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Chapter 11

SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

11.1 GENERAL vehicular bridges, electrical transmission towers,


hydraulic structures, buried utility lines and their
11.1.1 Purpose appurtenances, and nuclear reactors.
Chapter 11 presents criteria for the design and 5. Piers and wharves that are not accessible to the
construction of buildings and other structures subject general public.
to earthquake ground motions. The specified earth-
quake loads are based upon post-elastic energy 11.1.3 Applicability
dissipation in the structure, and because of this fact, Structures and their nonstructural components
the requirements for design, detailing, and construc- shall be designed and constructed in accordance with
tion shall be satisfied even for structures and members the requirement of the following sections based on the
for which load combinations that do not contain type of structure or component:
earthquake loads indicate larger demands than
a. Buildings: Chapter 12
combinations that include earthquake loads. Minimum
b. Nonbuilding Structures: Chapter 15
requirements for quality assurance for seismic
c. Nonstructural Components: Chapter 13
force-resisting systems are set forth in Appendix 11A.
d. Seismically Isolated Structures: Chapter 17
e. Structures with Damping Systems: Chapter 18
11.1.2 Scope
Buildings whose purpose is to enclose equipment or
Every structure, and portion thereof, including
machinery and whose occupants are engaged in
nonstructural components, shall be designed and
maintenance or monitoring of that equipment,
constructed to resist the effects of earthquake motions
machinery or their associated processes shall be
as prescribed by the seismic requirements of this
permitted to be classified as nonbuilding structures
standard. Certain nonbuilding structures, as described
designed and detailed in accordance with Section 15.5
in Chapter 15, are also within the scope and shall be
of this standard.
designed and constructed in accordance with the
requirements of Chapter 15. Requirements concerning
11.1.4 Alternate Materials and Methods
alterations, additions, and change of use are set forth
of Construction
in Appendix 11B. Existing structures and alterations to
Alternate materials and methods of construction
existing structures need only comply with the seismic
to those prescribed in the seismic requirements of this
requirements of this standard where required by
standard shall not be used unless approved by the
Appendix 11B. The following structures are exempt
authority having jurisdiction. Substantiating evidence
from the seismic requirements of this standard:
shall be submitted demonstrating that the proposed
1. Detached one- and two-family dwellings that are alternate, for the purpose intended, will be at least
located where the mapped, short period, spectral equal in strength, durability, and seismic resistance.
response acceleration parameter, SS, is less than 0.4
or where the Seismic Design Category determined
in accordance with Section 11.6 is A, B, or C. 11.2 DEFINITIONS
2. Detached one- and two-family wood-frame
dwellings not included in Exception 1 with not The following definitions apply only to the seismic
more than two stories above grade plane, satisfying requirements of this standard.
the limitations of and constructed in accordance ACTIVE FAULT: A fault determined to be
with the IRC. active by the authority having jurisdiction from
3. Agricultural storage structures that are intended properly substantiated data (e.g., most recent mapping
only for incidental human occupancy. of active faults by the United States Geological
4. Structures that require special consideration of their Survey).
response characteristics and environment that are ADDITION: An increase in building area,
not addressed in Chapter 15 and for which other aggregate floor area, height, or number of stories of a
regulations provide seismic criteria, such as structure.

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CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

ALTERATION: Any construction or renovation Component, Flexible: Nonstructural component


to an existing structure other than an addition. having a fundamental period greater than
APPENDAGE: An architectural component such 0.06 s.
as a canopy, marquee, ornamental balcony, or Component, Rigid: Nonstructural component
statuary. having a fundamental period less than or equal
APPROVAL: The written acceptance by the to 0.06 s.
authority having jurisdiction of documentation
CONCRETE, PLAIN: Concrete that is either
that establishes the qualification of a material,
unreinforced or contains less reinforcement than the
system, component, procedure, or person to fulfill
minimum amount specified in ACI 318 for reinforced
the requirements of this standard for the intended
concrete.
use.
CONCRETE, REINFORCED: Concrete
ATTACHMENTS: Means by which nonstruc-
reinforced with no less reinforcement than the
tural components or supports of nonstructural compo-
minimum amount required by ACI 318 prestressed
nents are secured or connected to the seismic
or nonprestressed, and designed on the assumption
force-resisting system of the structure. Such attach-
that the two materials act together in resisting
ments include anchor bolts, welded connections, and
forces.
mechanical fasteners.
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS: The
BASE: The level at which the horizontal seismic
written, graphic, electronic, and pictorial documents
ground motions are considered to be imparted to the
describing the design, locations, and physical charac-
structure.
teristics of the project required to verify compliance
BASE SHEAR: Total design lateral force or
with this standard.
shear at the base.
COUPLING BEAM: A beam that is used to
BOUNDARY ELEMENTS: Diaphragm and
connect adjacent concrete wall elements to make them
shear wall boundary members to which the diaphragm
act together as a unit to resist lateral loads.
transfers forces. Boundary members include chords
DEFORMABILITY: The ratio of the ultimate
and drag struts at diaphragm and shear wall perim-
deformation to the limit deformation.
eters, interior openings, discontinuities, and reentrant
corners. High-Deformability Element: An element
BOUNDARY MEMBERS: Portions along wall whose deformability is not less than 3.5 where
and diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal and subjected to four fully reversed cycles at the
transverse reinforcement. Boundary members include limit deformation.
chords and drag struts at diaphragm and shear wall Limited-Deformability Element: An element
perimeters, interior openings, discontinuities, and that is neither a low-deformability nor a
reentrant corners. high-deformability element.
BUILDING: Any structure whose intended use Low-Deformability Element: An element whose
includes shelter of human occupants. deformability is 1.5 or less.
CANTILEVERED COLUMN SYSTEM: A
seismic force-resisting system in which lateral forces DEFORMATION:
are resisted entirely by columns acting as cantilevers Limit Deformation: Two times the initial
from the base. deformation that occurs at a load equal to 40
CHARACTERISTIC EARTHQUAKE: An percent of the maximum strength.
earthquake assessed for an active fault having a Ultimate Deformation: The deformation at
magnitude equal to the best estimate of the maximum which failure occurs and that shall be deemed
magnitude capable of occurring on the fault, but not to occur if the sustainable load reduces to 80
less than the largest magnitude that has occurred percent or less of the maximum strength.
historically on the fault.
COMPONENT: A part of an architectural, DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEMS: Those
electrical, or mechanical system. nonstructural components that require design in
accordance with Chapter 13 and for which the
Component, Nonstructural: A part of an component importance factor, Ip, is greater than 1.0.
architectural, mechanical, or electrical system DESIGN EARTHQUAKE: The earthquake
within or without a building or nonbuilding effects that are two-thirds of the corresponding
structure. Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) effects.

58
MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND Moment Frame: A frame in which members and


MOTION: The earthquake ground motions that are joints resist lateral forces by flexure as well as
two-thirds of the corresponding MCER ground along the axis of the members. Moment frames
motions. are categorized as intermediate moment frames
DIAPHRAGM: Roof, floor, or other membrane (IMF), ordinary moment frames (OMF), and
or bracing system acting to transfer the lateral forces special moment frames (SMF).
to the vertical resisting elements. Structural System:
DIAPHRAGM BOUNDARY: A location where Building Frame System: A structural system
shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm with an essentially complete space frame
element. Transfer is either to a boundary element or providing support for vertical loads. Seismic
to another force-resisting element. force resistance is provided by shear walls or
DIAPHRAGM CHORD: A diaphragm bound- braced frames.
ary element perpendicular to the applied load that is Dual System: A structural system with an
assumed to take axial stresses due to the diaphragm essentially complete space frame providing
moment. support for vertical loads. Seismic force
DRAG STRUT (COLLECTOR, TIE, DIA- resistance is provided by moment-resisting
PHRAGM STRUT): A diaphragm or shear wall frames and shear walls or braced frames as
boundary element parallel to the applied load that prescribed in Section 12.2.5.1.
collects and transfers diaphragm shear forces to the Shear Wall-Frame Interactive System: A
vertical force-resisting elements or distributes forces structural system that uses combinations of
within the diaphragm or shear wall. ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls and
ENCLOSURE: An interior space surrounded by ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames
walls. designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to
EQUIPMENT SUPPORT: Those structural their rigidities considering interaction between
members or assemblies of members or manufactured shear walls and frames on all levels.
elements, including braces, frames, legs, lugs, Space Frame System: A 3-D structural system
snuggers, hangers, or saddles that transmit gravity composed of interconnected members, other
loads and operating loads between the equipment and than bearing walls, that is capable of support-
the structure. ing vertical loads and, where designed for such
FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS: Those connec- an application, is capable of providing resis-
tions between equipment components that permit tance to seismic forces.
rotational and/or translational movement without
degradation of performance. Examples include FRICTION CLIP: A device that relies on
universal joints, bellows expansion joints, and flexible friction to resist applied loads in one or more direc-
metal hose. tions to anchor a nonstructural component. Friction is
FRAME: provided mechanically and is not due to gravity loads.
GLAZED CURTAIN WALL: A nonbearing
Braced Frame: An essentially vertical truss, or wall that extends beyond the edges of building floor
its equivalent, of the concentric or eccentric slabs, and includes a glazing material installed in the
type that is provided in a building frame curtain wall framing.
system or dual system to resist seismic GLAZED STOREFRONT: A nonbearing wall
forces. that is installed between floor slabs, typically includ-
Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF): A ing entrances, and includes a glazing material installed
braced frame in which the members are in the storefront framing.
subjected primarily to axial forces. CBFs are GRADE PLANE: A horizontal reference plane
categorized as ordinary concentrically braced representing the average of finished ground level
frames (OCBFs) or special concentrically adjoining the structure at all exterior walls. Where the
braced frames (SCBFs). finished ground level slopes away from the exterior
Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF): A walls, the grade plane is established by the lowest
diagonally braced frame in which at least points within the area between the structure and the
one end of each brace frames into a beam a property line or, where the property line is more than 6
short distance from a beam-column or from ft (1,829 mm) from the structure, between the structure
another diagonal brace. and points 6 ft (1,829 mm) from the structure.

59
CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

INSPECTION, SPECIAL: The observation of RISK-TARGETED MAXIMUM CONSID-


the work by a special inspector to determine compli- ERED EARTHQUAKE (MCER) GROUND
ance with the approved construction documents and MOTION RESPONSE ACCELERATION: The
these standards in accordance with the quality most severe earthquake effects considered by this
assurance plan. standard determined for the orientation that results in
the largest maximum response to horizontal ground
Continuous Special Inspection: The full-time
motions and with adjustment for targeted risk. In
observation of the work by a special inspector
this standard, general procedures for determining
who is present in the area where work is being
the MCER Ground Motion values are provided in
performed.
Section 11.4.3; site-specific procedures are provided
Periodic Special Inspection: The part-time or
in Sections 21.1 and 21.2.
intermittent observation of the work by a
MECHANICALLY ANCHORED TANKS OR
special inspector who is present in the area
VESSELS: Tanks or vessels provided with mechani-
where work has been or is being performed.
cal anchors to resist overturning moments.
INSPECTOR, SPECIAL (who shall be identi- NONBUILDING STRUCTURE: A structure,
fied as the owner’s inspector): A person approved other than a building, constructed of a type included
by the authority having jurisdiction to perform special in Chapter 15 and within the limits of Section 15.1.1.
inspection. NONBUILDING STRUCTURE SIMILAR TO
INVERTED PENDULUM-TYPE STRUC- A BUILDING: A nonbuilding structure that is
TURES: Structures in which more than 50 percent of designed and constructed in a manner similar to
the structure’s mass is concentrated at the top of a buildings, will respond to strong ground motion in a
slender, cantilevered structure and in which stability fashion similar to buildings, and has a basic lateral
of the mass at the top of the structure relies on and vertical seismic force-resisting system conforming
rotational restraint to the top of the cantilevered to one of the types indicated in Tables 12.2-1 or
element. 15.4-1.
JOINT: The geometric volume common to ORTHOGONAL: To be in two horizontal
intersecting members. directions, at 90° to each other.
LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION: A method OWNER: Any person, agent, firm, or corporation
of construction where the structural assemblies (e.g., having a legal or equitable interest in the property.
walls, floors, ceilings, and roofs) are primarily formed PARTITION: A nonstructural interior wall that
by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel spans horizontally or vertically from support to
framing members or subassemblies of these members support. The supports may be the basic building
(e.g., trusses). frame, subsidiary structural members, or other
LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT portions of the partition system.
RATIO: Area of longitudinal reinforcement divided P-DELTA EFFECT: The secondary effect on
by the cross-sectional area of the concrete. shears and moments of structural members due to the
MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE action of the vertical loads induced by horizontal
(MCE) GROUND MOTION: The most severe displacement of the structure resulting from various
earthquake effects considered by this standard more loading conditions.
specifically defined in the following two terms. PILE: Deep foundation element, which includes
MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE piers, caissons, and piles.
GEOMETRIC MEAN (MCEG) PEAK GROUND PILE CAP: Foundation elements to which piles
ACCELERATION: The most severe earthquake are connected including grade beams and mats.
effects considered by this standard determined for REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL:
geometric mean peak ground acceleration and An architect or engineer, registered or licensed to
without adjustment for targeted risk. The MCEG practice professional architecture or engineering, as
peak ground acceleration adjusted for site effects defined by the statutory requirements of the profes-
(PGAM) is used in this standard for evaluation of sional registrations laws of the state in which the
liquefaction, lateral spreading, seismic settlements, project is to be constructed.
and other soil related issues. In this standard, general SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY: A classifica-
procedures for determining PGAM are provided in tion assigned to a structure based on its Risk Category
Section 11.8.3; site-specific procedures are provided and the severity of the design earthquake ground
in Section 21.5. motion at the site as defined in Section 11.4.

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MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM: factored loads or related internal moments and


That part of the structural system that has been forces in such combinations as stipulated by
considered in the design to provide the required this standard.
resistance to the seismic forces prescribed herein.
STRUCTURAL HEIGHT: The vertical distance
SEISMIC FORCES: The assumed forces
from the base to the highest level of the seismic
prescribed herein, related to the response of the
force-resisting system of the structure. For pitched or
structure to earthquake motions, to be used in the
sloped roofs, the structural height is from the base to
design of the structure and its components.
the average height of the roof.
SELF-ANCHORED TANKS OR VESSELS:
STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS: The
Tanks or vessels that are stable under design overturn-
visual observations to determine that the seismic
ing moment without the need for mechanical anchors
force-resisting system is constructed in general
to resist uplift.
conformance with the construction documents.
SHEAR PANEL: A floor, roof, or wall element
STRUCTURE: That which is built or con-
sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.
structed and limited to buildings and nonbuilding
SITE CLASS: A classification assigned to a site
structures as defined herein.
based on the types of soils present and their engineer-
SUBDIAPHRAGM: A portion of a diaphragm
ing properties as defined in Chapter 20.
used to transfer wall anchorage forces to diaphragm
STORAGE RACKS: Include industrial pallet
cross ties.
racks, moveable shelf racks, and stacker racks made
SUPPORTS: Those members, assemblies of
of cold-formed or hot-rolled structural members. Does
members, or manufactured elements, including braces,
not include other types of racks such as drive-in and
frames, legs, lugs, snubbers, hangers, saddles, or
drive-through racks, cantilever racks, portable racks,
struts, and associated fasteners that transmit loads
or racks made of materials other than steel.
between nonstructural components and their attach-
STORY: The portion of a structure between the
ments to the structure.
tops of two successive floor surfaces and, for the
TESTING AGENCY: A company or
topmost story, from the top of the floor surface to the
corporation that provides testing and/or inspection
top of the roof surface.
services.
STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE: A story in
VENEERS: Facings or ornamentation of brick,
which the floor or roof surface at the top of the story
concrete, stone, tile, or similar materials attached to a
is more than 6 ft (1,828 mm) above grade plane or is
backing.
more than 12 ft (3,658 mm) above the finished ground
WALL: A component that has a slope of 60° or
level at any point on the perimeter of the structure.
greater with the horizontal plane used to enclose or
STORY DRIFT: The horizontal deflection at the
divide space.
top of the story relative to the bottom of the story as
determined in Section 12.8.6. Bearing Wall: Any wall meeting either of the
STORY DRIFT RATIO: The story drift, as following classifications:
determined in Section 12.8.6, divided by the story 1. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports
height, hsx. more than 100 lb/linear ft (1,459 N/m) of
STORY SHEAR: The summation of design vertical load in addition to its own weight.
lateral seismic forces at levels above the story under 2. Any concrete or masonry wall that supports
consideration. more than 200 lb/linear ft (2,919 N/m) of
STRENGTH: vertical load in addition to its own weight.
Light Frame Wall: A wall with wood or steel
Design Strength: Nominal strength multiplied by studs.
a strength reduction factor, ϕ. Light Frame Wood Shear Wall: A wall
Nominal Strength: Strength of a member or constructed with wood studs and sheathed with
cross-section calculated in accordance with the material rated for shear resistance.
requirements and assumptions of the strength Nonbearing Wall: Any wall that is not a bearing
design methods of this standard (or the wall.
reference documents) before application of any Nonstructural Wall: All walls other than bearing
strength-reduction factors. walls or shear walls.
Required Strength: Strength of a member, Shear Wall (Vertical Diaphragm): A wall,
cross-section, or connection required to resist bearing or nonbearing, designed to resist lateral

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CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

forces acting in the plane of the wall (some- Cs = seismic response coefficient determined in
times referred to as a “vertical diaphragm”). Section 12.8.1.1 and 19.3.1 (dimensionless)
Structural Wall: Walls that meet the definition CT = building period coefficient in Section
for bearing walls or shear walls. 12.8.2.1
Cvx = vertical distribution factor as determined
WALL SYSTEM, BEARING: A structural
in Section 12.8.3
system with bearing walls providing support for all or
c = distance from the neutral axis of a
major portions of the vertical loads. Shear walls or
flexural member to the fiber of maximum
braced frames provide seismic force resistance.
compressive strain (in. or mm)
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL: A wood-
D = the effect of dead load
based panel product that meets the requirements of
Dclear = relative horizontal (drift) displacement,
DOC PS1 or DOC PS2 and is bonded with a water-
measured over the height of the glass
proof adhesive. Included under this designation are
panel under consideration, which causes
plywood, oriented strand board, and composite
initial glass-to-frame contact. For rectan-
panels.
gular glass panels within a rectangular
wall frame, Dclear is set forth in Section
13.5.9.1
11.3 SYMBOLS
DpI = seismic relative displacement; see Section
13.3.2
The unit dimensions used with the items covered by
Ds = the total depth of stratum in Eq. 19.2-12
the symbols shall be consistent throughout except
(ft or m)
where specifically noted. Symbols presented in this
dC = The total thickness of cohesive soil layers
section apply only to the seismic requirements in this
in the top 100 ft (30 m); see Section
standard as indicated.
20.4.3 (ft or m)
Ach = cross-sectional area (in.2 or mm2) of a di = The thickness of any soil or rock layer i
structural member measured out-to-out of (between 0 and 100 ft [30 m]); see
transverse reinforcement Section 20.4.1 (ft or m)
A0 = area of the load-carrying foundation dS = The total thickness of cohesionless soil
(ft2 or m2) layers in the top 100 ft (30 m); see
Ash = total cross-sectional area of hoop rein- Section 20.4.2 (ft or m)
forcement (in.2 or mm2), including E = effect of horizontal and vertical earth-
supplementary cross-ties, having a quake-induced forces (Section 12.4)
spacing of sh and crossing a section with Fa = short-period site coefficient (at 0.2
a core dimension of hc s-period); see Section 11.4.3
Avd = required area of leg (in.2 or mm2) of Fi, Fn, Fx = portion of the seismic base shear, V,
diagonal reinforcement induced at Level i, n, or x, respectively,
Ax = torsional amplification factor (Section as determined in Section 12.8.3
12.8.4.3) Fp = the seismic force acting on a component
ai = the acceleration at level i obtained from a of a structure as determined in Sections
modal analysis (Section 13.3.1) 12.11.1 and 13.3.1
ap = the amplification factor related to the FPGA = site coefficient for PGA; see Section 11.8.3
response of a system or component as Fv = long-period site coefficient (at 1.0
affected by the type of seismic attach- s-period); see Section 11.4.3
ment, determined in Section 13.3.1 fc′ = specified compressive strength of concrete
bp = the width of the rectangular glass panel used in design
Cd = deflection amplification factor as given in fs′ = ultimate tensile strength (psi or MPa) of the
Tables 12.2-1, 15.4-1, or 15.4-2 bolt, stud, or insert leg wires. For ASTM
CR = site-specific risk coefficient at any period; A307 bolts or A108 studs, it is permitted to
see Section 21.2.1.1 be assumed to be 60,000 psi (415 MPa)
CRS = mapped value of the risk coefficient at fy = specified yield strength of reinforcement
short periods as given by Fig. 22-17 (psi or MPa)
CR1 = mapped value of the risk coefficient at a fyh = specified yield strength of the special
period of 1 s as given by Fig. 22-18 lateral reinforcement (psi or kPa)

62
MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

G = γυ2s /g = the average shear modulus for the ka = coefficient defined in Sections 12.11.2
soils beneath the foundation at and 12.14.7.5
large strain levels (psf or Pa) L = overall length of the building (ft or m) at
G0 = γυ2s0 /g = the average shear modulus for the base in the direction being analyzed
the soils beneath the foundation L0 = overall length of the side of the founda-
at small strain levels (psf or Pa) tion in the direction being analyzed,
g = acceleration due to gravity Section 19.2.1.2 (ft or m)
H = thickness of soil M0, M01 = the overturning moment at the founda-
h = height of a shear wall measured as the tion–soil interface as determined in
maximum clear height from top of Sections 19.2.3 and 19.3.2 (ft-lb or N-m)
foundation to bottom of diaphragm Mt = torsional moment resulting from eccen-
framing above, or the maximum clear tricity between the locations of center of
height from top of diaphragm to bottom mass and the center of rigidity (Section
of diaphragm framing above 12.8.4.1)
h = average roof height of structure with Mta = accidental torsional moment as deter-
_ respect to the base; see Chapter 13 mined in Section 12.8.4.2
h = effective height of the building as m = a subscript denoting the mode of vibra-
determined in Section 19.2.1.1 or 19.3.1 tion under consideration; that is, m = 1
(ft or m) for the fundamental mode
hc = core dimension of a component measured N = standard penetration resistance, ASTM
to the outside of the special lateral D-1586
reinforcement (in. or mm) N = number of stories above the base (Section
hi, hx = the height above the base to Level i or x, _ 12.8.2.1)
respectively N = average field standard penetration
hn = structural height as defined in Section 11.2 resistance for the top 100 ft (30 m); see
hp = the height of the rectangular glass panel _ Sections 20.3.3 and 20.4.2
hsx = the story height below Level Nch = average standard penetration resistance
x = (hx – hx–1) for cohesionless soil layers for the top
Ie = the importance factor as prescribed in 100 ft (30 m); see Sections 20.3.3 and
Section 11.5.1 20.4.2
I0 = the static moment of inertia of the Ni = standard penetration resistance of any
load-carrying foundation; see Section soil or rock layer i (between 0 and 100 ft
19.2.1.1 (in.4 or mm4) [30 m]); see Section 20.4.2
Ip = the component importance factor as n = designation for the level that is uppermost
prescribed in Section 13.3.1 in the main portion of the building
i = the building level referred to by the PGA = mapped MCEG peak ground acceleration
subscript i; i = 1 designates the first level shown in Figs. 22-6 through 22-10
above the base PGAM = MCEG peak ground acceleration adjusted
Kp = the stiffness of the component or attach- for Site Class effects; see Section 11.8.3
ment, Section 13.6.2 Px = total unfactored vertical design load at and
Ky = the lateral stiffness of the foundation as above level x, for use in Section 12.8.7
defined in Section 19.2.1.1 (lb/in. or N/m) PI = plasticity index, ASTM D4318
Kθ = the rocking stiffness of the foundation as QE = effect of horizontal seismic (earthquake-
defined in Section 19.2.1.1 (ft-lb/degree induced) forces
or N-m/rad) R = response modification coefficient as given
KL/r = the lateral slenderness ratio of a compres- in Tables 12.2-1, 12.14-1, 15.4-1, or
sion member measured in terms of its 15.4-2
effective length, KL, and the least radius Rp = component response modification factor
of gyration of the member cross section, r as defined in Section 13.3.1
k = distribution exponent given in Section r = a characteristic length of the foundation
_ 12.8.3 as defined in Section 19.2.1.2
k = stiffness of the building as determined in ra = characteristic foundation length as defined
Section 19.2.1.1 (lb/ft or N/m) by Eq. 19.2-7 (ft or m)

63
CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

rm = characteristic foundation length as defined Vt = design value of the seismic base shear as
by Eq. 19.2-8 (ft or m) determined in Section 12.9.4
SS = mapped MCER, 5 percent damped, Vx = seismic design shear in story x as deter-
spectral response acceleration parameter mined in Section 12.8.4 or 12.9.4
at short periods as defined in Section Ṽ = reduced base shear accounting for the
11.4.1 effects of soil structure interaction as
S1 = mapped MCER, 5 percent damped, determined in Section 19.3.1
spectral response acceleration parameter Ṽ1 = portion of the reduced base shear, Ṽ,
at a period of 1 s as defined in Section contributed by the fundamental mode,
11.4.1 Section 19.3 (kip or kN)
SaM = the site-specific MCER spectral response ΔV = reduction in V as determined in Section
acceleration parameter at any period 19.3.1 (kip or kN)
SDS = design, 5 percent damped, spectral ΔV1 = reduction in V1 as determined in Section
response acceleration parameter at short 19.3.1 (kip or kN)
periods as defined in Section 11.4.4 vs = shear wave velocity at small shear strains
SD1 = design, 5 percent damped, spectral (greater than 10–3 percent strain); see
response acceleration parameter at a _ Section 19.2.1 (ft/s or m/s)
period of 1 s as defined in Section 11.4.4 vs = average shear wave velocity at small
SMS = the MCER, 5 percent damped, spectral shear strains in top 100 ft (30 m); see
response acceleration parameter at short Sections 20.3.3 and 20.4.1
periods adjusted for site class effects as vsi = the shear wave velocity of any soil
defined in Section 11.4.3 or rock layer i (between 0 and 100 ft
SM1 = the MCER, 5 percent damped, spectral [30 m]); see Section 20.4.1
response acceleration parameter at a vso = average shear wave velocity for the
period of 1 s adjusted for site class effects soils beneath the foundation at small
as defined in Section 11.4.3 strain levels, Section 19.2.1.1
su = undrained shear strength; see Section (ft/s or m/s)
_ 20.4.3 W = effective seismic weight of the building
su = average undrained shear strength in top as defined in Section 12.7.2. For calcula-
100 ft (30 m); see Sections 20.3.3 and tion of seismic-isolated building period,
20.4.3, ASTM D2166 or ASTM D2850 W is the total effective seismic weight of
sui = undrained shear strength of any cohesive the building as defined in Sections 19.2
soil layer i (between 0 and 100 ft [30 m]); _ and 19.3 (kip or kN)
see Section 20.4.3 W = effective seismic weight of the building
sh = spacing of special lateral reinforcement as defined in Sections 19.2 and 19.3 (kip
(in. or mm) or kN)
T = the fundamental period of the building Wc = gravity load of a component of the
T̃, T̃1 = the effective fundamental period(s) of the building
building as determined in Sections Wp = component operating weight (lb or N)
19.2.1.1 and 19.3.1 w = moisture content (in percent), ASTM
Ta = approximate fundamental period of the D2216
building as determined in Section 12.8.2 wi, wn, wx = portion of W that is located at or assigned
TL = long-period transition period as defined in to Level i, n, or x, respectively
Section 11.4.5 x = level under consideration, 1 designates
Tp = fundamental period of the component and the first level above the base
its attachment, Section 13.6.2 z = height in structure of point of attachment
T0 = 0.2SD1/SDS of component with respect to the base;
TS = SD1/SDS see Section 13.3.1
T4 = net tension in steel cable due to dead β = ratio of shear demand to shear capacity
load, prestress, live load, and seismic load _ for the story between Level x and x – 1
(Section 14.1.7) β = fraction of critical damping for the
V = total design lateral force or shear at the coupled structure-foundation system,
base determined in Section 19.2.1

64
MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

β0 = foundation damping factor as specified in


User Note: Electronic values of mapped
Section 19.2.1.2
acceleration parameters, and other seismic design
γ = average unit weight of soil (lb/ft3 or N/m3)
parameters, are provided at the USGS Web site at
Δ = design story drift as determined in
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps, or through
Section 12.8.6
the SEI Web site at http://content.seinstitute.org.
Δfallout = the relative seismic displacement (drift) at
which glass fallout from the curtain wall,
storefront, or partition occurs 11.4.2 Site Class
Δa = allowable story drift as specified in Based on the site soil properties, the site shall be
Section 12.12.1 classified as Site Class A, B, C, D, E, or F in accor-
δmax = maximum displacement at Level x, dance with Chapter 20. Where the soil properties are
considering torsion, Section 12.8.4.3 not known in sufficient detail to determine the site
δM = maximum inelastic response displace- class, Site Class D shall be used unless the authority
ment, considering torsion, Section 12.12.3 having jurisdiction or geotechnical data determines
δMT = total separation distance between adjacent Site Class E or F soils are present at the site.
structures on the same property, Section 11.4.3 Site Coefficients and Risk-Targeted
12.12.3 Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER)
δavg = the average of the displacements at the Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters
extreme points of the structure at Level x, The MCER spectral response acceleration
Section 12.8.4.3 parameter for short periods (SMS) and at 1 s (SM1),
δx = deflection of Level x at the center of the adjusted for Site Class effects, shall be determined
mass at and above Level x, Eq. 12.8-15 by Eqs. 11.4-1 and 11.4-2, respectively.
δxe = deflection of Level x at the center of the
mass at and above Level x determined by SMS = FaSS (11.4-1)
an elastic analysis, Section 12.8-6 SM1 = FvS1 (11.4-2)
δxm = modal deflection of Level x at the center
of the mass at and above Level x as where
_ _ determined by Section 19.3.2 SS = the mapped MCER spectral response acceleration
δx , δx1 = deflection of Level x at the center of the parameter at short periods as determined in
mass at and above Level x, Eqs. 19.2-13 accordance with Section 11.4.1, and
and 19.3-3 (in. or mm) S1 = the mapped MCER spectral response acceleration
θ = stability coefficient for P-delta effects as parameter at a period of 1 s as determined in
determined in Section 12.8.7 accordance with Section 11.4.1
ρ = a redundancy factor based on the extent
where site coefficients Fa and Fv are defined in Tables
of structural redundancy present in a
11.4-1 and 11.4-2, respectively. Where the simplified
building as defined in Section 12.3.4
design procedure of Section 12.14 is used, the value
ρs = spiral reinforcement ratio for precast,
of Fa shall be determined in accordance with Section
prestressed piles in Section 14.2.3.2.6
12.14.8.1, and the values for Fv, SMS, and SM1 need not
λ = time effect factor
be determined.
Ω0 = overstrength factor as defined in Tables
12.2-1, 15.4-1, and 15.4-2 11.4.4 Design Spectral Acceleration Parameters
Design earthquake spectral response acceleration
parameter at short period, SDS, and at 1 s period, SD1,
11.4 SEISMIC GROUND MOTION VALUES shall be determined from Eqs. 11.4-3 and 11.4-4,
respectively. Where the alternate simplified design
11.4.1 Mapped Acceleration Parameters procedure of Section 12.14 is used, the value of SDS
The parameters SS and S1 shall be determined from shall be determined in accordance with Section
the 0.2 and 1 s spectral response accelerations shown on 12.14.8.1, and the value for SD1 need not be determined.
Figs. 22-1, 22-3, 22-5, and 22-6 for SS and Figs. 22-2,
2
22-4, 22-5, and 22-6 for S1. Where S1 is less than or equal SDS = SMS (11.4-3)
to 0.04 and SS is less than or equal to 0.15, the structure is 3
permitted to be assigned to Seismic Design Category A 2
S D1 = SM 1 (11.4-4)
and is only required to comply with Section 11.7. 3

65
CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

Table 11.4-1 Site Coefficient, Fa

Mapped Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) Spectral Response Acceleration


Parameter at Short Period

Site Class SS ≤ 0.25 SS = 0.5 SS = 0.75 SS = 1.0 SS ≥ 1.25


A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0
D 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0
E 2.5 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.9
F See Section 11.4.7
Note: Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of SS.

Table 11.4-2 Site Coefficient, Fv

Mapped Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) Spectral Response Acceleration


Parameter at 1-s Period

Site Class S1 ≤ 0.1 S1 = 0.2 S1 = 0.3 S1 = 0.4 S1 ≥ 0.5


A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3
D 2.4 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5
E 3.5 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.4
F See Section 11.4.7
Note: Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of S1.

1. For periods less than T0, the design spectral


SDS response acceleration, Sa, shall be taken as given
by Eq. 11.4-5:
Spectral Response Acceleration,Sa (g)

SD1
Sa =
⎛ T ⎞
T
Sa = SDS ⎜ 0.4 + 0.6 ⎟ (11.4-5)
⎝ T0 ⎠
SD1 SD1⋅TL
2. For periods greater than or equal to T0 and less
Sa =
T2 than or equal to TS, the design spectral response
acceleration, Sa, shall be taken equal to SDS.
3. For periods greater than TS, and less than or equal
to TL, the design spectral response acceleration, Sa,
0
shall be taken as given by Eq. 11.4-6:
0 1.01
T0 TS TL
Period, T (sec) S D1
Sa = (11.4-6)
FIGURE 11.4-1 Design Response Spectrum. T
4. For periods greater than TL, Sa shall be taken as
given by Eq. 11.4-7:
11.4.5 Design Response Spectrum SD1TL
Sa = (11.4-7)
Where a design response spectrum is required by T2
this standard and site-specific ground motion proce-
where
dures are not used, the design response spectrum
curve shall be developed as indicated in Fig. 11.4-1 SDS = the design spectral response acceleration
and as follows: parameter at short periods

66
MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

SD1 = the design spectral response acceleration parameter at 1-s period, S1, is greater than or equal to
parameter at 1-s period 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design Category E.
T = the fundamental period of the structure, s Risk Category IV structures located where the
S mapped spectral response acceleration parameter at
T0 = 0.2 D1
SDS 1-s period, S1, is greater than or equal to 0.75 shall be
S D1 assigned to Seismic Design Category F. All other
TS = and
SDS structures shall be assigned to a Seismic Design
TL = long-period transition period (s) shown in Category based on their Risk Category and the design
Figs. 22-12 through 22-16. spectral response acceleration parameters, SDS and SD1,
determined in accordance with Section 11.4.4. Each
11.4.6 Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered building and structure shall be assigned to the more
(MCER) Response Spectrum severe Seismic Design Category in accordance with
Where an MCER response spectrum is required, it Table 11.6-1 or 11.6-2, irrespective of the fundamen-
shall be determined by multiplying the design tal period of vibration of the structure, T.
response spectrum by 1.5. Where S1 is less than 0.75, the Seismic Design
Category is permitted to be determined from Table
11.4.7 Site-Specific Ground Motion Procedures 11.6-1 alone where all of the following apply:
The site-specific ground motion procedures set
1. In each of the two orthogonal directions, the
forth in Chapter 21 are permitted to be used to
approximate fundamental period of the structure,
determine ground motions for any structure. A site
Ta, determined in accordance with Section 12.8.2.1
response analysis shall be performed in accordance
is less than 0.8Ts, where Ts is determined in
with Section 21.1 for structures on Site Class F sites,
accordance with Section 11.4.5.
unless the exception to Section 20.3.1 is applicable.
2. In each of two orthogonal directions, the funda-
For seismically isolated structures and for structures
mental period of the structure used to calculate the
with damping systems on sites with S1 greater than or
story drift is less than Ts.
equal to 0.6, a ground motion hazard analysis shall be
3. Eq. 12.8-2 is used to determine the seismic
performed in accordance with Section 21.2.
response coefficient Cs.

11.5 IMPORTANCE FACTOR AND


RISK CATEGORY Table 11.6-1 Seismic Design Category Based on
Short Period Response Acceleration Parameter
11.5.1 Importance Factor
An importance factor, IC, shall be assigned to Risk Category
each structure in accordance with Table 1.5-2.
Value of SDS I or II or III IV
11.5.2 Protected Access for Risk Category IV
SDS < 0.167 A A
Where operational access to a Risk Category IV 0.167 ≤ SDS < 0.33 B C
structure is required through an adjacent structure, the 0.33 ≤ SDS < 0.50 C D
adjacent structure shall conform to the requirements 0.50 ≤ SDS D D
for Risk Category IV structures. Where operational
access is less than 10 ft from an interior lot line or
another structure on the same lot, protection from
potential falling debris from adjacent structures shall Table 11.6-2 Seismic Design Category Based on
be provided by the owner of the Risk Category IV 1-S Period Response Acceleration Parameter
structure.
Risk Category
11.6 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY Value of SD1 I or II or III IV

Structures shall be assigned a Seismic Design SD1 < 0.067 A A


0.067 ≤ SD1 < 0.133 B C
Category in accordance with this section.
0.133 ≤ SD1 < 0.20 C D
Risk Category I, II, or III structures located
0.20 ≤ SD1 D D
where the mapped spectral response acceleration

67
CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

4. The diaphragms are rigid as defined in Section Category C, D, E, or F in accordance with this
12.3.1 or for diaphragms that are flexible, the section. An investigation shall be conducted and a
distance between vertical elements of the seismic report shall be submitted that includes an evaluation
force-resisting system does not exceed 40 ft. of the following potential geologic and seismic
hazards:
Where the alternate simplified design procedure of
Section 12.14 is used, the Seismic Design Category is a. Slope instability,
permitted to be determined from Table 11.6-1 alone, b. Liquefaction,
using the value of SDS determined in Section 12.14.8.1. c. Total and differential settlement, and
d. Surface displacement due to faulting or seismically
induced lateral spreading or lateral flow.
11.7 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SEISMIC
The report shall contain recommendations for
DESIGN CATEGORY A
foundation designs or other measures to mitigate the
effects of the previously mentioned hazards.
Buildings and other structures assigned to Seismic
EXCEPTION: Where approved by the authority
Design Category A need only comply with the
having jurisdiction, a site-specific geotechnical report
requirements of Section 1.4. Nonstructural compo-
is not required where prior evaluations of nearby sites
nents in SDC A are exempt from seismic design
with similar soil conditions provide direction relative
requirements. In addition, tanks assigned to Risk
to the proposed construction.
Category IV shall satisfy the freeboard requirement in
Section 15.7.6.1.2.
11.8.3 Additional Geotechnical Investigation
Report Requirements for Seismic Design
11.8 GEOLOGIC HAZARDS AND Categories D through F
GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION The geotechnical investigation report for a
structure assigned to Seismic Design Category
11.8.1 Site Limitation for Seismic Design D, E, or F shall include all of the following, as
Categories E and F applicable:
A structure assigned to Seismic Design Category
1. The determination of dynamic seismic lateral earth
E or F shall not be located where there is a known
pressures on basement and retaining walls due to
potential for an active fault to cause rupture of the
design earthquake ground motions.
ground surface at the structure.
2. The potential for liquefaction and soil strength loss
evaluated for site peak ground acceleration,
11.8.2 Geotechnical Investigation Report earthquake magnitude, and source characteristics
Requirements for Seismic Design Categories C consistent with the MCEG peak ground accelera-
through F tion. Peak ground acceleration shall be determined
A geotechnical investigation report shall be based on either (1) a site-specific study taking into
provided for a structure assigned to Seismic Design account soil amplification effects as specified in

Table 11.8-1 Site Coefficient FPGA

Mapped Maximum Considered Geometric Mean (MCEG) Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA

Site Class PGA ≤ 0.1 PGA = 0.2 PGA = 0.3 PGA = 0.4 PGA ≥ 0.5
A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0
D 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0
E 2.5 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.9
F See Section 11.4.7
Note: Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of PGA.

68
MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

Section 11.4.7 or (2) the peak ground acceleration settlement, lateral soil movement, lateral soil
PGAM, from Eq. 11.8-1. loads on foundations, reduction in foundation
soil-bearing capacity and lateral soil reaction, soil
PGAM = FPGA PGA (Eq. 11.8-1)
downdrag and reduction in axial and lateral soil
where reaction for pile foundations, increases in soil
lateral pressures on retaining walls, and flotation of
PGAM = MCEG peak ground acceleration adjusted for
buried structures.
Site Class effects.
4. Discussion of mitigation measures such as, but
PGA = Mapped MCEG peak ground acceleration
not limited to, selection of appropriate foundation
shown in Figs. 22-6 through 22-10.
type and depths, selection of appropriate structural
FPGA = Site coefficient from Table 11.8-1.
systems to accommodate anticipated displacements
3. Assessment of potential consequences of liquefac- and forces, ground stabilization, or any combina-
tion and soil strength loss, including, but not tion of these measures and how they shall be
limited to, estimation of total and differential considered in the design of the structure.

69
Chapter 16
SEISMIC RESPONSE HISTORY PROCEDURES

16.1 LINEAR RESPONSE horizontal ground motion acceleration components


HISTORY PROCEDURE that shall be selected and scaled from individual
recorded events. Appropriate ground motions shall be
Where linear response history procedure is performed selected from events having magnitudes, fault
the requirements of this chapter shall be satisfied. distance, and source mechanisms that are consistent
with those that control the maximum considered
16.1.1 Analysis Requirements earthquake. Where the required number of recorded
A linear response history analysis shall consist of ground motion pairs is not available, appropriate
an analysis of a linear mathematical model of the simulated ground motion pairs are permitted to be
structure to determine its response, through methods used to make up the total number required. For each
of numerical integration, to suites of ground motion pair of horizontal ground motion components, a
acceleration histories compatible with the design square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) spec-
response spectrum for the site. The analysis shall be trum shall be constructed by taking the SRSS of the 5
performed in accordance with the requirements of this percent-damped response spectra for the scaled
section. components (where an identical scale factor is applied
to both components of a pair). Each pair of motions
16.1.2 Modeling shall be scaled such that in the period range from 0.2T
Mathematical models shall conform to the to 1.5T, the average of the SRSS spectra from all
requirements of Section 12.7. horizontal component pairs does not fall below the
corresponding ordinate of the response spectrum used
16.1.3 Ground Motion in the design, determined in accordance with Section
A suite of not less than three appropriate ground 11.4.5 or 11.4.7.
motions shall be used in the analysis. Ground motion At sites within 3 miles (5 km) of the active fault
shall conform to the requirements of this section. that controls the hazard, each pair of components shall
be rotated to the fault-normal and fault-parallel
16.1.3.1 Two-Dimensional Analysis directions of the causative fault and shall be scaled so
Where two-dimensional analyses are performed, that the average of the fault-normal components is not
each ground motion shall consist of a horizontal less than the MCER response spectrum for the period
acceleration history, selected from an actual recorded range from 0.2T to 1.5T.
event. Appropriate acceleration histories shall be
obtained from records of events having magnitudes, 16.1.4 Response Parameters
fault distance, and source mechanisms that are For each ground motion analyzed, the individual
consistent with those that control the maximum response parameters shall be multiplied by the
considered earthquake. Where the required number of following scalar quantities:
appropriate recorded ground motion records are not
a. Force response parameters shall be multiplied by
available, appropriate simulated ground motion
Ie/R, where Ie is the importance factor determined
records shall be used to make up the total number
in accordance with Section 11.5.1 and R is the
required. The ground motions shall be scaled such
Response Modification Coefficient selected in
that the average value of the 5 percent damped
accordance with Section 12.2.1.
response spectra for the suite of motions is not less
b. Drift quantities shall be multiplied by Cd/R, where
than the design response spectrum for the site for
Cd is the deflection amplification factor specified in
periods ranging from 0.2T to 1.5T where T is the
Table 12.2-1.
natural period of the structure in the fundamental
mode for the direction of response being analyzed. For each ground motion i, where i is the designa-
tion assigned to each ground motion, the maximum
16.1.3.2 Three-Dimensional Analysis value of the base shear, Vi, member forces, QEi, scaled
Where three-dimensional analyses are performed, as indicated in the preceding text and story drifts, Δi,
ground motions shall consist of pairs of appropriate at each story as defined in Section 12.8.6 shall be

161
CHAPTER 16 SEISMIC RESPONSE HISTORY PROCEDURES

determined. Where the maximum scaled base shear structure that directly accounts for the nonlinear
predicted by the analysis, Vi, is less than 85 percent of hysteretic behavior of the structure’s elements to
the value of V determined using the minimum value determine its response through methods of numerical
of Cs set forth in Eq. 12.8-5 or when located where S1 integration to suites of ground motion acceleration
is equal to or greater than 0.6g, the minimum value of histories compatible with the design response spec-
Cs set forth in Eq. 12.8-6, the scaled member forces, trum for the site. The analysis shall be performed in
V accordance with this section. See Section 12.1.1 for
QEi, shall be additionally multiplied by where V is
Vi limitations on the use of this procedure.
the minimum base shear that has been determined
using the minimum value of Cs set forth in Eq. 12.8-5, 16.2.2 Modeling
or when located where S1 is equal to or greater than A mathematical model of the structure shall be
0.6g, the minimum value of Cs set forth in Eq. 12.8-6. constructed that represents the spatial distribution of
Where the maximum scaled base shear predicted by mass throughout the structure. The hysteretic behavior
the analysis, Vi, is less than 0.85CsW, where Cs is of elements shall be modeled consistent with suitable
from Eq. 12.8-6, drifts shall be multiplied by laboratory test data and shall account for all signifi-
CsW cant yielding, strength degradation, stiffness degrada-
0.85 .
Vi tion, and hysteretic pinching indicated by such test
If at least seven ground motions are analyzed, the data. Strength of elements shall be based on expected
design member forces used in the load combinations values considering material overstrength, strain
of Section 12.4.2.1 and the design story drift used in hardening, and hysteretic strength degradation. Linear
the evaluation of drift in accordance with Section properties, consistent with the requirements of Section
12.12.1 are permitted to be taken respectively as the 12.7.3, are permitted to be used for those elements
average of the scaled QEi and Δi values determined demonstrated by the analysis to remain within their
from the analyses and scaled as indicated in the linear range of response. The structure shall be
preceding text. If fewer than seven ground motions assumed to have a fixed-base, or alternatively, it is
are analyzed, the design member forces and the permitted to use realistic assumptions with regard to
design story drift shall be taken as the maximum the stiffness and load-carrying characteristics of the
value of the scaled QEi and Δi values determined from foundations consistent with site-specific soils data and
the analyses. rational principles of engineering mechanics.
Where this standard requires consideration of the For regular structures with independent orthogo-
seismic load effects including overstrength factor of nal seismic force-resisting systems, independent 2-D
Section 12.4.3, the value of Ω0QE need not be taken models are permitted to be constructed to represent
larger than the maximum of the unscaled value, QEi, each system. For structures having a horizontal
obtained from the analyses. structural irregularity of Type 1a, 1b, 4, or 5 of Table
12.3-1 or structures without independent orthogonal
16.1.5 Horizontal Shear Distribution systems, a 3-D model incorporating a minimum of
The distribution of horizontal shear shall be in three dynamic degrees of freedom consisting of
accordance with Section 12.8.4 except that amplifica- translation in two orthogonal plan directions and
tion of torsion in accordance with Section 12.8.4.3 is torsional rotation about the vertical axis at each level
not required where accidental torsion effects are of the structure shall be used. Where the diaphragms
included in the dynamic analysis model. are not rigid compared to the vertical elements of the
seismic force-resisting system, the model should
include representation of the diaphragm’s flexibility
16.2 NONLINEAR RESPONSE and such additional dynamic degrees of freedom as
HISTORY PROCEDURE are required to account for the participation of the
diaphragm in the structure’s dynamic response.
Where nonlinear response history procedure is
performed the requirements of Section 16.2 shall be 16.2.3 Ground Motion and Other Loading
satisfied. Ground motion shall conform to the requirements
of Section 16.1.3. The structure shall be analyzed for
16.2.1 Analysis Requirements the effects of these ground motions simultaneously
A nonlinear response history analysis shall with the effects of dead load in combination with not
consist of an analysis of a mathematical model of the less than 25 percent of the required live loads.

162
MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

16.2.4 Response Parameters considered in these evaluations. Member deformation


For each ground motion analyzed, individual shall not exceed two-thirds of a value that results in
response parameters consisting of the maximum value loss of ability to carry gravity loads or that results in
of the individual member forces, QEi, member deterioration of member strength to less than the 67
inelastic deformations, ψi, and story drifts, Δi, at each percent of the peak value.
story shall be determined, where i is the designation
assigned to each ground motion. 16.2.4.3 Story Drift
If at least seven ground motions are analyzed, the The design story drift, Δi, obtained from the
design values of member forces, QE, member inelastic analyses shall not exceed 125 percent of the drift limit
deformations, ψ, and story drift, Δ, are permitted to specified in Section 12.12.1.
be taken as the average of the QEi, ψi, and Δi values
determined from the analyses. If fewer than seven 16.2.5 Design Review
ground motions are analyzed, the design member A design review of the seismic force-resisting
forces, QE, design member inelastic deformations, ψ, system and the structural analysis shall be performed
and the design story drift, Δ, shall be taken as the by an independent team of registered design profes-
maximum value of the QEi, ψi, and Δi values deter- sionals in the appropriate disciplines and others
mined from the analyses. experienced in seismic analysis methods and the
theory and application of nonlinear seismic analysis
16.2.4.1 Member Strength and structural behavior under extreme cyclic loads.
The adequacy of members to resist the combina- The design review shall include, but need not be
tion of load effects of Section 12.4 need not be limited to, the following:
evaluated. 1. Review of any site-specific seismic criteria
EXCEPTION: Where this standard requires employed in the analysis including the develop-
consideration of the seismic load effects including ment of site-specific spectra and ground motion
overstrength factor of Section 12.4.3, the maximum time histories.
value of QEi obtained from the suite of analyses shall 2. Review of acceptance criteria used to demonstrate
be taken in place of the quantity Ω0QE· the adequacy of structural elements and systems to
withstand the calculated force and deformation
16.2.4.2 Member Deformation demands, together with that laboratory and other
The adequacy of individual members and their data used to substantiate these criteria.
connections to withstand the estimated design 3. Review of the preliminary design including the
deformation values, ψi, as predicted by the analyses selection of structural system and the configuration
shall be evaluated based on laboratory test data for of structural elements.
similar elements. The effects of gravity and other 4. Review of the final design of the entire structural
loads on member deformation capacity shall be system and all supporting analyses.

163