involved : UCELLLDM, UCELLLDR
4. IUB Blocking Optimization Step:
1st Action: Verify Iub BW setting in Node-B and in RNC. Sets involved : IPPATH,
IPLOGICPORT
2nd Action: Physical Audit (involving TP analysis)
3rd Action: Iub BW upgrade
4th action: Modify FTI to reduce Active Factor. Sets involved : TRMFACTOR, ADJMAP,
ADJNODE
- Make Sure no Hardware Issue:
Hardware issue or wrong installation can be impacted to low CSSR such as WRFU
problem or bad connector installation. You have to make sure no such hardware
problem to make your CSSR good.
- Make Sure no Overshooting Coverage
As stated on resources optimization, you need to make sure no overshooting or
coverage overlap to make your CSSR is good and no handle unnecessary traffic and
make nodeB handle traffic heavily.
- Activate EFD(Enhanced Fast Dormancy) Feature
When fast dormancy, enhanced fast dormancy, or standard fast dormancy is
applied, the UE can request the RNC to release the PS signaling connection if no
more PS data is being transmitted. Upon receiving such a request, the RNC can
either release the signaling connection and put the UE into idle mode, or maintain
the signaling connection and put the UE through Cell_FACH to CELL/URA_PCH state
to reduce battery consumption. The descriptions about fast dormancy, enhanced
fast dormancy, and standard fast dormancy are as follows:
- With fast dormancy, after receiving a Signaling Connection Release Indication
(SCRI) message from a UE, the RNC releases the UE RRC connection regardless of
whether the message contains the cause value "UE Requested PS Data session
end."
- With enhanced fast dormancy, UEs send SCRI messages that do not contain the
cause value "UE
Requested PS Data session end" to the RNC. After receiving such an SCRI message,
the RNC moves
the UE through Cell_FACH to CELL/URA_PCH state.
- Standard fast dormancy is applicable to fast dormancy UEs that comply with 3GPP
Release 8 (R8 for short). With standard fast dormancy, UEs send SCRI messages
that contain the cause value "UE
Requested PS Data session end" to the RNC. After receiving such an SCRI message,
the RNC moves
the UE through Cell_FACH to CELL/URA_PCH state. Standard fast dormancy is valid
only when theRNC has enabled the timer T323 in system information block type 1
(SIB1). You can refer to the document on your vendor to activate EFD feature.
- Adjust CPICH Power Setting
You can adjust CPICH Power setting to reduce coverage and improve your CSSR Ex:
Change PCPICHPOWER from 330 to 300.
- Adjust Parameter QQUQALMIN
You can adjust QQUALMIN to improve CSSR and avoid congestion on blocking
resources especially during event with potential to increasing traffic. Example:
Change Qqualmin from -18 to -15 to avoid congestion.

You might also Need to know:


- How to Optimize Handover Success Rate in GSM Network
- CSSR Optimization for GSM
- Drop Call Rate Optimization in GSM and UMTS
- Power Control activation for Electricity Saving in Huawei GSM

Handover Meaning in GSM and How to Optimize


Handover Success Rate (HOSR) for GSM KPI
Improvement
Handover in GSM is very important to keep continuous of call communication. In this note I
would like to share about GSM handover and how to optimize Handover Success Rate(HOSR)
in GSM Network based on my knowledge and experiences. Sorry I don't tell you based on
document because too much reference. You can refer to your document in your vendor if you
want to learn detail based on document.
- Handover definition
Handover meaning call moving between cells to continue conversation and prevent drop call on
the Network. Handover also purposed to improve services performances and reduce congestion
in the cells.
-Types of handover in GSM
Based on reason type of handover in GSM can be classified as below
1. Emergency Handover : Timing Advance(TA) Handover, Bad Quality Handover,RxLevel Drop
handover and Interference Handover
2. Load Handover
3. Normal Handover: Edge Handover, Layer Cell Handover and Power Budget(PBGT) handover
4. Fast Moving Handover
5. Overlaid/Underlaid Handover
Based on location type of Handover can be listed as follow:
1. Intra cell handover : Handover that happened between channel/ TRX in one cell
2. Inter cell Handover : Handover that happened between cell(ex: HO from cell A to Cell B)
3. Intra BSC Handover: Handover between cells in same BSC(ex: HO from cell A to Cell B, A
and B located in same BSC)
4. Inter BSC Handover:Handover between cells in different BSC(ex: HO cell A to Cell B, A and B
located in different BSC)
5. Handover Inter MSC: Handover that happened between cells but different MSC
For the details about handover process,protocol and rule of each handover type, you can refer
to your document in your vendor. In this paper I just want to share step by step how to optimize
Handover Success Rate to improve your KPI based on what usually I do. Lets follow below step
to optimize Handover.
Step 1: Killing Hardware issue
Hardware issue always the first step to check. As I said before in this blog, to improve all KPI
Such as CSSR, Drop Call Rate, HOSR, TCH Blocking,etc always to make sure first no
hardware issue occurred. Your next action will be useless if hardware issue occurred in your
cells. To identify hardware issue in the cells related handover you can generate measurement
related Incoming Handover.After generate measurement you will find which cells have
high handover failure.
You can check related cells that have high handover failure and low HOSR and troubleshoot
one by one. To troubleshoot hardware issue you can collaborate with FM(Field Maintenance)
Team. Make sure no TRX faulty or Combiner problem or event connector problem. If the
problem suspected only one cell/sector in 1 site, you can try swap each module to other sector
and let see if the problem move to other sector.If the problem happened in all sector in 1 site
then you can try swap transmission module(GTMU, IDU, ODU) to other site and let see if
handover Incoming failure move to other site. Don't forget to check by drive test to make sure
no cross feeder problem occurred in the site.
Step 2: Clearing Frequency Interference
Frequency interference will take effect to all KPI in GSM including Handover Success Rate. You
have to make sure no Co-channel /Adjacent channel Interference. Change Frequency of the
cells(retune) if you found cells suspected frequency interference.
Step 3: Neighbor list checking and external discrepancy fixing
Check neighbor list in the cells and make sure no missing neighbor. You need to remove
unnecessary relation and add necessary relation. Make sure head to head cells have
relation(no missing). Your Handover will improve if neighbor list configure properly.Don't forget
to check external neighbor value and make sure no discrepancy with existing such as:
LAC,BSIC,BCCH and RAC
Step 4: Coverage Checking
Coverage will take effect to Handover performances. You need to make sure no coverage issue,
No overshooting cells and coverage is continuous.Propose add site if needed to improve
coverage or physical optimization(Down tilt/Up tilt/re-azimuth) to improve your coverage.
Step 5: Check BA List
BA list indicate your neighbor list. Too many measurement frequencies in the active BA list will
make you handover bad and you need to remove unnecessary relation.
Step 6: Check for Congestion Problem
Handover Success Rate will be also influenced by congestion on target cells. Make sure no
congestion on target cells to improve your HOSR(handover Success Rate).You can minimize
congestion by adjust half rate setting in the cells(ex:TCHBUSYTHRES and
AMRTCHHPRIORLOAD in Huawei) or Traffic sharing to other cells by parameter or physical
optimization
Step 7: Parameter Handover Optimization
The final step to improve Handover Success Rate is Parameter tuning. You need to change
some parameter related handover to improve HOSR. The idea is to reduce fail of handover to
specific cells and increase successful attempt to several targeted cells. Some parameter can be
adjusted such as: PBGT margin, RXLevmin Cell etc.You can refer to your document in your
vendor to change specific parameter but keep in mind the idea is to reduce handover fail to
specific cells and increase successful attempt to specific targeted cells.For example if you have
cell with low handover Success rate(HOSR) due to high attempt to targeted congestion cell or
problematic cells, you need to adjust HO PBGT margin or increase RXlevmin to target cell. This
idea is purposed to improve HOSR KPI based on statistic to achieve agreed KPI target.

Thanks for reading my note about Handover in GSM, hope can help your daily optimization
activity to improve your GSM handover Success rate.

Drop Call Rate Optimization, How to identify and finding


root cause for Optimization solution on GSM and UMTS
Network
Drop call rate is Main KPI that very important in RF Optimization. Drop Call indicate how
connection between Handset and Network become discontinue and causing bad experiences
on user experiences because the call is release suddenly. In this paper I will share everything I
know related drop call rate both on GSM and UMTS Network. Based on my experience the root
cause of Drop Call Rate can be listed as follow:
- Hardware Problem.
This problem is very critical related to all KPI including Drop Call rate. If the problem is coming
from hardware, percentage of drop call rate would be very high(usually more than 1 %) and you
have to replace bad module with good module. For example in GSM Network you have to check
and make sure TRX module such as GRFU/CU or Combiner/Duamco working properly. To
make sure the problem was coming from hardware or bad module, you can identify by trying
Swap module first. For example: if the problem high drop call rate is occurred in sector-1, you
can swap TRX Module sector-1 to sector-2 and Combiner from sector-1 to sector-3. If the
problem move to other sector then indicate the problem is coming from that module. For
example in the above case if the problem move to sector-2, so the problem is TRX
Module(GRFU/CU) or if the problem move to sector-3 then the problem should be
Combiner/Duamco. In UMTS Network also same, if the problem is coming from hardware then
you have to identify what module the problem is. You can identify the problem by swap WRFU
Module. If the problem high drop call happened in one site/NodeB, you can try swap
GTMU(Transmission module). Beside defect module the problem can be occurred due to wrong
or bad installation such as Semirigid connection, Cross feeder problem or etc(especially for new
site)
- Frequency Interference.
Frequency interference is include in problem that can impact to high drop call rate because the
Noise(Interference Signal) is very high and affecting to Carrier( primary Signal) and also affect
to bad vice quality. To overcome the problem in GSM network you have to re-tune/ change
Frequency that suspected Interference especially on BCCH Frequency for RF Hoping cells. As
we know in GSM there area 2 type of Frequency Interference that called Co-Channel
Interference(Same Frequency) and Adjacent Interference( Difference 1 Frequency channel).
Sample for Co-channel Frequency : Frequency Cell A= Cell B = 670 with close location of cell
each other. Sample for Adjacent Interference : Frequency Cell A=670 and Cell B=671 or 669
and the position of cells is close each of other. The solution in GSM network for interference is
retune or change Frequency for one of the cells to avoid interference. in UMTS network the
frequency interference also can occurred and indicated by bad Ec/No(Quality).Different with
GSM, to overcome Interference in UMTS network is commonly solved by Change Antenna Tilt
or reduce CPICH Power to avoid Coverage overlap. The other solution to reduce Drop call
rate in UMTS Network is by making fast IRAT handover to GSM Network. In Huawei implement
by Changing Parameter IRAT Handover 2D/2F.
- Overshooting Cells
Overshooting cell can be the one that causing high drop call rate in the network.To overcome
this issue you have to change tilt configuration of Antenna, for example change Mechanical Tilt
from 0 to 2. Overshoot is common problem for both GSM and UMTS that causing drop call due
to bad RX level in the edge of Coverage or bad RSCP and Ec/No in UMTS Network. The
solution is same for both GSM and UMTS that is change Antenna configuration tilt/Down tilt.
- Missing neighbor.
Missing neighbor also will causing High drop call rate in your network. You have to check and
make sure relation of the cells is complete and no missing neighbor. The solution is same for
both GSM and UMTS, you have to make sure no missing neighbor to avoid highdrop call rate.
- Wrong Parameter Configuration
Wrong parameter configuration will causing high drop call rate in your network. Make sure to
check all parameter and configure accordingly.In GSM there is parameter related drop call rate
KPI such as : RLT(Radio Link Timeout), You can set by increase RLT to reduce drop call but will
affect to Customer Experiences because release call is too long even when radio environment
is poor and conditionally should be released. The other solution to reduce drop call related
parameter is by adjust HO Parameter to make fast handover to a good cells in surrounding
closest cells such as adjust PBGT, RXLEVMIN to target Cells. Making fast HO to a good cells
can be implemented on both GSM and UMTS Network. You have to find out parameter related
Radio Link and HO parameter in your vendor you are working for because the Parameter name
would be different but in same Idea That is Radio Link Time out and Handover Parameter.
- Power or Transmission Problem
Power problem can make high drop call rate in the network. You have to make sure no power
problem by check the alarm and Cell Availability.If the problem occurred you need to follow up
the problem to Field Maintenance Team to fix it.
Transmission problem also can make drop call rate very high and affecting to your KPI. You
need to check alarm related transmission and make sure also cell availability is stable. If you
found transmission problem the you have to follow up the problem to Transmission Team to
check and fix it.
- Contour Problem(Hilly/Rural Contour)
Bad contour can be the one that causing high drop call rate especially if your network in Hilly or
Rural area. Check and identify your cells by drive test to make sure the problem is causing by
contour or check the coverage by Simulation. If the problem is bad contour then you have to
adjust tilt of the cell or re-azimuth make sure coverage continuous.
- Discontinuous Coverage
If your coverage discontinue due to lack of site then you need to propose new site to your
operator. Discontinue coverage also can occurred due to wrong antenna configuration such as
over tilt. You need to check tilt configuration of the antenna and make sure no over tilt that
causing coverage become discontinue.

Thanks for visiting my blog and hope can help your network problem related Drop Call Rate
Optimization on GSM and UMTS Network

VQI Optimization Improvement by turn off Speech codec


5.9, 7.4 and 4.75 Kbps in Huawei 2G Network
In this chapter I would like to share about VQI(Voice Quality Index) improvement in Huawei 2G
Network by setting off Several speech codec.Turn off speech codec is a better way to improve
Voice Quality Index(VQI) in 2G network and Your KPI will improve significantly. As I share
before, we can also improve VQI by setting more Full rate and re-dimension channel. Setting
more Full rate and re-dimension channel to be More TCHFR also working but you will get more
result and significant improvement on VQI by turn off several lower codec 5.9, 7.4 and 4.75
Kbps. Here is the result of VQI after turn off codec 5.9, 7.4 and 4.75 kbps in Huawei 2G
network.
From the above Graph we can see the result of VQI 3.5 improved significantly after turn off
speech codec 5.9,7.4 and 4.75 Kbps. Now you can trial and implement also in your Network to
get same result for the optimization improvement.Detail technical step and parameter change
can be shown as below list.
Script Parameter change for above change request:
SET GCELLCCAMR:IDTYPE=BYID,CELLID=XXX,,ACTCDSETF=4_75KBIT/S-0&5_15KBIT/S-
0&5_90KBIT/S-0&6_70KBIT/S-0&7_40KBIT/S-0&7_95KBIT/S-0&10_2KBIT/S-0&12_2KBIT/S-1;

Conclusion to improve Voice Quality index(VQI) in Huawei 2G Network:


1. Increase Full rate and re-dimension channel, result==>Little bit VQI improvement
2. Turn off codec 5.9,7.4 and 4.75 Kbps, result==>Significant VQI Improvement

You might also Need to know:


- VQI(Voice Quality Index) and Drop Call rate improvement in 2G Huawei by Setting more Full
Rate and redimension channel
- 2G Theory and Concept
- Common question about RF Optimization
- TCH Block Rate Optimization Tips in Huawei GSM
- 2G Voice Quality Improvement by TRX Layering priority in Huawei GSM
- TBF Drop Improvement tips in Huawei GSM
- GPRS Packet Data Access Success Rate(PDASR) Improvement in Huawei GSM
- Call Drop Rate improvement by Parameter change in 3G UMTS/WCDMA Huawei Network
- Trial Power Control in GSM Huawei for Quality Improvement
- Power Control activation for Electricity Saving in Huawei GSM
- Handover Meaning in GSM and How to Optimize Handover Success Rate (HOSR) for GSM
KPI Improvement
- WCDMA CSSR Optimization Tips
- CSSR Optimization for GSM and WCDMA
- Drop Call Rate Optimization, How to identify and finding root cause for Optimization solution
on GSM and UMTS Network

Posted by hidayat encuh at 02:32 No comments:


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Thursday, 2 June 2016

2G Theory and Concept


This chapter is part of previous post about Common question about RF
Optimization.In This post I would like to share about 2G theory and concept that I
ask to RF Guys that promoted to become RF Optimization Engineer. May be this post
also use full for you especially for RF Engineer who will promoted also to become
Optimization guy or just for your reference to improve your knowledge about basic
RF Optimization. Here are the question that I made for RF Team and also the Best
Answer I got from the Winner.

1. What do you know about interference?


Interference definition from Wikipedia:"interference is a phenomenon in which two
waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
Interference usually refers to the interaction of waves that are correlated or
coherent with each other, either because they come from the same source or
because they have the same or nearly the same frequency"

Good Answer from RF Team:


Interference is RF Condition when Primary signal(Carrier) disrupted by other Signal
that have same frequency or gap +-1 value of Primary frequency. There are 2 type
of Channel interference: Co-channel interference and Adjacent Interference.
- Co-channel Interference is interference caused by the use of the same
frequency by a cell carrier and also another cell and its antenna facing each other.
Example : Cell A with frequency 642 facing cell B with same frequency 642 too.

- Adjacent Interference is interference when Primary cell interfered by other cells


with have frequency value gap +-1 from Primary cell. Example: Cell A with
frequency 642 interfered by Cell B with frequency 641 or Frequency C with
frequency 643
2. How to improve Voice Quality in 2G?
There area many ways to improve voice quality such as: Clearing frequency
interference, Hardware problem solving, transmission problem clearance, TRX
Layering Priority and Increase Full rate setting. Buat Answer from RF Team is to the
point--->>Increase Full rate Setting(Reduce Half rate) by setting
TCHBISYTHRESHOLD and AMRTCHHPRIORLOAD for cells with low TCH Utilization.Of
course this is correct answer because we are in Huawei Project :D. Increase Full rate
also great impact to reduce drop call rate and improve VQI(Voice Quality Index) in
2G Huawei network

3.What is different between Cell selection/reselection and Handover?


Good Answer from RF team:
- Cell selection is The condition when UE camp on a Cell during start up from Switch Off
- Cell reselection : The condition when UE re-camp to other cell from a cell in Idle Mode
because of UE moving
- Handover: The condition when serving cell change from a cell to other cells during connected
mode because of UE moving.

4. What do you know about CRO?


Good answer from RF team:
CRO: Cell reselect Offset
Coefficient that functioned to make a cell aggressive serving(dominant) or not dominant. When
PT=0,Increasing this value will make serving cells aggressive(increasing traffic).When
PT=31,increasing this value will make serving not dominant

5. In order to increase TCH traffic(erl),PT setting to zero(PT=0).What is the setting of CRO?


Increase or decrease?
Correct answer: Increase value of CRO(cell reselect offset)

6. Please explain how to do traffic sharing in 2G?


Good answer from RF Team:
- Audit neighbor cells and do physical tuning.
- Make Faster/Easier Handover to neighbor cells for cells with high traffic to the lowest traffic.
Ex: decrease value of: HOM(Handover margin),etc
-Make difficult handover from other cells to the highest traffic cells(ex: Increase HOM)
-Idle Setting parameter: Increase value of CRO for low traffic cells(PT=0)

7. What do you know about Power Control in GSM?


Good Answer from RF Team:
Power control is used to save power consume of MS/BTS. Power in MS/BTS will decrease in
certain threshold when signal is considered as a Good and increase when considered as a
bad.Power control is also used to reduce frequency interference.

8.There are 1 TRX in a cell in Hoping mode that not used power control but use Full
power.Which one of TRX?

Correct Answer: TRX BCCH(TRX:0)

9. What is the benefit of Handover?


Good Answer from RF Team: Handover keep a call connected while user moving and continuing
conversation between user.Handover also reduce interference and avoid cells overload.

10. What do you know about PBGTMARGIN?


PBGTMARGIN( Power Budget Margin) is Handover margin parameter in adjacent level that
used to make faster or delay of handover to keep good mobility.

11. If you found TCH Blocking, what are your action to optimize TCH Blocking rate?
Good Answer from RF Team:
- Check for channel allocation, check SDCCH utilization, if found low SDCCH
Utilization(<<60%) then need to convert SDCCH to TCHFR
- Check hardware problem(get measurement TCH availability from statistic), if found degraded
the need to escalate hardware problem to Field maintenance Team
- Check Timing advance, if found High TA need to do physical Tuning(down tilt)
- Check Neighbor relation, make sure doesn't missing any relation that causing handover
problem and impact to congest on a cell.
- Check Half Rate Parameter (TCHBUSYTHRESHOLD/AMRTCHHPRIORLOAD ex. in Huawei),
adjust HR setting if needed--->reduce value of
TCHBUSYTHRESHOLD/AMRTCHHPRIORLOAD.

12. How Many MCS used in EDGE ?


Correct Answer: 9 MCS

2G Daily OSS and Optimization Analysis


To be Continued

You might also Need to know:


- TCH Block Rate Optimization Tips in Huawei GSM
- 2G Voice Quality improvement by TRX Layering Priority
- TBF Drop Improvement tips in Huawei GSM
- GPRS Packet Data Access Rate(PDASR) Improvement in Huawei GSM
- Common question about RF Optimization
- VQI(Voice Quality Index) and Drop Call rate improvement in 2G Huawei by Setting more Full
Rate and redimension channel
Posted by hidayat encuh at 23:19 No comments:

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Tuesday, 17 May 2016

VQI(Voice Quality Index) and Drop Call rate


improvement in 2G Huawei by Setting more Full Rate
and redimension channel
VQI(Voice Quality Index) is Statistic KPI that indicate quality of voice services in GSM network,
mostly identical with SQI(Speech Quality Index) in drive test performances. This KPI is also
important to improve and great influences to Drop call rate improvement.Good VQI means
good voice quality and thus improving drop call rate performances in our network.There are
some method and step to improve voice quality, The common method is by setting more Full
rate(decrease Half Rate services). As we know Full rate is better than Half rate if TRX
resources is sufficient(doesn't limited). Half rate usually get more influenced by interference
while Full rate is better and good perform as anti interference that's why Full rate services better
than Half rate regarding quality improvement of voice services in GSM. Beside setting more full
rate, we can also do re-dimension channel by change SDCCH or PDTCH into TCHFR. Please
note that we only change for cells with low SDCCH or PDCH Utilization, don't change cells with
high SDCCH or PDTCH utilization because will impact to blocking on SDCCH and PDTCH and
also Packet Data Access Success Rate(PDASR). I have experiences the method of VQI
improvement in 2G Huawei Network in My Country(Indonesia) which is located in Central Java
area for Hutchison project. The method is listed as below action:
1. Setting more Full rate--->Increase value of TCHBUSYTHRESHOLD and TCHH
AMRPRIORLOAD for cells with low TCH Utilization
2. Channel re-dimension----->Change SDCCH and PDTCH to TCHFR for cells with low
SDCCH or PDTCH Utilization

Below are snap shoot Parameter change request(PCR) that we submitted in Netwatcher for
your references and guidance about the action:
1. Setting more Full rate
Below picture shows parameter changing of TCHBUSYTHRESHOLD and
AMRTCHHPRIORLOAD to get more Full rate Service for VQI Improvement
2. Channel re-dimension
Below picture shows Parameter changing of CHTYPE from SDCCH and PDTCH to TCHFR for
VQI Improvement. This CR is only needed to change when SDCCH or PDTCH utilization are
low(<<70%)

Those above method can be implemented to improve VQI and Drop Call rate for your GSM
Network especially Huawei 2G Network. Below are the result after Parameter implemented in
our Network Hutchison Central Java Indonesia.

From the above chart show that VQI was improved after parameter implemented: Increase Full
rate allocation and redimensioning channel.
Ok, today sharing is enough for optimization tips about VQI and drop call rate improvement in
2G Huawei Network. hope can help you better in Network optimization knowledge and improve
your KPI in your network.Thanks.

You might also Need to know:


- TCH Block Rate Optimization Tips in Huawei GSM
- 2G Voice Quality improvement by TRX Layering Priority
- TBF Drop Improvement tips in Huawei GSM
- GPRS Packet Data Access Rate(PDASR) Improvement in Huawei GSM
- Common question about RF Optimization

Posted by hidayat encuh at 22:57 2 comments:

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Wednesday, 20 January 2016

Common question about RF Optimization


Hi RF engineer,

This month I was assigned by Manager to make some question for RF Team related Job
position upgrade from RF to Optimization Engineer. Here I would like to share some question
test that I made for RF Team just for your reference to expand your Optimization knowledge.

2G DT Analysis Part:
1. When you perform drive test in the field then you found dropped Call suddenly. What are the
root cause possibility of dropped call and how to solve it?

Good Answer

 Root Cause of Dropped Call:


1. Hardware Faulty
2. Frequency Interference(Co-channel or Adjacent)
3. Neighbor relation problem(missing Neighbor)
4. Low Signal Strength
5. Failed during HO process
 Drop call solution
1. Hardware Troubleshooting
2. Clearing Frequency Interference
3. Fix Missing Neighbor
4. Antenna Tuning(Physical Optimization)
5. Change Parameter(HO Parameter, RLT,Timer,etc)
2. When you analyze log file you found too many handover failure. What is the root cause
ofhandover failure and what is your action to solve handover failure?

Good Answer
 Root Cause and solution to solve handover failure:
1. TRX module faulty on target cells----> Need to fix TRX Module
2. Missing neighbor---> Fix neighbor relation
3. Congestion on target cells----> Upgrade TRX or HR threshold setting on target cell or
Change HO parameter threshold to target cell
4. Frequency interference between source and target cells---->Change Frequency
5. Far distance between cells----> Antenna tilt optimization or Propose new site to improve
coverage
3. When perform Monthly drive test you found too much bad quality(RxQual>>5). What is the
root cause and solution to improve bad quality?

Good Answer
 Root Cause and solution to improve Bad Quality:
1. Interference problem(Co-channel/adjacent/external)----> Fix Interference problem by
change frequency(BCCH/TCH) and find out source of external interference then report to
Frequency Department regulation(DEPKOMINFO in Indonesia).

TCH Block Rate Optimization Tips in Huawei GSM


TCH Block Rate is familiar KPI in GSM Networks. TCH Block rate indicate percentage of
blocking on TCH(Traffic channel) due to lack of traffic channel in a cell. In this note I would like
to share how to optimize TCH Bloking rate step by step in order to reduce TCH blocking and
configure channel capacity based on traffic needed. Below are steps you need to follow based
on my daily optimization activity in my project in Indonesia.
 Check for hardware, make sure no hardware issue.
Hardware checking always the first thing you need to check. You have to make sure no
hardware issue before go to next optimization step.Your next action will be useless if the
problem of the KPI is hardware issue.If found hardware issue please follow up first to FLM(Field
Maintenance) or Project Team to check and troubleshoot. You can check from active alarm and
especially from TCH Availability to make sure no TRX module faulty. If found no hardware issue
then go to next step.
 Check for Coverage, make sure no Overshooting
Coverage also need to check to make sure no overshooting and cover so far area that will
trigger TCH Blocking due to cover unnecessary location and huge traffic.If found overshooting
then you need to adjust Antenna tilt.If found no problem with coverage the go to next step.
 Check for Current Channel Configuration, make sure no over dimension of other
channel(SDCCH, BCH and PDTCH)
Current channel configuration need to check to make sure no over dimension of other
channel(ex:SDCCH,BCH or PDTCH). For SDCCH You can refer to number of TRX, usually the
number of SDCCH in a cell same as number of TRX on that cell(ex: number of SDCCH =2 if
TRX number =2), except for other case such as high SD traffic cell or covering Event, number of
SDCCH may be different. for BCH usually maximum 2 channel in 1 Cell. and for PDTCH usually
1 static PDTCH for 1 TRX(same as SDCCH),except for high PS Traffic cells. After make sure no
over dimension channel of other channel(beside TCH), then go to next step
 Calculate TCH needed based on Erlang B Calculation
Now you need to generate measurement related TCH Traffic maximum on the Cell then
calculate besed on Erlang B Table. After get TCH Traffic measurement on Busy Hour Cells then
you can calculate how many channel needed to accommodate TCH traffic. Click hereto
calculate channel required for TCH based on Erlang B calculation.
 Change Half Rate Threshold/Re-Dimension Channel/Upgrade TRX
Based on Elang B calculation now you get how many channel TCH needed to accommodate
traffic on TCH. Then you can go to Upgrade or Change other Channel into TCH or Change Half
Rate setting(TCHBUSYTHRES/AMRTCHPRIORLOAD in Huawei Parameter).You can go to
upgrade TRX if Half rate setting already maximum(TCHBUSYTHRESS=0) and additional
channel required need add TRX ( 1 TRX = 8 Channel TCHFR) and also no possibility to change
other channel into TCH.

Summary to Optimize TCH Block rate:


- Check Hardware problem, make sure no hardware problem occurred.
- Check Coverage, make sure no overshooting to avoid cells cover unnecessary traffic/Covering
far area.
- Check Channel Configuration, make sure no over dimension of other channel(SDCCH, BCH
and PDCH)
- Calculate TCH Needed based on Erlang B Calculation
- Change Half Rate Setting(TCHBUSYTHRESS and AMRTCHPRIORLOAD)/Channel re-
dimension(Change other channel into TCHFR)/Upgrade TRX

2G Voice Quality Improvement by TRX Layering priority in


Huawei GSM
Voice Quality is still become priority in GSM Network While 3G UMTS/WCDMA and 4G LTE focus on
Data Packet Services. In this Optimization tips I would like to share how to improve voice quality in GSM
Huawei Network based on my experiences in Huawei project in Indonesia.
The Idea to improve Voice quality is by prioritizing voice services in Good TRX. Good TRX means TRX
which have less frequency interference and Good TRX module than other TRX in one cell. We can
improve quality of Voice services by shifting voice traffic concentrated to a good TRX. Good TRX usually
located in BCCH TRX because frequency has more clear and Full Power(No Power control on BCCH
TRX). So in this case assume good TRX is BCCH TRX(you can choose other TRX if good TRX are
different in your Network).The things that you can prepare are as follow:
1. Do redimensioning channel(Shifting PDTCH Channel to non BCCH TRX)
First action you need is moving data channel(static PDCH) to TRX non BCCH to make sure voice
services concentrated in BCCH TRX and other services(PS) handle by other TRX(non BCCH TRX). So in
this case PS services is not our priority. We just concentrated to improve Voice services in 2G Network,
while PS Services throw handled by 3G Network. The script you need to provide for redimensioning
channel by shifting static PDTCH to non BCCH TRX are as follow:

2. Make Priority for TRX BCCH to handle Services by setting GTRXDEV


Second action you need to do is make priority for TRX BCCH to handle services than other TRX.
By this setting Voice services will be concentrated in TRX BCCH(assumed good TRX) and PS services
will be in TRX non BCCH. Parameter setting for this action is by setting OPTL to higher value for non
BCCH TRX(ex: L0 change to L1). Here are sample of Parameter change for this action:
Detail of parameter:
OPTL: This parameter specifies the TRX priority in channel assignment. The smaller this parameter is,
the higher the TRX priority is. For two TRXs with other conditions identical, channels on the TRX with
higher priority are preferentially assigned.

By setting OPTL to L1 for TRX non BCCH means you make low priority for TRX non BCCH to handled
the services.

Those above step you can try in your GSM Huawei Network to improve Voice Quality Services and also
will improve Drop Call Rate in your Network.
You might also Need to know:

2. Hardware problem such as Bad TRX module, Combiner or Crossfeeder/installation


problem------>> Fix hardware problem by troubleshooting proposal to FLM Team
3. Bad Level and low signal strength----> Change Antenna Tilt or propose new site to
improve coverage

4. TBF Drop Improvement tips in Huawei GSM


5. TBF drop is KPI(Key Performances Indicator) which is related to 2G data call
GPRS/EDGE in GSM Network. TBF drop indicate how often your services
disconnected when you in GPRS or EDGE data Services. There are some
tips how to improve TBF drop rate in GSM Huawei. You can follow below steps
to improve TBF Drop Rate in GSM Huawei.
- Make sure no Hardware problem especially related TRX module. You need to
fix Hardware issue first if you found hardware problem
- Make sure no Interference. You have to do re-tune or change frequency that
suspected Frequency Interference to improve TBF drop rate
- Make sure No overshooting Cells. You can adjust Antenna Tilt/Down tilt for
overshooting cells to improve TBF drop rate and avoid access traffic in low
RX level thus can improve TBF drop call.
- Reduce Dynamic PDCH(MAXPDCHRATE) and add static PDTCH to avoid
preemption channel by voice services especially for cells with high Voice
traffic.
-Shifting Static PDCH from TRX non BCCH to TRX BCCH and make priority
setting by set TRX layering priority which can be set by OPTL value in
GTRXDEV object.With this strategy data services will be concentrated in TRX
BCCH with full power(no power control) thus can improve TBF drop rate and
getting better than data services in TRX non BCCH.
- Increase timer T3168 and T3192
T3168 is used to set the maximum duration for the MS to wait for the uplink
assignment message. After the MS originates the uplink TBF setup request by
sending the packet resource request or the channel request in the packet
uplink acknowledge message, the timer T3168 is started to wait for the
packet uplink assignment message on the network side. If the MS receives
the packet uplink assignment message before T3168 expires, T3168 is reset.
Otherwise, the MS originates the packet access request for four times. Then
the MS regards this as the TBF setup failure.
T3192: Duration of releasing the TBF after the MS receives the last data
block. When the MS receives the RLC data block containing the flag
identifying the last data block and confirms that all the RLC data blocks in the
TBF are received, the MS sends the packet downlink acknowledge message
containing the last flag acknowledgement and the timer T3192 is started. If
the timer T3192 expires, the MS releases the TBF related resources and starts
monitoring the paging channel. During TBF releasing, if the MS is the half
duplex mode and receives the packet uplink assignment, the MS responds
this command. During TBF releasing, if the MS is the half duplex mode and
receives no packet uplink assignment message, the MS enters the packet idle
mode. If the MS is in the dual transmission mode, the MS enters the special
mode.
- Increase timer N3101,Ex: from 30 to 90
Detail description of N3101:
Maximum value of the N3101 counter. In the dynamic uplink allocation mode,
the network side enables multiple MSs to share the same uplink channel
through the USF value in the downlink data block. After the network side
allocates the USF to the uplink TBF (the uplink TBF is set up successfully),
N3101 is started. The network side waits for the RLC uplink data block sent
by the MS. If the RLC uplink data block sent by the MS is valid, N3101 is reset.
Otherwise, the value of N3101 is increased on the network side. When this
counter is overflowed, the current uplink TBF is released abnormally.
- Increase timer N3103 and N3105
Detail description of N3103 and N3105
N3103: Maximum value of the N3101 counter. When the uplink
transmission ends, if the network side receives the last RLC data
block, the network side sends an FAI=1 uplink packet
acknowledged/unacknowledged message and starts N3103. If the
packet control acknowledgement message is not received in the
specified time, N3103 is increased on the network side and the
uplink packet acknowledged/unacknowledged message is
retransmitted. When this counter is overflowed, the timer T3169 is
started. After this timer expires, the current TBF is released
abnormally.
N3105: Maximum value of the N3105 counter. After the downlink
TBF is set up successfully, the N3105 is started on the network side.
After the downlink RLC data block is added with the RRBP domain on
the network side, the valid packet acknowledged message
responded by the MS is received in the uplink RLC data block in the
RRBP domain. In this case, N3105 is reset. Otherwise, the value of
N3105 is increased and the downlink data block of the RRBP is
retransmitted. When N3105 is overflowed, T3195 is started. After
the timer T3195 expires, the current TBF is released abnormally.
- Change LQC(Link Quality Control Mode) from IR to LA
LQC Detail description:
It is applicable to the radio transmission environment to improve the
link quality. Link adaptation (LA) indicates adjusting the coding
mode of the channel dynamically according to the transmission
quality of the link. The link transmission quality is measured by the
8PSK MEAN BEP and 8PSK CV BEP in the Packet EGPRS Downlink
Ack/Nack message sent by the MS. The network side determines the
coding mode for data transmission according to the radio
measurement report sent by the MS. The cell with the good
transmission quality on the air interface is set to the LA mode.
Increment redundancy (IR) mode requires the network side
retransmit the data block with different punching codes and the MS
store the historical error information. The data block is retransmitted
through cooperated error correction function. With the IR mode, the
transmission quality on the air interface of the cell can be improved.
However, the MS must support this IR mode. The cell with the
dissatisfied transmission quality on the air interface is set to the LR
mode.

Thanks for read this note,You can share your suggestion how to improve TBF
drop rate in GSM Network based on your experiences by add comment.
6.
4. When you are positioned as Optimization Engineer, there are complain about Can't make a
call. What is the root cause of Can't make outgoing call and what is the solution?

Good Answer

 Root Cause and solution of complain Can't make outgoing call


1. LAC CI didn't yet registered on Core side----->Check and register LAC CI on Core.
2. SDCCH Blocking on the cell-------->Add SD channel
3. Hardware problem(ex: TRX Module faulty or Combiner problem)------> Fix hardware
problem
4. Low Coverage--------> Change Antenna tilt or propose new site to improve coverage.
5. What is the different of RXLevel, RXQual and SQI?

Good Answer

 RXLevel: Receive signal level by MS in dBm, where athe lowest value mean the lowest
Level, the greatest value means the greatest level
 RXQual: Receive quality of signal by MS from the BTS which have rage from 0-7. The
lowest value mean the best quality, the highest value mean the lowest Quality.
 SQI: Speech Quality index, Quality of Speech during dedicated call which range from
-20 to 30. The highest value mean the best Quality of speech, The lowest value mean the bad
one

6. During perform drive test you found low throughput. What is root cause of low throughput?
Good Answer
The root cause of low throughput:

 Interference problem(bad C/I)---> Clear frequency interference


 High Traffic------> Traffic sharing or change antenna tilt configuration
 Transmission capacity limitation---------> Upgrade Transmission(increase ABIS Capacity)
 Resource blocking(TRX Capacity issue)-------->Upgrade TRX

7. What is mean and root cause of Low signal strength? give some solution
Good Answer
Low signal strength mean low of the received signal level by MS
Root cause and Solution:

 Hardware Faulty-------> Fix hardware issue


 Cell down-------->Fix cell down and make it up
 Output power problem---> Check setting of TRX Power and fix it.
 Antenna direction problem------->Change Antenna direction
 Over tilt of Antenna configuration-------> Change Antenna tilt(Up tilt)
 Missing neighbor relation-------> Fix missing neighbor
 Site location-----> Adjust Antenna tilt or propose new site to improve Coverage thus
improve signal strength.

8. What is the trigger of Handover?


Good Answer
Trigger of Handover: Level, Quality, Power Budget , Timing Advance.

9. What is the root cause and solution of Call block?


Good Answer
The root cause and solution of Call Block:

 SDCCH Blocking-----> Add SD channel


 TCH Blocking--------> Setting HR threshold, Upgrade TRX,Channel redimensioning
 Hardware faulty-------> Fix hardware issue
 High Traffic and congestion---->Review setting of HR threshold, Upgrade TRX or Traffic
sharing
 Low RX Level--------> Improve Coverage by change antenna tilt or propose new site

Trial Power Control in GSM Huawei for Quality


Improvement
Power Control in GSM is important in optimization strategy to improve quality and reduce
interference also to Optimize Drop Call Rate. In this note I would like to share GSM power
control trial in Huawei for different clutter.Here are characteristic and scenario for each clutter:
>Urban Scenario:
Characteristic: High Intra Network Interference and tight distance between sites
>Suburban Scenario:
Characteristic: Lower Intra network interference and loose distance between sites
>Fast Moving Scenario:
Characteristic: Fast Moving of MS , the speed more than 50 km/h
>High Power Down scenario:
Characteristic: Strongly requirement to reduce transmit power. User beside BTS will use
minimum transmit power. The voice quality will have risk to decrease/degraded.

Configuration of parameter for each clutter describe as below.


>Parameter GSM Power control setting for Urban Scenario:
Based on result of the trial, setting GSM Power control with below value has improve the Quality
and reduce interference effectively.

>Parameter GSM Power Control setting for Suburban Scenario


Parameter configuration of power control in GSM for suburban area to improve Quality and
reduce TX power almost mainly same parameter setting with Urban scenario,but different for
below value:

> Parameter GSM Power Control setting for Fast Moving Scenario
Parameter configuration setting for Fast Moving scenario is applied for High way are/Major road
with vehicle speed >50 km/h. Main parameter follow Urban clutter except different for below
parameter:

> Parameter GSM Power Control setting for High Power Down scenario
GSM Power control setting for high Power down scenario will impact The transmit power of the
MS reduce to the minimum value even The MS located near BTS, but quality may decrease.
Parameter setting value also same with Urban setting except for below parameter:
Thanks for reading my note about Trial Power Control in GSM Huawei for Quality
Improvement.
You might also Need to know:
- Power Control activation for Electricity Saving in Huawei GSM
- How to optimize Handover Success Rate(HOSR) in GSM Network
- CSSR Optimization for GSM and WCDMA
- Drop Call Rate Optimization in GSM and UMTS

Handover Meaning in GSM and How to Optimize


Handover Success Rate (HOSR) for GSM KPI
Improvement
Handover in GSM is very important to keep continuous of call communication. In this note I
would like to share about GSM handover and how to optimize Handover Success Rate(HOSR)
in GSM Network based on my knowledge and experiences. Sorry I don't tell you based on
document because too much reference. You can refer to your document in your vendor if you
want to learn detail based on document.
- Handover definition
Handover meaning call moving between cells to continue conversation and prevent drop call on
the Network. Handover also purposed to improve services performances and reduce congestion
in the cells.
-Types of handover in GSM
Based on reason type of handover in GSM can be classified as below
1. Emergency Handover : Timing Advance(TA) Handover, Bad Quality Handover,RxLevel Drop
handover and Interference Handover
2. Load Handover
3. Normal Handover: Edge Handover, Layer Cell Handover and Power Budget(PBGT) handover
4. Fast Moving Handover
5. Overlaid/Underlaid Handover
Based on location type of Handover can be listed as follow:
1. Intra cell handover : Handover that happened between channel/ TRX in one cell
2. Inter cell Handover : Handover that happened between cell(ex: HO from cell A to Cell B)
3. Intra BSC Handover: Handover between cells in same BSC(ex: HO from cell A to Cell B, A
and B located in same BSC)
4. Inter BSC Handover:Handover between cells in different BSC(ex: HO cell A to Cell B, A and B
located in different BSC)
5. Handover Inter MSC: Handover that happened between cells but different MSC
For the details about handover process,protocol and rule of each handover type, you can refer
to your document in your vendor. In this paper I just want to share step by step how to optimize
Handover Success Rate to improve your KPI based on what usually I do. Lets follow below step
to optimize Handover.
Step 1: Killing Hardware issue
Hardware issue always the first step to check. As I said before in this blog, to improve all KPI
Such as CSSR, Drop Call Rate, HOSR, TCH Blocking,etc always to make sure first no
hardware issue occurred. Your next action will be useless if hardware issue occurred in your
cells. To identify hardware issue in the cells related handover you can generate measurement
related Incoming Handover.After generate measurement you will find which cells have
high handover failure.
You can check related cells that have high handover failure and low HOSR and troubleshoot
one by one. To troubleshoot hardware issue you can collaborate with FM(Field Maintenance)
Team. Make sure no TRX faulty or Combiner problem or event connector problem. If the
problem suspected only one cell/sector in 1 site, you can try swap each module to other sector
and let see if the problem move to other sector.If the problem happened in all sector in 1 site
then you can try swap transmission module(GTMU, IDU, ODU) to other site and let see if
handover Incoming failure move to other site. Don't forget to check by drive test to make sure
no cross feeder problem occurred in the site.
Step 2: Clearing Frequency Interference
Frequency interference will take effect to all KPI in GSM including Handover Success Rate. You
have to make sure no Co-channel /Adjacent channel Interference. Change Frequency of the
cells(retune) if you found cells suspected frequency interference.
Step 3: Neighbor list checking and external discrepancy fixing
Check neighbor list in the cells and make sure no missing neighbor. You need to remove
unnecessary relation and add necessary relation. Make sure head to head cells have
relation(no missing). Your Handover will improve if neighbor list configure properly.Don't forget
to check external neighbor value and make sure no discrepancy with existing such as:
LAC,BSIC,BCCH and RAC
Step 4: Coverage Checking
Coverage will take effect to Handover performances. You need to make sure no coverage issue,
No overshooting cells and coverage is continuous.Propose add site if needed to improve
coverage or physical optimization(Down tilt/Up tilt/re-azimuth) to improve your coverage.
Step 5: Check BA List
BA list indicate your neighbor list. Too many measurement frequencies in the active BA list will
make you handover bad and you need to remove unnecessary relation.
Step 6: Check for Congestion Problem
Handover Success Rate will be also influenced by congestion on target cells. Make sure no
congestion on target cells to improve your HOSR(handover Success Rate).You can minimize
congestion by adjust half rate setting in the cells(ex:TCHBUSYTHRES and
AMRTCHHPRIORLOAD in Huawei) or Traffic sharing to other cells by parameter or physical
optimization
Step 7: Parameter Handover Optimization
The final step to improve Handover Success Rate is Parameter tuning. You need to change
some parameter related handover to improve HOSR. The idea is to reduce fail of handover to
specific cells and increase successful attempt to several targeted cells. Some parameter can be
adjusted such as: PBGT margin, RXLevmin Cell etc.You can refer to your document in your
vendor to change specific parameter but keep in mind the idea is to reduce handover fail to
specific cells and increase successful attempt to specific targeted cells.For example if you have
cell with low handover Success rate(HOSR) due to high attempt to targeted congestion cell or
problematic cells, you need to adjust HO PBGT margin or increase RXlevmin to target cell. This
idea is purposed to improve HOSR KPI based on statistic to achieve agreed KPI target.

Thanks for reading my note about Handover in GSM, hope can help your daily optimization
activity to improve your GSM handover Success rate.
Handover Meaning in GSM and How to Optimize
Handover Success Rate (HOSR) for GSM KPI
Improvement
Handover in GSM is very important to keep continuous of call communication. In this note I
would like to share about GSM handover and how to optimize Handover Success Rate(HOSR)
in GSM Network based on my knowledge and experiences. Sorry I don't tell you based on
document because too much reference. You can refer to your document in your vendor if you
want to learn detail based on document.
- Handover definition
Handover meaning call moving between cells to continue conversation and prevent drop call on
the Network. Handover also purposed to improve services performances and reduce congestion
in the cells.
-Types of handover in GSM
Based on reason type of handover in GSM can be classified as below
1. Emergency Handover : Timing Advance(TA) Handover, Bad Quality Handover,RxLevel Drop
handover and Interference Handover
2. Load Handover
3. Normal Handover: Edge Handover, Layer Cell Handover and Power Budget(PBGT) handover
4. Fast Moving Handover
5. Overlaid/Underlaid Handover
Based on location type of Handover can be listed as follow:
1. Intra cell handover : Handover that happened between channel/ TRX in one cell
2. Inter cell Handover : Handover that happened between cell(ex: HO from cell A to Cell B)
3. Intra BSC Handover: Handover between cells in same BSC(ex: HO from cell A to Cell B, A
and B located in same BSC)
4. Inter BSC Handover:Handover between cells in different BSC(ex: HO cell A to Cell B, A and B
located in different BSC)
5. Handover Inter MSC: Handover that happened between cells but different MSC
For the details about handover process,protocol and rule of each handover type, you can refer
to your document in your vendor. In this paper I just want to share step by step how to optimize
Handover Success Rate to improve your KPI based on what usually I do. Lets follow below step
to optimize Handover.
Step 1: Killing Hardware issue
Hardware issue always the first step to check. As I said before in this blog, to improve all KPI
Such as CSSR, Drop Call Rate, HOSR, TCH Blocking,etc always to make sure first no
hardware issue occurred. Your next action will be useless if hardware issue occurred in your
cells. To identify hardware issue in the cells related handover you can generate measurement
related Incoming Handover.After generate measurement you will find which cells have
high handover failure.
You can check related cells that have high handover failure and low HOSR and troubleshoot
one by one. To troubleshoot hardware issue you can collaborate with FM(Field Maintenance)
Team. Make sure no TRX faulty or Combiner problem or event connector problem. If the
problem suspected only one cell/sector in 1 site, you can try swap each module to other sector
and let see if the problem move to other sector.If the problem happened in all sector in 1 site
then you can try swap transmission module(GTMU, IDU, ODU) to other site and let see if
handover Incoming failure move to other site. Don't forget to check by drive test to make sure
no cross feeder problem occurred in the site.
Step 2: Clearing Frequency Interference
Frequency interference will take effect to all KPI in GSM including Handover Success Rate. You
have to make sure no Co-channel /Adjacent channel Interference. Change Frequency of the
cells(retune) if you found cells suspected frequency interference.
Step 3: Neighbor list checking and external discrepancy fixing
Check neighbor list in the cells and make sure no missing neighbor. You need to remove
unnecessary relation and add necessary relation. Make sure head to head cells have
relation(no missing). Your Handover will improve if neighbor list configure properly.Don't forget
to check external neighbor value and make sure no discrepancy with existing such as:
LAC,BSIC,BCCH and RAC
Step 4: Coverage Checking
Coverage will take effect to Handover performances. You need to make sure no coverage issue,
No overshooting cells and coverage is continuous.Propose add site if needed to improve
coverage or physical optimization(Down tilt/Up tilt/re-azimuth) to improve your coverage.
Step 5: Check BA List
BA list indicate your neighbor list. Too many measurement frequencies in the active BA list will
make you handover bad and you need to remove unnecessary relation.
Step 6: Check for Congestion Problem
Handover Success Rate will be also influenced by congestion on target cells. Make sure no
congestion on target cells to improve your HOSR(handover Success Rate).You can minimize
congestion by adjust half rate setting in the cells(ex:TCHBUSYTHRES and
AMRTCHHPRIORLOAD in Huawei) or Traffic sharing to other cells by parameter or physical
optimization
Step 7: Parameter Handover Optimization
The final step to improve Handover Success Rate is Parameter tuning. You need to change
some parameter related handover to improve HOSR. The idea is to reduce fail of handover to
specific cells and increase successful attempt to several targeted cells. Some parameter can be
adjusted such as: PBGT margin, RXLevmin Cell etc.You can refer to your document in your
vendor to change specific parameter but keep in mind the idea is to reduce handover fail to
specific cells and increase successful attempt to specific targeted cells.For example if you have
cell with low handover Success rate(HOSR) due to high attempt to targeted congestion cell or
problematic cells, you need to adjust HO PBGT margin or increase RXlevmin to target cell. This
idea is purposed to improve HOSR KPI based on statistic to achieve agreed KPI target.

Thanks for reading my note about Handover in GSM, hope can help your daily optimization

Handover Meaning in GSM and How to Optimize


Handover Success Rate (HOSR) for GSM KPI
Improvement
Handover in GSM is very important to keep continuous of call communication. In this note I
would like to share about GSM handover and how to optimize Handover Success Rate(HOSR)
in GSM Network based on my knowledge and experiences. Sorry I don't tell you based on
document because too much reference. You can refer to your document in your vendor if you
want to learn detail based on document.
- Handover definition
Handover meaning call moving between cells to continue conversation and prevent drop call on
the Network. Handover also purposed to improve services performances and reduce congestion
in the cells.
-Types of handover in GSM
Based on reason type of handover in GSM can be classified as below
1. Emergency Handover : Timing Advance(TA) Handover, Bad Quality Handover,RxLevel Drop
handover and Interference Handover
2. Load Handover
3. Normal Handover: Edge Handover, Layer Cell Handover and Power Budget(PBGT) handover
4. Fast Moving Handover
5. Overlaid/Underlaid Handover
Based on location type of Handover can be listed as follow:
1. Intra cell handover : Handover that happened between channel/ TRX in one cell
2. Inter cell Handover : Handover that happened between cell(ex: HO from cell A to Cell B)
3. Intra BSC Handover: Handover between cells in same BSC(ex: HO from cell A to Cell B, A
and B located in same BSC)
4. Inter BSC Handover:Handover between cells in different BSC(ex: HO cell A to Cell B, A and B
located in different BSC)
5. Handover Inter MSC: Handover that happened between cells but different MSC
For the details about handover process,protocol and rule of each handover type, you can refer
to your document in your vendor. In this paper I just want to share step by step how to optimize
Handover Success Rate to improve your KPI based on what usually I do. Lets follow below step
to optimize Handover.
Step 1: Killing Hardware issue
Hardware issue always the first step to check. As I said before in this blog, to improve all KPI
Such as CSSR, Drop Call Rate, HOSR, TCH Blocking,etc always to make sure first no
hardware issue occurred. Your next action will be useless if hardware issue occurred in your
cells. To identify hardware issue in the cells related handover you can generate measurement
related Incoming Handover.After generate measurement you will find which cells have
high handover failure.
You can check related cells that have high handover failure and low HOSR and troubleshoot
one by one. To troubleshoot hardware issue you can collaborate with FM(Field Maintenance)
Team. Make sure no TRX faulty or Combiner problem or event connector problem. If the
problem suspected only one cell/sector in 1 site, you can try swap each module to other sector
and let see if the problem move to other sector.If the problem happened in all sector in 1 site
then you can try swap transmission module(GTMU, IDU, ODU) to other site and let see if
handover Incoming failure move to other site. Don't forget to check by drive test to make sure
no cross feeder problem occurred in the site.
Step 2: Clearing Frequency Interference
Frequency interference will take effect to all KPI in GSM including Handover Success Rate. You
have to make sure no Co-channel /Adjacent channel Interference. Change Frequency of the
cells(retune) if you found cells suspected frequency interference.
Step 3: Neighbor list checking and external discrepancy fixing
Check neighbor list in the cells and make sure no missing neighbor. You need to remove
unnecessary relation and add necessary relation. Make sure head to head cells have
relation(no missing). Your Handover will improve if neighbor list configure properly.Don't forget
to check external neighbor value and make sure no discrepancy with existing such as:
LAC,BSIC,BCCH and RAC
Step 4: Coverage Checking
Coverage will take effect to Handover performances. You need to make sure no coverage issue,
No overshooting cells and coverage is continuous.Propose add site if needed to improve
coverage or physical optimization(Down tilt/Up tilt/re-azimuth) to improve your coverage.
Step 5: Check BA List
BA list indicate your neighbor list. Too many measurement frequencies in the active BA list will
make you handover bad and you need to remove unnecessary relation.
Step 6: Check for Congestion Problem
Handover Success Rate will be also influenced by congestion on target cells. Make sure no
congestion on target cells to improve your HOSR(handover Success Rate).You can minimize
congestion by adjust half rate setting in the cells(ex:TCHBUSYTHRES and
AMRTCHHPRIORLOAD in Huawei) or Traffic sharing to other cells by parameter or physical
optimization
Step 7: Parameter Handover Optimization
The final step to improve Handover Success Rate is Parameter tuning. You need to change
some parameter related handover to improve HOSR. The idea is to reduce fail of handover to
specific cells and increase successful attempt to several targeted cells. Some parameter can be
adjusted such as: PBGT margin, RXLevmin Cell etc.You can refer to your document in your
vendor to change specific parameter but keep in mind the idea is to reduce handover fail to
specific cells and increase successful attempt to specific targeted cells.For example if you have
cell with low handover Success rate(HOSR) due to high attempt to targeted congestion cell or
problematic cells, you need to adjust HO PBGT margin or increase RXlevmin to target cell. This
idea is purposed to improve HOSR KPI based on statistic to achieve agreed KPI target.

Thanks for reading my note about Handover in GSM, hope can help your daily optimization

Drop Call Rate Optimization, How to identify and finding


root cause for Optimization solution on GSM and UMTS
Network
Drop call rate is Main KPI that very important in RF Optimization. Drop Call indicate how
connection between Handset and Network become discontinue and causing bad experiences
on user experiences because the call is release suddenly. In this paper I will share everything I
know related drop call rate both on GSM and UMTS Network. Based on my experience the root
cause of Drop Call Rate can be listed as follow:
- Hardware Problem.
This problem is very critical related to all KPI including Drop Call rate. If the problem is coming
from hardware, percentage of drop call rate would be very high(usually more than 1 %) and you
have to replace bad module with good module. For example in GSM Network you have to check
and make sure TRX module such as GRFU/CU or Combiner/Duamco working properly. To
make sure the problem was coming from hardware or bad module, you can identify by trying
Swap module first. For example: if the problem high drop call rate is occurred in sector-1, you
can swap TRX Module sector-1 to sector-2 and Combiner from sector-1 to sector-3. If the
problem move to other sector then indicate the problem is coming from that module. For
example in the above case if the problem move to sector-2, so the problem is TRX
Module(GRFU/CU) or if the problem move to sector-3 then the problem should be
Combiner/Duamco. In UMTS Network also same, if the problem is coming from hardware then
you have to identify what module the problem is. You can identify the problem by swap WRFU
Module. If the problem high drop call happened in one site/NodeB, you can try swap
GTMU(Transmission module). Beside defect module the problem can be occurred due to wrong
or bad installation such as Semirigid connection, Cross feeder problem or etc(especially for new
site)
- Frequency Interference.
Frequency interference is include in problem that can impact to high drop call rate because the
Noise(Interference Signal) is very high and affecting to Carrier( primary Signal) and also affect
to bad vice quality. To overcome the problem in GSM network you have to re-tune/ change
Frequency that suspected Interference especially on BCCH Frequency for RF Hoping cells. As
we know in GSM there area 2 type of Frequency Interference that called Co-Channel
Interference(Same Frequency) and Adjacent Interference( Difference 1 Frequency channel).
Sample for Co-channel Frequency : Frequency Cell A= Cell B = 670 with close location of cell
each other. Sample for Adjacent Interference : Frequency Cell A=670 and Cell B=671 or 669
and the position of cells is close each of other. The solution in GSM network for interference is
retune or change Frequency for one of the cells to avoid interference. in UMTS network the
frequency interference also can occurred and indicated by bad Ec/No(Quality).Different with
GSM, to overcome Interference in UMTS network is commonly solved by Change Antenna Tilt
or reduce CPICH Power to avoid Coverage overlap. The other solution to reduce Drop call
rate in UMTS Network is by making fast IRAT handover to GSM Network. In Huawei implement
by Changing Parameter IRAT Handover 2D/2F.
- Overshooting Cells
Overshooting cell can be the one that causing high drop call rate in the network.To overcome
this issue you have to change tilt configuration of Antenna, for example change Mechanical Tilt
from 0 to 2. Overshoot is common problem for both GSM and UMTS that causing drop call due
to bad RX level in the edge of Coverage or bad RSCP and Ec/No in UMTS Network. The
solution is same for both GSM and UMTS that is change Antenna configuration tilt/Down tilt.
- Missing neighbor.
Missing neighbor also will causing High drop call rate in your network. You have to check and
make sure relation of the cells is complete and no missing neighbor. The solution is same for
both GSM and UMTS, you have to make sure no missing neighbor to avoid highdrop call rate.
- Wrong Parameter Configuration
Wrong parameter configuration will causing high drop call rate in your network. Make sure to
check all parameter and configure accordingly.In GSM there is parameter related drop call rate
KPI such as : RLT(Radio Link Timeout), You can set by increase RLT to reduce drop call but will
affect to Customer Experiences because release call is too long even when radio environment
is poor and conditionally should be released. The other solution to reduce drop call related
parameter is by adjust HO Parameter to make fast handover to a good cells in surrounding
closest cells such as adjust PBGT, RXLEVMIN to target Cells. Making fast HO to a good cells
can be implemented on both GSM and UMTS Network. You have to find out parameter related
Radio Link and HO parameter in your vendor you are working for because the Parameter name
would be different but in same Idea That is Radio Link Time out and Handover Parameter.
- Power or Transmission Problem
Power problem can make high drop call rate in the network. You have to make sure no power
problem by check the alarm and Cell Availability.If the problem occurred you need to follow up
the problem to Field Maintenance Team to fix it.
Transmission problem also can make drop call rate very high and affecting to your KPI. You
need to check alarm related transmission and make sure also cell availability is stable. If you
found transmission problem the you have to follow up the problem to Transmission Team to
check and fix it.
- Contour Problem(Hilly/Rural Contour)
Bad contour can be the one that causing high drop call rate especially if your network in Hilly or
Rural area. Check and identify your cells by drive test to make sure the problem is causing by
contour or check the coverage by Simulation. If the problem is bad contour then you have to
adjust tilt of the cell or re-azimuth make sure coverage continuous.
- Discontinuous Coverage
If your coverage discontinue due to lack of site then you need to propose new site to your
operator. Discontinue coverage also can occurred due to wrong antenna configuration such as
over tilt. You need to check tilt configuration of the antenna and make sure no over tilt that
causing coverage become discontinue.

Thanks for visiting my blog and hope can help your network problem related Drop Call Rate
Optimization on GSM and UMTS Network