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Submitted to the Faculty of

School of Graduate Studies and Continuing Education

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of the Course

NRS 507
Advanced Clinical Teaching I

Unit E. Planning and Organizing Learning Activities


5. Aids to Effective Study
6. Preparing Instructional Objectives
6.1 Characteristics of a Useful Objectives
6.1.1 Performance
6.1.2 Condition
6.1.3 Criterion
6.2 Criteria of a Well-stated Objective

By:
JAMINE JOYCE C. ORTEGA RN
Master of Science in Nursing- First Year

Professor Jennalyn I. San Luis


Baliuag University

August 26, 2017


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AIDS TO EFFECTIVE STUDY

Objectives:

At the end of the discussion,

• Graduate students will identify at least 5 study aids within 5 minutes


• Graduate students will recite the importance of study aids
• Graduate students will apply different study aids to help become effective and efficient learner.

STUDY AIDS

A student’s use of study aids consists of having a good understanding of resources available to
you and how to use those resources to help you become a more effective and efficient learner.

 READING AND VOCABULARY

Reading is a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning
(reading comprehension).
It is a means of language acquisition, of communication, and of sharing information andideas.

 A primary means by which you acquire information is through Reading.

Vocabulary is a basic part of reading comprehension. If you don't know enough words, you are going to
have trouble understanding what you read. An occasional word may not stop you, but if there are too
many words you don't know, comprehension will suffer. The content of textbooks is often challenging
enough, you don't want to work as well on understanding the words that express that content.
o Oral Vocabulary refers to the words we use in speaking or recognize in listening.
o Reading Vocabulary refers to the words we recognize in print.

 NOTE TAKING

The 5RS in note taking

Record: During lecture, write all the meaningful information legibly


Reduce: After lecture, write a summary of the facts and ideas using key words as cue words
Recite: Recite all the information in your own words without looking at your notes or the text.
Reflect: Think about your own opinions and ideas. Raise questions and record original ideas.
Review: Before using any material, take 10 minutes to review your older notes. Skim over the main ideas
and details,

 CONCENTRATION
- the ability to direct your thinking
But at other times,
- Your mind wanders from one thing to another
- Your worries distract you

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- Outside distractions take you away before you know it
- The material is boring, difficult, and/or not interesting to you.

The following points are offered as aids to concentration:


- The student should have a definite purpose or goal
- She should develop regular habits, works at certain times and in certain places.
- Habits of positive attack on studies
- The student should work under pressure
- The student should achieve an alert questioning attitude, criticize what is read and look for new
meanings and new relationships.
- Concentration can be aided by observing the proper length and distribution of study periods
- She should train herself to ignore distractions and to persist with studying in spite of them.

 MEMORIZATION
- is the process of committing something to memory. The act of memorization is often a deliberate mental
process undertaken in order to store in memory for later recall items such as experiences, names,
appointments, addresses, telephone numbers, lists, stories, poems, pictures, maps, diagrams, facts, music
or other visual, auditory, or tactical information.

Techniques in memorizing

Acronyms
- is an invented combination of letters.
- Each letter is a cue to, or suggests, an item you need to remember,
example:
PEMDAS
- sequence in solving or evaluating math equations
Parenthesis | Exponents | Multiplication | Division | Addition | Subtraction

ROY G. BIV
the colors of the visible spectrum
Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet

IPMAT
the stages of cell division
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase

Acrostic
- is an invented sentence or poem with a first letter cue;
- The first letter of each word is a cue to an idea you need to remember.
Example:
Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally (PEMDAS)

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The Image-Name Technique
- Simply invent any relationship between the name and the physical characteristics of the person.

Example:
If you had to remember Shirley Temple’s name, you might ingrain the name in memory
by noticing that she has "curly" (rhymes with Shirley) hair around her temples.

Chaining
- Create a story where each word or idea you have to remember cues the next idea you need to recall.

 USING THE LIBRARY

Tips on how to use the library effectively:


- Physical arrangement, rules and regulations of the library
- Know how to use the card catalog.
- Know how to use references sources

 PLANNING AND ORGANIZING STUDY TIME

DO:
- Work out how much time you have available, and when.
- List the tasks in hand.
- Work out priorities between these tasks. Which are more urgent?
- Make decisions about how long to spend on each task, and set targets for each work
-Organize pieces of work (essays, seminar papers) into smaller, less daunting tasks.

DON’T:
- Don’t try to do it all at once.
- Neglect any of your courses, especially those you find relatively easy (or particularly difficult).
- Allow yourself to be distracted. Stick to your timetable.

Seven Ways to Better Organize Your Study Time

1. Allot enough time for study.


Study is a major priority in college. While 6 hours may be too much for one student, it may be what is
necessary for another. Therefore, you must examine your own needs and then allot your time
appropriately.

2. Make use of your free hours between classes.


If your schedule permits, the hours between classes can be used to review notes before a class or to begin
an assignment.

3. Study at the same time daily


Having specific hours set aside each day will maintain the systematic organization of your schedule and
keep you actively involved in studying.

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4. Schedule a weekly review.
Plan to review each class’s notes from the beginning to end once a week. This only takes a short time and
will reduce the amount of study time needed before an exam.

5. Schedule daily reviews.


Spend 1 5 - 2 0 minutes reviewing your notes immediately following class or when classes are done for
the day. Again, this will reduce the amount of study time needed before an exam.

6. Account for project time.


Remember to allow an appropriate amount of time during the course of the week for long-term projects
(i.e., papers, group projects, journals, etc.)

7. Allow for flexibility.


Although your schedule should be very systematic, you should allow for some flexibility. It is important
not to over schedule thus allowing for a variety of "non- academic" activities.

 USING THE ASSIGNMENT EFFECTIVELY

Assignment
- the term used to designate that part of the instructional activity which is devoted to a
clear recognition and development of acceptance by the student of the next unit learning to take place
and of the process by which this learning may be achieved most effectively.
- or homework refers to tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside of class
(Wikimedia Foundation! 2013)

Main Objectives of Assignment

The basic objectives of assigning homework to students are the same as schooling in general to increase
the knowledge and improve the abilities and skills of the Students.
- to reinforce what students have already learned,
- to prepare them for upcoming (or complex or difficult) lessons,
- to extend what they know by having them apply it to new situations, or
- to integrate their abilities by applying many different skills to a single task
- to provide an opportunity for parents to participate in their children's education,

Purposes in the Assignment

- To Set Up Objectives which meet the Student's Needs


- To Orient and to motivate the Student
- To direct study
- To Provide for Individual Differences

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Characteristics of an Effective Assignment
1. Motivative 9. Accurate
2. Interesting 10. Challenging
3. Definite and Clear 11. Economic
4. Stimulative 12. Sequential
5. Purposeful 13. Related to Life
6. Relevant 14. Necessary Direction
7. Based on Individual Differences 15.Time Factor
8. Related with Previous Knowledge 16.Evaluation

 KNOWLEDGE OF PROGRESS
Learning without knowledge of progress is blind. The student must know whether or not she is
progressing satisfactory. If she is doing poorly, it is the teacher’s responsibility as a director of study to
tell her why is she not progressing and how she can improve and to assist her in doing so. The alert
teacher will find many opportunities to keep the student abreast of her achievement. Both of the face-
to-face and the impersonal methods of evaluation should be made available to the student so that she
will strive to improve her work

Face-to-face evaluation
• Individual conferences
• Observation of student work
• Examination of notebooks
• Reports
• Experiments

Impersonal evaluation
•Tests at the end of units or subdivision
of units

 DIAGNOSIS OF STUDENT DIFFICULTIES


The teacher must be familiar with each individual’s methods of learning. Proper diagnosis of
difficulties and means of correction is a continuous process. The teacher may employ various methods in
diagnosing student’s learning difficulties, such as those described below

- Questionnaire
- Analysis of Student’s Schedules
- Personal Interview
- Careful Observation of the Student at Work
- Testing

 QUESTIONING AND REVIEW

Questioning, one of the oldest and most widely used methods of teaching, has been considered
basic to an adequate conception of learning ever since Socrates used it.

“The question, silent or vocally expressed, is among the first stimuli to the mental life of the child:
and It remains throughout life the major mainspring to mental activity."

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The question is the key to most educative activity

Functions of Questioning
1. To Measure Student Achievement and Skills
2. To Direct and Stimulate Thought
3. To Ensure the Proper Organization and Interpretation of Materials and Experiences
4. To Facilitate Interpretation and Evaluation of Information
5. To Discover Interests and Abilities of Students
6. To Form and Develop Attitudes and Appreciations
7. To Obtain Individual or Class Attention

Types of Questions
 Memory or Fact Questions
- Require the student to recall ready-made answers which have been previously read or discussed
or mentioned in some way.

 Thought Questions
- Require the student to create or form an answer from the general knowledge, she has about a
particular subject.
- They focus attention on a central idea or problem

Characteristics of the Effective Question

- Should be based on sound ideas and purposes


- Should be within the range of student’s experiences and knowledge
- Should present challenge
- Should contain only one idea
- Should be well worded
- Avoid leading, catch, and discussion questions

Technique of Questioning

- Address questions to the class in general


- Distribute questions as evenly as possible to all
students
- Allow sufficient time for formulation of an answer
- Ask questions in natural, interested, conversional tone
- Questions, as a rule, should not be repeated
- Student should be given as much credit for answering as possible
- Organize questions around sequences
- Occasionally assign questions to inattentive students

Teacher Reaction to Student Questions and Responses


- Encourage Student
- Student questions should be significant
- Courtesy
- Grant the student the right to disagree
- The teacher should admit not knowing the answer

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- Rarely assist the student in his/her answers
- Never “pump" answers from the student

Review
Is generally thought as "going over of material already studied.” Although that is one of the
purposes of review, it is neither the most important nor the only reason. Some of the existing
misapprehension about review arises from the failure to distinguish between review and drill.
The purpose of drill is to achieve a set of rapid, largely automatic responses. The purpose of review
is to establish new meanings, new relationships, new attitudes or new ways of acting.

Purposes of Review
1. To organize the materials and experiences larger units
2. To provide a restatement and organization facts and relationships in order to fix them
3. To enable the student to get broader perspective of what is being studied and of the subject-
matter field as a whole
4. To provide for expansion and supplementation of materials and experience
5. To orient students to new work by providing a perceptive base for future study
6. To reveal student weaknesses in preparation and understanding
7. To reveal teacher weaknesses

 USE OF TEXTBOOK
- a book used in the study of the subject
- book containing a usually systematic presentation of the principles arid vocabulary of a subject
(Merriam-Webster, 2002)

Values of Textbook
1. A good textbook makes the work definite in scope and in significant content. It can be used as a good
outline for a course which the teacher may use as a basis for her course planning.
2. The textbook ensures an organization and unity of content which many teachers would be unable to
provide in any other way because of their limited preparation, lack of experience, lack of time, and the
pressure of other duties.
3. Textbook are written for the learner and for the teacher. They contain many supplementary devices,
such as questions, problems, and illustrations, for study and teaching purposes which are adapted to the
content of the course.
4. The textbook provides a common body of subject matter basic to the course. Thus, it becomes a
reliable, authoritative source of information to the learners and teachers alike.
5. Textbooks are excellent sources of material for review.

STUDENT USE OF TEXTBOOK


Students often fail to get the most out of their textbooks because (hey do not Know how to use
them effectively. The instructor should teach the use of the:
-Table of contents
- Index
- Cross-index
- Mechanical devices (graphs, charts and tables)
- Reference Lists at the end of each chapters

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Evaluation and Selection of Textbooks
- should be selected by a committee of interested teachers
- should never be selected by administrative officer simply because the textbook representative has
access only to the administrative office and none of the teaching staff
- should be carefully evaluated by those whoo are to use it
- consider the philosophy of the school, objectives of the course and level of the student

Major Considerations in Evaluation of a Textbook

AUTHORITATIVE & RELIABLE


Is the author a well-prepared specialist in the field in which the book is written? Is there a broad
general background as well as experience in the field?

UP-TO-DATE
Last date of revision will give this information. Number of revisions and reprints usually will
indicate the length of use.

MECHANICAL FACTORS
Good binding, legible type, easily handled size, color, and quality of paper and cost.

PURPOSE & OBJECTIVES


Should be evident in the preface and introduction

Content:
a. Organization: well organized, easy to follow
b. Scholarship: style, word usage
c. Correlation with other subjects in the curriculum
d. Teaching and learning aids: index, table of contents, references, illustrations, questions, problems and
the alike.
-The preface and the introduction should always be read first to determine the author's purpose
in writing the book
- Should be sampled carefully at random for accuracy and for reliability

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Preparing Instructional Objectives

Objectives:

At the end of the discussion,

• Graduate students will differentiate between instructional goals and instructional objectives
correctly.
• Graduate students will construct instructional objectives using the ABCD method within 10
minutes.
• Graduate students will recite the criteria of a well-stated objective without notes

Objectives

Are basic tools that underline all planning and strategic activities.

Educators have used instructional or behavioural, objectives for at least four decades. Robert Mager’s ,
first printed in 1962, assisted many instructors in formulating and writing objectives. Since then, the use
of objectives has become commonplace in education.

The purpose of this unit is to assist the educator in writing objectives using a standard protocol.
Objectives are not difficult to write if one follows the guidelines noted below.

There are benefits to incorporating objectives within our coursework. Objectives emphasize major
points and reduce non-essential material. Objectives simplify note taking and cue the students to
emphasize major points. Objectives assist students in organizing and studying content material. They
guide the students to what to expected from them and help them to study important information.
Objectives assist the student in studying more efficiently. Finally, when examination items mirror
objectives, students can use the objectives to anticipate test items.

There are four components of an objective

1. Behavioural (performance) - action verb


2. Condition
3. Degree (criterion)
4. Audience

Behaviour (Performance)

is most important element of an objective and can never be omitted. it states precisely
what the student will do following instruction

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Example:

Words open to many interpretations


Know
Understand
Really understand
Appreciate
Fully appreciate
to grasp the significance of
enjoy
believe
have faith in

Words open to fewer interpretations

Write
Recite
Identify
Differentiate
Solve
Construct
List
Compare
Contrast

Conditions

Describe the relevant factors associated with the desired performance.


Example:
1. after attending a lecture
2. following review of a demonstration
3. given a case study
4. after completing the assignment
5. given a specific instrument....
Note: There may be times when a condition is not necessary, but always check to see if it’s appropriate
to add one.

Degree (Criteria)

The criteria are specified as the acceptable level or achievement desired. They tell
how well the learner must perform. This pan of the objective may be omitted when
there is no deviation from standard procedure or protocols.
Note: There may be times when a condition is not necessary, but always check to see if it’s appropriate
to add one.

Example:
1. percent of correct responses
2. within a given time period

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3. in compliance with criteria presented by the faculty

Writing Objectives
The ABCD method of writing objectives is similar to the theory explained here;
A- is the Audience,
B- is the behaviour or the action verb
C- is the condition for the objective
D- is the degree of achievement or acceptable criteria.
Order and Tense

There is a preferred order when writing objectives. The condition is usually placed first, followed by the
behaviour or verb, and then the criteria. Objectives are written in the future tense.

C (condition) + Behaviour (action verb) + Criteria (criterion)

The following verbs cannot be measured or are redundant. They should be avoided when writing
objectives.

Able to
Appreciation of
Awareness of
Capable of
Conscious of
Familiar with
shows interest in
knows
has knowledge of
learns
memorizes
will be able to

Criteria of Well Stated Objectives

1. Specific (definiteness of the objective)


A specific objective is clear and easy to understand, free from jargon or bureaucratese, and
focuses on a definite theme. A specific objective should be headed by a strong action verb ( example;
reduce, increase, design, implement) rather than a weak action verb (example; ensure, contribute,
facilitate).
2. Measurable
The second criterion stresses the need for concrete criteria for measuring progress toward the
attainment of the objective, it should let the student stay on track, reach its target dates, and have a
sense of achievement.

3. Attainable (within individual’s sphere of influence and control)


The third criterion stresses the importance of your objectives that are realistic and attainable.
Objectives express individual accountabilities Individuals can be held accountable for something only if
they are in a position to do it. Attainability and specificity are related. If objectives are not specific, it is

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difficult to say whether they are attainable.

4. Relevant
The fourth criterion stresses the importance of choosing objectives that matter. It must drive a
team or your student forward.

5. Time-bound
The fifth criterion stresses the importance of grounding your objective within a time frame,
giving them a target date. A commitment to a deadline helps your student focus their efforts on
completion of the task on or before the due date. A time-bound objective is intended to establish a
sense of urgency.

Example objective for stroke patient:

1. Patient will ambulate from bed to door twice by the end of shift.

2. Patient will perform ROM exercises each hour during the shift.

Advantages of Writing a Well Stated Objectives


• For the individual, a clear record of his or her own objectives;
• For the organizational leadership, a common point of discussion for the individual and his or her
superior and a verifiable record of an agreement between the two; and
• For the organization as a whole, a statement of all the objectives of its
managers.

Despite their importance, there is no science of writinc good objectives. Writing good objectives
just takes practice.

A well stated objective will describe:


1. The action (main intent) to be performed,
2. Where it's necessary to clarify your intent, the conditions, necessary materials/tools or “givens" under
which the action is to take place, and
3. The criteria by which to judge successful performance.

References:
Mager, Robert F. Preparing Instructional Objectives. 2"*^ ed. California: David S.
Lake Publisher, 1984

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