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hydraulic structures, buried utility lines and their

11.1.1 Purpose appurtenances, and nuclear reactors.

Chapter 11 presents criteria for the design and 5. Piers and wharves that are not accessible to the

construction of buildings and other structures subject general public.

to earthquake ground motions. The speciﬁed earth-

quake loads are based upon post-elastic energy 11.1.3 Applicability

dissipation in the structure, and because of this fact, Structures and their nonstructural components

the requirements for design, detailing, and construc- shall be designed and constructed in accordance with

tion shall be satisﬁed even for structures and members the requirement of the following sections based on the

for which load combinations that do not contain type of structure or component:

earthquake loads indicate larger demands than

a. Buildings: Chapter 12

combinations that include earthquake loads. Minimum

b. Nonbuilding Structures: Chapter 15

requirements for quality assurance for seismic

c. Nonstructural Components: Chapter 13

force-resisting systems are set forth in Appendix 11A.

d. Seismically Isolated Structures: Chapter 17

e. Structures with Damping Systems: Chapter 18

11.1.2 Scope

Buildings whose purpose is to enclose equipment or

Every structure, and portion thereof, including

machinery and whose occupants are engaged in

nonstructural components, shall be designed and

maintenance or monitoring of that equipment,

constructed to resist the effects of earthquake motions

machinery or their associated processes shall be

as prescribed by the seismic requirements of this

permitted to be classiﬁed as nonbuilding structures

standard. Certain nonbuilding structures, as described

designed and detailed in accordance with Section 15.5

in Chapter 15, are also within the scope and shall be

of this standard.

designed and constructed in accordance with the

requirements of Chapter 15. Requirements concerning

11.1.4 Alternate Materials and Methods

alterations, additions, and change of use are set forth

of Construction

in Appendix 11B. Existing structures and alterations to

Alternate materials and methods of construction

existing structures need only comply with the seismic

to those prescribed in the seismic requirements of this

requirements of this standard where required by

standard shall not be used unless approved by the

Appendix 11B. The following structures are exempt

authority having jurisdiction. Substantiating evidence

from the seismic requirements of this standard:

shall be submitted demonstrating that the proposed

1. Detached one- and two-family dwellings that are alternate, for the purpose intended, will be at least

located where the mapped, short period, spectral equal in strength, durability, and seismic resistance.

response acceleration parameter, SS, is less than 0.4

or where the Seismic Design Category determined

in accordance with Section 11.6 is A, B, or C. 11.2 DEFINITIONS

2. Detached one- and two-family wood-frame

dwellings not included in Exception 1 with not The following deﬁnitions apply only to the seismic

more than two stories above grade plane, satisfying requirements of this standard.

the limitations of and constructed in accordance ACTIVE FAULT: A fault determined to be

with the IRC. active by the authority having jurisdiction from

3. Agricultural storage structures that are intended properly substantiated data (e.g., most recent mapping

only for incidental human occupancy. of active faults by the United States Geological

4. Structures that require special consideration of their Survey).

response characteristics and environment that are ADDITION: An increase in building area,

not addressed in Chapter 15 and for which other aggregate ﬂoor area, height, or number of stories of a

regulations provide seismic criteria, such as structure.

57

CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

to an existing structure other than an addition. having a fundamental period greater than

APPENDAGE: An architectural component such 0.06 s.

as a canopy, marquee, ornamental balcony, or Component, Rigid: Nonstructural component

statuary. having a fundamental period less than or equal

APPROVAL: The written acceptance by the to 0.06 s.

authority having jurisdiction of documentation

CONCRETE, PLAIN: Concrete that is either

that establishes the qualiﬁcation of a material,

unreinforced or contains less reinforcement than the

system, component, procedure, or person to fulﬁll

minimum amount speciﬁed in ACI 318 for reinforced

the requirements of this standard for the intended

concrete.

use.

CONCRETE, REINFORCED: Concrete

ATTACHMENTS: Means by which nonstruc-

reinforced with no less reinforcement than the

tural components or supports of nonstructural compo-

minimum amount required by ACI 318 prestressed

nents are secured or connected to the seismic

or nonprestressed, and designed on the assumption

force-resisting system of the structure. Such attach-

that the two materials act together in resisting

ments include anchor bolts, welded connections, and

forces.

mechanical fasteners.

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS: The

BASE: The level at which the horizontal seismic

written, graphic, electronic, and pictorial documents

ground motions are considered to be imparted to the

describing the design, locations, and physical charac-

structure.

teristics of the project required to verify compliance

BASE SHEAR: Total design lateral force or

with this standard.

shear at the base.

COUPLING BEAM: A beam that is used to

BOUNDARY ELEMENTS: Diaphragm and

connect adjacent concrete wall elements to make them

shear wall boundary members to which the diaphragm

act together as a unit to resist lateral loads.

transfers forces. Boundary members include chords

DEFORMABILITY: The ratio of the ultimate

and drag struts at diaphragm and shear wall perim-

deformation to the limit deformation.

eters, interior openings, discontinuities, and reentrant

corners. High-Deformability Element: An element

BOUNDARY MEMBERS: Portions along wall whose deformability is not less than 3.5 where

and diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal and subjected to four fully reversed cycles at the

transverse reinforcement. Boundary members include limit deformation.

chords and drag struts at diaphragm and shear wall Limited-Deformability Element: An element

perimeters, interior openings, discontinuities, and that is neither a low-deformability nor a

reentrant corners. high-deformability element.

BUILDING: Any structure whose intended use Low-Deformability Element: An element whose

includes shelter of human occupants. deformability is 1.5 or less.

CANTILEVERED COLUMN SYSTEM: A

seismic force-resisting system in which lateral forces DEFORMATION:

are resisted entirely by columns acting as cantilevers Limit Deformation: Two times the initial

from the base. deformation that occurs at a load equal to 40

CHARACTERISTIC EARTHQUAKE: An percent of the maximum strength.

earthquake assessed for an active fault having a Ultimate Deformation: The deformation at

magnitude equal to the best estimate of the maximum which failure occurs and that shall be deemed

magnitude capable of occurring on the fault, but not to occur if the sustainable load reduces to 80

less than the largest magnitude that has occurred percent or less of the maximum strength.

historically on the fault.

COMPONENT: A part of an architectural, DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEMS: Those

electrical, or mechanical system. nonstructural components that require design in

accordance with Chapter 13 and for which the

Component, Nonstructural: A part of an component importance factor, Ip, is greater than 1.0.

architectural, mechanical, or electrical system DESIGN EARTHQUAKE: The earthquake

within or without a building or nonbuilding effects that are two-thirds of the corresponding

structure. Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) effects.

58

MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

MOTION: The earthquake ground motions that are joints resist lateral forces by ﬂexure as well as

two-thirds of the corresponding MCER ground along the axis of the members. Moment frames

motions. are categorized as intermediate moment frames

DIAPHRAGM: Roof, ﬂoor, or other membrane (IMF), ordinary moment frames (OMF), and

or bracing system acting to transfer the lateral forces special moment frames (SMF).

to the vertical resisting elements. Structural System:

DIAPHRAGM BOUNDARY: A location where Building Frame System: A structural system

shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm with an essentially complete space frame

element. Transfer is either to a boundary element or providing support for vertical loads. Seismic

to another force-resisting element. force resistance is provided by shear walls or

DIAPHRAGM CHORD: A diaphragm bound- braced frames.

ary element perpendicular to the applied load that is Dual System: A structural system with an

assumed to take axial stresses due to the diaphragm essentially complete space frame providing

moment. support for vertical loads. Seismic force

DRAG STRUT (COLLECTOR, TIE, DIA- resistance is provided by moment-resisting

PHRAGM STRUT): A diaphragm or shear wall frames and shear walls or braced frames as

boundary element parallel to the applied load that prescribed in Section 12.2.5.1.

collects and transfers diaphragm shear forces to the Shear Wall-Frame Interactive System: A

vertical force-resisting elements or distributes forces structural system that uses combinations of

within the diaphragm or shear wall. ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls and

ENCLOSURE: An interior space surrounded by ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames

walls. designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to

EQUIPMENT SUPPORT: Those structural their rigidities considering interaction between

members or assemblies of members or manufactured shear walls and frames on all levels.

elements, including braces, frames, legs, lugs, Space Frame System: A 3-D structural system

snuggers, hangers, or saddles that transmit gravity composed of interconnected members, other

loads and operating loads between the equipment and than bearing walls, that is capable of support-

the structure. ing vertical loads and, where designed for such

FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS: Those connec- an application, is capable of providing resis-

tions between equipment components that permit tance to seismic forces.

rotational and/or translational movement without

degradation of performance. Examples include FRICTION CLIP: A device that relies on

universal joints, bellows expansion joints, and ﬂexible friction to resist applied loads in one or more direc-

metal hose. tions to anchor a nonstructural component. Friction is

FRAME: provided mechanically and is not due to gravity loads.

GLAZED CURTAIN WALL: A nonbearing

Braced Frame: An essentially vertical truss, or wall that extends beyond the edges of building ﬂoor

its equivalent, of the concentric or eccentric slabs, and includes a glazing material installed in the

type that is provided in a building frame curtain wall framing.

system or dual system to resist seismic GLAZED STOREFRONT: A nonbearing wall

forces. that is installed between ﬂoor slabs, typically includ-

Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF): A ing entrances, and includes a glazing material installed

braced frame in which the members are in the storefront framing.

subjected primarily to axial forces. CBFs are GRADE PLANE: A horizontal reference plane

categorized as ordinary concentrically braced representing the average of ﬁnished ground level

frames (OCBFs) or special concentrically adjoining the structure at all exterior walls. Where the

braced frames (SCBFs). ﬁnished ground level slopes away from the exterior

Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF): A walls, the grade plane is established by the lowest

diagonally braced frame in which at least points within the area between the structure and the

one end of each brace frames into a beam a property line or, where the property line is more than 6

short distance from a beam-column or from ft (1,829 mm) from the structure, between the structure

another diagonal brace. and points 6 ft (1,829 mm) from the structure.

59

CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

the work by a special inspector to determine compli- ERED EARTHQUAKE (MCER) GROUND

ance with the approved construction documents and MOTION RESPONSE ACCELERATION: The

these standards in accordance with the quality most severe earthquake effects considered by this

assurance plan. standard determined for the orientation that results in

the largest maximum response to horizontal ground

Continuous Special Inspection: The full-time

motions and with adjustment for targeted risk. In

observation of the work by a special inspector

this standard, general procedures for determining

who is present in the area where work is being

the MCER Ground Motion values are provided in

performed.

Section 11.4.3; site-speciﬁc procedures are provided

Periodic Special Inspection: The part-time or

in Sections 21.1 and 21.2.

intermittent observation of the work by a

MECHANICALLY ANCHORED TANKS OR

special inspector who is present in the area

VESSELS: Tanks or vessels provided with mechani-

where work has been or is being performed.

cal anchors to resist overturning moments.

INSPECTOR, SPECIAL (who shall be identi- NONBUILDING STRUCTURE: A structure,

ﬁed as the owner’s inspector): A person approved other than a building, constructed of a type included

by the authority having jurisdiction to perform special in Chapter 15 and within the limits of Section 15.1.1.

inspection. NONBUILDING STRUCTURE SIMILAR TO

INVERTED PENDULUM-TYPE STRUC- A BUILDING: A nonbuilding structure that is

TURES: Structures in which more than 50 percent of designed and constructed in a manner similar to

the structure’s mass is concentrated at the top of a buildings, will respond to strong ground motion in a

slender, cantilevered structure and in which stability fashion similar to buildings, and has a basic lateral

of the mass at the top of the structure relies on and vertical seismic force-resisting system conforming

rotational restraint to the top of the cantilevered to one of the types indicated in Tables 12.2-1 or

element. 15.4-1.

JOINT: The geometric volume common to ORTHOGONAL: To be in two horizontal

intersecting members. directions, at 90° to each other.

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION: A method OWNER: Any person, agent, ﬁrm, or corporation

of construction where the structural assemblies (e.g., having a legal or equitable interest in the property.

walls, ﬂoors, ceilings, and roofs) are primarily formed PARTITION: A nonstructural interior wall that

by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel spans horizontally or vertically from support to

framing members or subassemblies of these members support. The supports may be the basic building

(e.g., trusses). frame, subsidiary structural members, or other

LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT portions of the partition system.

RATIO: Area of longitudinal reinforcement divided P-DELTA EFFECT: The secondary effect on

by the cross-sectional area of the concrete. shears and moments of structural members due to the

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE action of the vertical loads induced by horizontal

(MCE) GROUND MOTION: The most severe displacement of the structure resulting from various

earthquake effects considered by this standard more loading conditions.

speciﬁcally deﬁned in the following two terms. PILE: Deep foundation element, which includes

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE piers, caissons, and piles.

GEOMETRIC MEAN (MCEG) PEAK GROUND PILE CAP: Foundation elements to which piles

ACCELERATION: The most severe earthquake are connected including grade beams and mats.

effects considered by this standard determined for REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL:

geometric mean peak ground acceleration and An architect or engineer, registered or licensed to

without adjustment for targeted risk. The MCEG practice professional architecture or engineering, as

peak ground acceleration adjusted for site effects deﬁned by the statutory requirements of the profes-

(PGAM) is used in this standard for evaluation of sional registrations laws of the state in which the

liquefaction, lateral spreading, seismic settlements, project is to be constructed.

and other soil related issues. In this standard, general SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY: A classiﬁca-

procedures for determining PGAM are provided in tion assigned to a structure based on its Risk Category

Section 11.8.3; site-speciﬁc procedures are provided and the severity of the design earthquake ground

in Section 21.5. motion at the site as deﬁned in Section 11.4.

60

MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

That part of the structural system that has been forces in such combinations as stipulated by

considered in the design to provide the required this standard.

resistance to the seismic forces prescribed herein.

STRUCTURAL HEIGHT: The vertical distance

SEISMIC FORCES: The assumed forces

from the base to the highest level of the seismic

prescribed herein, related to the response of the

force-resisting system of the structure. For pitched or

structure to earthquake motions, to be used in the

sloped roofs, the structural height is from the base to

design of the structure and its components.

the average height of the roof.

SELF-ANCHORED TANKS OR VESSELS:

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS: The

Tanks or vessels that are stable under design overturn-

visual observations to determine that the seismic

ing moment without the need for mechanical anchors

force-resisting system is constructed in general

to resist uplift.

conformance with the construction documents.

SHEAR PANEL: A ﬂoor, roof, or wall element

STRUCTURE: That which is built or con-

sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.

structed and limited to buildings and nonbuilding

SITE CLASS: A classiﬁcation assigned to a site

structures as deﬁned herein.

based on the types of soils present and their engineer-

SUBDIAPHRAGM: A portion of a diaphragm

ing properties as deﬁned in Chapter 20.

used to transfer wall anchorage forces to diaphragm

STORAGE RACKS: Include industrial pallet

cross ties.

racks, moveable shelf racks, and stacker racks made

SUPPORTS: Those members, assemblies of

of cold-formed or hot-rolled structural members. Does

members, or manufactured elements, including braces,

not include other types of racks such as drive-in and

frames, legs, lugs, snubbers, hangers, saddles, or

drive-through racks, cantilever racks, portable racks,

struts, and associated fasteners that transmit loads

or racks made of materials other than steel.

between nonstructural components and their attach-

STORY: The portion of a structure between the

ments to the structure.

tops of two successive ﬂoor surfaces and, for the

TESTING AGENCY: A company or

topmost story, from the top of the ﬂoor surface to the

corporation that provides testing and/or inspection

top of the roof surface.

services.

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE: A story in

VENEERS: Facings or ornamentation of brick,

which the ﬂoor or roof surface at the top of the story

concrete, stone, tile, or similar materials attached to a

is more than 6 ft (1,828 mm) above grade plane or is

backing.

more than 12 ft (3,658 mm) above the ﬁnished ground

WALL: A component that has a slope of 60° or

level at any point on the perimeter of the structure.

greater with the horizontal plane used to enclose or

STORY DRIFT: The horizontal deﬂection at the

divide space.

top of the story relative to the bottom of the story as

determined in Section 12.8.6. Bearing Wall: Any wall meeting either of the

STORY DRIFT RATIO: The story drift, as following classiﬁcations:

determined in Section 12.8.6, divided by the story 1. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports

height, hsx. more than 100 lb/linear ft (1,459 N/m) of

STORY SHEAR: The summation of design vertical load in addition to its own weight.

lateral seismic forces at levels above the story under 2. Any concrete or masonry wall that supports

consideration. more than 200 lb/linear ft (2,919 N/m) of

STRENGTH: vertical load in addition to its own weight.

Light Frame Wall: A wall with wood or steel

Design Strength: Nominal strength multiplied by studs.

a strength reduction factor, ϕ. Light Frame Wood Shear Wall: A wall

Nominal Strength: Strength of a member or constructed with wood studs and sheathed with

cross-section calculated in accordance with the material rated for shear resistance.

requirements and assumptions of the strength Nonbearing Wall: Any wall that is not a bearing

design methods of this standard (or the wall.

reference documents) before application of any Nonstructural Wall: All walls other than bearing

strength-reduction factors. walls or shear walls.

Required Strength: Strength of a member, Shear Wall (Vertical Diaphragm): A wall,

cross-section, or connection required to resist bearing or nonbearing, designed to resist lateral

61

CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

forces acting in the plane of the wall (some- Cs = seismic response coefﬁcient determined in

times referred to as a “vertical diaphragm”). Section 12.8.1.1 and 19.3.1 (dimensionless)

Structural Wall: Walls that meet the deﬁnition CT = building period coefﬁcient in Section

for bearing walls or shear walls. 12.8.2.1

Cvx = vertical distribution factor as determined

WALL SYSTEM, BEARING: A structural

in Section 12.8.3

system with bearing walls providing support for all or

c = distance from the neutral axis of a

major portions of the vertical loads. Shear walls or

ﬂexural member to the ﬁber of maximum

braced frames provide seismic force resistance.

compressive strain (in. or mm)

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL: A wood-

D = the effect of dead load

based panel product that meets the requirements of

Dclear = relative horizontal (drift) displacement,

DOC PS1 or DOC PS2 and is bonded with a water-

measured over the height of the glass

proof adhesive. Included under this designation are

panel under consideration, which causes

plywood, oriented strand board, and composite

initial glass-to-frame contact. For rectan-

panels.

gular glass panels within a rectangular

wall frame, Dclear is set forth in Section

13.5.9.1

11.3 SYMBOLS

DpI = seismic relative displacement; see Section

13.3.2

The unit dimensions used with the items covered by

Ds = the total depth of stratum in Eq. 19.2-12

the symbols shall be consistent throughout except

(ft or m)

where speciﬁcally noted. Symbols presented in this

dC = The total thickness of cohesive soil layers

section apply only to the seismic requirements in this

in the top 100 ft (30 m); see Section

standard as indicated.

20.4.3 (ft or m)

Ach = cross-sectional area (in.2 or mm2) of a di = The thickness of any soil or rock layer i

structural member measured out-to-out of (between 0 and 100 ft [30 m]); see

transverse reinforcement Section 20.4.1 (ft or m)

A0 = area of the load-carrying foundation dS = The total thickness of cohesionless soil

(ft2 or m2) layers in the top 100 ft (30 m); see

Ash = total cross-sectional area of hoop rein- Section 20.4.2 (ft or m)

forcement (in.2 or mm2), including E = effect of horizontal and vertical earth-

supplementary cross-ties, having a quake-induced forces (Section 12.4)

spacing of sh and crossing a section with Fa = short-period site coefﬁcient (at 0.2

a core dimension of hc s-period); see Section 11.4.3

Avd = required area of leg (in.2 or mm2) of Fi, Fn, Fx = portion of the seismic base shear, V,

diagonal reinforcement induced at Level i, n, or x, respectively,

Ax = torsional ampliﬁcation factor (Section as determined in Section 12.8.3

12.8.4.3) Fp = the seismic force acting on a component

ai = the acceleration at level i obtained from a of a structure as determined in Sections

modal analysis (Section 13.3.1) 12.11.1 and 13.3.1

ap = the ampliﬁcation factor related to the FPGA = site coefﬁcient for PGA; see Section 11.8.3

response of a system or component as Fv = long-period site coefﬁcient (at 1.0

affected by the type of seismic attach- s-period); see Section 11.4.3

ment, determined in Section 13.3.1 fc′ = speciﬁed compressive strength of concrete

bp = the width of the rectangular glass panel used in design

Cd = deﬂection ampliﬁcation factor as given in fs′ = ultimate tensile strength (psi or MPa) of the

Tables 12.2-1, 15.4-1, or 15.4-2 bolt, stud, or insert leg wires. For ASTM

CR = site-speciﬁc risk coefﬁcient at any period; A307 bolts or A108 studs, it is permitted to

see Section 21.2.1.1 be assumed to be 60,000 psi (415 MPa)

CRS = mapped value of the risk coefﬁcient at fy = speciﬁed yield strength of reinforcement

short periods as given by Fig. 22-17 (psi or MPa)

CR1 = mapped value of the risk coefﬁcient at a fyh = speciﬁed yield strength of the special

period of 1 s as given by Fig. 22-18 lateral reinforcement (psi or kPa)

62

MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

G = γυ2s /g = the average shear modulus for the ka = coefﬁcient deﬁned in Sections 12.11.2

soils beneath the foundation at and 12.14.7.5

large strain levels (psf or Pa) L = overall length of the building (ft or m) at

G0 = γυ2s0 /g = the average shear modulus for the base in the direction being analyzed

the soils beneath the foundation L0 = overall length of the side of the founda-

at small strain levels (psf or Pa) tion in the direction being analyzed,

g = acceleration due to gravity Section 19.2.1.2 (ft or m)

H = thickness of soil M0, M01 = the overturning moment at the founda-

h = height of a shear wall measured as the tion–soil interface as determined in

maximum clear height from top of Sections 19.2.3 and 19.3.2 (ft-lb or N-m)

foundation to bottom of diaphragm Mt = torsional moment resulting from eccen-

framing above, or the maximum clear tricity between the locations of center of

height from top of diaphragm to bottom mass and the center of rigidity (Section

of diaphragm framing above 12.8.4.1)

h = average roof height of structure with Mta = accidental torsional moment as deter-

_ respect to the base; see Chapter 13 mined in Section 12.8.4.2

h = effective height of the building as m = a subscript denoting the mode of vibra-

determined in Section 19.2.1.1 or 19.3.1 tion under consideration; that is, m = 1

(ft or m) for the fundamental mode

hc = core dimension of a component measured N = standard penetration resistance, ASTM

to the outside of the special lateral D-1586

reinforcement (in. or mm) N = number of stories above the base (Section

hi, hx = the height above the base to Level i or x, _ 12.8.2.1)

respectively N = average ﬁeld standard penetration

hn = structural height as deﬁned in Section 11.2 resistance for the top 100 ft (30 m); see

hp = the height of the rectangular glass panel _ Sections 20.3.3 and 20.4.2

hsx = the story height below Level Nch = average standard penetration resistance

x = (hx – hx–1) for cohesionless soil layers for the top

Ie = the importance factor as prescribed in 100 ft (30 m); see Sections 20.3.3 and

Section 11.5.1 20.4.2

I0 = the static moment of inertia of the Ni = standard penetration resistance of any

load-carrying foundation; see Section soil or rock layer i (between 0 and 100 ft

19.2.1.1 (in.4 or mm4) [30 m]); see Section 20.4.2

Ip = the component importance factor as n = designation for the level that is uppermost

prescribed in Section 13.3.1 in the main portion of the building

i = the building level referred to by the PGA = mapped MCEG peak ground acceleration

subscript i; i = 1 designates the ﬁrst level shown in Figs. 22-6 through 22-10

above the base PGAM = MCEG peak ground acceleration adjusted

Kp = the stiffness of the component or attach- for Site Class effects; see Section 11.8.3

ment, Section 13.6.2 Px = total unfactored vertical design load at and

Ky = the lateral stiffness of the foundation as above level x, for use in Section 12.8.7

deﬁned in Section 19.2.1.1 (lb/in. or N/m) PI = plasticity index, ASTM D4318

Kθ = the rocking stiffness of the foundation as QE = effect of horizontal seismic (earthquake-

deﬁned in Section 19.2.1.1 (ft-lb/degree induced) forces

or N-m/rad) R = response modiﬁcation coefﬁcient as given

KL/r = the lateral slenderness ratio of a compres- in Tables 12.2-1, 12.14-1, 15.4-1, or

sion member measured in terms of its 15.4-2

effective length, KL, and the least radius Rp = component response modiﬁcation factor

of gyration of the member cross section, r as deﬁned in Section 13.3.1

k = distribution exponent given in Section r = a characteristic length of the foundation

_ 12.8.3 as deﬁned in Section 19.2.1.2

k = stiffness of the building as determined in ra = characteristic foundation length as deﬁned

Section 19.2.1.1 (lb/ft or N/m) by Eq. 19.2-7 (ft or m)

63

CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

rm = characteristic foundation length as deﬁned Vt = design value of the seismic base shear as

by Eq. 19.2-8 (ft or m) determined in Section 12.9.4

SS = mapped MCER, 5 percent damped, Vx = seismic design shear in story x as deter-

spectral response acceleration parameter mined in Section 12.8.4 or 12.9.4

at short periods as deﬁned in Section Ṽ = reduced base shear accounting for the

11.4.1 effects of soil structure interaction as

S1 = mapped MCER, 5 percent damped, determined in Section 19.3.1

spectral response acceleration parameter Ṽ1 = portion of the reduced base shear, Ṽ,

at a period of 1 s as deﬁned in Section contributed by the fundamental mode,

11.4.1 Section 19.3 (kip or kN)

SaM = the site-speciﬁc MCER spectral response ΔV = reduction in V as determined in Section

acceleration parameter at any period 19.3.1 (kip or kN)

SDS = design, 5 percent damped, spectral ΔV1 = reduction in V1 as determined in Section

response acceleration parameter at short 19.3.1 (kip or kN)

periods as deﬁned in Section 11.4.4 vs = shear wave velocity at small shear strains

SD1 = design, 5 percent damped, spectral (greater than 10–3 percent strain); see

response acceleration parameter at a _ Section 19.2.1 (ft/s or m/s)

period of 1 s as deﬁned in Section 11.4.4 vs = average shear wave velocity at small

SMS = the MCER, 5 percent damped, spectral shear strains in top 100 ft (30 m); see

response acceleration parameter at short Sections 20.3.3 and 20.4.1

periods adjusted for site class effects as vsi = the shear wave velocity of any soil

deﬁned in Section 11.4.3 or rock layer i (between 0 and 100 ft

SM1 = the MCER, 5 percent damped, spectral [30 m]); see Section 20.4.1

response acceleration parameter at a vso = average shear wave velocity for the

period of 1 s adjusted for site class effects soils beneath the foundation at small

as deﬁned in Section 11.4.3 strain levels, Section 19.2.1.1

su = undrained shear strength; see Section (ft/s or m/s)

_ 20.4.3 W = effective seismic weight of the building

su = average undrained shear strength in top as deﬁned in Section 12.7.2. For calcula-

100 ft (30 m); see Sections 20.3.3 and tion of seismic-isolated building period,

20.4.3, ASTM D2166 or ASTM D2850 W is the total effective seismic weight of

sui = undrained shear strength of any cohesive the building as deﬁned in Sections 19.2

soil layer i (between 0 and 100 ft [30 m]); _ and 19.3 (kip or kN)

see Section 20.4.3 W = effective seismic weight of the building

sh = spacing of special lateral reinforcement as deﬁned in Sections 19.2 and 19.3 (kip

(in. or mm) or kN)

T = the fundamental period of the building Wc = gravity load of a component of the

T̃, T̃1 = the effective fundamental period(s) of the building

building as determined in Sections Wp = component operating weight (lb or N)

19.2.1.1 and 19.3.1 w = moisture content (in percent), ASTM

Ta = approximate fundamental period of the D2216

building as determined in Section 12.8.2 wi, wn, wx = portion of W that is located at or assigned

TL = long-period transition period as deﬁned in to Level i, n, or x, respectively

Section 11.4.5 x = level under consideration, 1 designates

Tp = fundamental period of the component and the ﬁrst level above the base

its attachment, Section 13.6.2 z = height in structure of point of attachment

T0 = 0.2SD1/SDS of component with respect to the base;

TS = SD1/SDS see Section 13.3.1

T4 = net tension in steel cable due to dead β = ratio of shear demand to shear capacity

load, prestress, live load, and seismic load _ for the story between Level x and x – 1

(Section 14.1.7) β = fraction of critical damping for the

V = total design lateral force or shear at the coupled structure-foundation system,

base determined in Section 19.2.1

64

MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

User Note: Electronic values of mapped

Section 19.2.1.2

acceleration parameters, and other seismic design

γ = average unit weight of soil (lb/ft3 or N/m3)

parameters, are provided at the USGS Web site at

Δ = design story drift as determined in

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps, or through

Section 12.8.6

the SEI Web site at http://content.seinstitute.org.

Δfallout = the relative seismic displacement (drift) at

which glass fallout from the curtain wall,

storefront, or partition occurs 11.4.2 Site Class

Δa = allowable story drift as speciﬁed in Based on the site soil properties, the site shall be

Section 12.12.1 classiﬁed as Site Class A, B, C, D, E, or F in accor-

δmax = maximum displacement at Level x, dance with Chapter 20. Where the soil properties are

considering torsion, Section 12.8.4.3 not known in sufﬁcient detail to determine the site

δM = maximum inelastic response displace- class, Site Class D shall be used unless the authority

ment, considering torsion, Section 12.12.3 having jurisdiction or geotechnical data determines

δMT = total separation distance between adjacent Site Class E or F soils are present at the site.

structures on the same property, Section 11.4.3 Site Coefﬁcients and Risk-Targeted

12.12.3 Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER)

δavg = the average of the displacements at the Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters

extreme points of the structure at Level x, The MCER spectral response acceleration

Section 12.8.4.3 parameter for short periods (SMS) and at 1 s (SM1),

δx = deﬂection of Level x at the center of the adjusted for Site Class effects, shall be determined

mass at and above Level x, Eq. 12.8-15 by Eqs. 11.4-1 and 11.4-2, respectively.

δxe = deﬂection of Level x at the center of the

mass at and above Level x determined by SMS = FaSS (11.4-1)

an elastic analysis, Section 12.8-6 SM1 = FvS1 (11.4-2)

δxm = modal deﬂection of Level x at the center

of the mass at and above Level x as where

_ _ determined by Section 19.3.2 SS = the mapped MCER spectral response acceleration

δx , δx1 = deﬂection of Level x at the center of the parameter at short periods as determined in

mass at and above Level x, Eqs. 19.2-13 accordance with Section 11.4.1, and

and 19.3-3 (in. or mm) S1 = the mapped MCER spectral response acceleration

θ = stability coefﬁcient for P-delta effects as parameter at a period of 1 s as determined in

determined in Section 12.8.7 accordance with Section 11.4.1

ρ = a redundancy factor based on the extent

where site coefﬁcients Fa and Fv are deﬁned in Tables

of structural redundancy present in a

11.4-1 and 11.4-2, respectively. Where the simpliﬁed

building as deﬁned in Section 12.3.4

design procedure of Section 12.14 is used, the value

ρs = spiral reinforcement ratio for precast,

of Fa shall be determined in accordance with Section

prestressed piles in Section 14.2.3.2.6

12.14.8.1, and the values for Fv, SMS, and SM1 need not

λ = time effect factor

be determined.

Ω0 = overstrength factor as deﬁned in Tables

12.2-1, 15.4-1, and 15.4-2 11.4.4 Design Spectral Acceleration Parameters

Design earthquake spectral response acceleration

parameter at short period, SDS, and at 1 s period, SD1,

11.4 SEISMIC GROUND MOTION VALUES shall be determined from Eqs. 11.4-3 and 11.4-4,

respectively. Where the alternate simpliﬁed design

11.4.1 Mapped Acceleration Parameters procedure of Section 12.14 is used, the value of SDS

The parameters SS and S1 shall be determined from shall be determined in accordance with Section

the 0.2 and 1 s spectral response accelerations shown on 12.14.8.1, and the value for SD1 need not be determined.

Figs. 22-1, 22-3, 22-5, and 22-6 for SS and Figs. 22-2,

2

22-4, 22-5, and 22-6 for S1. Where S1 is less than or equal SDS = SMS (11.4-3)

to 0.04 and SS is less than or equal to 0.15, the structure is 3

permitted to be assigned to Seismic Design Category A 2

S D1 = SM 1 (11.4-4)

and is only required to comply with Section 11.7. 3

65

CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

Parameter at Short Period

A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

C 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0

D 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0

E 2.5 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.9

F See Section 11.4.7

Note: Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of SS.

Parameter at 1-s Period

A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

C 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3

D 2.4 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5

E 3.5 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.4

F See Section 11.4.7

Note: Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of S1.

SDS response acceleration, Sa, shall be taken as given

by Eq. 11.4-5:

Spectral Response Acceleration,Sa (g)

SD1

Sa =

⎛ T ⎞

T

Sa = SDS ⎜ 0.4 + 0.6 ⎟ (11.4-5)

⎝ T0 ⎠

SD1 SD1⋅TL

2. For periods greater than or equal to T0 and less

Sa =

T2 than or equal to TS, the design spectral response

acceleration, Sa, shall be taken equal to SDS.

3. For periods greater than TS, and less than or equal

to TL, the design spectral response acceleration, Sa,

0

shall be taken as given by Eq. 11.4-6:

0 1.01

T0 TS TL

Period, T (sec) S D1

Sa = (11.4-6)

FIGURE 11.4-1 Design Response Spectrum. T

4. For periods greater than TL, Sa shall be taken as

given by Eq. 11.4-7:

11.4.5 Design Response Spectrum SD1TL

Sa = (11.4-7)

Where a design response spectrum is required by T2

this standard and site-speciﬁc ground motion proce-

where

dures are not used, the design response spectrum

curve shall be developed as indicated in Fig. 11.4-1 SDS = the design spectral response acceleration

and as follows: parameter at short periods

66

MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

SD1 = the design spectral response acceleration parameter at 1-s period, S1, is greater than or equal to

parameter at 1-s period 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design Category E.

T = the fundamental period of the structure, s Risk Category IV structures located where the

S mapped spectral response acceleration parameter at

T0 = 0.2 D1

SDS 1-s period, S1, is greater than or equal to 0.75 shall be

S D1 assigned to Seismic Design Category F. All other

TS = and

SDS structures shall be assigned to a Seismic Design

TL = long-period transition period (s) shown in Category based on their Risk Category and the design

Figs. 22-12 through 22-16. spectral response acceleration parameters, SDS and SD1,

determined in accordance with Section 11.4.4. Each

11.4.6 Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered building and structure shall be assigned to the more

(MCER) Response Spectrum severe Seismic Design Category in accordance with

Where an MCER response spectrum is required, it Table 11.6-1 or 11.6-2, irrespective of the fundamen-

shall be determined by multiplying the design tal period of vibration of the structure, T.

response spectrum by 1.5. Where S1 is less than 0.75, the Seismic Design

Category is permitted to be determined from Table

11.4.7 Site-Speciﬁc Ground Motion Procedures 11.6-1 alone where all of the following apply:

The site-speciﬁc ground motion procedures set

1. In each of the two orthogonal directions, the

forth in Chapter 21 are permitted to be used to

approximate fundamental period of the structure,

determine ground motions for any structure. A site

Ta, determined in accordance with Section 12.8.2.1

response analysis shall be performed in accordance

is less than 0.8Ts, where Ts is determined in

with Section 21.1 for structures on Site Class F sites,

accordance with Section 11.4.5.

unless the exception to Section 20.3.1 is applicable.

2. In each of two orthogonal directions, the funda-

For seismically isolated structures and for structures

mental period of the structure used to calculate the

with damping systems on sites with S1 greater than or

story drift is less than Ts.

equal to 0.6, a ground motion hazard analysis shall be

3. Eq. 12.8-2 is used to determine the seismic

performed in accordance with Section 21.2.

response coefﬁcient Cs.

RISK CATEGORY Table 11.6-1 Seismic Design Category Based on

Short Period Response Acceleration Parameter

11.5.1 Importance Factor

An importance factor, IC, shall be assigned to Risk Category

each structure in accordance with Table 1.5-2.

Value of SDS I or II or III IV

11.5.2 Protected Access for Risk Category IV

SDS < 0.167 A A

Where operational access to a Risk Category IV 0.167 ≤ SDS < 0.33 B C

structure is required through an adjacent structure, the 0.33 ≤ SDS < 0.50 C D

adjacent structure shall conform to the requirements 0.50 ≤ SDS D D

for Risk Category IV structures. Where operational

access is less than 10 ft from an interior lot line or

another structure on the same lot, protection from

potential falling debris from adjacent structures shall Table 11.6-2 Seismic Design Category Based on

be provided by the owner of the Risk Category IV 1-S Period Response Acceleration Parameter

structure.

Risk Category

11.6 SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY Value of SD1 I or II or III IV

0.067 ≤ SD1 < 0.133 B C

Category in accordance with this section.

0.133 ≤ SD1 < 0.20 C D

Risk Category I, II, or III structures located

0.20 ≤ SD1 D D

where the mapped spectral response acceleration

67

CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

4. The diaphragms are rigid as deﬁned in Section Category C, D, E, or F in accordance with this

12.3.1 or for diaphragms that are ﬂexible, the section. An investigation shall be conducted and a

distance between vertical elements of the seismic report shall be submitted that includes an evaluation

force-resisting system does not exceed 40 ft. of the following potential geologic and seismic

hazards:

Where the alternate simpliﬁed design procedure of

Section 12.14 is used, the Seismic Design Category is a. Slope instability,

permitted to be determined from Table 11.6-1 alone, b. Liquefaction,

using the value of SDS determined in Section 12.14.8.1. c. Total and differential settlement, and

d. Surface displacement due to faulting or seismically

induced lateral spreading or lateral ﬂow.

11.7 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SEISMIC

The report shall contain recommendations for

DESIGN CATEGORY A

foundation designs or other measures to mitigate the

effects of the previously mentioned hazards.

Buildings and other structures assigned to Seismic

EXCEPTION: Where approved by the authority

Design Category A need only comply with the

having jurisdiction, a site-speciﬁc geotechnical report

requirements of Section 1.4. Nonstructural compo-

is not required where prior evaluations of nearby sites

nents in SDC A are exempt from seismic design

with similar soil conditions provide direction relative

requirements. In addition, tanks assigned to Risk

to the proposed construction.

Category IV shall satisfy the freeboard requirement in

Section 15.7.6.1.2.

11.8.3 Additional Geotechnical Investigation

Report Requirements for Seismic Design

11.8 GEOLOGIC HAZARDS AND Categories D through F

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION The geotechnical investigation report for a

structure assigned to Seismic Design Category

11.8.1 Site Limitation for Seismic Design D, E, or F shall include all of the following, as

Categories E and F applicable:

A structure assigned to Seismic Design Category

1. The determination of dynamic seismic lateral earth

E or F shall not be located where there is a known

pressures on basement and retaining walls due to

potential for an active fault to cause rupture of the

design earthquake ground motions.

ground surface at the structure.

2. The potential for liquefaction and soil strength loss

evaluated for site peak ground acceleration,

11.8.2 Geotechnical Investigation Report earthquake magnitude, and source characteristics

Requirements for Seismic Design Categories C consistent with the MCEG peak ground accelera-

through F tion. Peak ground acceleration shall be determined

A geotechnical investigation report shall be based on either (1) a site-speciﬁc study taking into

provided for a structure assigned to Seismic Design account soil ampliﬁcation effects as speciﬁed in

Mapped Maximum Considered Geometric Mean (MCEG) Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA

Site Class PGA ≤ 0.1 PGA = 0.2 PGA = 0.3 PGA = 0.4 PGA ≥ 0.5

A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

C 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0

D 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0

E 2.5 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.9

F See Section 11.4.7

Note: Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of PGA.

68

MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

Section 11.4.7 or (2) the peak ground acceleration settlement, lateral soil movement, lateral soil

PGAM, from Eq. 11.8-1. loads on foundations, reduction in foundation

soil-bearing capacity and lateral soil reaction, soil

PGAM = FPGA PGA (Eq. 11.8-1)

downdrag and reduction in axial and lateral soil

where reaction for pile foundations, increases in soil

lateral pressures on retaining walls, and ﬂotation of

PGAM = MCEG peak ground acceleration adjusted for

buried structures.

Site Class effects.

4. Discussion of mitigation measures such as, but

PGA = Mapped MCEG peak ground acceleration

not limited to, selection of appropriate foundation

shown in Figs. 22-6 through 22-10.

type and depths, selection of appropriate structural

FPGA = Site coefﬁcient from Table 11.8-1.

systems to accommodate anticipated displacements

3. Assessment of potential consequences of liquefac- and forces, ground stabilization, or any combina-

tion and soil strength loss, including, but not tion of these measures and how they shall be

limited to, estimation of total and differential considered in the design of the structure.

69

Chapter 16

SEISMIC RESPONSE HISTORY PROCEDURES

HISTORY PROCEDURE that shall be selected and scaled from individual

recorded events. Appropriate ground motions shall be

Where linear response history procedure is performed selected from events having magnitudes, fault

the requirements of this chapter shall be satisﬁed. distance, and source mechanisms that are consistent

with those that control the maximum considered

16.1.1 Analysis Requirements earthquake. Where the required number of recorded

A linear response history analysis shall consist of ground motion pairs is not available, appropriate

an analysis of a linear mathematical model of the simulated ground motion pairs are permitted to be

structure to determine its response, through methods used to make up the total number required. For each

of numerical integration, to suites of ground motion pair of horizontal ground motion components, a

acceleration histories compatible with the design square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) spec-

response spectrum for the site. The analysis shall be trum shall be constructed by taking the SRSS of the 5

performed in accordance with the requirements of this percent-damped response spectra for the scaled

section. components (where an identical scale factor is applied

to both components of a pair). Each pair of motions

16.1.2 Modeling shall be scaled such that in the period range from 0.2T

Mathematical models shall conform to the to 1.5T, the average of the SRSS spectra from all

requirements of Section 12.7. horizontal component pairs does not fall below the

corresponding ordinate of the response spectrum used

16.1.3 Ground Motion in the design, determined in accordance with Section

A suite of not less than three appropriate ground 11.4.5 or 11.4.7.

motions shall be used in the analysis. Ground motion At sites within 3 miles (5 km) of the active fault

shall conform to the requirements of this section. that controls the hazard, each pair of components shall

be rotated to the fault-normal and fault-parallel

16.1.3.1 Two-Dimensional Analysis directions of the causative fault and shall be scaled so

Where two-dimensional analyses are performed, that the average of the fault-normal components is not

each ground motion shall consist of a horizontal less than the MCER response spectrum for the period

acceleration history, selected from an actual recorded range from 0.2T to 1.5T.

event. Appropriate acceleration histories shall be

obtained from records of events having magnitudes, 16.1.4 Response Parameters

fault distance, and source mechanisms that are For each ground motion analyzed, the individual

consistent with those that control the maximum response parameters shall be multiplied by the

considered earthquake. Where the required number of following scalar quantities:

appropriate recorded ground motion records are not

a. Force response parameters shall be multiplied by

available, appropriate simulated ground motion

Ie/R, where Ie is the importance factor determined

records shall be used to make up the total number

in accordance with Section 11.5.1 and R is the

required. The ground motions shall be scaled such

Response Modiﬁcation Coefﬁcient selected in

that the average value of the 5 percent damped

accordance with Section 12.2.1.

response spectra for the suite of motions is not less

b. Drift quantities shall be multiplied by Cd/R, where

than the design response spectrum for the site for

Cd is the deﬂection ampliﬁcation factor speciﬁed in

periods ranging from 0.2T to 1.5T where T is the

Table 12.2-1.

natural period of the structure in the fundamental

mode for the direction of response being analyzed. For each ground motion i, where i is the designa-

tion assigned to each ground motion, the maximum

16.1.3.2 Three-Dimensional Analysis value of the base shear, Vi, member forces, QEi, scaled

Where three-dimensional analyses are performed, as indicated in the preceding text and story drifts, Δi,

ground motions shall consist of pairs of appropriate at each story as deﬁned in Section 12.8.6 shall be

161

CHAPTER 16 SEISMIC RESPONSE HISTORY PROCEDURES

determined. Where the maximum scaled base shear structure that directly accounts for the nonlinear

predicted by the analysis, Vi, is less than 85 percent of hysteretic behavior of the structure’s elements to

the value of V determined using the minimum value determine its response through methods of numerical

of Cs set forth in Eq. 12.8-5 or when located where S1 integration to suites of ground motion acceleration

is equal to or greater than 0.6g, the minimum value of histories compatible with the design response spec-

Cs set forth in Eq. 12.8-6, the scaled member forces, trum for the site. The analysis shall be performed in

V accordance with this section. See Section 12.1.1 for

QEi, shall be additionally multiplied by where V is

Vi limitations on the use of this procedure.

the minimum base shear that has been determined

using the minimum value of Cs set forth in Eq. 12.8-5, 16.2.2 Modeling

or when located where S1 is equal to or greater than A mathematical model of the structure shall be

0.6g, the minimum value of Cs set forth in Eq. 12.8-6. constructed that represents the spatial distribution of

Where the maximum scaled base shear predicted by mass throughout the structure. The hysteretic behavior

the analysis, Vi, is less than 0.85CsW, where Cs is of elements shall be modeled consistent with suitable

from Eq. 12.8-6, drifts shall be multiplied by laboratory test data and shall account for all signiﬁ-

CsW cant yielding, strength degradation, stiffness degrada-

0.85 .

Vi tion, and hysteretic pinching indicated by such test

If at least seven ground motions are analyzed, the data. Strength of elements shall be based on expected

design member forces used in the load combinations values considering material overstrength, strain

of Section 12.4.2.1 and the design story drift used in hardening, and hysteretic strength degradation. Linear

the evaluation of drift in accordance with Section properties, consistent with the requirements of Section

12.12.1 are permitted to be taken respectively as the 12.7.3, are permitted to be used for those elements

average of the scaled QEi and Δi values determined demonstrated by the analysis to remain within their

from the analyses and scaled as indicated in the linear range of response. The structure shall be

preceding text. If fewer than seven ground motions assumed to have a ﬁxed-base, or alternatively, it is

are analyzed, the design member forces and the permitted to use realistic assumptions with regard to

design story drift shall be taken as the maximum the stiffness and load-carrying characteristics of the

value of the scaled QEi and Δi values determined from foundations consistent with site-speciﬁc soils data and

the analyses. rational principles of engineering mechanics.

Where this standard requires consideration of the For regular structures with independent orthogo-

seismic load effects including overstrength factor of nal seismic force-resisting systems, independent 2-D

Section 12.4.3, the value of Ω0QE need not be taken models are permitted to be constructed to represent

larger than the maximum of the unscaled value, QEi, each system. For structures having a horizontal

obtained from the analyses. structural irregularity of Type 1a, 1b, 4, or 5 of Table

12.3-1 or structures without independent orthogonal

16.1.5 Horizontal Shear Distribution systems, a 3-D model incorporating a minimum of

The distribution of horizontal shear shall be in three dynamic degrees of freedom consisting of

accordance with Section 12.8.4 except that ampliﬁca- translation in two orthogonal plan directions and

tion of torsion in accordance with Section 12.8.4.3 is torsional rotation about the vertical axis at each level

not required where accidental torsion effects are of the structure shall be used. Where the diaphragms

included in the dynamic analysis model. are not rigid compared to the vertical elements of the

seismic force-resisting system, the model should

include representation of the diaphragm’s ﬂexibility

16.2 NONLINEAR RESPONSE and such additional dynamic degrees of freedom as

HISTORY PROCEDURE are required to account for the participation of the

diaphragm in the structure’s dynamic response.

Where nonlinear response history procedure is

performed the requirements of Section 16.2 shall be 16.2.3 Ground Motion and Other Loading

satisﬁed. Ground motion shall conform to the requirements

of Section 16.1.3. The structure shall be analyzed for

16.2.1 Analysis Requirements the effects of these ground motions simultaneously

A nonlinear response history analysis shall with the effects of dead load in combination with not

consist of an analysis of a mathematical model of the less than 25 percent of the required live loads.

162

MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

For each ground motion analyzed, individual shall not exceed two-thirds of a value that results in

response parameters consisting of the maximum value loss of ability to carry gravity loads or that results in

of the individual member forces, QEi, member deterioration of member strength to less than the 67

inelastic deformations, ψi, and story drifts, Δi, at each percent of the peak value.

story shall be determined, where i is the designation

assigned to each ground motion. 16.2.4.3 Story Drift

If at least seven ground motions are analyzed, the The design story drift, Δi, obtained from the

design values of member forces, QE, member inelastic analyses shall not exceed 125 percent of the drift limit

deformations, ψ, and story drift, Δ, are permitted to speciﬁed in Section 12.12.1.

be taken as the average of the QEi, ψi, and Δi values

determined from the analyses. If fewer than seven 16.2.5 Design Review

ground motions are analyzed, the design member A design review of the seismic force-resisting

forces, QE, design member inelastic deformations, ψ, system and the structural analysis shall be performed

and the design story drift, Δ, shall be taken as the by an independent team of registered design profes-

maximum value of the QEi, ψi, and Δi values deter- sionals in the appropriate disciplines and others

mined from the analyses. experienced in seismic analysis methods and the

theory and application of nonlinear seismic analysis

16.2.4.1 Member Strength and structural behavior under extreme cyclic loads.

The adequacy of members to resist the combina- The design review shall include, but need not be

tion of load effects of Section 12.4 need not be limited to, the following:

evaluated. 1. Review of any site-speciﬁc seismic criteria

EXCEPTION: Where this standard requires employed in the analysis including the develop-

consideration of the seismic load effects including ment of site-speciﬁc spectra and ground motion

overstrength factor of Section 12.4.3, the maximum time histories.

value of QEi obtained from the suite of analyses shall 2. Review of acceptance criteria used to demonstrate

be taken in place of the quantity Ω0QE· the adequacy of structural elements and systems to

withstand the calculated force and deformation

16.2.4.2 Member Deformation demands, together with that laboratory and other

The adequacy of individual members and their data used to substantiate these criteria.

connections to withstand the estimated design 3. Review of the preliminary design including the

deformation values, ψi, as predicted by the analyses selection of structural system and the conﬁguration

shall be evaluated based on laboratory test data for of structural elements.

similar elements. The effects of gravity and other 4. Review of the ﬁnal design of the entire structural

loads on member deformation capacity shall be system and all supporting analyses.

163

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