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Mix Use Design:

Visioning a Sustainable Mix Use Design

Image source: Warner Bros. and The Royal Park Hotel


Mix Use Design :

Visioning a Sustainable Mix Use Design

Sushant School of Art and Architecture

Semester 6

Design Studio

January 18, 2018

Ansal University

sushant
school of
art and
architecture
Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

Motivation

With growing development in urban centers land is an invaluable commodity. Every square inch of
land holds potential exchangeable economy that could either uplift the community or could position
it in liability fraction. Effective and optimal usage of land is a much needed requirement in urban
centers where flux of demography changes the daily transaction and life-style pattern. Sectors,
neighbourhood and cities are planned and designed to accommodate this demography flux, thus
leading to urban sprawl, exploring newer lands for development. Would one call exploration and
construction on newer lands as development? Or rather look within the city and analyse those urban
pockets, which are not yet evaluated and have not been able to permeate the social realm. Thus, the
overarching goal of this studio is to enable students in providing an alternative view on how these
spaces in the city could be utilized efficiently to serve the public. Mixed use development and
adaptive reuse have been analysed by experts as potential solutions, which can assist in making the
city more reachable, dynamic and energetic. More we share spaces within the city, more compact the
spaces become with newer outlooks. It attracts variety of people for various functions thus creating
a continuous mix of context. This reduces the threat of its own de-functioning and/or mono-
functional usage. Hence, the aim of the studio is to propose the use of such urban pockets as sites
for urban mixed use development in order to promote urban activities. Considering mixed use
development as driving concept for the studio, the major components of these would be;

Hospitality
Services

Commercial/
Entertainment
Retail

But can mixed use development be juxtaposed with adaptive reuse mechanism? Can we look within
the city and retrofit those urban pockets, which are seen as neglected and unseen spaces that have
not able to permeate the social realm nor do have any functionality? Regeneration of a defunct site
has the potential to attract and connect with the city for e.g. Phoenix Mills, Bombay; Merchant City,
Glasgow. Cities across the nation are littered with projects that failed during the recession as well as
half-built projects in need of a new vision. Moreover, many boast historic city center districts—areas
that once hosted businesses that eventually left, but are now being reborn. There are many reasons
why developers are attracted to adaptive reuse today, mainly because of multiple business
opportunities in a compact environment. There is an increased demand from cities, residents and
tenants for renewed urban cores. Hence it is imperative that we take note of adaptive reuse with
mixed use development more earnestly and set a benchmark about its evolution.

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Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

The concepts of mixed use development and adaptive reuse are explained in Framework for studio

Now with above concepts, any development perceived within a region certainly changes the ecology
of that region, and there will be some pressure on the usage of utilities provided by the government.
This would lead to framing the relationship between mixed used development, adaptive reuse and its
sustainability. Is mixed use development, which assists in establishing the value of that urban
neglected space, more sustainable? Are they more dependent on government utilities or can they
have their own resources? While in the above paragraphs we try to establish the fact mixed use
development and adaptive reuse revives the sanctity of a region, its sustainability aspects cannot be
neglected. Hospitality services and building construction (from above chart) consumes greater
amount of energy in order to provide quality service. The current energy consumption in
commercial buildings is about 8% of the total electricity supplied. This is growing annually by 11-
12%, which is more than the growth rate of electricity production in the country. And needless to
say that hospitality sector is the largest energy consumers within commercial building sector. More
than 50% electricity utilized in any hotel is for heating, ventilation, lighting systems and air-
conditioning. Studies have indicated that there is an enormous potential of saving of electricity by
implementing energy efficiency strategies in this sector. Review of international experience and
several energy audit studies conducted in India indicate that hotels can effectively reduce 20-30% of
energy use without compromising the quality of hospitality services. In the process, the lesser energy
use will entail cost saving for the hotels. Managing energy use in hotel is the first step towards
Energy management, which will help in improving bottom line and holds down operating costs.
Controlling costs is a key to profitability in the hotel industry allowing your hotel to route resultant
savings toward fulfilling other requirements including purchasing additional amenities, staff salary
increases, etc.

Framework for Studio

The goals for our studio is to thoroughly research and understand the concept of designing complex
building project such as hotel and apply its theories and principles within Delhi NCR and its
context. Based on this understanding, studio envisions alternative planning and design scenarios for
the site interface and its clients/users. While medium-scale design projects and designing issues will
be examined, this studio emphasize the sustainable development as core aspect of architecture and
expect to culminate in proposals for specific site plans and design details that relate back to overall
strategic design ideas including but not limited to four themes. The studio is envisioned to work on
following framework and anticipating a more balanced, thoughtful and cohesive output for the
semester;

1. Mixed use environments,


2. Building services and Sustainability
3. Green building analysis
4. USP of a project (X-Factor)

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Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

Mixed Use Development

Mixed Use Development

Proximity, walkability, self-sustainability and livability are the front runners in a community that sees
fast paced life-style on a day to day basis. Status, identity, wealth are no longer the expected aspects
of the community but health, time and livability are. This gives rise to Transit Oriented
Development or Mixed Use Development concepts that are pedestrian friendly and amalgamates
two or more residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, and/or industrial uses. The planning
strategies enforce community based design development that caters to economy, community, public
health and environment.

Mixed use development should not be confused with or limited to multi-story development that
allows commercial use on first floor and residential uses on floors above.; rather it should be
analysed as one that
1. Provides three or more significant revenue-producing uses (such as retail/entertainment,
office, residential, hotel, and/or civic/cultural/recreation),
2. Adopts integration, density, and compatibility of land uses, and
3. Creates a walk-able community with uninterrupted pedestrian connections.

Mixed-use zoning allows horizontal and vertical combination of land uses in a given area. While
there are many forms of mixed-use development, it can be categorized three ways:

Vertical Mixed-Use Development

In this format different programs are arranged within the same building. One can use the adjacency
matrix and arrange programs where lower floors have more public uses and more private uses on
the upper floors

Horizontal Mixed-Use Development

In this format many single-use buildings within a mixed-use site, which allows for a range of land
uses in a single development project. It assists in zoning variety of complementary and integrated
uses that are walkable within a development project.

Mixed-Use Walkable Areas

Combines both vertical and horizontal mix of uses in an area, within an approximately 10-minute
walking distance to core activities

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Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

Building Services and Sustainability


Building services are the systems installed in buildings to make them comfortable, functional,
efficient, sustainable and safe.

Building services might include:

1. Building control systems.


2. Energy distribution
3. Energy supply (gas, electricity and renewable sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and
biomass).
4. Escalators and lifts.
5. Facade engineering (such as building shading requirements).
6. Fire safety, detection and protection.
7. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC).
8. Information and communications technology (ICT) networks.
9. Lighting (natural and artificial).
10. Lightning protection.
11. Refrigeration.
12. Security and alarm systems.
13. Water, drainage and plumbing (including sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)
14. Carbon emissions calculations and reduction.
15. Solar Energy and Passive Design Strategies

This perhaps may further include systems for bacteria and humidity control, specialist lighting and
security, emergency power, specialist gas distribution, fume cupboards, operating theatres and so on.

Building services play a central role in contributing to the design of a building, not only in terms of
overall strategies and standards to be achieved, but also in façade engineering, the weights, sizes and
location of major plant and equipment, the position of vertical service risers, routes for the
distribution of horizontal services, drainage, energy sources, sustainability, and so on.

This means that building services design must be integrated into the overall building design from a
very early stage, particularly on complex building projects such as hotels.

Here at this point although students are not expected to design and devise building service strategies
but should be aware of its installation and location. While designing the complex project students
should understand the standards through their research make provision of space for services in their
designs. Guide should ensure that all the necessary building services are incorporated without
compromising on its design or requirement.

While students are focusing on building services they should also build upon their understanding of
LEED Certification or GRIHA Certification for buildings. This will ensure the sustainability aspect
involved while designing and post-designing. Guides should ensure that students are able to grasp
and implement understanding of green building components such as site-management, passive
design strategies, waste management, water efficiency, energy efficient appliances in their design.

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Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

X-Factor (USP of Project)

X-Factor focuses on one program/function, other than the standard design programs, strategised by
individual student, which would enhance the identity of the project. The X-Factor should be an out-
of-the-box program that is relevant to the region, is unique and fits within the studio framework.
The guide needs to assist student to develop the program, whereby inevitably becomes a landmark
for that region thus increasing the economy and revenue earning capabilities. Guide needs to check
the program designed by student on its;
1. Viability and feasibility
2. Long term usability
3. Sustainability
4. Economical
5. Construction methodology

Percentage of Components for Mixed Use Development

Following the framework the percentage of components for mixed used development are as follows;

1. Hospitality Services (50%)


2. Commercial & Retail (30%)
3. X-Factor (20%)

The above division of percentage is of the total built-up area based on the bye-law studies of the
region.

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Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

Course Code : 15BAR-1DS32P


Semester : Sixth
Scale : Urban complex building project

Learning Objectives
Students will grasp the understanding of site assessment and mixed use planning. Overall learning of
green building technology implementation and management will be acquired. Students will be able
to correlate design strategies with open-space systems, context and need of the hour design
solutions.

Documentation: Students will capture all information about the site through maps, photographs,
diagrams. The physical and social features about the site will be captured to understand the zoning
of the design. The wind and climatic condition analysis will assist in orientation of the building.
Contours (if any) will help in site assessment and planning.

Analysis: Working as a studio, students will explore social and physical aspects of the site through
maps, diagrams, photographs, and physical models. The analysis provides an opportunity for
students to learn about the context, more importantly, effective representation of existing conditions
sets the frame work for design. It will assist students in shaping and making the site advantageous to
their proposal. Analysis is the foundation upon which design and development proposals are
grounded.

Design Framework: The students will transform issues and objectives into a unified vision for their
projects with a series of strategies and green building design framework. The green building design
framework will establish a vision for future project(s).

Design Project: In the final phase, students will focus on detailed site-specific recommendations,
place making and representation.

Pedagogic Objectives

The Design Studio is designed to provide 6th Semester students structured oversight and guidance to
acquire skills in; research; collaborative problem solving, tactical use of adaptive reuse and place-
making.

 Students will be familiar with historical and contemporary methods and theories of
adaptive reuse, as accumulated from readings, site-study and discussions with
mentors.
 Students will be familiar with and able to research case studies (past and recent design
projects for the adaptive reuse). Other research techniques learned will include: visual
quality evaluation and incorporation into design response.
 Since sustainable development is the core of the design studio, students will be able
to cite and utilize a variety of techniques and methods for green building development;
and will be consistently asked to justify design decisions based on analysis.
 Students will use/test a variety of design techniques and strategies in the service of

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Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

revitalization and enhancement, addressing such issues as integrated land uses, public
life, building services, open space design, ethnicity/multiculturalism, ecological
sustainability, etc
 Students will understand and manipulate relationships between different scales of
design and will improve their abilities to work in groups for certain required.

Anticipated Outcomes

Project areas will require in depth analysis of heritage, historical development, land use, economic
opportunities, contextual building typlogies, environmental issues, and demographic analysis. In
addition, the integration of each of the study sites with the larger systems and opportunities in
adjacent cities as well as adjacent neighborhoods of Delhi NCR and with the developments at the
local community scale will be an essential part of the projects.
The outcomes of the Design studio are to be included: in depth analysis of issues and planning for
the study area, in addition to initial reporting of fact-finding, there are formal presentations and
feed-back mid-semester. The continuous evaluation of student’s design work should assist them in
developing the framework on adaptive reuse, green building technologies, mixed use development
and X-Factor.

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Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

Aspects to consider for your case-study

Your case-studies will be placed under following categories


1. The places visited during study tour
2. Primary case-study (the one that you can gain access to)
3. Desktop case-study (2 cases)

As discussed today there are following aspects that are applied to each of your case-study;
1. Tangibles (one that you can measure)
2. Intangibles (one that you can express)
3. Services
4. Aesthetics
5. Bye Laws
6. Construction techniques and
7. structural systems

We shall discuss each aspect in detail below. These aspects need to be thoroughly observed, analysed
and implemented in your case study

A. Tangibles

These are criteria, which you can measure. You will have to analyse following
a. Master plan
b. Site Location and Area
c. Contextual analysis (roughly about 2km radius analysis)
d. Connectivity to site
e. Orientation and place of structures
f. Overall zoning plan
g. Services on site (transformers, electrical, % of surface area car parking)
h. Access to site
i. Physical features
j. Design for differently abled
k. Activities taking place on site
l. Recreational outside and an inside of building
m. Programmatic development and stacking within project
n. Analysis of % of areas allocated for each zones
o. Statistical data about footfall
p. Building footprint area
q. Conference rooms or Business centers
r. Thorough analysis of a floor plate in terms of access, services, area, usability etc.
s. Hotel room designs
t. Auditoriums
u. Security
v. Miscellaneous

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Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

B. Intangibles

These are considerations that put the scheme and idea of building project in place. You will have to
analyse following

a. What was the ideology behind the concept and development of building, understand the
philosophy
b. How is the site interacting with context and programmes
c. What experiences one gets when they are inside of the building
d. Has the structure created an identity/landmark
e. What is the economic efficiency of the structure
f. Is the structure able to generate value for users
g. What are the environmental impacts of the project
h. By what means the building design has sustainable aspects
i. Cohesiveness of design (uniformity of building design) achieved in the project
j. What unites the structures together if the building are scattered ( for e.g. roof of structure
that gives an understanding of cohesiveness)

C. Services

These are operational equipment with which the buildings are active. You will have to analyse
following
a. Approach to site
b. Parking (surface and basement)
c. Basement services
d. Drop off and pick-up
e. Services in foyer area
f. Lifts and lift lobby (types and area)
g. Fire services (wet and dry) & hydrants
h. Electrical
i. HVAC (type, coverage, mechanism)
j. Security surveillance
k. Restaurant and Kitchen services
l. MEP
m. Sewage and Solid waste management
n. Eco-friendly structures
o. Technology for façade
p. Audio Video systems
q. Building Automation systems
r. Green Building Technologies
s. Miscellaneous

D. Aesthetics

These are important criteria that define the existence of building projects. You will have to analyse
following
a. Form of structure

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Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

b. Landscape
c. Design elements
d. Materials
e. Interiors
f. Lighting
g. Colour used in the project
h. Elevation/façade
i. Small design or functional elements that enhances the look of building
j. Cohesiveness in form
k. Design ethics
l. Understanding of modernism or neo-modernism or de-constructivism
m. Edges and angles
n. Miscellanenous

E. Bye-Laws

These criteria guide the building project limits and set restrictions on its expansions. You will have
to analyse following with respect to region in which case-study falls.
a. What are the defined standards for Mix Use Development
b. Refuge area
c. Fire Escape stairs
d. Fire hydrants
e. Fire tender roads
f. Set backs
g. ECS
h. Height restrictions based on FAR
i. Projections from building
j. Based on heights space between two buildings
k. FAR
l. Ground Coverage
m. Total buildable area
n. Miscellaneous

F. Construction and Structural Systems


Here you will have to analyse what kind of construction techniques and design elements have been
used to design for e.g. Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank designed by Norman Foster on next page.

All case-studies must specify


- Architect
- Region, Country and site area

A total of 6 A-1 sizes sheets as one panel will be allowed for one group, the groups are
Group 1: Sourabh, Ashutosh, Raghavv, Tishla, Urvashi
Group 2: Sanya, Kavya, Anushka, Shreya, Udai Veer
Group 3: Revanth, Nandini
Group 4: Amanat, Amy, Akshit
Group 5: Mehta, Vaibhav, Rounak, Shivang

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Semester 6 Design Studio: Visioning A Sustainable Mix Use Development

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