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PERCOBAAN : PENETAPAN MASSA MOLAR (BOBOT MOLEKUL) CAIRAN VOLATIL

I. PRINSIP :
Massa molar cairan dapat ditentukan dengan menguapkan cairan pada tekanan dan suhu
tetap, sehingga diperoleh volume uap yang terbentuk. Massa molar dihitung menggunakan
rumus gas ideal PV=nRT atau gas nyata.

II. PRE-LAB
1. Seorang mahasiswa ketika melakukan percobaan tidak segera mencatat pergeseran
plunger, dan pada kondisi tersebut pemanasan masih terus berlanjut. Bagaimana
pengaruh prilaku mahasiswa tersebut terhadap hasil?
2. Tentukan dampak dari kesalahan terhadap perhitungan massa molar berikut:
a. Cairan tidak menguap semua
b. Cairan tidak dimasukkan secara serentak

III. LATAR BELAKANG


Beberapa metode telah dikembangkan untuk menentukan massa molar (bobot molekul) di
laboratorium. Percobaan ini menentukan massa molar cairan volatil menggunakan persamaan
gas ideal. Cairan volatil memiliki tekanan uap katogeri sedang-tinggi didekat suhu ruang,
sehingga cairan ini berprilaku seperti gas ideal ketika berubah menjadi fase uapnya. Oleh
karena itu, massa molar cairan volatil dapat tentukan menggunakan persamaan gas ideal:

PV=nRT
Keterangan :
P = tekanan gas (atm); V= volume gas (L); n = jumlah gas (mol); dan T= suhu gas (K). R =
konstanta gas ideal. Nilai R tergantung pada satuan yang digunakan pada tekanan dan volume;
jika satuan tekanan (P) =atm dan volume (V)=liter, maka nilai R =0.08206 (L atm) / (mol K).

Persamaan ini dapat diubah menjadi :


𝒎 𝑹𝑻 𝒎𝑹𝑻
𝑷𝑽 = ; 𝒔𝒆𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒈𝒂 𝑴 =
𝑴 𝑷𝑽
Dengan m= massa cairan, dan M=massa molar (bobot molekul)

Persamaan gas ideal valid ketika uap berprilaku seperti gas ideal, yaitu menguap padda suhu
tidak lebih 20 K diatas titik didihnya. untuk menentukan prilaku gas nyata, dapat digunakan
persamaan van der Waals, yaitu :
𝒂
(𝑷 + 𝟐 ) (𝑽𝒎𝒐𝒍 − 𝒃) = 𝑹𝑻
𝑽𝒎𝒐𝒍
Penyederhaan persamaan :
𝒂
𝑷 𝑽𝒎𝒐𝒍 = 𝑹𝑻 + (𝒃 − ).𝑷
𝑹𝑻
Dengan Vmol=V/n dan n=m/M, sehingga :
𝒂
𝒎 𝑹𝑻 𝒎 (𝒃 − 𝑹𝑻)
𝑴= +
𝑷𝑽 𝑽
Keterangan : a, b= konstanta van der Waals
IV. BAHAN DAN ALAT
Bahan-bahan yang digunakan :
- Metanol
- Atanol
- Aseton
- Heksana
- Dietileter
- Air

Alat-alat yang digunakan :


Perangkat penetapan massa molar cairan PHYWE yang terdiri dari:
- H-base-PASS 1
- Batang stainless steel (250 cm) 2
- Penjepit sudut kanan 2
- Penjepit umum 2
- Glass jacket 1
- Gas syringe, 100 ml 1
- Termomter (-10 - +150 oC) 2
- Rubber caps 1
- Syringe, 1 ml 1
- Timbangan 1
- Pemanas 1

V. PROSEDUR
1. Tentukan densitas cairan berdasarkan piknometer atau data dari literatur
2. Rangkai perangkat penetapan massa molar cairan PHYWE seperti pada Gambar 1.

Gambar 1 Perangkat penetapan massa molar cairan


3. Plunger dari “gas syringe” 100 mL ditekan sehingga ruang “gas syringe’ kering dan bebas
udara. Dan tempatkan plunger pada posisi di ujung syringe sehingga tidak ada udara
masuk.
4. Pipa kapiler diujung syringe ditutup dengan “rubber cap” segera setelah plunger berada
diposisi ujung syringe
5. Pemanas dinyalakan dan diatur agar air dapat mendidih.
6. Cairan dimasukkan ke pipa kapiler yang tertutup “rubber cap” dengan syringe 1 ml
sebanyak 0.12-0,20 ml setelah suhu air telah konstan. Catat suhu air dalam penangas.
Catatan : cairan dimasukkan dengan cepat, dan jaga plunger syringe jangan sampai lepas.
7. Volume gas dicatat berdasarkan pergeseran plunger syringe segera setelah plunger tidak
bergeser lagi
8. Percobaan dilakukan untuk bahan yang lain dan dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali

VI. PENGUMPULAN DATA


1. Catat volume gas dalam syringe
2. Hitung massa molar cairan menggunakan persamaan gas ideal dan van der Waals.
Bandingkan hasil perhitungan menggunakan persamaan gas ideal dangan gas ideal
3. Tentukan senyawa kimia dari sampel cairan percobaan yang tidak diketahui

VII. DATA TAMBAHAN

1. Konstanta van der Waals :

a b
Fomula Molekul Nama
(bar L2/mol2) (L/mol)
CH3OH Metanol 9.472 0.06584
C2H5OH Etanol 12.56 0.08710
C3H6O Aseton 16.02 0.1124
C3H8O 1-Propanol 16.26 0.1080
C4H10O Dietil eter 17.46 0.1333
C6H14 Heksana 24.97 0.1753

Untuk mengkonversi nilai “a” ke atm L2/mol2 dikalikan dengan 0.986 atm/bar
Untuk mengkonversi nilai “a” ke kPa L2/mol2 dikalikan dengan 100.0 kPa/bar

2. Satuan Tekanan
1 Pascal (Pa) = 1 Newton per square meter = 1 N/m2
1 atmosphere (atm) = 1.01325 X 105 Pa = 101.325 kPa
1 bar = 105 Pa
1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mmHg (millimeters of mercury)
1 atm = 29.92 inHg (inches of mercury)
1 atm = 14.70 psi (pounds per square inch)
LAPORAN PERCOBAAN
PENETAPAN MASSA MOLAR CAIRAN VOLATIL

I. DATA PERCOBAAN
Volume Densitas Bobot cairan Volume gas
No Nama cairan Suhu air (K)
cairan (ml) cairan (g/ml) (g) (L)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

II. PERHITUNGAN

Bobot Massa molar (g/mol) Ketepatan


No Nama cairan
cairan (g) Gas ideal van der Waals (%)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

III. PEMBAHASAN
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IV. KESIMPULAN
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V. DAFTAR PUSTAKA