Anda di halaman 1dari 11

AH312 Art and National Socialism

Seminar Leaders: Prof. Dr. Aya Soika, Bard College Berlin, and Dr. Andrea Meyer, TU Berlin
Course Times: 14:00 – 18:00, Tuesday (starting 13th October)
Seminar sessions are held together with TU-Students in TU-Seminar Room and elsewhere. Individual
tutorials are to be arranged separately via email
Email: a.soika@berlin.bard.edu, andrea.meyer@tu-berlin.de

The agenda of the Nazi regime of 1933-1945 impinged on every realm of activity in Germany,
including the art world and artistic production. This is evident not only in the importance of
propaganda and a general “aestheticization of politics” to the imposition of the aims of the
regime. Nor is the imprint of Nazi ideology solely apparent in the works of those who enjoyed
direct political patronage, for example the painter Adolf Ziegler, the sculptor Arno Breker, the
architect Albert Speer, or the filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. Yet other artists—for example the
Expressionist Emil Nolde—avidly sought but signally failed to obtain such patronage, with
complex consequences for their careers. Central to the course will be the study of the
evolution of a Nazi aesthetic, especially a Nazi idea of what should constitute the “new” in
German art—a viewpoint that both competed with and adapted aspects of existing Modernist
techniques. We will look at the institutions that upheld and enforced this viewpoint, such as
the Reich Chamber of the Fine Arts and Goebbels’ Ministry of Popular Enlightenment and
Propaganda, as well as the pillorying of modern art branded “degenerate” in the infamous
exhibition under that heading in 1937. The course examines the role of theft and destruction
in the propagation of Nazi aesthetics, looking at case studies of the fate of art collections
owned by Jewish proprietors. We address the ongoing legacy of violence and
misappropriation in the legal controversies of ownership and authenticity affecting public
and private museum and gallery collections in Germany – and elsewhere – today.

Requirements
Since this is a joint course together with the History of Art Department from the Technische
Universität, the course is taught as a block seminar, consisting of eight 4-hour blocks. In addition,
individual tutorials in order to discuss presentation and essay are being offered for the Bard College
Berlin students. You are expected to participate in our discussions and prepare each seminar session
as well as individual tutorials carefully. Weekly readings and writing assignments and an oral
presentation are part of the course requirements. The readings and weekly responses are accessible
electronically on google drive. Please note that the use of laptop computers, tablets, smartphones or
other electronic devices in the classroom is prohibited.

Attendance
Attendance at ALL classes is expected. More than one absence in the seminar will significantly affect
the grade for the course. If absent, a short notification via email, if possible sent before the beginning
of class, is appreciated.
Punctuality is essential. Please make sure you depart early in order to reach the museums and/or
seminar room, and please lock in your coats and bags before the beginning of class. The itinerary can
be checked on www.bvg.de, but make sure you are also equipped with a city map.

Assessment
The course assessment consists of the overall seminar work (various writing assignments, in addition
to class participation and the preparation of tutorials), a long essay and a presentation.

Writing Assignments
Your weekly responses are due each Tuesday of our class, no later than 9:30 am, should be of
approximately 300-500 words length, and engage with the weekly readings. They should be posted
onto the google document on the google drive and will be accessible to all participants of our class in
order to encourage and stimulate our communal discussion.
For the Bard College Berlin students the final essay is due on 19th December at 23.59, and should be of
ca. 7 000 words, including footnotes/references, bibliography and list of illustrations. The essay is
conceived as an academic research paper, so it is especially important that you gain a good overview
of the existing literature on your chosen topic and familiarize yourself with methods of academic
writing (literature-search in libraries and via databases such as jstor.org, use of citations, use of
bibliography). A structure or a draft of the long essay may be discussed ca. one to two weeks in
advance to the final submission deadline. Please note that prior consultation with the Bard in Berlin
Writing Centre may be recommended in order to reflect upon writing and structure. The TU students
follow the requirements outlined in the respective list of modules.

Presentation
Each student will deliver a presentation (the list of topics will be distributed on 13th October).
Presentations should last no longer than fifteen minutes. Please make sure that you rehearse
beforehand in order to avoid exceeding this timeframe. A 1-2 page document (ca. 750-1000 words)
with structured presentation notes (and, where applicable, a power point presentation) should be
submitted via email to both course leaders on the day before class by 3:00 pm. This document can
complement or serve as hand-out during the presentation.

Policy on Late Submission of Papers


Essays that are up to 24 hours late will be downgraded one full grade (from B+ to C+, for example).
Essays that are more than 24 hours late cannot receive a grade of higher than C (see also policy on late
submission in the Bard College Berlin Student Handbook).

Grade Breakdown
Listed below is the percentage grade allotted to each essay, and to classroom participation and
assignments.
Seminar Grade = Attendance/Participation/Preparation of art works and texts & weekly responses
Seminar Grade: 30%
Presentation = Relevance to the topic; Awareness of context and scholarly debates, during the
presentation and in the Q&A session afterwards; Structure & Timing; Relevance and structure of
Presentation Notes
Presentation: 30%
Essay = Line of Argument with regard to essay questions; Awareness of context and existing literature

2
on the topic; Structure and Formatting (consistent use of annotations, bibliography & list of
illustrations)
Essay: 40%

Schedule

Week 1
13th October 2015 (Tuesday), 14:00 – 18:00
I. Introduction
What – if anything – is “Nazi Art”?
Mini presentations of selected works /Survey of the course

Presentation Topics (please note that with the following works the idea is to focus on specific aspects
of their reception history rather than the stylistic analysis alone):

Please prepare a mini-presentations of 3-5 minutes on one of the following works/themes.


For this, please send us an email with 2 suggestions by 7th October (please have a look at the powerpoint
presentation with all images on google drive). We will then get back and confirm which of the works will be
designated to you.

Adolf Hitler, Watercolour (e. g. Ruins 1919; The Courtyard of the Old Residency in Munich, 1914)
Adolf Hitler Mein Kampf, vol. 1, 1925
Leni Riefenstahl, Der Sieg des Glaubens (The Victory of Faith), 1933, Film Poster
Josef Thorak, Sculpture for the Reich Sport Field, 1937
Josef Thorak, Schreitende Pferde (Horses for the New Reich Chancellory), Bronze, before 1939
Albert Speer, The New Reich Chancellery, 1939
Albert Speer, Große Halle/Ruhmeshalle (Great Hall), Model
Arno Breker, Kameraden (Comrades), Relief, 1940 (vs. Willi Baumeister)
Adolf Ziegler, Die vier Elemente (The four Elements), before 1937
Leopold Schmutzler, Working Maidens, 1940
Wolfgang Willrich, The Aryan Family, undated (print after Willrich’s painting)
Paul Schultze-Naumburg, Kunst und Rasse (Art and Race), 1928 (sample page from book with juxtapositions of
works of art and photographs of disabled people)
“Degenerate Art”, Title Page of Exhibition Guide, 1937
“Degenerate Music”, Title Page of Exhibition Guide, 1938
“Great German Art” Exhibition, View of the Galleries, 2nd Exhibition 1938
Jew Süß / Jud Süss, Film Still, 1940

George Grosz, Siegfried Hitler / Hitler der Retter (Hitler the Saviour), Lithograph, 1923, published on the front
cover of Die Pleite (Bankrupcy)
George Grosz, Cain or Hitler in Hell, Oil on Canvas, 1944, David Nolan Gallery, New York
John Heartfield, “Hurrah, the butter is gone”, Photomontage, published on December 19th 1935 on the cover of
the Workers’ Illustrated Newspaper
John Heartfield, “This is the salvation they are bringing us”, published on June 29th 1938 on the cover of the
Workers’ Illustrated Newspaper
Rudolf Schlichter, Blinde Macht (Blind Power), Oil on Canvas, 1932/37, Berlinische Galerie
Max Beckmann, Versuchung (des Heiligen Antonius) (Temptation (of St. Anthony)), Oil on Canvas, 1936/37
Emil Nolde, Das Leben Christi (The Life of Christ), 1912, Oil on canvas polyptich

3
Franz Marc, Der Turm der Blauen Pferde (The Tower of the Blue Horses), Oil on canvas, 1913 (formerly National
Gallery, Berlin, lost)
Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Large Kneeling Woman, 1911
Karl Hofer, Die Schwarzen Zimmer (The Black Rooms), Oil on Canvas, 1943, National Gallery, Berlin
Felix Nussbaum, Selbstbildnis mit Judenpass (Self Portrait with “Jewish Passport”), ca. 1943, Oil on Canvas, Felix
Nussbaum Haus Osnabrück
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street Scene, Oil on Canvas, 1913 (restituted), formerly Bruecke Museum, Berlin
Max Liebermann, Horse Riders at the Beach, Oil on canvas (restituted in 2015 from Gurlitt collection)

Week 2
3rd November 2015 (Tuesday), 14:00 – 18:00
I. Survey Lecture on Art and Cultural Politics, 1933-1945 (Bernhard Fulda)
II. Aesthetization of Politics. Discussion of Walter Benjamin’s essay

Readings:
Evans, Richard J., The Third Reich in Power, 1933-1939, London 2006, vol. 1, Chapter 2: The
Mobilization of the Spirit, 120-140, 164-187, 207-218
Benjamin, Walter, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction", 1936 (particularly
Introduction and Epilogue)
Goebbel’s response to Wilhelm Furtwängler, April 1933, in: Nazism 1919-1945, Vol. 2: State, Economy
and Society 1933-1939, ed. by J. Noakes, G. Pridham, Exeter 2000, 214-215

Week 3
10th November 2015 (Tuesday), 14:00 – 17:00
I. Visit to Kunsthaus Dahlem, built as Arno Breker’s State Studio (“Staatsatelier”) –
Official Art, Case Studies: Arno Breker, Josef Thorak, Adolf Ziegler
II. On the post-war reception of “Nazi Art”

Readings:
Petropoulos, Jonathan, The Faustian Bargain. The Art World in Germany, Oxford: University Press
2000, 215-217
Doll, Nikola, "The Arno Breker State Atelier." Shorter PDF version of the following publication: Nikola
Doll, Arno Breker - Das Staatsatelier Arno Breker. Bau- und Nutzungsgeschichte, 1938-1945, Berlin
2014, 59 pages.
Film: Breker Studio Visit – feature in Newsreel of May 1942
Gillen, Eckhart, Arno Breker: Decorator of Power and Scapegoat of the Germans. Notes on his
reception in the Federal Republic of Germany, in: Publication Series of the Kunsthaus Dahlem, Berlin
2015, 34-52
Dogramaci, Burcu, Germany, A Foreign Homeland. The Return of Émigré Sculptors after 1945, in:
Publication Series of the Kunsthaus Dahlem, Berlin 2015, 43-65

Week 4
17th November 2015 (Tuesday), 14:00 – 18:00
I. “Degenerate Art”: The Campaign (Aims / Confiscations / Storage and Sale)
II. The “Degenerate Art” Exhibitions – Munich 1937 and other “Schandausstellungen”

4
Readings:
Hitler’s Speech at the Opening of the House of Art in Munich, July 18th 1937, in: Art in Theory. An
Anthology of changing ideas, ed. by Charles Harrison et al., Oxford: Blackwell 1994, 423-426
Peters, Olaf, From Nordau to Hitler. “Degeneration” and Anti-Modernism between the Fin-de-Siècle
and the National Socialist Takeover of Power, in: Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi
Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 16-35
Peters, Olaf, Genesis, Conception, and Consequences: the “Entartete Kunst” Exhibition in Munich in
1937, in: Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New
York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 106-125

Week 5
24th November 2015 (Tuesday), 14:00 – 18:00
Artistic practice under National Socialism. Exhibition Visit
Visit of the exhibition Die Schwarzen Jahre 1933-45, Hamburger Bahnhof
(Artistic Practice; “Berufsverbot”; Artists’ Exile; “Inner Immigration”)

Readings:
Guide to “Degenerate Art” Exhibition, 1937. Source of English translation: Stephanie Barron,
“Degenerate Art”: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County
Museum of Art, 1991
Petropoulos, Jonathan, Artists under Hitler. Collaboration and Survival in Nazi Germany, New Haven:
Yale University Press & London 2014, 1-27, 50-62
Fulda, Bernhard, Aya Soika, Emil Nolde and the National Socialist Dictatorship, in: Degenerate Art. The
Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by
Olaf Peters, 186-195

Week 6
1st December 2015 (Tuesday), 14:00 – 18:00
I. Visit to German Historical Museum (conversation with Dr. Sabine Beneke, curator,
DHM)
II. Albert Speer’s “Germania” / Paul Ludwig Troost’s House of German Art, Munich
(Day of German Art, 14 th July 1939) / 1937 Paris Exposition Internationale

Works on display:
Ernst Vollbehr (1876-1960), NSDAP and SA-Assembly of Reich Party Rally in Nuremberg, 1933,
Gouache, 39 x 57,7 cm (several other gouaches by Vollbehr on display)
Hein Neuner, Youth serves the Führer, Poster, ca. 1939, 83,2 x 59,4 cm
Franz Würbel, Olympic Games, 1936, Lithograph / Poster, 101,3 x 63,2 cm
Radio “VE 301” Volksempfänger, ca. 1935
Wall Hanging / Tapestry Roma-Berlin, 1936-1939, 128 x 180 cm
Arno Breker, Comrades, 1940, Bronze, 102,5 x 76,5 cm
Albert Speer, Great Hall / Germania, Model / Map

Readings:

5
Petropoulos, Jonathan, Artists under Hitler. Collaboration and Survival in Nazi Germany, New Haven:
Yale University Press & London 2014, chapter 13 on Albert Speer, 279-302
Schlenker, Ines, Defining National Socialist Art: The First “Große deutsche Kunstausstellung” in 1937,
in: Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New
York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 90-105
Fiss, Karen A., In Hitler’s Salon: The German Pavillon at the 1937 Paris Exposition Internationale, in: Art,
culture and media under the Third Reich, ed. by Richard A. Etlin, Chicago et al. 2002, 316-342

Week 7
8th December 2015 (Tuesday), 14:00 – 18:00
Film and National-Socialism. Visit of Topography of Terror
Riefenstahl – Jew Süß – selected documentary films

Readings:
Rentschler, Eric, The Legacy of Nazi Cinema: Triumph of the Will and Jew Süss Revisited, in: The arts in
Nazi Germany. Continuity, conformity, change, ed. by Jonathan Huener and Francis R. Nicosai, New
York: Berghahn 2006, 63-83
Siegfried Kracauer, From Caligari to Hitler: A psychological history of the German film, 1947, 3-11
Culbert, David, The Impact of Anti-Semitic Film Propaganda on German Audiences: Jew Süss and the
Wandering Jew (1940), in: Art, Culture and Media under the Third Reich, ed. by Richard A. Etlin, Chicago
et al. 2002, 139-157
Karl Stamm, “Degenerate Art” on the Screen, in: Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi
Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 196-205

Week 8 (note: Completion Week)


15th December 2015 (Tuesday), 14:00 – 18:00
Nazi Looting / Dealing with Looted Art
Art Theft, Provenance and Restitution
Case studies private Jewish collections – restitution case studies (Kirchner’s Street; Klimt’s Adele
Bloch-Bauer) / Private collection Göring – Linz Museum
The Gurlitt Case

Readings:
Petropoulos, Jonathan, From Lucerne to Washington: “Degenerate Art” and the question of
restitution, in: Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New
York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 282-301
Schwarz, Birgit, Hitler's Führer Museum, in: Ravaged: Art and Culture in Times of Conflict, ed. by Jo
Tollebeek and Eline van Assche, Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2014, 197–204
Barron, Stephanie, The Galerie Fischer Auction, in: “Degenerate Art”. The Fate of the Avant-Garde in
Nazi Germany, ed. by Stephanie Barron, exh.cat., Los Angeles/New York: Harry N. Abrams 1991, 135-
169
Film: The Rape of Europe

Scheduled class times are available online under the relevant course
heading: http://www.berlin.bard.edu/academics/courses-new/fall-2015/

6
Essay and other Deadlines
Your weekly response is due each Tuesday morning, 9:30. Please read all other responses before the
beginning of each class.
Your presentation outline of 1-2 pages is due on the day before your presentation, no later than 15:00.
Your long essay is due on Saturday, 19th December, at 23:59. A draft version should be submitted at
least 7 days beforehand, by 12th December, at 23:59.

Library and Book Purchase Policies


All readings and the up to date syllabus (slight changes may be added throughout the semester) are
accessible online via a special link.

Bibliography
Alford, Kenneth D., Herman Göring and the Nazi Art Collection: The looting of Europe’s Art Treasures
and their Dispersal after World War II, Jefferson, NC: McFArland & Co 2012

Aly, Götz, Hitler’s Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State, Metropolitan Books
2007

Antliff, Mark, Fascism, Modernism, and Modernity, in: The Art Bulletin, 84.2002, 148-169

Barron, Stephanie, Degenerate Art. The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany, exh.cat., New York:
Abrams 1991

Barron, Stephanie, The Galerie Fischer Auction, in: “Degenerate Art”. The Fate of the Avant-Garde in
Nazi Germany, ed. by Stephanie Barron, exh.cat., Los Angeles/New York: Harry N. Abrams 1991, 135-
169

Beker, A. (ed.), The Plunder of Jewish Property during the Holocaust (2001)

Benjamin, Walter, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction", 1936
https://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/ge/benjamin.htm

Culbert, David, The Impact of Anti-Semitic Film Propaganda on German Audiences: Jew Süss and the
Wandering Jew (1940), in: Art, Culture and Media under the Third Reich, ed. by Richard A. Etlin, Chicago
et al. 2002, 139-157

De Jaeger, Charles, The Linz File. Hitler’s Plunder of Europe’s Art, Exeter: Webb & Bower 1981

Dogramaci, Burcu, Germany, A Foreign Homeland. The Return of Émigré Sculptors after 1945, in:
Publication Series of the Kunsthaus Dahlem, Berlin 2015, 43-65

Doll, Nikola, "The Arno Breker State Atelier." Shorter PDF version of the following publication: Nikola
Doll, Arno Breker - Das Staatsatelier Arno Breker. Bau- und Nutzungsgeschichte, 1938-1945, Berlin
2014, 59 pages.

7
Donath, Matthias, Architecture in Berlin 1933-1945. A Guide Through Nazi Berlin, Berlin: Lukas Verlag
2006
Etlin, Richard A. (ed.), Art, culture and media under the Third Reich, Chicago et al. 2002

Etlin, Richard A., Introduction: The Perverse Logic of Nazi Thought, in: Art, Culture and Media under the
Third Reich, ed. by Richard A. Etlin, Chicago et al. 2002, 1-42

Evans, Richard, The Third Reich in Power, 1933-1939, London 2006

Feliciano, Hector, The Lost Museum, New York: Harper Collins 1997

Fiss, Karen A., In Hitler’s Salon: The German Pavillon at the 1937 Paris Exposition Internationale, in: Art,
culture and media under the Third Reich, ed. by Richard A. Etlin, Chicago et al. 2002, 316-342

Fulda, Bernhard, Aya Soika, Emil Nolde and the National Socialist Dictatorship, in: Degenerate Art. The
Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by
Olaf Peters, 186-195

Gillen, Eckhart, Arno Breker: Decorator of Power and Scapegoat of the Germans. Notes on his
reception in the Federal Republic of Germany, in: Publication Series of the Kunsthaus Dahlem, Berlin
2015, 34-52

‘Hitler Considered Himself an Artistic Genius’, Interview Birgit Schwarz, in: SpiegelOnline, 2009,
http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/the-fuehrer-s-obsession-with-art-hitler-considered-
himself-an-artistic-genius-a-644210.html

Holz, Keith, The Exiles Artists From Nazi Germany and Their Art, in: Art, culture and media under the
Third Reich, ed. by Richard A. Etlin, Chicago et al. 2002, 343-368

Huener, Jonathan and Francis R. Nicosai (eds.,) The Arts in Nazi Germany. Continuity, Conformity,
Change, New York: Berghahn 2006

Huener, Jonathan and Francis R. Nicosai, Introduction: The Arts in Nazi Germany: Continuity,
Conformity, Change, in: The arts in Nazi Germany. Continuity, Conformity, Change, ed. by Jonathan
Huener and Francis R. Nicosai, New York: Berghahn 2006, 1-14

James-Chakraborty, Kathleen, The Drama of Illumination: Visions of Community from Wilhelmine to


Nazi Germany, in: Art, Culture and Media under the Third Reich, ed. by Richard A. Etlin, Chicago et al.
2002, 158-180

Janda, Annegret, The Fight for Modern Art: The Berlin Nationalgalerie after 1933, in: “Degenerate Art”.
The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany, ed. by Stephanie Barron, exh.cat., Los Angeles/New
York: Harry N. Abrams 1991, 105-119

Jungblut, Marie-Paule, Looted! Current Questions Regarding the Cultural Looting by the National
Socialists in Europe, Munich: Dt. Kunstverl 2008

8
Knöfel, Ulrike, An End to Restitution of Nazi Looted Art?, in: SpiegelOnline, 2009,
http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/a-question-of-morality-an-end-to-restitution-of-nazi-
looted-art-a-618400.html
Koehler, Karen, The Bauhaus, 1919-1928: Gropius in Exile and the Museum of Modern Art, N.Y., 1938, in:
Art, Culture and Media under the Third Reich, ed. by Richard A. Etlin, Chicago et al. 2002, 287-315

Kracauer, Siegfried, From Caligari to Hitler: A psychological history of the German film, Princeton:
University Press 1947

Levi, Neil, “Judge for Yourselves!” – The Degenerate Art” Exhibition as Political Spectacle, in: October,
85.1998, 41-64

Lüttichau, Mario-Andreas von, “Crazy at any price”. The Pathologizing of Modernism in the Run-up to
the “Entartete Kunst” exhibition in Munich in 1937, in: Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi
Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 36-51

Moore, Michael Scott, Hitler’s Private Collection Goes Virtual, in: SpiegelOnline, 2008,
http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/the-fuehrer-s-taste-hitler-s-private-collection-goes-
virtual-a-569377.html

Müller, Karsten, “Violent vomiting over me”. Ernst Barlach and National Socialist Cultural Policy, in:
Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New York/Munich/London:
Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 176-1888

Müller, Melissa, Monika Tatzkow, Lost lives, lost art. Jewish collectors, Nazi art theft, and the quest for
justice, New York: The Vendome Presse 2010

Nicholas, Lynn, The Rape of Europe, London: Macmillan Publ. 1994

Noakes, J., G. Pridham, Nazism 1919-1945. Vol 1: The Rise to Power 1919-1934; Vol. 2: State, Economy
and Society 1933-1939, Univ. of Exeter Press

O’Connor, Anne-Marie, The Lady in Gold. The Extraordinary Tale of Gustav Klimt’s Masterpiece, Portrait
of Adele Bloch-Bauer, Alfred A. Knopf, New York 2012

Peters, Olaf, (ed.), Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New
York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014

Peters, Olaf, From Nordau to Hitler: “Degeneration” and Anti-Modernism between the Fin-de-Siècle
and the National Socialist Takeover of Power, in: Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi
Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 16-35

Peters, Olaf, Genesis, Conception, and Consequences: the “Entartete Kunst” Exhibition in Munich in
1937, in: Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New
York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 106-125

9
Petropoulos, Jonathan, Art as Politics in the Third Reich, Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press
1996

Petropoulos, Jonathan, Artists under Hitler. Collaboration and Survival in Nazi Germany, New Haven:
Yale University Press & London 2014
Petropoulos, Jonathan, Bridges from the Reich: The Importance of Émigré art dealers as reflected in
the case studies of Curt Valentin and Otto Kallir-Nirenstein, in: Kunstgeschichte. Open Peer Reviewed
Journal, 2011 urn:nbn:de:bvb:355-kuge-142-0

Petropoulos, Jonathan, From Lucerne to Washington: “Degenerate Art” and the question of
restitution, in: Degenerate Art, 282-301

Petropoulos, Jonathan, From Seduction to Denial. Arno Breker’s engagement with National Socialism,
in: Art, Culture and Media under the Third Reich, ed. by Richard A. Etlin, Chicago et al. 2002, 205-229

Petropoulos, Jonathan, The art world in Nazi Germany: choices, rationalization, and justice, in: The
arts in Nazi Germany. Continuity, conformity, change, ed. by Jonathan Huener and Francis R. Nicosai,
New York: Berghahn 2006, 135-163

Petropoulos, Jonathan, The Faustian bargain. The Art World in Nazi Germany, Oxford: Oxford Univ.
Press 2000

Philip, Annette, Arenas of Power. Architectural Photography in National Socialism, in: Ein neuer Blick,
ed. by Ludger Derenthal and Christine Kühn, Tübingen 2010, 390-392

Plumb, Steve, Continuity through „Inner Emigration“. Neue Sachlichkeit, National Socialism, and
Aspects of the Work of Otto Dix 1933-1935, in: Neue Sachlichkeit and Avant-Garde, ed. by. Ralf
Grüttemeier, Klaus Beekman and Ben Rebel, Amsterdam, 255-272

Rentschler, Eric, The Legacy of Nazi Cinema: Triumph of the Will and Jew Süss Revisited, in: The arts in
Nazi Germany. Continuity, conformity, change, ed. by Jonathan Huener and Francis R. Nicosai, New
York: Berghahn 2006, 63-83

Schlenker, Ines, Defining National Socialist Art: The First “Große deutsche Kunstausstellung” in 1937,
in: Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New
York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 90-105

Schnabel, Gunnar, Monika Tatzkow, The Story of Street Scene: Restitution on Nazi Looted Art: Case and
Controversy, Berlin: Proprietas, 2008

Schwarz, Birgit, Hitler's Führer Museum, in: Ravaged: Art and Culture in Times of Conflict, ed. by Jo
Tollebeek and Eline van Assche, Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2014, 197–204

Sontag, Susan, Fascinating Fascism (on Riefenstahl), in: Under the Sign of Saturn, New York: Vintage
1981

10
Stamm, Karl, “Degenerate Art” on the Screen, in: Degenerate Art. The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi
Germany, 1937, exh.cat., New York/Munich/London: Prestel 2014, ed. by Olaf Peters, 196-205

Steinweis, Alan E., Anti-Semitism and the Arts in Nazi Ideology and Policy, in: The Arts in Nazi Germany.
Continuity, Conformity, Change, ed. by Jonathan Huener and Francis R. Nicosai, New York: Berghahn
2006, 15-31
Steinweis, Alan E., Art, Ideology, and Economics in Nazi Germany. The Reich Chambers of Music,
Theater, and the Visual Arts in Nazi Germany, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press 1996
Van Dyke, James A., Something New on Nolde, National Socialism, and the SS, in: Kunstchronik
65.2012, 265-270

Winzen, Matthias, The Need for Public Representation and the Burden of the German Past, in: Art
Journal, 48.1989, 309-314

Yeide, Nancy H., Beyond Dreams of Avarice: The Hermann Göring Collection, Laurel Publishing 2009

Websites:
http://www.gdk-research.de/db/apsisa.dll/ete
http://www.lootedart.com/
http://provenance.si.edu/jsp/lost_art_databases.aspx
http://www.lostart.de/Webs/EN/Start/Index.html;jsessionid=077665BFFAF1F8AC4D89E6D59F228EB9.
m0
http://rzblx10.uni-
regensburg.de/dbinfo/dbliste.php?bib_id=smb&colors=15&ocolors=40&lett=k&jq_type1=AL&jq_term1
=&jq_bool2=AND&jq_not2=1&jq_type2=KW&jq_term2=Kunstraub&jq_bool3=OR&jq_not3=1&jq_type3
=CO&jq_term3=Drittes+Reich&jq_bool4=OR&jq_not4=1&jq_type4h

11

Minat Terkait