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European Aviation Safety Agency 

Certification Specifications 
Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and 
Commuter Category 


Amendment 1 
12 February 2009
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CONTENTS (general layout) 


Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter Category Aeroplanes 

APPENDICES: A, C, D, F, G, H, I, and J 


Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

EASA Certification Specifications 
Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter 
Category Aeroplanes 

Book 1 

Airworthiness code

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R


CS­23 Amendment 1 
Effective: 12 February 2009 

The following is a list of paragraphs affected by this amendment. 

Book 1 
Subpart B
· CS 23.49(c)  Amended (NPA 2008­08)
· CS 23.49(d)  Created (NPA 2008­08) 
Subpart C
· CS 23.562(d)  Created (NPA 2008­08)
· CS 23.562(e)  Amended (NPA 2008­08)

Amendment 1

CS­23 BOOK 1  Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R


CS 23.1  Applicability 
(a)  This airworthiness code is applicable to – 
(1)  Aeroplanes  in  the  normal,  utility 
and  aerobatic  categories  that  have  a  seating 
configuration,  excluding  the  pilot  seat(s),  of 
nine or fewer and a maximum certificated take­ 
off weight of 5670 kg (12 500 lb) or less; and 
(2)  Propeller­driven  twin­engined 
aeroplanes in the commuter category that have a 
seating  configuration,  excluding  the  pilot 
seat(s),  of  nineteen  or  fewer  and  a  maximum 
certificated  take­off  weight  of  8618 kg  (19 000 
lb) or less. 

CS 23.3  Aeroplane categories 
(a)  The  normal category  is  limited  to  non­ 
aerobatic  operations.    Non­aerobatic  operations 
include – 
(1)  Any  manoeuvre  incident  to  normal 
(2)  Stalls (except whip stalls); and 
(3)  Lazy  eights,  chandelles  and  steep 
turns or similar manoeuvres, in which the angle 
of bank is not more than 60°. 
(b)  The utility category is limited to any of the 
operations covered under sub­paragraph (a); plus – 

(1)  Spins  (if approved  for  the  particular 

type of aeroplane); and 
(2)  Lazy  eights,  chandelles,  and  steep 
turns, or similar manoeuvres in which the angle 
of bank is more than 60° but not more than 90°. 
(c)  The  aerobatic  category  is  without 
restrictions,  other  than  those  shown  to  be 
necessary as a result of required flight tests. 
(d)  Commuter category operation is limited to 
any  manoeuvre  incident  to  normal  flying,  stalls 
(except  whip  stalls)  and  steep  turns  in  which  the 
angle of bank is not more than 60°. 
(e)  Except  for commuter category, aeroplanes 
may  be  certificated  in  more  than  one  category  if 
the  requirements  of  each  requested  category  are 

Amendment 1
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(i)  The highest weight selected by 
the applicant; or 
CS 23.21  Proof of compliance 
(ii)  The  design  maximum  weight, 
(a)  Each requirement of this subpart must be  which  is  the  highest  weight  at  which 
met  at  each  appropriate  combination  of  weight  compliance  with  each  applicable 
and  centre  of  gravity  within  the  range  of  loading  structural  loading  condition  of  CS­23 
conditions  for  which  certification  is  requested.  (other  than  those  complied  with  at  the 
This must be shown –  design landing weight) is shown; or 
(1)  By  tests  upon  an  aeroplane  of  the  (iii)  The  highest  weight  at  which 
type  for  which  certification  is  requested,  or  by  compliance  with  each  applicable  flight 
calculations  based  on,  and  equal  in  accuracy  requirement is shown, and, 
to, the results of testing; and 
(2)  Not less than the weight with:­ 
(2)  By  systematic  investigation  of  each 
(i)  Each  seat  occupied,  assuming  a 
probable  combination  of  weight  and  centre  of 
weight  of 77kg (170 lbs) for each occupant 
gravity,  if  compliance  cannot  be  reasonably 
for  normal  and  commuter  category 
inferred from combinations investigated. 
aeroplanes,  and  86kg  (190  lbs)  for  utility 
(b)  The  following  general  tolerances  are  and  acrobatic  category  aeroplanes,  except 
allowed  during  flight  testing.    However,  greater  that  seats  other  than  pilot  seats  may  be 
tolerances may be allowed in particular tests –  placarded for a lesser weight; and 
(A)  Oil at full capacity, and 
Item  Tolerance  (B)  At  least  enough  fuel  for 
maximum continuous power operation 
Weight  +5%, –10% 
of  at  least  30  minutes  for  day­VFR 
Critical items affected by weight  +5%, –1%  approved  aeroplanes  and  at  least  45 
minutes  for  night­VFR  and  IFR 
C.G.  ±7% total travel 
approved aeroplanes; or 
(ii)  The  required  minimum  crew, 
CS 23.23  Load distribution limits 
and fuel and oil to full tank capacity. 
(a)  Ranges  of  weight  and  centres  of  gravity 
(b)  Minimum weight.  The  minimum  weight 
within  which  the  aeroplane  may  be  safely 
(the lowest weight at which compliance with each 
operated  must  be  established  and  must  include 
applicable  requirement  of  CS­23  is  shown)  must 
the  range  for  lateral  centres  of  gravity  if possible 
be  established so that it is not more than  the sum 
loading  conditions  can  result  in  significant 
of – 
variation of their positions. 
(1)  The  empty  weight  determined 
(b)  The load distribution must not exceed – 
under CS 23.29; 
(1)  The selected limits; 
(2)  The  weight  of  the  required 
(2)  The  limits  at  which  the  structure  is  minimum  crew  (assuming  a  weight  of  77 kg 
proven; or  (170 lb) for each crew member); and 
(3)  The  limits  at  which  compliance  (3)  The weight of – 
with  each  applicable  flight  requirement of this 
(i)  For  turbojet  powered 
subpart is shown. 
aeroplanes,  5%  of  the  total  fuel  capacity 
of  that  particular  fuel  tank  arrangement 
CS 23.25  Weight limits  under investigation; and 
(a)  Maximum weight.    The  maximum  weight  (ii)  For  other  aeroplanes,  the  fuel 
is  the  highest  weight  at  which  compliance  with  necessary  for  one­half  hour  of  operation 
each applicable requirement of CS­23 (other than  at maximum continuous power. 
those complied with at the design landing weight) 
is  shown.  The  maximum  weight  must  be 
established so that it is – 
(1)  Not more than the least of – 

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(2)  During  a  closed  throttle  glide  at 

VNE,  the  propeller  may  not  cause  an  engine 
CS 23.29  Empty  weight  and  correspond­ 
speed  above  110%  of  maximum  continuous 
ing centre of gravity 
(a)  The  empty  weight  and  corresponding 
(c)  Controllable  pitch  propellers  without 
centre of gravity must be determined by weighing 
constant  speed  controls.  Each  propeller  that  can 
the aeroplane with – 
be  controlled  in  flight,  but  that  does  not  have 
(1)  Fixed ballast;  constant  speed  controls,  must  have  a  means  to 
limit the pitch range so that – 
(2)  Unusable  fuel  determined  under 
CS 23.959; and  (1)  The  lowest  possible  pitch  allows 
compliance with sub­paragraph (b)(1); and 
(3)  Full operating fluids, including – 
(2)  The  highest  possible  pitch  allows 
(i)  Oil; 
compliance with sub­paragraph (b)(2). 
(ii)  Hydraulic fluid; and 
(d)  Controllable  pitch  propellers  with 
(iii)  Other  fluids  required  for  constant  speed  controls.  Each  controllable  pitch 
normal  operation  of  aeroplane  systems,  propeller  with  constant  speed  controls  must 
except  potable  water,  lavatory  precharge  have – 
water, and water intended for injection in 
(1)  With  the  governor  in  operation,  a 
the engines. 
means  at  the  governor  to  limit  the  maximum 
(b)  The  condition  of  the  aeroplane  at  the  engine  speed  to  the  maximum  allowable  take­ 
time  of  determining  empty  weight  must  be  one  off rpm; and 
that is well defined and can be easily repeated. 
(2)  With  the  governor  inoperative,  the 
propeller  blades  at  the  lowest  possible  pitch, 
CS 23.31  Removable ballast  with  take­off  power,  the  aeroplane  stationary, 
and no wind, either:­ 
Removable  ballast  may  be  used  in  showing 
compliance  with  the  flight  requirements  of  this  (i)  A  means  to  limit  the 
subpart, if –  maximum engine speed to 103 percent of 
the  maximum  allowable  take­off  r.p.m., 
(a)  The  place  for  carrying ballast is properly 
designed  and  installed,  and  is  marked  under 
CS 23.1557; and  (ii)  For  an  engine  with  an 
approved  overspeed,  means  to  limit  the 
(b)  Instructions are included in the aeroplane 
maximum  engine  and  propeller  speed  to 
flight  manual,  approved  manual  material,  or 
not  more  than  the  maximum  approved 
markings  and  placards,  for  the  proper  placement 
of  the  removable  ballast  under  each  loading 
condition  for  which  removable  ballast  is 

CS 23.33  Propeller  speed  and  pitch 

CS 23.45  General 
(a)  Unless  otherwise  prescribed,  the 
(a)  General.  The  propeller  speed  and  pitch 
performance requirements of this subpart must be 
must  be  limited  to  values  that  will  assure  safe 
met for – 
operation under normal operating conditions. 
(1)  Still air and standard atmosphere; 
(b)  Propellers not controllable in flight.  For 
each  propeller  whose  pitch  cannot  be  controlled  (2)  Ambient  atmospheric  conditions, 
in flight –  for  commuter  category  aeroplanes,  for 
reciprocating  engine­powered  aeroplanes  of 
(1)  During  take­off  and  initial  climb at 
more  than  2 722 kg  (6 000  lb)  maximum 
the  all­engine(s)­operating  climb  speed 
weight  and  for  turbine  engine­powered 
specified  in  CS 23.65, the propeller must limit 
the engine rpm, at full throttle or at maximum 
allowable  take­off  manifold  pressure,  to  a  (b)  Performance  data  must  be  determined 
speed not greater than the maximum allowable  over  not  less  than  the  following  ranges  of 
take­off rpm; and  conditions –

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(1)  Aerodrome  altitude  from  sea­level  (3)  Take­off  distance  and  take­off  run 
to 3048 m (10 000 ft); and  of CS 23.59; and 
(2)  For  reciprocating  engine­powered  (4)  Landing distance of CS 23.75. 
aeroplanes  of  2 722 kg  (6 000  lb)  or  less 
The  effect  on  these  distances  of  operation  on 
maximum  weight,  temperatures  from  standard 
other  types  of  surface  (e.g.  grass,  gravel)  when 
to 30°C above standard; or 
dry,  may  be  determined  or  derived  and  these 
(3)  For  reciprocating  engine­powered  surfaces  listed  in  accordance  with 
aeroplanes  of  more  than  2 722 kg  (6 000  lb)  CS 23.1583 (p). 
maximum  weight  and  turbine  engine­powered 
(h)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes,  the 
aeroplanes, temperature from standard to 30°C 
following also apply: 
above  standard,  or  the  maximum  ambient 
atmospheric  temperature  at  which  compliance  (1)  Unless  otherwise  prescribed,  the 
with  the  cooling  provisions  of  CS 23.1041  to  take­off,  en­route,  approach  and  landing 
23.1047 is shown, if lower.  configurations  for  the  aeroplane  must  be 
(c)  Performance  data  must  be  determined 
with the cowl flaps or other means for controlling  (2)  The  aeroplane  configuration  may 
the engine cooling air supply in the position used  vary  with  weight,  altitude  and  temperature,  to 
in  the  cooling  tests  required  by  CS 23.1041  to  the  extent  that  they  are  compatible  with  the 
23.1047.  operating  procedures  required  by  sub­ 
paragraph (h) (3); 
(d)  The  available  propulsive  thrust  must 
correspond  to  engine  power,  not  exceeding  the  (3)  Unless  otherwise  prescribed,  in 
approved power, less –  determining  the  critical­engine­inoperative 
take­off  performance,  take­off  flight  path  and 
(1)  Installation losses; and 
accelerate­stop  distance,  changes  in  the 
(2)  The  power  absorbed  by  the  aeroplane’s  configuration,  speed  and  power 
accessories  and  services  appropriate  to  the  must  be  made  in  accordance  with  procedures 
particular  ambient  atmospheric  conditions  and  established  by  the  applicant  for  operation  in 
the particular flight condition.  service. 
(e)  The  performance  as  affected  by  engine  (4)  Procedures  for  the  execution  of 
power must be based on a relative humidity of –  discontinued  approaches  and  balked  landings 
associated  with  the  conditions  prescribed  in 
(1)  80%  at  and  below  standard 
CS 23.67 (c) (4)  and  23.77 (c)  must  be 
temperature; and 
established; and 
(2)  34%  at  and  above  standard 
(5)  The  procedures  established  under 
temperature plus 28°C (plus 50°F). 
sub­paragraphs (h) (3) and (h) (4) must – 
Between  the  two  temperatures  listed  in  sub­ 
(i)  Be  able  to  be  consistently 
paragraphs  (e) (1)  and  (e) (2)  the  relative 
executed  by  a  crew  of  average  skill  in 
humidity must vary linearly. 
atmospheric  conditions  reasonably 
(f)  Unless  otherwise  prescribed  in  expected to be encountered in service; 
determining  the  take­off  and  landing  distances, 
(ii)  Use  methods  or  devices  that 
changes  in  the  aeroplane’s  configuration,  speed 
are safe and reliable; and 
and  power  must  be  made  in  accordance  with 
procedures  established  by  the  applicant  for  (iii)  Include  allowances  for  any 
operation  in  service.    These  procedures  must  be  reasonably  expected  time  delays  in  the 
able  to  be  executed  consistently  by  pilots  of  execution of the procedures. 
average  skill  in  atmospheric  conditions 
reasonably expected to be encountered in service. 
CS 23.49  Stalling speed 
(g)  The  following,  as  applicable,  must  be 
(a)  VSO  and  VS1  are  the  stalling  speeds  or 
determined  on  a  smooth,  dry,  hard­surfaced 
the  minimum  steady  flight  speed  (CAS)  at which 
runway – 
the aeroplane is controllable with – 
(1)  Take­off distance of CS 23.53 (b); 
(1)  For  reciprocating  engine­powered 
(2)  Accelerate­stop  distance  of  CS  aeroplanes,  engine(s)  idling,  the  throttle(s) 
23.55;  closed or at not more than the power necessary

CS­23 BOOK 1 

for  zero  thrust  at  a  speed  not  more  than 110%  (3)  For  seaplanes  and  amphibians 
of the stalling speed; and  taking off from water, VR, must be a speed that 
is  shown  to  be  safe  under  all  reasonably 
(2)  For  turbine  engine­powered 
expected  conditions,  including  turbulence  and 
aeroplanes,  the  propulsive  thrust  may  not  be 
complete failure of the critical engine. 
greater  than  zero  at  the  stalling  speed,  or,  if 
the  resultant  thrust  has  no  appreciable  effect  (b)  For  normal  utility  and aerobatic category 
on the stalling speed, with engine(s) idling and  aeroplanes,  the  speed  at  15  m  (50  ft)  above  the 
throttle(s) closed;  take­off surface level must not be less than – 
(3)  Propeller(s) in the take­off position;  (1)  For  twin­engined  aeroplanes,  the 
highest of – 
(4)  The  aeroplane  in  the  condition 
existing  in  the  test  in  which  VSO  and  VS1  are  (i)  A  speed  that  is  shown  to  be 
being used;  safe  for continued flight (or land­back, if 
applicable) under all reasonably expected 
(5)  Centre  of  gravity  in  the  position 
conditions,  including  turbulence  and 
which  results  in  the  highest  value  of  VSO  and 
complete failure of the critical engine; or 
VS1 ; and 
(ii)  1∙10 VMC; or 
(6)  Weight used when VSO  or VS1  are 
being used as a factor to determine compliance  (iii)  1∙20 VS1 
with a required performance standard. 
(2)  For  single­engined  aeroplanes,  the 
(b)  VSO  and  VS1  must  be  determined  by  higher of – 
flight  tests  using  the  procedure  and  meeting  the 
(i)  A  speed  that  is  shown  to  be 
flight characteristics specified in CS 23.201. 
safe  under  all  reasonably  expected 
(c)  Except  as  provided  in  sub­paragraph  (d)  conditions,  including  turbulence  and 
of  this  paragraph,  VSO  at  maximum  weight  must  complete engine failure; or 
not exceed 113 km/h (61 knots) for – 
(ii)  1∙20 VS1 . 
(1)  Single­engined aeroplanes; and 
(c)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes  the 
(2)  Twin­engined  aeroplanes  of  following apply: 
2 722 kg  (6 000  lb)  or  less  maximum  weight 
(1)  V1  must  be  established  in  relation 
that  cannot  meet  the  minimum  rate  of  climb 
to VEF  as follows: 
specified  in  CS 23.67 (a) (1)  with  the  critical 
engine inoperative.  (i)  VEF  is  the  calibrated  airspeed 
at which the critical engine is assumed to 
(d)  All  single­engined  aeroplanes,  and  those 
fail.  The  VEF  must  be  selected  for  the 
twin­engined  aeroplanes  of 2722  kg (6  000 lb) or 
aeroplane, but must not be less than 1∙05 
less  maximum  weight,  with  a  VSO  of  more  than 
VMC  determined  under  CS 23.149 (b)  or, 
113  km/h  (61  knots)  at  maximum  weight  that  do 
at the option of the applicant, not less than 
not  meet  the  requirements  of  CS  23.67(a)(1), 
VMCG  determined under CS 23.149(f). 
must comply with CS 23.562(d). 
(ii)  The  take­off  decision  speed, 
[Amdt 23/1] 
V1 ,  is  the  calibrated  airspeed  on  the 
ground  at  which,  as  a  result  of  engine 
CS 23.51  Take­off speeds  failure  or  other  reasons,  the  pilot  is 
assumed  to  have  made  a  decision  to 
(a)  For  normal  utility  and aerobatic category 
continue or discontinue the take­off.  The 
aeroplanes,  the  rotation  speed  VR, is the speed at 
take­off  decision  speed,  V1 ,  must  be 
which  the  pilot  makes  a  control  input  with  the 
selected for the aeroplane but must not be 
intention  of  lifting  the  aeroplane  out  of  contact 
less  than  VEF  plus  the  speed gained with 
with the runway or water surface. 
the  critical  engine inoperative during the 
(1)  For  twin­engined  landplanes,  VR  time  interval  between  the  instant  at 
must  not  be  less  than  the  greater  of  1∙05  VMC  which the critical engine is failed and the 
or 1∙10 VS1 ;  instant  at  which  the  pilot  recognises  and 
reacts  to  the  engine  failure,  as  indicated 
(2)  For  single  engined  landplanes,  VR, 
by  the  pilot’s  application  of  the  first 
must not be less than VS1 ; and 
retarding  means  during  the  accelerate­ 
stop determination of CS 23.55.

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(2)  The  rotation  speed,  VR,  in  terms of  (b)  For normal, utility and aerobatic category 

calibrated  airspeed,  must  be  selected  for  the  aeroplanes  the  distance  required  to  take­off  and 
aeroplane  and  must  not  be  less  than  the  climb  to  a  height  of  15  m  (50 ft)  above  the  take­ 
greatest of the following:  off  surface  must  be  determined  for  each  weight, 
altitude  and  temperature  within  the  operational 
(i)  V1 ; or 
limits established for take­off with – 
(ii)  1∙05  VMC  determined  under 
(1)  Take­off power on each engine; 
CS 23.149 (b); or 
(2)  Wing  flaps  in  the  take­off 
(iii)  1∙10 VSI; or 
position(s); and 
(iv)  The  speed  that  allows 
(3)  Landing gear extended. 
attaining  the  initial  climb­out  speed,  V2 , 
before  reaching  a  height  of  11  m  (35 ft)  (c)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes,  take­ 
above  the  take­off  surface  in  accordance  off  performance  as  required  by  CS 23.55  to 
with CS 23.57 (c) (2).  CS 23.59  must  be  determined  with  the  operating 
engines within approved operating limitations. 
(3)  For  any  given  set  of  conditions, 
such  as  weight,  altitude,  temperature  and 
configuration,  a  single  value  of  VR  must  be  CS 23.55  Accelerate­stop distance 
used  to  show  compliance  with  both  the  one­ 
For  each  commuter  category  aeroplane,  the 
engine­inoperative  take­off  and  all­engine­ 
accelerate­stop  distance  must  be  determined  as 
operating take­off requirements. 
(4)  The  take­off  safety  speed,  V2 ,  in 
(a)  The accelerate­stop distance is the sum of 
terms  of  calibrated  airspeed,  must  be  selected 
the distances necessary to – 
for the aeroplane so as to allow the gradient of 
climb  required  in  CS 23.67 (c) (1)  and  (c) (2)  (1)  Accelerate  the  aeroplane  from  a 
but  must  not  be  less  than  1∙10  VMC  or  less  standing  start  to  VEF  with  all  engines 
than 1∙20 VSI.  operating; 
(5)  The one­engine­inoperative take­off  (2)  Accelerate  the  aeroplane  from  VEF 
distance,  using  a  normal  rotation  rate  at  a  to  V1 ,  assuming  the  critical  engine  fails  at 
speed  9.3  km/h  (5  knots)  less  than  VR  VEF; and 
established  in  accordance  with  sub­paragraph 
(3)  Come  to  a  full  stop  from  the  point 
(c)(2),  must  be  shown  not  to  exceed  the 
at which V1  is reached. 
corresponding  one­engine­inoperative  take­off 
distance  determined  in  accordance  with  (b)  Means  other  than  wheel­brakes  may  be 
CS 23.57  and  23.59 (a) (1)  using  the  used  to  determine  the  accelerate­stop  distances  if 
established  VR.    The  take­off,  otherwise  that means – 
performed  in  accordance  with  CS 23.57  must 
(1)  Is safe and reliable; and 
safely be continued from the point at which the 
aeroplane  is  11  m  (35 ft)  above  the  take­off  (2)  Is  used  so  that  consistent  results 
surface, at a speed not less than the established  can  be  expected  under  normal  operating 
V2  minus 9.3 km/h (5 knots).  conditions. 
(6)  With  all  engines  operating,  marked 
increases  in  the  scheduled  take­off  distances  CS 23.57  Take­off path 
determined  in  accordance  with 
For  each  commuter  category  aeroplane,  the 
CS 23.59 (a) (2)  may  not  result  from  over­ 
take­off path is as follows; 
rotation  of  the  aeroplane  or  out­of­trim 
conditions.  (a)  The  take­off  path  extends  from  a 
standing  start  to  a  point  in  the  take­off  at  which 
the  aeroplane  is  457  m  (1 500 ft)  above  the  take­ 
CS 23.53  Take­off performance 
off  surface,  at  or  below  which  height  the 
(a)  For normal, utility and aerobatic category  transition  from  the  take­off  to  the  en­route 
aeroplanes  the  take­off  distance  must  be  configuration must be completed; and 
determined in accordance with sub­paragraph (b), 
(1)  The  take­off  path  must  be  based  on 
using  speeds  determined  in  accordance  with 
the procedures prescribed in CS 23.45;
CS 23.51 (a) and (b). 

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(2)  The  aeroplane  must  be  accelerated  CS 23.59  Take­off  distance  and  take­off 
on  the  ground  to  VEF  at  which  point  the  run 
critical  engine  must  be  made  inoperative  and 
For  each  commuter  category  aeroplane,  the 
remain  inoperative  for  the  rest  of  the  take­off; 
take­off  distance  must  be  determined.  The 
determination of the take­off run is optional. 
(3)  After  reaching  VEF,  the  aeroplane 
(a)  The take­off distance is the greater of – 
must be accelerated to V2 . 
(1)  The  horizontal  distance  along  the 
(b)  During  the  acceleration  to  speed  V2 ,  the 
take­off  path  from  the  start  of  the  take­off  to 
nose gear may be raised off the ground at a speed 
the point at which the aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) 
not  less  than  VR.    However,  landing  gear 
above  the  take­off  surface,  determined  under 
retraction  must  not  be  initiated  until  the 
CS 23.57; or 
aeroplane is airborne. 
(2)  115%  of  the  horizontal  distance, 
(c)  During  the  take­off  path  determination, 
with  all  engines  operating,  from  the  start  of 
in accordance with sub­paragraphs (a) and (b) – 
the take­off to the point at which the aeroplane 
(1)  The slope of the airborne part of the  is  11  m  (35 ft)  above  the  take­off  surface, 
take­off  path  must  not  be  negative  at  any  determined  by  a  procedure  consistent  with 
point;  CS 23.57. 
(2)  The aeroplane must reach V2  before  (b)  The take­off run is the greater of – 
it is 11m (35 ft) above the take­off surface and 
(1)  The  horizontal  distance  along  the 
must  continue  at  a  speed  as  close  as  practical 
take­off  path  from the start of the take­off to a 
to,  but  not  less  than,  V2 ,  until  it  is  122  m 
point equidistant between the lift off point and 
(400 ft) above the take­off surface; 
the point at which the aeroplane is 11 m (35 ft) 
(3)  At  each  point  along  the  take­off  above  the  take­off  surface,  determined  under 
path,  starting  at  the  point  at  which  the  CS 23.57; or 
aeroplane  reaches  122  m  (400 ft)  above  the 
(2)  115%  of  the  horizontal  distance, 
take­off  surface,  the  available  gradient  of 
with  all  engines  operating,  from  the  start  of 
climb must not be less than 1∙2%; and 
the  take­off  to  a  point  equidistant  between  the 
(4)  Except  for  gear  retraction  and  lift­off  point  and  the  point  at  which  the 
automatic  propeller  feathering,  the  aeroplane  aeroplane  is  11  m  (35 ft)  above  the  take­off 
configuration  must  not  be  changed,  and  no  surface,  determined  by  a  procedure  consistent 
change  in  power  that  requires  action  by  the  with CS 23.57. 
pilot  may  be  made,  until  the  aeroplane  is  122 
m (400 ft) above the take­off surface. 
CS 23.61  Take­off flight path 
(d)  The  take­off  path  to  11  m  (35 ft)  above 
For  each  commuter  category  aeroplane,  the 
the  take­off  surface  must  be  determined  by  a 
take­off  flight  path  must  be  determined  as 
continuous take­off. 
(e)  The take­off flight path from 11 m (35 ft) 
(a)  The  take­off  flight  path  begins  11  m 
above  the  take­off  surface  must  be  determined  by 
(35 ft) above the take­off surface at the end of the 
synthesis from segments; and 
take­off  distance  determined  in  accordance  with 
(1)  The  segments  must  be  clearly  CS 23.59. 
defined and must be related to distinct changes 
(b)  The  net  take­off  flight  path  data  must  be 
in configuration, power or speed; 
determined so that they represent the actual take­ 
(2)  The  weight  of  the  aeroplane,  the  off flight paths, as determined in accordance with 
configuration  and  the  power  must  be  assumed  CS 23.57 and with sub­paragraph (a) , reduced at 
constant  throughout  each  segment  and  must  each point by a gradient of climb equal to 0∙8%. 
correspond  to  the  most  critical  condition 
(c)  The  prescribed  reduction  in  climb 
prevailing in the segment; and 
gradient  may  be  applied  as  an  equivalent 
(3)  The  take­off  flight  path  must  be  reduction  in  acceleration  along  that  part  of  the 
based  on  the  aeroplane’s  performance  without  take­off  flight  path  at  which  the  aeroplane  is 
ground effect.  accelerated in level flight.

CS­23 BOOK 1 

CS 23.63  Climb: general  (1)  Not  more  than  maximum 

continuous power on each engine; 
(a)  Compliance  with  the  requirements  of 
CS 23.65,  23.66,  23.67,  23.69  and  23.77 must be  (2)  The landing gear retracted; 
shown  – 
(3)  The  wing  flaps  in  the  take­off 
(1)  Out of ground effect; and  position(s); and 
(2)  At  speeds  which  are  not  less  than  (4)  A  climb  speed  not  less  than  the 
those at which compliance with the powerplant  greater  of  1∙1 VMC  and  1∙2 VS1  for  twin­ 
cooling  requirements  of  CS 23.1041  to  engined  aeroplanes  and  not  less  than  1∙2 VS1 
23.1047 has been demonstrated.  for single­engined aeroplanes. 
(3)  Unless  otherwise  specified,  with  (b)  Each  normal,  utility  and  aerobatic 
one  engine  inoperative,  at  a  bank  angle  not  category reciprocating engine­powered aeroplanes 
exceeding 5 degrees.  of  more  than  2 722  kg  (6 000  lb)  maximum 
weight  and  turbine  engine­powered  aeroplanes in 
(b)  For normal, utility and aerobatic category 
the  normal,  utility  and  aerobatic  category  must 
reciprocating engine­powered aeroplanes of 
have a steady gradient of climb after take­off of at 
2 722  kg  (6 000  lb)  or  less  maximum  weight, 
least 4% with – 
compliance  must  be  shown  with  CS 23.65 (a), 
23.67 (a),  where  appropriate  and  CS 23.77 (a)  at  (1)  Take­off power on each engine; 
maximum  take­off  or  landing  weight,  as 
(2)  The  landing  gear  extended  except 
appropriate in a standard atmosphere. 
that, if the landing gear can be retracted in not 
(c)  For normal, utility and aerobatic category  more  than  7  seconds,  it  may  be  assumed  to  be 
reciprocating  engined  aeroplanes  of  more  than  retracted; 
2 722 kg (6 000 lb) maximum weight and turbine 
(3)  The  wing  flaps  in  the  take­off 
engine­powered  aeroplanes  in  the  normal,  utility 
position(s); and 
and  aerobatic  category,  compliance  must  be 
shown,  at  weights,  as  a  function  of  aerodrome  (4)  A  climb  speed  as  specified  in 
altitude  and  ambient  temperature,  within  the  CS 23.65 (a) (4). 
operational  limits  established  for  take­off  and 
landing respectively, with – 
CS 23.66  Take­off  climb:  one­engine­ 
(1)  CS 23.65 (b)  and  23.67 (b) (1)  and  inoperative 
(2), where appropriate, for take­off; and 
For  normal,  utility  and  aerobatic  category 
(2)  CS 23.67 (b) (2),  where  reciprocating  engine­powered  aeroplanes  of  more 
appropriate, and CS 23.77 (b), for landing.  than  2 722  kg  (6 000  lb)  maximum  weight  and 
turbine  engine­powered aeroplanes in the normal, 
(d)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes, 
utility  and aerobatic category, the steady gradient 
compliance  must  be  shown,  at  weights  as  a 
of  climb  or  descent  must  be  determined  at  each 
function  of  aerodrome  altitude  and  ambient 
weight,  altitude  and  ambient  temperature  within 
temperature  within  the  operational  limits 
the operational limits established by the applicant 
established  for  take­off  and  landing  respectively, 
with – 
with – 
(1)  The  critical  engine  inoperative  and 
(1)  CS  23.67 (c) (1),  23.67 (c) (2)  and 
its  propeller  in  the  position  it  rapidly  and 
23.67 (c) (3) for take­off; and 
automatically assumes; 
(2)  CS  23.67 (c) (3),  23.67 (c) (4)  and 
(2)  The  remaining  engine  at  take­off 
23.77 (c) for landing. 
(3)  The  landing  gear  extended  except 
CS 23.65  Climb: all engines operating 
that, if the landing gear can be retracted in not 
(a)  Each  normal,  utility  and  aerobatic  more  than  7  seconds,  it  may  be  assumed  to  be 
category  reciprocating  engine­powered  aeroplane  retracted; 
of  2 722  kg  (6 000  lb)  or  less  maximum  weight 
(4)  The  wing  flaps  in  the  take­off 
must  have  a  steady  gradient  of  climb  at  sea  level 
of  at  least  8∙3%  for  landplanes  or  6∙7%  for 
seaplanes and amphibians with –  (5)  The wings level; and

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(6)  A  climb  speed  equal  to  that  (iii)  The landing gear retracted; 

achieved  at  15  m  (50  ft)  in  the  demonstration 
(iv)  The  wing  flaps  in  the  take­off 
of CS 23.53. 
position(s); and 
(v)  A  climb  speed  equal  to  that 
CS 23.67  Climb: one­engine­inoperative 
achieved  at  15  m  (50 ft)  in  the 
(a)  For normal, utility and aerobatic category  demonstration of CS 23.53. 
reciprocating  engine­powered  aeroplanes  of 
(2)  The  steady gradient of climb must not be 
2 722kg  (6 000  lb)  or  less  maximum  weight  the 
less than 0∙75% at an altitude of 457 m (1 500 ft) 
following apply: 
above  the  take­off  or  landing  surface,  as 
(1)  Each  aeroplane  with  a  VSO  of  more  appropriate with – 
than  113  km/h  (61 knots)  must  be  able  to 
(i)  The  critical  engine  in­ 
maintain  a  steady  climb gradient of at least 1∙5% 
operative  and  its  propeller  in  the 
at a pressure altitude of 1524 m (5 000 ft) with  – 
minimum drag position; 
(i)  The  critical  engine  ­in­ 
(ii)  The  remaining  engine  at  not 
operative  and  its  propeller  in  the 
more than maximum continuous power; 
minimum drag position; 
(iii)  The landing gear retracted; 
(ii)  The  remaining  engine  at  not 
more than maximum continuous power;  (iv)  The wing flaps retracted; and 
(iii)  The landing gear retracted;  (v)  A  climb  speed  not  less  than 
1∙2 VS1 . 
(iv)  The wing flaps retracted; and 
(c)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes,  the 
(v)  A  climb  speed  not  less  than 
following apply: 
1∙2 VS1 . 
(1)  Take­off:  landing  gear  extended. 
(2)  For  each  aeroplane  with  a  VSO  of 
The  steady  gradient  of  climb  at  the  altitude  of 
113  km/h  (61 knots)  or  less,  the  steady 
the  take­off  surface  must  be  measurably 
gradient  of  climb  or  descent  at  a  pressure 
positive  with – 
altitude  of  1524  m  (5 000  ft)  must  be 
determined with –  (i)  The critical engine inoperative 
and its propeller in the position it rapidly 
(i)  The  critical  engine  in­ 
and automatically assumes; 
operative  and  its  propeller  in  the 
minimum drag position;  (ii)  The  remaining engine at take­ 
off power; 
(ii)  The  remaining  engine  at  not 
more than maximum continuous power;  (iii)  The landing gear extended, all 
landing gear doors open; 
(iii)  The landing gear retracted; 
(iv)  The  wing  flaps  in  the  take­off 
(iv)  The wing flaps retracted; and 
(v)  A  climb  speed  not  less  than 
(v)  The wings level; and 
1∙2 VS1 . 
(vi)  A climb speed equal to V2 . 
(b)  For normal, utility and aerobatic category 
reciprocating  engine­powered  aeroplanes  of  more  (2)  Take­off:  landing  gear  retracted. 
than  2 722  kg  (6 000  lb)  maximum  weight  and  The  steady  gradient  of  climb  at  an  altitude  of 
turbine engine­powered aeroplanes in the normal,  122  m  (400 ft)  above  the take­off surface must 
utility and aerobatic category –  be not less than 2∙0%  with – 
(1)  The  steady  gradient  of  climb  at  an  (i)  The critical engine inoperative 
altitude  of  122  m  (400  ft)  above  the  take­off  and its propeller in the position it rapidly 
surface must be measurably positive with –  and automatically assumes; 
(i)  The  critical  engine  in­  (ii)  The  remaining  engine  at 
operative  and  its  propeller  in  the  take­off power; 
minimum drag position; 
(iii)  The landing gear retracted; 
(ii)  The  remaining  engine  at 
(iv)  The  wing  flaps  in  the  take­off 
take­off power; 
position(s); and

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(v)  A climb speed equal to V2 .  ambient temperature within the operational limits 

established by the applicant with – 
(3)  En­route.  The  steady  gradient  of 
climb  at  an  altitude  of  457  m  (1 500 ft)  above  (1)  The  critical  engine  inoperative  and 
the  take­off  or  landing surface, as appropriate,  its propeller in the minimum drag position; 
must be not less than 1∙2%  with – 
(2)  The remaining engine  at not more 
(i)  The critical engine inoperative  than maximum continuous power; 
and  its  propeller  in  the  minimum  drag 
(3)  The landing gear retracted; 
(4)  The wing flaps retracted; and 
(ii)  The  remaining  engine  at  not 
more than maximum continuous power;  (5)  A  climb  speed  not  less  than 
1∙2 VS1 . 
(iii)  The landing gear retracted; 
(iv)  The wing flaps retracted; and 
CS 23.71  Glide (Single­engined 
(v)  A  climb  speed  not  less  than  aeroplanes) 
1∙2 VSI. 
The  maximum  horizontal  distance  travelled  in 
(4)  Discontinued  approach.  The  still  air,  in  km  per  1000  m  (nautical  miles  per 
steady  gradient  of  climb  at  an  altitude  of  122  1 000 ft)  of  altitude  lost  in  a glide, and the speed 
m  (400 ft)  above  the  landing  surface  must  be  necessary  to  achieve  this,  must  be  determined 
not less than 2∙1%  with –  with  the  engine  inoperative  and  its  propeller  in 
the  minimum  drag  position,  landing  gear  and 
(i)  The critical engine inoperative 
wing  flaps  in  the  most  favourable  available 
and  its  propeller  in  the  minimum  drag 
(ii)  The  remaining  engine    at 
CS 23.73  Reference  landing  approach 
take­off power; 
(iii)  The landing gear retracted; 
(a)  For normal, utility and aerobatic category 
(iv)  The  wing  flaps  in  the  reciprocating engine­powered aeroplanes of 2 722 
approach  position(s)  in  which  VSI  for  kg  (6 000  lb)  or  less  maximum  weight,  the 
these  positions(s)  does  not  exceed  110%  reference landing approach speed, VREF, must not 
of  the  VSI  for  the  related  all­engines­  be less than the greater of VMC, determined under 
operating landing position(s); and  CS 23.149 (b)  with  the  wing  flaps  in  the  most 
extended take­off setting, and 1∙3 VSO. 
(v)  A  climb  speed  established  in 
connection  with  normal  landing  (b)  For normal, utility and aerobatic category 
procedures but not exceeding 1∙5 VSI.  reciprocating  engine­powered  aeroplanes  of  more 
than  2 722  kg  (6 000  lb)  maximum  weight  and 
turbine engine­powered aeroplanes in the normal, 
CS 23.69  En­route climb/descent 
utility  and  aerobatic  category,  the  reference 
(a)  All engines operating  landing  approach  speed,  VREF,  must  not  be  less 
than  the  greater  of  VMC,  determined  under 
The  steady  gradient  and  rate  of  climb  must  be 
CS 23.149 (c), and 1∙3 VS0 . 
determined  at  each  weight,  altitude  and  ambient 
temperature  within  the  operational  limits  (c)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes,  the 
established by the applicant with –  reference landing approach speed, VREF, must not 
be  less  than  the  greater  of  1∙05  VMC,  determined 
(1)  Not  more  than  maximum 
under CS 23.149 (c), and 1∙3 VSO. 
continuous power on each engine; 
(2)  The landing gear retracted; 
CS 23.75  Landing distance 
(3)  The wing flaps retracted; and 
The  horizontal  distance  necessary  to  land  and 
(4)  A  climb  speed  not  less  than  come to a complete stop from a point 15 m (50 ft) 
1∙3 VS1 .  above the landing surface must be determined, for 
standard temperatures at each weight and altitude 
(b)  One­engine­inoperative 
within  the  operational  limits  established  for 
The  steady  gradient  and  rate  of  climb/descent  landing, as follows:
must  be  determined  at  each  weight,  altitude  and 

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(a)  A  steady approach at not less than VREF,  (2)  The landing gear extended; 

determined  in  accordance  with  CS 23.73 (a),  (b) 
(3)  The  wing  flaps  in  the  landing 
or (c) as appropriate, must be maintained down to 
position,  except  that  if  the  flaps  may  safely  be 
15 m (50 ft) height and – 
retracted in two seconds or less without loss of 
(1)  The  steady  approach  must  be  at  a  altitude  and  without  sudden  changes  of  angle 
gradient  of  descent  not  greater  than  5∙2%  (3°)  of attack, they may be retracted; and 
down to the 15 m (50 ft) height. 
(4)  A  climb  speed  equal  to  VREF,  as 
(2)  In  addition,  an  applicant  may  defined in CS 23.73 (a). 
demonstrate  by  tests  that  a  maximum  steady 
approach  gradient,  steeper  than  5∙2%  (3°),  (b)  For normal, utility and aerobatic category 
down  to  the  15  m  (50  ft)  height  is  safe.    The  each  reciprocating  engine­powered  aeroplane  of 
gradient  must  be  established  as  an  operating  more  than  2 722  kg  (6 000  lb)  maximum  weight 
limitation  and  the  information  necessary  to  and  turbine  engine­powered  aeroplanes  in  the 
display  the  gradient  must  be  available  to  the  normal,  utility  and  aerobatic  category,  the  steady 
pilot by an appropriate instrument.  gradient  of  climb  must  not  be  less  than  2∙5% 
with – 
(b)  A  constant  configuration  must  be  main­ 
tained throughout the manoeuvre;  (1)  Not  more  than  the  power  or  thrust 
that  is  available  8  seconds  after  initiation  of 
(c)  The  landing  must  be  made  without  movement  of  the  power  controls  from  the 
excessive  vertical  acceleration  or  tendency  to  minimum flight­idle position; 
bounce, nose­over, ground loop, porpoise or water 
loop. (2)  The landing gear extended; 

(d)  It must be shown that a safe transition to  (3)  The  wing  flaps  in  the  landing 

the  balked  landing conditions of CS 23.77 can be  position; and 
made  from  the  conditions  that  exist  at  the  15  m  (4)  A  climb  speed  equal  to  VREF,  as 
(50 ft) height, at maximum landing weight or the  defined in CS 23.73 (b). 
maximum  landing  weight  for  altitude  and 
temperature  of  CS  23.63 (c) (2)  or  (d) (2),  as  (c)  For  each  commuter  category  aeroplane, 
appropriate.  the steady gradient of climb must not be less than 
3∙2% with – 
(e)  The  brakes  must  not  be  used  so  as  to 
cause excessive wear of brakes or tyres.  (1)  Not more than the power that is available 
8  seconds  after  initiation  of  movement  of  the 
(f)  Retardation  means  other  than  power  controls  from  the  minimum  flight  idle 
wheelbrakes may be used if that means –  position; 
(1)  Is safe and reliable;  (2)  Landing gear extended; 
(2)  Is  used  so  that  consistent  results  (3)  Wing flaps in the landing position; and 
can be expected in service; and 
(4)  A  climb  speed  equal  to  VREF,  as  defined 
(g)  If  any  device  is  used  that  depends on the  in CS 23.73 (c). 
operation of any engine, and the landing distance 
would  be  increased  when  a  landing  is  made  with 
that engine inoperative, the landing distance must  FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS 
be determined with that engine inoperative unless 
the  use  of  other  compensating  means  will  result 
in  a  landing  distance  not  more  than  that  with  CS 23.141  General 
each engine operating.  The  aeroplane  must  meet  the  requirements  of 
CS 23.143  to  23.253  at  all  practical  loading 
CS 23.77  Balked landing  conditions  and  all  operating  altitudes,  not 
exceeding  the  maximum  operating  altitude 
(a)  Each  normal,  utility  and  aerobatic  established  under  CS  23.1527,  for  which 
category  reciprocating  engine­powered  aeroplane  certification  has  been  requested,  without 
of  2 722  kg  (6 000  lb)  or  less  maximum  weight  requiring  exceptional  piloting  skill,  alertness  or 
must  be  able  to  maintain  a  steady  gradient  of  strength.
climb at sea­level of at least 3∙3% with – 
(1)  Take­off power on each engine; 

CS­23 BOOK 1 

CONTROLLABILITY AND  Values in Newton (pounds  Pitch  Roll  Yaw 

MANOEUVRABILITY  force) applied to the relevant 
CS 23.143  General  For temporary application – 
(a)  The aeroplane must be safely controllable  Stick  267 N  133 N  ­ 
and  manoeuvrable  during  all  flight  phases 
including –  (60  (30  – 
lbf)  lbf) 
(1)  Take­off;  Wheel (two hands on rim)  ­ 
334 N  222 N 
(2)  Climb;  – 
(75  (50 
(3)  Level flight;  Wheel (one hand on rim)  ­ 
lbf)  lbf) 
(4)  Descent;  – 
222 N  111 N 
(5)  Go­around; and  Rudder pedal  667 N 
(50  (25 
(6)  Landing  (power  on  and  power  off)  lbf) lbf) (150lbf 
with the wing flaps extended and retracted.  )
For prolonged application –  ­  ­ 
(b)  It  must  be  possible  to  make  a  smooth  89 N 
–  – 
transition  from  one  flight  condition  to  another  (20 
(including  turns  and  slips)  without  danger  of  44,5 N  22 N 
exceeding  the  limit  load  factor,  under  any  (10  (5 lbf) 
probable  operating  condition,  (including,  for  lbf) 
multi­engined  aeroplanes,  those  conditions 
normally encountered in the sudden failure of any 
engine).  CS 23.145  Longitudinal control 

(c)  If  marginal  conditions  exist  with  regard  (a)  With  the  aeroplane  as  nearly  as  possible 
to  required  pilot  strength,  the  control  forces  in  trim  at  1∙3  VS1 ,  it  must  be  possible,  at  speeds 
required must be determined by quantitative tests.  below the trim speed, to pitch the nose downward 
In  no  case  may  the  control  forces  under  the  so  that  the  rate  of  increase  in  airspeed  allows 
conditions  specified  in  sub­paragraphs  (a)  and  prompt acceleration to the trim speed with – 
(b),  exceed  those  prescribed  in  the  following  (1)  Maximum  continuous  power  on 
table:  each engine; 
(2)  Power off; and 
(3)  Wing flaps and landing gear – 
(i)  Retracted; and 
(ii)  Extended. 
(b)  It  must  be  possible  to  carry  out  the 
following  manoeuvres  without  requiring  the 
application  of  single  handed  control  forces 
exceeding  those  specified  in  CS  23.143 (c), 
unless  otherwise  stated.    The  trimming  controls 
must not be adjusted during the manoeuvres: 
(1)  With  landing  gear  extended  and 
flaps  retracted  and  the  aeroplane  as  nearly  as 
possible in trim at 1∙4 VS1 , extend the flaps as 
rapidly  as  possible  and  allow  the  airspeed  to 
transition from 1∙4 VS1  to 1∙4 VS0 , with  – 
(i)  Power off; and 
(ii)  Power  necessary  to  maintain 
level flight  in the initial condition.

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(2)  With  landing  gear  and  flaps  power­off  glide  with  landing  gear  and wing flaps 
extended,  power  off  and  the  aeroplane  as  extended. 
nearly  as  possible  in  trim  at  1∙3 VSO,  quickly 
(e)  By  using  normal  flight  and  power 
apply  take­off  power  and  retract  the  flaps  as 
controls,  except  as  otherwise  noted  in  sub­ 
rapidly  as  possible  to  the  recommended  go­ 
paragraphs (e) (1) and (e) (2) , it must be possible 
around  setting  and  allow  the  airspeed  to 
to  establish  a  zero  rate  of  descent  at  an  attitude 
transition  from  1∙3  VSO  to  1∙3  VS1 .    Retract 
suitable  for  a  controlled  landing  without 
the  gear  when  a  positive  rate  of  climb  is 
exceeding  the  operational  and  structural 
limitations of the aeroplane, as follows: 
(3)  With  landing  gear  and  flaps 
(1)  For  single­engined  and  twin­ 
extended,  power  for  and  in  level  flight  at  1∙1 
engined  aeroplanes,  without  the  use  of  the 
VSO  and the aeroplane as nearly as possible in 
primary longitudinal control system; 
trim,  it  must  be  possible  to  maintain 
approximately  level  flight  while  retracting  the  (2)  For twin­engined aeroplanes; 
flaps  as  rapidly  as  possible  with  simultaneous 
(i)  Without the use of the primary 
application  of  not  more  than  maximum 
directional control; and 
continuous  power.    If  gated  flap  positions  are 
provided,  the  flap  retraction  may  be  (ii)  If  a  single  failure  of  any  one 
demonstrated  in  stages  with  power  and  trim  connecting  or  transmitting  link  would 
reset  for  level  flight  at  1∙1  VS1  in  the  initial  affect  both  the  longitudinal  and 
configuration for each stage –  directional  primary  control  system, 
without  the  primary  longitudinal  and 
(i)  From  the  fully  extended 
directional control system. 
position  to  the  most  extended  gated 
CS 23.147  Directional and lateral control 
(ii)  Between  intermediate  gated 
positions, if applicable; and  (a)  For  each twin­engined aeroplane, it must 
be  possible,  while  holding  the  wings  level  within 
(iii)  From  the  least  extended  gated 
5°,  to  make  sudden  changes  in  heading  safely  in 
position to the fully retracted position. 
both  directions.    This  must  be  shown  at  1∙4 VS1 
(4)  With  power  off,  flaps  and  landing  with heading  changes  up to 15° (except that the 
gear  retracted  and  the  aeroplane  as  nearly  as  heading  change  at  which  the  rudder  force 
possible  in  trim  at  1∙4 VS1 ,  apply  take­off  corresponds  to  the  limits  specified  in  CS 23.143 
power  rapidly  while  maintaining  the  same  need not be exceeded), with the – 
(1)  Critical  engine  inoperative  and  its 
(5)  With  power  off,  landing  gear  and  propeller in the minimum drag position; 
flaps  extended  and  the  aeroplane  as  nearly  as 
(2)  Remaining  engine  at  maximum 
possible  in  trim  at  VREF,  obtain  and  maintain 
continuous power; 
airspeeds  between  1∙1  VS0  and  either  1∙7  VS0 
or  VFE,  whichever  is  lower,  without  requiring  (3)  Landing gear – 
the  application  of  two­handed  control  forces 
(i)  Retracted; and 
exceeding those specified in CS 23.143 (c). 
(ii)  Extended; and 
(6)  With  maximum  take­off  power, 
landing  gear  retracted,  flaps  in  the  take­off  (4)  Flaps retracted. 
position  and  the  aeroplane  as  nearly  as 
(b)  For  each twin­engined aeroplane, it must 
possible in  trim at VFE  appropriate to the take­ 
be  possible  to regain full control of the aeroplane 
off  flap position, retract the flaps as rapidly as 
without  exceeding  a  bank  angle  of  45°,  reaching 
possible while maintaining speed constant. 
a  dangerous  attitude  or  encountering  dangerous 
(c)  At speeds above VMO/MMO  and up to the  characteristics,  in  the  event  of  a  sudden  and 
maximum  speed  shown  under  CS 23.251,  a  complete  failure  of  the  critical  engine,  making 
manoeuvring  capability  of  1∙5g  must  be  allowance  for  a  delay  of  2  seconds  in  the 
demonstrated to provide a margin to recover from  initiation  of  recovery  action  appropriate  to  the 
upset or inadvertent speed increase.  situation,  with  the  aeroplane  initially  in  trim,  in 
the following conditions – 
(d)  It  must  be  possible,  with  a  pilot  control 
force  of  not  more  than  44∙5  N  (10 lbf),  to  (1)  Maximum  continuous  power  on 
maintain  a speed of not more than VREF  during a  each engine;

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(2)  Wing flaps retracted;  (c)  For  all  aeroplanes  except  reciprocating 

engine­powered aeroplanes of 2 722 kg (6 000 lb) 
(3)  Landing gear retracted; 
or  less  maximum  weight,  the  requirements  of 
(4)  Speed  equal  to  that  at  which  sub­paragraph  (a)  must  also  be  met  for  the 
compliance with CS 23.69 (a) has been shown;  landing configuration with – 
(5)  All  propeller  controls  in  the  (1)  Maximum  available  take­off  power 
position  in  which  compliance  with  initially on each engine; 
CS 23.69 (a) has been shown. 
(2)  The  aeroplane  trimmed  for  and 
(c)  For  all  aeroplanes,  it must be shown that  approach with all engines operating at VREF  at 
the  aeroplane  is  safely  controllable  without  the  an approach gradient equal to the steepest used 
use  of  the  primary  lateral  control  system  in  any  in  the  landing  distance  demonstration  of 
all­engine  configuration(s)  and  at  any  speed  or  CS 23.75; 
altitude  within  the  approved  operating  envelope. 
(3)  Flaps in the landing position; 
It  must  also  be  shown  that  the  aeroplane’s  flight 
characteristics  are  not  impaired  below  a  level  (4)  Landing gear extended; and 
needed  to  permit  continued  safe  flight  and  the 
(5)  All  propeller  controls  throughout  in 
ability  to  maintain  attitudes  suitable  for  a 
the  position  recommended  for  approach  with 
controlled  landing  without  exceeding  the 
all engines operating. 
operational  and  structural  limitations  of  the 
aeroplane.    If  a  single  failure  of  any  one  (d)  A minimum speed to intentionally render 
connecting  or  transmitting  link  in  the  lateral  the critical engine inoperative must be established 
control  system  would  also  cause  the  loss  of  and  designated  as  the  safe,  intentional,  one­ 
additional  control  system(s),  the  above  engine­inoperative speed, VSSE . 
requirement  is  equally  applicable  with  those 
(e)  At  VMC,  the  rudder  pedal  force  required 
additional  systems  also  assumed  to  be 
to  maintain  control  must  not  exceed  667  N 
(150 lbf)  and  it  must  not  be  necessary  to  reduce 
power  of  the  operative  engine  .    During  the 
CS 23.149  Minimum control speed  manoeuvre  the  aeroplane  must  not  assume  any 
dangerous  attitude  and  it  must  be  possible  to 
(a)  VMC  is  the  calibrated  airspeed  at  which, 
prevent a heading change of more than 20°. 
when  the  critical  engine  is  suddenly  made 
inoperative,  it  is  possible  to  maintain  control  of  (f)  VMCG,  the  minimum control speed on the 
the  aeroplane,  with  that  engine  still  inoperative,  ground, is the calibrated airspeed during the take­ 
and thereafter maintain straight flight at the same  off  run,  at  which,  when  the  critical  engine  is 
speed  with  an  angle  of  bank  not  more  than  5°.  suddenly made inoperative and with its propeller, 
The  method  used  to  simulate  critical  engine  if  applicable,  in  the  position  it  automatically 
failure  must  represent  the  most  critical  mode  of  achieves,  it  is  possible  to  maintain  control  of  the 
powerplant  failure  with  respect  to  controllability  aeroplane  with  the  use  of  the  primary 
expected in service.  aerodynamic  controls  alone  (without  the  use  of 
nose­wheel  steering)  to  enable  the  take­off  to  be 
(b)  VMC  for  take­off  must  not  exceed 
safely continued using normal piloting skill.  The 
1∙2 VS1 ,  (where VS1  is  determined  at  the 
rudder  control  force  may  not  exceed  667  N  (150 
maximum  take­off  weight)  and  must  be 
lbf)  and,  until  the  aeroplane  becomes  airborne, 
determined  with  the  most  unfavourable  weight 
the  lateral  control  may  only  be used to the extent 
and  centre  of  gravity  position  and  with  the 
of  keeping  the  wings  level.    In  the  determination 
aeroplane  airborne  and  the  ground  effect 
of  VMCG,  assuming  that  the  path  of  the  aeroplane 
negligible, for the take­off configuration(s) with – 
accelerating  with  all  engines  operating  is  along 
(1)  Maximum  available  take­off  power  the  centreline  of  the  runway,  its  path  from  the 
initially on each engine;  point  at  which  the  critical  engine  is  made 
inoperative  to  the  point  at  which  recovery  to  a 
(2)  The aeroplane trimmed for take­off; 
direction  parallel  to  the  centreline  is  completed, 
(3)  Flaps in the take­off position(s);  may  not  deviate  more  than  9∙1m  (30ft)  laterally 
from  the  centreline  at  any  point.    VMCG  must  be 
(4)  Landing gear retracted; and 
established, with:­ 
(5)  All  propeller  controls  in  the 
(1)  The  aeroplane  in  each  take­off 
recommended take­off position throughout. 
configuration  or,  at  the  option  of  the

CS­23 BOOK 1 

applicant,  in  the  most  critical  take­off  (b)  The  requirement  of  sub­paragraph (a) 
configuration;  must  be  met  with  wing  flaps  and  landing  gear 
retracted under each of the following conditions – 
(2)  Maximum  available  take­off 
power or thrust on the operating engines;  (1)  At  75%  of  maximum  continuous 
power  for  reciprocating  engines  or  maximum 
(3)  The  most  unfavourable  centre  of 
continuous power for turbine engines. 
(2)  In  a  turn,  after  the  aeroplane  is 
(4)  The  aeroplane  trimmed  for  take­ 
trimmed  with  wings  level,  at  the  minimum 
off; and 
speed  at  which  the  required  normal 
(5)  The  most unfavourable weight in  acceleration  can  be  achieved  without  stalling, 
the range of take­off weights.  and  at  the  maximum  level  flight  trim  speed 
except  that  the  speed  may  not  exceed  VNE  or 
VMO/MMO, whichever is appropriate. 
CS 23.151  Aerobatic manoeuvres 
(c)  There  must  be  no  excessive  decrease  in 
Each  aerobatic  and  utility  category  aeroplane 
the  gradient  of  the  curve  of  stick  force  versus 
must  be  able  to  perform  safely  the  aerobatic 
manoeuvring  load  factor  with  increasing  load 
manoeuvres  for  which  certification  is  requested. 
Safe  entry  speeds  for  these  manoeuvres  must  be 
CS 23.157  Rate of roll 
CS 23.153  Control during landings  (a)  Take–off.  It  must  be  possible,  using  a 
favourable  combination  of  controls,  to  roll  the 
It  must  be  possible,  while  in  the  landing 
aeroplane  from  a  steady  30°  banked turn through 
configuration,  to  safely  complete  a  landing 
an  angle  of  60°,  so  as  to  reverse  the  direction  of 
without  exceeding  the  one­hand  control  force 
the turn within – 
limits  specified  in  CS 23.143 (c)  following  an 
approach to land –  (1)  For  an  aeroplane  of  2 722  kg 
(6 000 lb)  or  less  maximum  weight,  5  seconds 
(a)  At a speed of VREF  –9.3 km/h (5 knots); 
from initiation of roll; and 
(b)  With  the  aeroplane  in  trim,  or  as  nearly 
(2)  For  aeroplanes  of  over  2 722  kg 
as  possible  in  trim  and  without  the  trimming 
(6 000 lb) maximum weight, 
control being moved throughout the manoeuvre; 
W + 2 00 
(c)  At  an  approach  gradient  equal  to  the  but  not  more  than 10 seconds, where 
steepest  used  in  the  landing  distance  590 
W is the weight in kg,
demonstration of CS 23.75; 
(d)  With  only  those  power  changes,  if  any,  æ W  + 500 
which  would  be  made  when  landing  normally  ç 1 300  but  not  more  than  10  seconds, 
from an approach at VREF.  where W is the weight in lb.) 
(b)  The  requirement  of  sub­paragraph  (a) 
CS 23.155  Elevator  control  force  in  must  be  met  when  rolling  the  aeroplane  in  each 
manoeuvres  direction in the following conditions – 
(a)  The  elevator  control  force  needed  to  (1)  Flaps in the take­off position; 
achieve  the  positive  limit  manoeuvring  load 
factor may not be less than –  (2)  Landing gear retracted; 

(1)  For  wheel  controls,  W/10N  (where  (3)  For  a  single­engined  aeroplane,  at 
W  is  the  maximum  weight  in  kg)  (W/100  lbf  maximum  take­off  power  and  for  a  twin­ 
(where W  is  the  maximum  weight  in  lb))  or  engined  aeroplane,  with  the  critical  engine 
89 N (20 lbf), whichever is greater, except that  inoperative, the propeller in the minimum drag 
it need not be greater than 222 N (50 lbf); or  position  and  the  remaining  engine  at 
maximum take­off power; and 
(2)  For  stick  controls,  W/14N  (where 
W  is  the  maximum  weight  in  kg)  (W/140  lbf  (4)  The  aeroplane  trimmed  at  a  speed 
(where W  is  the  maximum  weight  in  lb))  or  equal to the greater of 1∙2 VS1  or 1∙1 VMC  or as 
66∙8 N  (15 lbf),  whichever  is  greater,  except  nearly as possible in trim for straight flight.
that it need not be greater than 156 N (35 lbf). 

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(c)  Approach.  It  must  be  possible  using  a  (1)  For  normal,  utility  and  aerobatic 
favourable  combination  of  controls,  to  roll  the  category  aeroplanes,  at  a  speed  of  0∙9  VH,  VC 
aeroplane  from  a  steady  30°  banked turn through  or VMO/MMO, whichever is lowest; and 
an  angle  of  60°,  so  as  to  reverse  the  direction  of 
(2)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes, 
the turn within – 
at  all  speeds  from  1∙4  VSI  to  the  lesser  of  VH 
(1)  For  an  aeroplane  of  2 722  kg  or VMO/MMO. 
(6 000 lb)  or  less  maximum  weight,  4  seconds 
(c)  Longitudinal  trim.  The  aeroplane  must 
from initiation of roll; and 
maintain  longitudinal  trim  under  each  of  the 
(2)  For  and  aeroplane  of  over  2 722  kg  following conditions: 
(6 000 lb) maximum weight, 
(1)  A climb with; 
W + 1 300 
but  not  more  than  7  seconds  (i)  Take­off  power,  landing  gear 
1 000  retracted,  wing  flaps  in  the  take­off 
where W is weight in kg. position(s),  at  the  speeds  used  in 
determining  the  climb  performance 
æ W + 2 800  required by CS 23.65; and 
çç but  not  more  than  7  seconds 
è 2  200  (ii)  Maximum  continuous  power 
where W is weight in lb.)  at  the  speeds  and  in  the  configuration 
(d)  The  requirement  of  sub­paragraph (c)  used  in  determining  the  climb 
must  be  met  when  rolling  the  aeroplane  in  each  performance required by CS 23.69 (a). 
direction in the following conditions –  (2)  Level  flight  at  all  speeds  from  the 
(1)  Flaps in the landing position(s);  lesser  of  VH  and  either  VNO  or  VMO/MMO  (as 
appropriate),  to 1∙4 VS1 , with the landing gear 
(2)  Landing gear extended;  and flaps retracted. 
(3)  All  engines  operating  at  the  power  (3)  A  descent  at  VNO  or  VMO/MMO, 
for a 3° approach; and  whichever  is  applicable,  with  power  off  and 
(4)  The aeroplane trimmed at VREF.  with the landing gear and flaps retracted. 
(4)  Approach  with  landing  gear 
extended and with – 
(i)  A  3°  angle  of  descent,  with 
flaps retracted and at a speed of 1∙4 VS1 ; 
CS 23.161  Trim 
(ii)  A 3° angle of descent, flaps in 
(a)  General.  Each  aeroplane  must  meet  the  the landing position(s) at VREF; and 
trim  requirements    after  being  trimmed  and 
without  further  pressure  upon,  or  movement  of,  (iii)  An approach gradient equal to 
the  primary  controls  or  their  corresponding  trim  the  steepest  used  in  the  landing  distance 
controls  by  the  pilot  or  the  automatic  pilot.    In  demonstrations  of  CS  23.75,  flaps  in  the 
addition,  it  must  be  possible,  in  other  conditions  landing position(s) at VREF. 
of  loading,  configuration,  speed  and  power  to  (d)  In  addition,  each  twin­engined aeroplane 
ensure  that  the  pilot  will  not  be  unduly  fatigued  must  maintain  longitudinal  and  directional  trim 
or distracted by the need to apply residual control  and the lateral control force must not exceed 22 N 
forces  exceeding  those  for  prolonged  application  (5 lbf),  at  the  speed  used  in  complying  with  CS 
of  CS  23.143 (c).    This  applies  in  normal  23.67 (a)  or  (b) (2)  or  (c) (3)  as  appropriate, 
operation  of  the  aeroplane  and,  if  applicable,  to  with – 
those conditions associated with the failure of one 
engine  for  which  performance  characteristics  are  (1)  The critical engine in­operative and 
established.  its propeller in the minimum drag position; 

(b)  Lateral  and  directional  trim.  The  (2)  The  remaining  engine  at  maximum 
aeroplane  must  maintain  lateral  and  directional  continuous power; 
trim  in  level  flight  with  the  landing  gear  and  (3)  The landing gear retracted; 
wing flaps retracted as follows: 
(4)  The wing flaps retracted; and 
(5)  An  angle  of  bank  of  not  more  than 

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(e)  In  addition,  each  commuter  category  (1)  For  all  aeroplanes,  plus  or  minus 
aeroplane  for  which,  in  the  determination  of  the  10%  of  the  original  trim  airspeed;  and  in 
take­off  path  in  accordance  with  CS 23.57,  the  addition; 
climb  in  the  take­off  configuration  at  V2  extends 
(2)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes, 
beyond  122  m (400 ft) above the take­off surface, 
plus  or  minus  7∙5%  of  the  original  trim 
it must be possible to reduce the longitudinal and 
airspeed  for  the  cruising  conditions  specified 
lateral  control  forces  to  44∙5 N  (10  lbf)  and  22 N 
in CS 23.175 (b). 
(5  lbf)  respectively  and  the  directional  control 
force must not exceed 222 N (50 lbf) at V2  with –  (c)  The  stick  force  must  vary  with  speed  so 
that  any  substantial  speed  change  results  in  a 
(1)  The  critical  engine  inoperative  and 
stick force clearly perceptible to the pilot. 
its propeller in the minimum drag position; 
(2)  The  remaining  engine  at  take­off 
CS 23.175  Demonstration  of  static 
longitudinal stability 
(3)  Landing gear retracted; 
Static  longitudinal  stability  must  be  shown  as 
(4)  Wing  flaps  in  the  take­off  follows: 
position(s); and 
(a)  Climb.  The stick force curve must have a 
(5)  An angle of bank not exceeding 5°.  stable  slope, at speeds between 85% and 115% of 
the trim speed, with – 
(1)  Flaps retracted; 
(2)  Landing gear retracted; 
CS 23.171  General  (3)  Maximum continuous power ; and 
The  aeroplane  must  be  longitudinally,  (4)  The aeroplane trimmed at the speed 
directionally and laterally stable under  CS 23.173  used  in  determining  the  climb  performance 
to  23.181.    In  addition,  the  aeroplane  must  show  required by CS 23.69 (a). 
suitable  stability  and  control  “feel”  (static 
(b)  Cruise.  With  flaps  and  landing  gear 
stability)  in  any  condition  normally  encountered 
retracted  and  the  aeroplane  in  trim  with  power 
in  service,  if  flight  tests  show  it  is  necessary  for 
for level flight at representative cruising speeds at 
safe operation. 
high  and  low  altitudes,  including  speeds  up  to 
VNO  or VMO/MMO  as appropriate, except that the 
CS 23.173  Static longitudinal stability  speed need not exceed VH  – 
Under  the  conditions  specified  in  CS 23.175  (1)  For  normal,  utility  and  aerobatic 
and  with  the  aeroplane  trimmed  as  indicated, the  category aeroplanes, the stick force curve must 
characteristics  of  the  elevator  control  forces  and  have a stable slope at all speeds within a range 
the  friction  within  the  control  system  must  be  as  that  is  the  greater  of  15%  of  the  trim  speed 
follows:  plus  the  resulting  free  return  speed  range,  or 
74  km/h  (40  knots)  plus  the  resulting  free 
(a)  A  pull  must  be  required  to  obtain  and 
return  speed  range,  above  and  below  the  trim 
maintain  speeds  below  the  specified  trim  speed 
speed,  except  that  the  slope  need  not  be 
and  a  push  required  to  obtain  and  maintain 
stable – 
speeds above the specified trim speed.  This must 
be  shown  at  any  speed  that  can  be  obtained,  (i)  At speeds less than 1∙3 VSI; or 
except  that  speeds  requiring  a  control  force  in 
(ii)  For  aeroplanes  with  VNE 
excess  of  178 N  (40 lbf)  or  speeds  above  the 
established  under  CS 23.1505 (a),  at 
maximum allowable speed or below the minimum 
speeds greater than VNE; or 
speed  for  steady  unstalled  flight,  need  not  be 
considered.  (iii)  For  aeroplanes  with 
VMO/MMO  established  under 
(b)  The  airspeed  must  return  to  within  the 
CS 23.1505 (c),  at  speeds  greater  than 
tolerances  specified  when  the  control  force  is 
slowly  released  at  any  speed  within  the  speed 
range  specified  in  sub­paragraph  (a)  .    The  (2)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes, 
applicable tolerances are –  the  stick  force  curve  must  have  a  stable  slope 
at  all  speeds  within  a  range  of  93  km/h  (50 
knots)  plus  the  resulting  free  return  speed

CS­23 BOOK 1 

range,  above  and  below  the  trim  speed,  except  configurations.    The  angle  of  sideslip  for  these 
that the slope need not be stable –  tests  must  be  appropriate to the type of aeroplane 
but  in  no  case  may  the  constant  heading  sideslip 
(i)  At speeds less than 1∙4 VSI; or 
angle  be  less  than  that  obtainable  with  10°  bank, 
(ii)  At  speeds  greater  than  or  if  less,  the  maximum  bank  angle  obtainable 
VFC/MFC; or  with  full  rudder  deflection  or  667  N  (150  lbf) 
rudder force. 
(iii)  At  speeds  that  require  a  stick 
force greater than 222 N (50 lbf).  (c)  Sub­paragraph (b)  does  not  apply  to 
aerobatic  category  aeroplanes  certificated  for 
(c)  Landing.  The  stick  force  curve  must 
inverted flight. 
have a stable slope at speeds between 1∙1 VS1  and 
1∙8 VS1  with –  (d)  In straight, steady sideslips at 1∙2 VS1  for 
any  landing  gear  and  flap  positions  and  for  any 
(1)  Flaps in the landing position; 
symmetrical  power  conditions  up  to  50%  of 
(2)  Landing gear extended; and  maximum  continuous  power,  the  aileron  and 
rudder  control  movements  and  forces  must 
(3)  The aeroplane trimmed at – 
increase  steadily  (but  not  necessarily  in  constant 
(i)  VREF,  or  the  minimum  trim  proportion)  as  the  angle  of  sideslip  is  increased 
speed if higher, with power off; and  up  to  the  maximum  appropriate  to  the  type  of 
aeroplane.    At  larger  sideslip  angles  up  to  the 
(ii)  VREF  with  enough  power  to 
angle  at  which  full  rudder  or  aileron  control  is 
maintain a 3° angle of descent. 
used  or  a  control  force  limit  contained  in 
CS 23.143  is  reached,  the  aileron  and  rudder 
CS 23.177  Static  directional  and  lateral  control movements and forces must not reverse as 
stability  the  angle  of  sideslip  is  increased.    Rapid  entry 
into,  or  recovery  from,  a  maximum  sideslip 
(a)  The  static  directional  stability,  as  shown 
considered appropriate for the aeroplane must not 
by  the  tendency  to  recover  from  a  wings  level 
result in uncontrollable flight characteristics. 
sideslip with the rudder free, must be positive for 
any  landing  gear  and  flap  position  appropriate to 
the  take­off,  climb,  cruise,  approach  and  landing  CS 23.181  Dynamic stability 
configurations.    This  must  be  shown  with 
(a)  Any  short  period  oscillation  not 
symmetrical  power  up  to  maximum  continuous 
including  combined  lateral­directional 
power  and  at  speeds  from  1∙2 VS1  up  to 
oscillations  occurring  between  the  stalling  speed 
maximum allowable speed for the condition being 
and  the  maximum  allowable  speed  appropriate to 
investigated.  The angle of sideslip for these tests 
the  configuration  of  the  aeroplane  must  be 
must  be  appropriate  to  the  type  of  aeroplane.    At 
heavily damped with the primary controls – 
larger  angles  of  sideslip  up  to  that  at  which  full 
rudder  is  used  or  a  control  force  limit  in  (1)  Free; and 
CS 23.143 is reached, whichever occurs first, and 
(2)  In  a  fixed  position,  except  when 
at  speeds  from  1∙2 VS1  to  Vo  the  rudder  pedal 
compliance with CS 23.672 is shown. 
force must not reverse. 
(b)  Any combined lateral–directional oscilla­ 
(b)  The  static    lateral  stability,  as  shown  by 
tions  (“Dutch  roll”)  occurring  between  the 
the  tendency  to  raise  the  low  wing  in  a  sideslip, 
stalling  speed  and  the  maximum  allowable  speed 
must  be  positive  for  all  landing  gear  and  flap 
appropriate  to  the  configuration  of  the  aeroplane 
positions.    This  must  be  shown  with  symmetrical  1 
must  be  damped  to  10  amplitude  in  7 cycles  with 
power  up  to  75%  of  maximum  continuous  power 
the primary controls – 
at  speeds  above  1∙2 VS1  in  the  take­off 
configuration(s)  and  at  speeds  above  1∙3 VS1  in  (1)  Free; and 
other  configurations,  up  to  the  maximum 
(2)  In  a  fixed  position,  except  when 
allowable  speed  for  the  configuration  being 
compliance with CS 23.672 is shown. 
investigated,  in  the  take­off,  climb,  cruise  and 
approach  configurations.    For  the  landing  (c)  Any  long­period  oscillation  of  the  flight 
configuration,  the  power  must  be  up  to  that  path  (phugoid)  must  not  be  so  unstable  as  to 
necessary to maintain a 3° angle of descent in co­  cause  an  unacceptable  increase  in  pilot  workload 
ordinated  flight.    The  static  lateral  stability  must  or  otherwise  endanger  the  aeroplane.    When,  in 
not  be  negative  at  1∙2 VS1  in  the  take­off  the  conditions  of  CS 23.175,  the  longitudinal 
configuration,  or  at  1∙3 VS1  in  other  control  force  required  to  maintain  speeds

CS­23 BOOK 1 

differing  from  the  trimmed  speed  by  at  least plus  (ii)  75%  maximum  continuous 
or  minus  15%  is  suddenly  released,  the  response  power.  If  the  power­to­weight  ratio  at 
of  the  aeroplane  must  not  exhibit  any  dangerous  75%  of  maximum  continuous  power 
characteristics  nor  be  excessive  in  relation  to  the  results  in  extreme  nose­up  attitudes,  the 
magnitude of the control force released.  test  may  be  carried  out  with  the  power 
required  for  level  flight  in  the  landing 
configuration  at  maximum  landing 
STALLS  weight  and  a  speed  of  1∙4  VS0 ,  but  the 
power  may  not  be  less  than  50% 
maximum continuous power. 
CS 23.201  Wings level stall 
(5)  Trim.  The  aeroplane  trimmed  at  a 
(a)  It  must  be  possible  to  produce  and  to 
speed as near 1∙5 VS1  as practicable. 
correct  roll  by  unreversed  use  of  the  rolling 
control  and  to  produce  and  to  correct  yaw  by  (6)  Propeller.  Full  increase  rpm 
unreversed  use  of  the  directional  control,  up  to  position for the power off condition. 
the time the aeroplane stalls. 
(b)  The wings level stall characteristics must  CS 23.203  Turning  flight  and  accelerated 
be  demonstrated  in  flight  as  follows.  Starting  turning stalls 
from  a  speed  at  least  18.5  km/h  (10  knots)  above 
Turning  flight  and  accelerated  turning  stalls 
the  stall  speed,  the  elevator  control  must  be 
must be demonstrated in tests as follows: 
pulled  back  so  that  the  rate  of  speed  reduction 
will  not  exceed  1.9  km/h  (one  knot)  per  second  (a)  Establish  and  maintain  a  co­ordinated 
until a stall is produced, as shown by either –  turn in a 30° bank.  Reduce speed by steadily and 
progressively  tightening  the  turn  with  the 
(1)  An  uncontrollable  downward 
elevator  until  the  aeroplane  is  stalled,  as  defined 
pitching motion of the aeroplane; or 
in  CS 23.201 (b).    The  rate  of  speed  reduction 
(2)  A downward pitching motion of the  must be constant, and – 
aeroplane  which  results  from  the  activation  of 
(1)  For  a  turning  flight  stall,  may  not 
a device (e.g. stick pusher); or 
exceed 1.9 km/h (one knot) per second; and 
(3)  The control reaching the stop. 
(2)  For  an  accelerated  turning  stall,  be 
(c)  Normal  use  of  elevator  control  for  5.6  to  9.3  km/h  (3  to  5 knots)  per second with 
recovery  is  allowed  after  the  downward  pitching  steadily increasing normal acceleration. 
motion of (b) (1) or (b) (2) has unmistakably been 
(b)  After  the  aeroplane  has  stalled,  as 
produced,  or  after  the  control  has  been  held 
defined  in  CS 23.201 (b)  it  must  be  possible  to 
against  the  stop  for  not  less  than  the  longer  of  2 
regain  level  flight  by  normal  use  of  the  flight 
seconds  or  the  time  employed  in  the  minimum 
controls  but  without  increasing  power  and 
steady flight speed determination of CS 23.49. 
without – 
(d)  During  the  entry  into  and  the  recovery 
(1)  Excessive loss of altitude; 
from  the  manoeuvre,  it  must  be  possible  to 
prevent  more  than  15°  of  roll  or  yaw  by  the  (2)  Undue pitch­up; 
normal use of controls. 
(3)  Uncontrollable tendency to spin; 
(e)  Compliance  with  the  requirements    must 
(4)  Exceeding  a  bank  angle  of  60°  in 
be shown under the following conditions: 
the  original  direction  of  the  turn  or  30°  in  the 
(1)  Wing  flaps.  Retracted,  fully  opposite direction, in the case of turning flight 
extended  and  each  intermediate  normal  stalls; 
operating position; 
(5)  Exceeding  a  bank  angle  of  90°  in 
(2)  Landing  gear.  Retracted  and  the  original  direction  of  the  turn  or  60°  in  the 
extended;  opposite  direction,  in  the  case  of  accelerated 
turning stalls; and 
(3)  Cowl  flaps.  Appropriate  to 
configuration;  (6)  Exceeding  the  maximum 
permissible  speed  or  allowable  limit  load 
(4)  Power 
(i)  Power off; and 
(c)  Compliance  with  the  requirements    must 
be shown under the following conditions:

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(1)  Wing  flaps.  Retracted,  fully  (f)  For  aerobatic  category  aeroplanes,  an 
extended  and  each  intermediate  normal  artificial  stall  warning  may  be  mutable,  provided 
operating position;  that it is armed automatically during take­off and 
re­armed  automatically  in  the  approach 
(2)  Landing  gear.  Retracted  and 
(3)  Cowl  flaps.  Appropriate  to 
configuration;  SPINNING 
(4)  Power 
CS 23.221  Spinning 
(i)  Power off; and 
(a)  Normal  Category  aeroplanes.  A  single 
(ii)  75%  maximum  continuous 
engined,  normal  category  aeroplane  must  be  able 
power.    If  the  power­to­weight  ratio  at 
to  recover  from  a one­turn spin or a three­second 
75%  of  maximum  continuous  power 
spin,  whichever  takes  longer,  in  not  more  than 
results  in  extreme  nose­up  attitudes,  the 
one  additional  turn,  after  initiation  of  the  first 
test  may  be  carried  out  with  the  power 
control action for recovery.  In addition – 
required  for  level  flight  in  the  landing 
configuration  at  maximum  landing  (1)  For  both  the  flaps­retracted  and 
weight  and  a  speed  of  1∙4  VS0 ,  but  the  flaps­extended  conditions,  the  applicable 
power  may  not  be  less  than  50%  airspeed  limit  and  positive  limit  manoeuvring 
maximum continuous power.  load factor must not be exceeded; 
(5)  Trim.  The  aeroplane  trimmed  at  a  (2)  No  control  forces  or  characteristic 
speed as near 1∙5 VS1  as practicable.  encountered  during  the  spin  or  recovery  may 
adversely affect prompt recovery; 
(6)  Propeller.  Full  increase  rpm 
position for the power off condition.  (3)  It  must  be  impossible  to  obtain 
unrecoverable  spins  with  any  use  of  the  flight 
or  engine  power  controls  either  at  the  entry 
CS 23.207  Stall warning 
into or during the spin; and 
(a)  There  must  be  a  clear  and  distinctive 
(4)  For  the  flaps  extended  condition, 
stall  warning,  with  the  flaps  and  landing  gear  in 
the  flaps  may  be  retracted  during  the  recovery 
any  normal  position,  in  straight  and  turning 
but not before rotation has ceased. 
(b)  Utility  category  aeroplanes.  A  utility 
(b)  The  stall  warning  may  be  furnished 
category aeroplane must meet the requirements of 
either through the inherent aerodynamic qualities 
sub­paragraph (a) .  In addition, the requirements 
of  the  aeroplane  or  by  a  device  that  will  give 
of  sub­paragraph  (c)    and  CS 23.807 (b) (7)  must 
clearly distinguishable indications under expected 
be met if approval for spinning is requested. 
conditions  of  flight.    However,  a  visual  stall 
warning  device  that  requires  the  attention  of  the  (c)  Aerobatic  category  aeroplanes.  An 
crew within the cockpit is not acceptable by itself.  aerobatic  category  aeroplane  must  meet  the 
requirements  of  sub­paragraph  (a)    and  CS 
(c)  During  the  stall  tests  required  by 
23.807 (b) (6).    In  addition,  the  following 
CS 23.201 (b)  and  CS 23.203 (a) (1),  the  stall 
requirements  must  be  met  in  each  configuration 
warning  must  begin  at  a  speed  exceeding  the 
for which approval for spinning is requested – 
stalling  speed  by  a  margin  of  not  less  than  9.3 
km/h  (5  knots)  and  must  continue  until  the  stall  (1)  The  aeroplane  must  recover  from 
occurs.  any  point  in  a  spin  up  to  and  including  six 
turns, or any greater number of turns for which 
(d)  When  following  the  procedures  of 
certification is requested, in not more than one 
CS 23.1585,  the  stall  warning  must  not  occur 
and one­half additional turns after initiation of 
during  a  take­off  with  all  engines  operating,  a 
the  first  control action for recovery.  However, 
take­off continued with one engine inoperative or 
beyond  three  turns,  the  spin  may  be 
during an approach to landing. 
discontinued if spiral characteristics appear; 
(e)  During  the    stall  tests  required  by 
(2)  The  applicable  airspeed  limits  and 
CS 23.203 (a) (2),  the  stall  warning  must  begin 
limit  manoeuvring  load  factors  must  not  be 
sufficiently  in  advance  of  the  stall  for  the stall to 
exceeded.    For  flaps­extended  configurations
be  averted  by  pilot  action  taken  after  the  stall 
warning first occurs. 

CS­23 BOOK 1 

for which approval is requested, the flaps must  taxied  on  the  roughest  ground  that  may 

not be retracted during the recovery;  reasonably  be  expected  in  normal  operation  and 
when  take­offs  and  landings  are  performed  on 
(3)  It  must  be  impossible  to  obtain 
unpaved runways having the roughest surface that 
unrecoverable  spins  with  any  use  of  the  flight 
may reasonably be expected in normal operation. 
or  engine  power  controls  either  at  the  entry 
into or during the spin; and 
CS 23.237  Operation on water 
(4)  There  must  be  no  characteristics 
during  the  spin  (such  as  excessive  rates  of  Allowable  water  surface  conditions  and  any 
rotation  or  extreme  oscillatory  motion)  which  necessary  water  handling  procedures  for 
might  prevent  a  successful  recovery  due  to  seaplanes and amphibians must be established. 
disorientation or incapacitation of the pilot. 
CS 23.239  Spray characteristics 
GROUND AND WATER HANDLING  Spray  may  not  dangerously  obscure  the  vision 
CHARACTERISTICS  of  the  pilots  or  damage  the  propellers  or  other 
parts  of  a  seaplane  or  amphibian  at  any  time 
during taxying, take­off and landing. 
CS 23.231  Longitudinal  stability  and 
(a)  A  landplane  may  have  no  uncontrollable  MISCELLANEOUS FLIGHT 
tendency  to  nose  over  in any reasonably expected  REQUIREMENTS 
operating  condition,  including  rebound  during 
landing  or  take­off.    Wheel  brakes  must  operate 
CS 23.251  Vibration and buffeting 
smoothly and may not induce any undue tendency 
to nose over.  There  must  be  no  vibration  or  buffeting  severe 
enough  to  result  in  structural  damage  and  each 
(b)  A  seaplane  or  amphibian  may  not  have 
part  of  the  aeroplane  must be free from excessive 
dangerous  or  uncontrollable  purpoising 
vibration, under any appropriate speed and power 
characteristics  at  any  normal  operating  speed  on 
conditions  up  to  at  least  the  minimum  value  of 
the water. 
VD  allowed in  CS 23.335.  In addition there must 
be  no  buffeting  in  any  normal  flight  condition 
CS 23.233  Directional stability and control  severe  enough  to  interfere  with  the  satisfactory 
control  of  the  aeroplane  or  cause  excessive 
(a)  A  90°  cross­component  of  wind  velocity, 
fatigue to the flight crew.  Stall warning buffeting 
demonstrated  to  be  safe  for  taxying,  take­off  and 
within these limits is allowable. 
landing  must  be  established  and  must  be  not  less 
than 0∙2 VS0 . 
CS 23.253  High speed characteristics 
(b)  The  aeroplane  must  be  satisfactorily 
controllable  in  power­off  landings  at  normal  If  a  maximum  operating  speed  VM0 /MM0  is 
landing  speed,  without  using  brakes  or  engine  established  under  CS 23.1505 (c),  the  following 
power  to  maintain  a  straight  path  until  the  speed  speed  increase  and  recovery  characteristics  must 
has  decreased  to  less  than  50%  of  the  speed  at  be met – 
(a)  Operating  conditions  and  characteristics 
(c)  The  aeroplane  must  have  adequate  likely  to  cause  inadvertent  speed  increases 
directional control during taxying.  (including  upsets  in  pitch  and  roll)  must  be 
simulated  with  the  aeroplane  trimmed  at  any 
(d)  Seaplanes  must  demonstrate  satisfactory 
likely    speed  up  to  VM0 /MM0 .    These  conditions 
directional  stability  and  control  for  water 
and  characteristics  include  gust  upsets, 
operations  up  to  the  maximum  wind  velocity 
inadvertent  control  movements,  low  stick  force 
specified in sub­paragraph (a). 
gradient  in  relation  to  control  friction,  passenger 
movement,  levelling  off  from  climb  and  descent 
CS 23.235  Operation on unpaved surfaces  from Mach to airspeed limit altitude. 
(a)  The  aeroplane  must  be  demonstrated  to  (b)  Allowing  for  pilot  reaction  time  after 
have  satisfactory  characteristics  and  the  shock­  occurrence of effective inherent or artificial speed 
absorbing  mechanism  must  not  damage  the  warning  specified  in  CS  23.1303,  it  must  be 
structure  of  the  aeroplane  when  the  aeroplane  is  shown  that  the  aeroplane  can  be  recovered  to  a

CS­23 BOOK 1 

normal  attitude  and  its  speed  reduced  to 

VMO/MMO  without – 
(1)  Exceeding  VD/MD,  the  maximum 
speed  shown  under  CS  23.251,  or  the 
structural limitations; or 
(2)  Buffeting  that  would  impair  the 
pilot’s  ability  to  read  the  instruments  or  to 
control the aeroplane for recovery. 
(c)  There  may  be  no  control  reversal  about 
any  axis  at  any  speed  up  to  the  maximum  speed 
shown under  CS 23.251.  Any reversal of elevator 
control  force  or  tendency  of  the  aeroplane  to 
pitch,  roll,  or  yaw  must  be  mild  and  readily 
controllable, using normal piloting techniques.

CS-23 BOOK 1

GENERAL CS 23.305 Strength and deformation

(a) The structure must be able to support limit
CS 23.301 Loads loads without detrimental, permanent deformation.
At any load up to limit loads, the deformation may
(a) Strength requirements are specified in
not interfere with safe operation.
terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be
expected in service) and ultimate loads (limit loads (b) The structure must be able to support
multiplied by prescribed factors of safety). Unless ultimate loads without failure for at least three
otherwise provided, prescribed loads are limit seconds, except local failures or structural
loads. instabilities between limit and ultimate load are
acceptable only if the structure can sustain the
(b) Unless otherwise provided, the air, ground
required ultimate load for at least three seconds.
and water loads must be placed in equilibrium with
However, when proof of strength is shown by
inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the
dynamic tests simulating actual load conditions,
aeroplane. These loads must be distributed to
the three second limit does not apply.
conservatively approximate or closely represent
actual conditions. Methods used to determine load
intensities and distribution on canard and tandem CS 23.307 Proof of structure
wing configurations must be validated by flight (See AMC 23.307)
test measurement unless the methods used for
(a) Compliance with the strength and
determining those loading conditions are shown to
deformation requirements of CS 23.305 must be
be reliable or conservative on the configuration
shown for each critical load condition. Structural
under consideration.
analysis may be used only if the structure
(c) If deflections under load would conforms to those for which experience has shown
significantly change the distribution of external or this method to be reliable. In other cases,
internal loads, this redistribution must be taken substantiating load tests must be made. Dynamic
into account. tests, including structural flight tests, are
acceptable if the design load conditions have been
(d) Simplified structural design criteria may
be used if they result in design loads not less than
those prescribed in CS 23.331 to 23.521. For (b) Certain parts of the structure must be
aeroplanes described in appendix A, paragraph tested as specified in Subpart D of CS-23.
A23.1, the design criteria of Appendix A of CS-23
are an approved equivalent of CS 23.321 to
23.459. If Appendix A is used, the entire FLIGHT LOADS
Appendix must be substituted for the
corresponding paragraphs of this CS-23.
CS 23.321 General
(See AMC 23.321 (c))
CS 23.302 Canard or tandem wing
(a) Flight load factors represent the ratio of
the aerodynamic force component (acting normal
The forward structure of a canard or tandem to the assumed longitudinal axis of the aeroplane)
wing configuration must – to the weight of the aeroplane. A positive flight
load factor is one in which the aerodynamic force
(a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and
acts upward, with respect to the aeroplane.
subpart D of CS-23 applicable to a wing; and
(b) Compliance with the flight load
(b) Meet all requirements applicable to the
requirements of this subpart must be shown –
function performed by these surfaces.
(1) At each critical altitude within the
range in which the aeroplane may be expected
CS 23.303 Factor of safety
to operate;
Unless otherwise provided, a factor of safety of
(2) At each weight from the design
1·5 must be used.
minimum weight to the design maximum
weight; and
(3) For each required altitude and
weight, for any practicable distribution of
disposable load within the operating limitations
specified in CS 23.1583 to 23.1589.
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

(c) When significant the effects of flight. The resulting limit load factors must
compressibility must be taken into account. correspond to the conditions determined as
CS 23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions (i) Positive (up) and negative
(down) gusts of 50 fps at VC must be
(a) The appropriate balancing horizontal tail
considered at altitudes between sea level
load must be accounted for in a rational or
and 6096 m (20 000 ft). The gust velocity
conservative manner when determining the wing
may be reduced linearly from 50 fps at
loads and linear inertia loads corresponding to any
6096 m (20 000 ft) to 25 fps at 15240 m
of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in
(50 000 ft); and
CS 23.331 to 23.341.
(ii) Positive and negative gusts of
(b) The incremental horizontal tail loads due
25 fps at VD must be considered at
to manoeuvring and gusts must be reacted by the
altitudes between sea level and 6096 m
angular inertia of the aeroplane in a rational or
(20 000 ft). The gust velocity may be
conservative manner.
reduced linearly from 25 fps at 6096 m
(c) Mutual influence of the aerodynamic (20 000 ft) to 12·5 fps at 15240 m (50 000
surfaces must be taken into account when ft).
determining flight loads.
(iii) In addition, for commuter
category aeroplanes, positive (up) and
CS 23.333 Flight envelope negative (down) rough air gusts of 66 fps
at VB must be considered at altitudes
(a) General. Compliance with the strength
between sea level and 6096 m (20 000 ft).
requirements of this subpart must be shown at any
The gust velocity may be reduced linearly
combination of airspeed and load factor on and
from 66 fps at 6096 m (20 000 ft) to 38
within the boundaries of a flight envelope (similar
fps at 15240 m (50 000 ft).
to the one in sub-paragraph (d) ) that represents
the envelope of the flight loading conditions (2) The following assumptions must be
specified by the manoeuvring and gust criteria of made:
sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) respectively.
(i) The shape of the gust is –
(b) Manoeuvring envelope. Except where
limited by maximum (static) lift coefficients, the Ude ⎛ 2πs ⎞
U= ⎜1 − cos ⎟
aeroplane is assumed to be subjected to 2 ⎝ 25C ⎠
symmetrical manoeuvres resulting in the following
limit load factors: where –
(1) The positive manoeuvring load s= Distance penetrated into gust
factor specified in CS 23.337 at speeds up to (ft.);
(2) The negative manoeuvring load C = Mean geometric chord of wing
factor specified in CS 23.337 at VC; and (ft.); and
(3) Factors varying linearly with speed
from the specified value at VC to 0·0 at VD for U de = Derived gust velocity referred to
the normal and commuter category, and -1·0 at in sub-paragraph (1) linearly
VD for the aerobatic and utility categories. with speed between VC and VD.
(c) Gust envelope (ii) Gust load factors vary linearly
with speed between VC and VD.
(1) The aeroplane is assumed to be
subjected to symmetrical vertical gusts in level

Amendment 1
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

(d) Flight envelope

Note: Point G need not be investigated when the supplementary condition specified in CS 23.369 is investigated.

(1) VD/MD may not be less than

CS 23.335 Design airspeeds 1·25 VC/MC; and
(2) With VC min, the required
Except as provided in sub-paragraph (a) (4) ,
minimum design cruising speed, VD may not
the selected design airspeeds are equivalent air-
be less than –
speeds (EAS).
(i) 1·40 VC min for normal and
(a) Design cruising speed, VC. For VC the
commuter category aeroplanes;
following apply:
(ii) 1·50 VC min for utility
(1) VC (in knots) may not be less
category aeroplanes; and
than –
(iii) 1·55 VC min for aerobatic
(i) 33 W / S (for normal,
category aeroplanes.
utility and commuter category
aeroplanes); and (3) For values of W / S more than 20,
the multiplying factors in sub-paragraph (2)
(ii) 36 W/S (for aerobatic may be decreased linearly with W / S to a
category aeroplanes).
value of 1·35 where W / S = 100.
where W/S = wing loading at design
(4) Compliance with sub-paragraphs
maximum take-off weight lb/ft2.
(1) and (2) need not be shown if VD/MD is
(2) For values of W / S more than 20, selected so that the minimum speed margin
the multiplying factors may be decreased between VC/MC and VD/MD is the greater of
linearly with W / S to a value of 28·6 where the following:
W / S = 100. (i) The speed increase resulting
(3) VC need not be more than 0·9 VH when, from the initial condition of
at sea level. stabilised flight at VC/MC, the aeroplane
is assumed to be upset, flown for
(4) At altitudes where an MD is 20 seconds along a flight path 7·5°
established, a cruising speed MC limited by below the initial path and then pulled up
compressibility may be selected. with a load factor of 1·5 (0·5 g.
(b) Design dive speed, VD. For VD the acceleration increment). At least 75%
following apply: maximum continuous power for
reciprocating engines and maximum
cruising power for turbines, or, if less,
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

the power required for VC/MC for both CS 23.337 Limit manoeuvring load
kinds of engines, must be assumed until factors
the pull-up is initiated, at which point
(a) The positive limit manoeuvring load
power reduction and pilot-controlled
drag devices may be used; and
factor n may not be less than –
24 000
(ii) Mach 0·05 for normal, utility, (1) 2.1 + for normal and
and aerobatic category aeroplanes (at W + 10 000
altitudes where MD is established). commuter category aeroplanes (where
W = design maximum take-off weight lb),
(iii) Mach 0·07 for commuter
except that n need not be more than 3·8;
category aeroplanes (at altitudes where
MD is established) unless a rational (2) 4·4 for utility category aeroplanes;
analysis, including the effects of or
automatic systems, is used to determine
(3) 6·0 for aerobatic category
a lower margin. If a rational analysis is
used, the minimum speed margin must
be enough to provide for atmospheric (b) The negative limit manoeuvring load
variations (such as horizontal gusts, and factor may not be less than –
the penetration of jet streams or cold
(1) 0·4 times the positive load factor
fronts), instrument errors, airframe
for the normal, utility and commuter
production variations, and must not be
categories; or
less than Mach 0·05.
(2) 0·5 times the positive load factor
(c) Design manoeuvring speed VA. For VA,
for the aerobatic category.
the following applies:
(c) Manoeuvring load factors lower than
(1) VA may not be less than VS n
those specified in this paragraph may be used if
where – the aeroplane has design features that make it
(i) VS is a computed stalling impossible to exceed these values in flight.
speed with flaps retracted at the design
weight, normally based on the maximum
CS 23.341 Gust load factors
aeroplane normal force coefficients, (See AMC 23.341 (b))
CNA; and
(a) Each aeroplane must be designed to
(ii) n is the limit manoeuvring withstand loads on each lifting surface resulting
load factor used in design. from gusts specified in CS 23.333(c).
(2) The value of VA need not exceed (b) The gust load for a canard or tandem
the value of VC used in design. wing configuration must be computed using a
(d) Design speed for maximum gust rational analysis, or may be computed in
intensity, VB. For VB, the following applies: accordance with sub-paragraph (c) provided that
the resulting net loads are shown to be
(1) VB may not be less than the speed conservative with respect to the gust criteria of
determined by the intersection of the line CS 23.333(c).
representing the maximum positive lift
CN MAX and the line representing the rough (c) In the absence of a more rational
air gust velocity on the gust V-n diagram, or analysis the gust load factors must be computed
VS1 n g , whichever is less, where – as follows:
kg ρo Ude Va
(i) ng the positive aeroplane gust n =1±
load factor due to gust, at speed VC (in
accordance with CS 23.341), and at the where –
particular weight under consideration;
and kg = = gust alleviation factor;
5.3 + μg
(ii) VS1 is the stalling speed with
the flaps retracted at the particular 2( W / S)
μg = = aeroplane mass ratio;
weight under consideration. ρCag
(2) VB need not be greater than VC.

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

(2) The fatigue evaluation of the

Ude = Derived gust velocities referred to in structure must account for any increase in
CS 23.333 (c) (m/s); operating stresses resulting from the design
3 condition of sub-paragraph (c)(1).
ρo = Density of air at sea-level (kg/m )
3 (3) The flutter, deformation, and
ρ = Density of air (kg/m ) at the altitude
considered; vibration requirements must also be met with
zero fuel in the wings.
W/S = Wing loading due to the applicable
weight of the aeroplane in the
particular load case (N/m2); CS 23.345 High lift devices
C = Mean geometric chord (m); (See AMC 23.345 (d))
g = Acceleration due to gravity (m/sec2); (a) If flaps or similar high lift devices are to
V = Aeroplane equivalent speed (m/s); be used for take-off, approach or landing, the
and aeroplane, with the flaps fully extended at VF, is
assumed to be subjected to symmetrical manoeu-
a = Slope of the aeroplane normal force
vres and gusts within the range determined by –
coefficient curve CNA per radian if
the gust loads are applied to the (1) Manoeuvring, to a positive limit
wings and horizontal tail surfaces load factor of 2·0; and
simultaneously by a rational method.
(2) Positive and negative gust of
The wing lift curve slope CL per
7.62 m (25 ft) per second acting normal to the
radian may be used when the gust
flight path in level flight.
load is applied to the wings only and
the horizontal tail gust loads are (b) VF must be assumed to be not less than
treated as a separate condition. 1·4 VS or 1·8 VSF, whichever is greater, where—
(1) VS is the computed stalling speed
CS 23.343 Design fuel loads with flaps retracted at the design weight; and
(See AMC 23.343 (b))
(2) VSF is the computed stalling
(a) The disposable load combinations must speed with flaps fully extended at the design
include each fuel load in the range from zero fuel weight.
to the selected maximum fuel load.
However, if an automatic flap load limiting
(b) If fuel is carried in the wings, the device is used, the aeroplane may be designed
maximum allowable weight of the aeroplane for the critical combinations of airspeed and flap
without any fuel in the wing tank(s) must be position allowed by that device.
established as “maximum zero wing fuel weight”
(c) In determining external loads on the
if it is less than the maximum weight.
aeroplane as a whole, thrust, slip-stream and
(c) For commuter category aeroplanes, a pitching acceleration may be assumed to be zero.
structural reserve fuel condition, not exceeding
(d) The flaps, their operating mechanism
fuel necessary for 45 minutes of operation at
and their supporting structures, must be designed
maximum continuous power, may be selected. If
for the conditions prescribed in sub-
a structural reserve fuel condition is selected, it
paragraph (a) . In addition, with the flaps fully
must be used as the minimum fuel weight
extended at speed VF the following conditions,
condition for showing compliance with the flight
taken separately, must be accounted for:
load requirements prescribed in this sub-part
and:- (1) A head-on gust having a velocity
of 7.6 m (25 ft) per second (EAS), combined
(1) The structure must be designed to
with propeller slipstream corresponding to
withstand a condition of zero fuel in the wing
75% of maximum continuous power; and
at limit loads corresponding to:
(2) The effects of propeller slipstream
(i) 90 percent of the
corresponding to maximum take-off power.
manoeuvring load factors defined in CS
23.337, and
CS 23.347 Unsymmetrical flight
(ii) Gust velocities equal to 85
percent of the values prescribed in CS
(See AMC 23.347 (b))

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

(a) The aeroplane is assumed to be CS 23.361 Engine torque

subjected to the unsymmetrical flight conditions
(a) Each engine mount and its supporting
of CS 23.349 and 23.351. Unbalanced
structure must be designed for the effects of –
aerodynamic moments about the centre of gravity
must be reacted in a rational or conservative (1) A limit engine torque
manner, considering the principal masses corresponding to take-off power and propeller
furnishing the reacting inertia forces. speed acting simultaneously with 75% of the
limit loads from flight condition A of
(b) Aerobatic category aeroplanes certified
CS 23.333 (d);
for flick manoeuvres (snap-roll) must be
designed for additional asymmetric loads acting (2) A limit engine torque
on the wing and the horizontal tail. corresponding to maximum continuous power
and propeller speed acting simultaneously
with the limit loads from flight condition A of
CS 23.349 Rolling conditions
CS 23.333 (d); and
The wing and wing bracing must be designed
(3) For turbo-propeller installations, in
for the following loading conditions:
addition to the conditions specified in sub-
(a) Unsymmetrical wing loads appropriate paragraphs (a) (1) and (a) (2) , a limit engine
to the category. Unless the following values torque corresponding to take-off power and
result in unrealistic loads, the rolling propeller speed, multiplied by a factor
accelerations may be obtained by modifying the accounting for propeller control system
symmetrical flight conditions in CS 23.333 (d) as malfunction, including quick feathering,
follows: acting simultaneously with 1g level flight
loads. In the absence of a rational analysis, a
(1) For the aerobatic category, in
factor of 1·6 must be used.
conditions A and F, assume that 100% of the
semi-span wing air load acts on one side of (b) For turbine-engine installations, the
the plane of symmetry and 60% of this load engine mounts and supporting structure must be
acts on the other side; and designed to withstand each of the following:
(2) For the normal, utility and (1) A limit engine torque load
commuter categories, in condition A, assume imposed by sudden engine stoppage due to
that 100% of the semi-span wing air load acts malfunction or structural failure (such as
on one side of the aeroplane and 75% of this compressor jamming); and
load acts on the other side.
(2) A limit engine torque load
(b) The loads resulting from the aileron imposed by the maximum acceleration of the
deflections and speeds specified in CS 23.455, in engine.
combination with an aeroplane load factor of at
(c) The limit engine torque to be considered
least two thirds of the positive manoeuvring load
under sub-paragraph (a) must be obtained by
factor used for design. Unless the following
multiplying the mean torque by a factor of –
values result in unrealistic loads, the effect of
aileron displacement on wing torsion may be (1) 1·25 for turbo-propeller
accounted for by adding the following increment installations;
to the basic airfoil moment coefficient over the
(2) 1·33 for engines with five or more
aileron portion of the span in the critical
cylinders; and
condition determined in CS 23.333 (d).
(3) Two, three, or four, for engines
Δ Cm = − 0 . 01δ where –
with four, three or two cylinders, respectively.
Δ Cm is the moment coefficient increment;
δ is the down aileron deflection in degrees CS 23.363 Sideload on engine mount
in the critical condition. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting
structure must be designed for a limit load factor
CS 23.351 Yawing conditions in a lateral direction, for the sideload on the
engine mount, of not less than –
The aeroplane must be designed for yawing
loads on the vertical surfaces resulting from the (1) 1·33; or
loads specified in CS 23.441 to 23.445. (2) One-third of the limit load factor
for flight condition A.
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

(b) The sideload prescribed in sub- (3) The time history of the thrust
paragraph (a) may be assumed to be independent decay and drag build-up occurring as a result
of other flight conditions. of the prescribed engine failures must be
substantiated by test or other data applicable
to the particular engine-propeller
CS 23.365 Pressurised cabin loads
combination; and
For each pressurised compartment, the
(4) The timing and magnitude of the
following applies:
probable pilot corrective action must be
(a) The aeroplane structure must be strong conservatively estimated, considering the
enough to withstand the flight loads combined characteristics of the particular engine-
with pressure differential loads from zero up to propeller-aeroplane combination.
the maximum relief valve setting.
(b) Pilot corrective action may be assumed
(b) The external pressure distribution in to be initiated at the time maximum yawing
flight and any stress concentrations, must be velocity is reached, but not earlier than 2 seconds
accounted for. after the engine failure. The magnitude of the
corrective action may be based on the limit pilot
(c) If landings may be made, with the cabin
forces specified in CS 23.397 except that lower
pressurised, landing loads must be combined
forces may be assumed where it is shown by
with pressure differential loads from zero up to
analyses or test that these forces can control the
the maximum allowed during landing.
yaw and roll resulting from the prescribed engine
(d) The aeroplane structure must be strong failure conditions.
enough to withstand the pressure differential
loads corresponding to the maximum relief valve
CS 23.369 Rear lift truss
setting multiplied by a factor of 1·33, omitting
other loads. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be
designed for conditions of reversed airflow at a
(e) If a pressurised cabin has two or more
design speed of –
compartments, separated by bulkheads or a floor,
the primary structure must be designed for the V = 8·7 W/S + 8·7(knots)
effects of sudden release of pressure in any
compartment with external doors or windows. where W/S = wing loading at design
This condition must be investigated for the maximum take-off weight (lb/ft2).
effects of failure of the largest opening in the
compartment. The effects of intercompartmental (b) Either aerodynamic data for the
venting may be considered. particular wing section used, or a value of CL
equalling -0·8 with a chordwise distribution that
is triangular between a peak at the trailing edge
CS 23.367 Unsymmetrical loads due to and zero at the leading edge, must be used.
engine failure
(a) Turbopropeller aeroplanes must be CS 23.371 Gyroscopic and
designed for the unsymmetrical loads resulting aerodynamic loads
from the failure of the critical engine including (See AMC 23.371 (a))
the following conditions in combination with a
single malfunction of the propeller drag limiting (a) Each engine mount and its supporting
system, considering the probable pilot corrective structure must be designed for the gyroscopic,
action on the flight controls. inertial and aerodynamic loads that result, with
the engine(s) and propeller(s), if applicable at
(1) At speeds between VMC and VD, maximum continuous rpm, under either –
the loads resulting from power failure because
of fuel flow interruption are considered to be (1) The conditions prescribed in
limit loads; CS 23.351 and 23.423; or

(2) At speeds between VMC and VC, (2) All possible combinations of the
the loads resulting from the disconnection of following:
the engine compressor from the turbine or (i) A yaw velocity of 2·5 radians
from loss of the turbine blades are considered per second;
to be ultimate loads;
(ii) A pitch velocity of 1·0 radian
per second;
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

(iii) A normal load factor of 2·5; (2) K = 12 for horizontal surfaces; and
(3) W = weight of the movable
(iv) Maximum continuous thrust. surfaces.
(b) For aeroplanes approved for aerobatic
manoeuvres each engine mount and its CS 23.395 Control system loads
supporting structure must meet the requirements
(a) Each flight control system and its
of sub-paragraph (a) and be designed to
supporting structure must be designed for loads
withstand the load factors expected during
corresponding to at least 125% of the computed
combined maximum yaw and pitch velocities.
hinge moments of the movable control surface in
(c) For aeroplanes certificated in the the conditions prescribed in CS 23.391 to
commuter category, each engine mount and its 23.459. In addition, the following apply:
supporting structure must meet the requirements
(1) The system limit loads need not
of sub-paragraph (a) and the gust conditions
exceed the higher of the loads that can be
specified in CS 23.341.
produced by the pilot and automatic devices
operating the controls. However, autopilot
CS 23.373 Speed control devices forces need not be added to pilot forces. The
system must be designed for the maximum
If speed control devices (such as spoilers and
effort of the pilot or autopilot, whichever is
drag flaps) are incorporated for use in en-route
higher. In addition, if the pilot and the
conditions –
autopilot act in opposition, the part of the
(a) The aeroplane must be designed for the system between them may be designed for the
symmetrical manoeuvres and gusts prescribed in maximum effort of the one that imposes the
CS 23.333, 23.337 and 23.341 and the yawing lesser load. Pilot forces used for design need
manoeuvres and lateral gusts in CS 23.441 and not exceed the maximum forces prescribed in
23.443, with the device extended at speeds up to CS 23.397 (b).
the placard device extended speed; and
(2) The design must, in any case,
(b) If the device has automatic operating or provide a rugged system for service use,
load limiting features, the aeroplane must be considering jamming, ground gusts, taxying
designed for the manoeuvre and gust conditions downwind, control inertia and friction.
prescribed in sub-paragraph (a) at the speeds and Compliance with this sub-paragraph may be
corresponding device positions that the shown by designing for loads resulting from
mechanism allows. application of the minimum forces prescribed
in CS 23.397 (b).
(b) A 125% factor on computed hinge
movements must be used to design elevator,
aileron and rudder systems. However, a factor as
low as 1·0 may be used if hinge moments are
CS 23.391 Control surface loads based on accurate flight test data, the exact
reduction depending upon the accuracy and
The control surface loads specified in
reliability of the data.
CS 23.397 to 23.459 are assumed to occur in the
conditions described in CS 23.331 to 23.351. (c) Pilot forces used for design are assumed
to act at the appropriate control grips or pads as
they would in flight and to react at the
CS 23.393 Loads parallel to hinge line
attachments of the control system to the control
(See AMC 23.393 (a) and
surface horns.
AMC 23.393 (b))
(a) Control surfaces and supporting hinge
CS 23.397 Limit control forces and
brackets must be designed to withstand inertial
loads acting parallel to the hinge line.
(a) In the control surface flight loading
(b) In the absence of more rational data, the
condition, the air loads on movable surfaces and
inertia loads may be assumed to be equal to KW,
the corresponding deflections need not exceed
where –
those that would result in flight from the
(1) K = 24 for vertical surfaces; application of any pilot force within the ranges
specified in sub-paragraph (b) . In applying this
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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

criterion, the effects of control system boost and 4 D = wheel diameter ((metres)/
servo-mechanisms and the effects of tabs must be (inches)).
considered. The automatic pilot effort must be 5 The unsymmetrical force must be
used for design if it alone can produce higher
applied at one of the normal handgrip
control surface loads than the human pilot.
points on the control wheel.
(b) The limit pilot forces and torques are as
CS 23.399 Dual control system
(a) Each dual control system must be
Maximum forces Minimum designed to withstand the force of the pilots
or torques for forces or operating in opposition, using individual pilot
Control design weight, torques 2 forces not less than the greater of –
weight equal to or
(1) 0·75 times those obtained under
less than 2 268 kg
CS 23.395; or
(5 000 lb)1
(2) The minimum forces specified in
CS 23.397 (b).
Stick .............. 298 N (67 lbf) ........ 178 N (40 lbf) (b) Each dual control system must be
Wheel 3 .......... 222 DNm .............. 178 DNm designed to withstand the forces of the pilots
(50 D in lbf)4 (40 D in lbf)4 applied together in the same direction, using
individual pilot forces not less than 0·75 times
Elevator: those obtained under CS 23.395.
Stick .............. 743 N (167 lbf) ...... 445 N (100 lbf)
CS 23.405 Secondary control system
(See AMC 23.405)
(symmetrical) . 890N (200 lbf) ....... 445 N (100 lbf)
Secondary controls, such as wheel brakes,
Wheel (unsym-
spoilers and tab controls, must be designed for
metrical) 5 .... .............................. 445 N (100 lbf)
the maximum forces that a pilot is likely to apply
Rudder........... 890N (200 lbf) ....... 667 N (150 lbf) to those controls.
1 For design weight (W) more than
2 268 kg (5 000 lb), the specified CS 23.407 Trim tab effects
maximum values must be increased The effects of trim tabs on the control surface
linearly with weight to 1·18 times the design conditions must be accounted for only
specified values at a design weight of where the surface loads are limited by maximum
5 670 kg (12 500 lb), and for commuter pilot effort. In these cases, the tabs are
category aeroplanes, the specified values considered to be deflected in the direction that
must be increased linearly with weight would assist the pilot. These deflections must
to 1·35 times the specified values at a correspond to the maximum degree of “out of
design weight of 8 618 kg (19 000 lb). trim” expected at the speed for the condition
2 If the design of any individual under consideration.
set of control systems or surfaces makes
these specified minimum forces or CS 23.409 Tabs
torques inapplicable, values
corresponding to the present hinge Control surface tabs must be designed for the
moments obtained under CS 23.415, but most severe combination of airspeed and tab
not less than 0·6 of the specified deflection likely to be obtained within the flight
minimum forces or torques, may be envelope for any usable loading condition.
3 The critical parts of the aileron CS 23.415 Ground gust conditions
control system must also be designed for (a) The control system must be investigated
a single tangential force with a limit as follows for control surface loads due to
value of 1·25 times the couple force ground gusts and taxying downwind:
determined from the above criteria.
(1) If an investigation of the control
system for ground gust loads is not required
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CS-23 BOOK 1

by sub-paragraph (2) , but the applicant elects Surface K Position of controls

to design a part of the control system for these (a) Aileron 0·75 Control column locked or
loads, these loads need only be carried from lashed in mid-position.
control surface horns through the nearest (b) Aileron ±0·50 Ailerons at full throw;
stops or gust locks and their supporting + moment on one aileron,
structures. - moment on the other.
(2) If pilot forces less than the
minimums specified in CS 23.397 (b) are used

} Elevator ±0·75 { (c) Elevator full up (-).
(d) Elevator full down (+).
for design, the effects of surface loads due to
ground gusts and taxying downwind must be
investigated for the entire control system

} Rudder ±0·75
{ (e) Rudder in neutral.
(f) Rudder at full throw..
according to the formula –
(c) At all weights between the empty weight
H = KcSq
and the maximum weight declared for tie-down
where – stated in the appropriate manual, any declared
tie-down points and surrounding structure,
H = limit hinge moment (ft lbs);
control system, surfaces and associated gust
c = mean chord of the control surface locks must be designed to withstand limit load
aft of the hinge line (ft); conditions that exist when the aeroplane is tied-
down, and that result from wind speeds of up to
S = area of control surface aft of the
120 km/h (65 knots) horizontally from any
hinge line (sq ft);
q = dynamic pressure (psf) based on a
design speed not less than
14·6 W / S + 14·6 (fps) HORIZONTAL TAIL SURFACES
(where W / S = wing loading at
design maximum weight CS 23.421 Balancing loads
(lbs/ft2)) except that the design
speed need not exceed 88 (fps); (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a
and load necessary to maintain equilibrium in any
specified flight condition with no pitching
K = limit hinge moment factor for acceleration.
ground gusts derived in sub-
paragraph (b) . (For ailerons and (b) Horizontal balancing surfaces must be
elevators, a positive value of K designed for the balancing loads occurring at any
indicates a moment tending to point on the limit manoeuvring envelope and in
depress the surface and a the flap conditions specified in CS 23.345.
negative value of K indicates a
moment tending to raise the CS 23.423 Manoeuvring loads
surface). (See AMC 23.423)
(b) The limit hinge moment factor K for Each horizontal surface and its supporting
ground gusts must be derived as follows: structure, and the main wing of a canard or
tandem wing configuration, if that surface has
pitch control, must be designed for manoeuvring
loads imposed by the following conditions:
(a) A sudden movement of the pitching
control, at the speed VA to the maximum aft
movement, and the maximum forward
movement, as limited by the control stops, or
pilot effort, whichever is critical.
(b) A sudden aft movement of the pitching
control at speeds above VA, followed by a
forward movement of the pitching control
resulting in the following combinations of
normal and angular acceleration:

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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

surfaces, unless its use elsewhere is shown to be

Normal Angular
acceleration acceleration
(n) (radian/sec.2)
ροKgUdeVahtSht ⎛ dε ⎞
ΔLht = ⎜1 − ⎟
Nose-up pitching 1·0 +
nm (nm − 1.5) 2 ⎝ dα ⎠
V where –
Nose-down nm 39 Δ Lht = Incremental horizontal tail load
− nm (nm − 1.5)
pitching V (N);
where - ρo = Density of air at sea-level
(1) nm = positive limit manoeuvring
load factor used in the design of the Kg = Gust alleviation factor defined
aeroplane; and in CS 23.341;

(2) V = initial speed in knots. Ude = Derived gust velocity (m/s);

The conditions in this paragraph involve loads V = Aeroplane equivalent speed

corresponding to the loads that may occur in a (m/s);
“checked manoeuvre” (a manoeuvre in which the aht = Slope of aft horizontal tail lift
pitching control is suddenly displaced in one curve (per radian);
direction and then suddenly moved in the
opposite direction). The deflections and timing Sht = Area of aft horizontal tail (m2);
of the “checked manoeuvre” must avoid and
exceeding the limit manoeuvring load factor.
⎛ dε ⎞
The total horizontal surface load for both nose- ⎜1 − ⎟ = Downwash factor
up and nose-down pitching conditions is the sum ⎝ dα ⎠
of the balancing loads at V and the specified
value of the normal load factor n, plus the
CS 23.427 Unsymmetrical loads
manoeuvring load increment due to the specified
value of the angular acceleration. (a) Horizontal surfaces other than main
wing and their supporting structure must be
designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from
CS 23.425 Gust loads
yawing and slipstream effects, in combination
(a) Each horizontal surface other than a with the loads prescribed for the flight conditions
main wing, must be designed for loads resulting set forth in CS 23.421 to 23.425.
from –
(b) In the absence of more rational data for
(1) Gust velocities specified in aeroplanes that are conventional in regard to
CS 23.333 (c) with flaps retracted; and location of engines, wings, horizontal surfaces
other than main wing, and fuselage shape –
(2) Positive and negative gusts of
7.62 m/s (25 fps) nominal intensity at VF (1) 100% of the maximum loading
corresponding to the flight conditions from the symmetrical flight conditions may be
specified in CS 23.345 (a) (2). assumed on the surface on one side of the
plane of symmetry; and
(b) Reserved.
(2) The following percentage of that
(c) When determining the total load on the
loading must be applied to the opposite side:
horizontal surfaces for the conditions specified in
sub-paragraph (a) , the initial balancing loads for % = 100-10 (n-1), where n is the
steady unaccelerated flight at the pertinent specified positive manoeuvring load factor,
design speeds, VF, VC and VD must first be but this value may not be more than 80%.
determined. The incremental load resulting from
the gusts must be added to the initial balancing
load to obtain the total load.
(d) In the absence of a more rational
analysis, the incremental load due to the gust
must be computed as follows only on aeroplane
configurations with aft-mounted, horizontal
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CS-23 BOOK 1

(c) For aeroplanes that are not conventional

(such as aeroplanes with horizontal surfaces Maximum Pilot Rudder Force
other than main wing having appreciable 1000
dihedral or supported by the vertical tail 890
surfaces) the surfaces and supporting structures 800

Rudder Force - N
must be designed for combined vertical and 594
horizontal surface loads resulting from each 600
prescribed flight condition taken separately.

CS 23.441 Manoeuvring loads Vs Va Vc Vd
(See AMC 23.441) Design Airspeed
(a) At speeds up to VA the vertical surfaces
must be designed to withstand the following
conditions. In computing the loads, the yawing (2) The rudder must be suddenly
velocity may be assumed to be zero: displaced from the maximum deflection to the
neutral position.
(1) With the aeroplane in
unaccelerated flight at zero yaw, it is assumed (c) The yaw angles specified in sub-
that the rudder control is suddenly displaced paragraph (a) (3) may be reduced if the yaw
to the maximum deflection, as limited by the angle chosen for a particular speed cannot be
control stops or by limit pilot forces. exceeded in –

(2) With the rudder deflected as (1) Steady slip conditions;

specified in sub-paragraph (1) , it is assumed (2) Uncoordinated rolls from steep
that the aeroplane yaws to the overswing side- banks; or
slip angle. In lieu of a rational analysis, an
overswing angle equal to 1·5 times the static (3) Sudden failure of the critical
sideslip angle of sub-paragraph (3) may be engine with delayed corrective action.
(3) A yaw angle of 15° with the CS 23.443 Gust loads
rudder control maintained in the neutral (See AMC 23.443)
position (except as limited by pilot strength). (a) Vertical surfaces must be designed to
(b) For commuter category aeroplanes, the withstand, in unaccelerated flight at speed VC,
loads imposed by the following additional lateral gusts of the values prescribed for VC in
manoeuvre must be substantiated at speeds from CS 23.333 (c).
VA to VD/MD. When computing the tail loads:- (b) In addition, for commuter category
(1) The aeroplane must be yawed to aeroplanes, the aeroplane is assumed to
the largest attainable steady state sideslip encounter derived gusts normal to the plane of
angle, with the rudder at maximum deflection symmetry while in unaccelerated flight at VB,
caused by any one of the following:- VC, VD and VF. The derived gusts and
aeroplane speeds corresponding to these
(i) Control surface stops; conditions, as determined by CS 23.341 and
(ii) Maximum available booster 23.345, must be investigated. The shape of the
effort; gust must be as specified in CS 23.333 (c) (2) (i).

(iii) pilot rudder force as shown (c) In the absence of a more rational
below:- analysis, the gust load must be computed as
ρo Kgt Ude V avt Svt
Lvt =
where –
Lvt = Vertical surface loads (N);
0·88 μgt
Kgt = = gust alleviation factor;
5·3 + μgt

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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

2W ⎛K⎞
2 on the horizontal surface and moments or forces
μgt = ⎜ ⎟ lateral mass ratio; exerted on the horizontal surfaces by the vertical
ρCtgavtSvt ⎝ 1vt ⎠
surfaces, must be applied simultaneously for the
ρo = Density of air at sea-level (kg/m ) structural loading condition.
Ude = Derived gust velocity (m/s);
W = the applicable weight of the
aeroplane in the particular load CS 23.455 Ailerons
case (N);
(a) The ailerons must be designed for the
Svt = Area of vertical surface (m2); loads to which they are subjected –
Ct = Mean geometric chord of vertical (1) In the neutral position during
surface (m); symmetrical flight conditions; and
avt = Lift curve slope of vertical surface (2) By the following deflections,
(per radian); except as limited by pilot effort, during
K = Radius of gyration in yaw (m); unsymmetrical flight conditions:
1v t = Distance from aeroplane c.g. to lift (i) Sudden maximum displace-
centre of vertical surface (m); ment of the aileron control at VA.
g = Acceleration due to gravity Suitable allowance may be made for
(m/sec2); and control system deflections.

V = Aeroplane equivalent speed (m/s) (ii) Sufficient deflection at VC,

where VC is more than VA, to produce a
rate of roll not less than obtained in sub-
CS 23.445 Outboard fins or winglets paragraph (a)(2)(i).
(a) If outboard fins or winglets are included (iii) Sufficient deflection at VD to
on the horizontal surfaces or wings, the produce a rate of roll not less than one-
horizontal surfaces or wings must be designed third of that obtained in sub-paragraph
for their maximum load in combination with (a)(2)(i).
loads induced by the fins or winglets and
moment or forces exerted on horizontal surfaces (See AMC 23.455(a)(2))
or wings by the fins or winglets.
(b) If outboard fins or winglets extend CS 23.459 Special devices
above and below the horizontal surface, the The loading for special devices using
critical vertical surface loading (the load per unit aerodynamic surfaces (such as slats and spoilers)
area as determined under CS 23.441 and 23.443) must be determined from test data.
must be applied to –
(1) The part of the vertical surfaces
above the horizontal surface with 80% of that GROUND LOADS
loading applied to the part below the
horizontal surface; and CS 23.471 General
(2) The part of the vertical surfaces The limit ground loads specified in this
below the horizontal surface with 80% of that subpart are considered to be external loads and
loading applied to the part above the inertia forces that act upon an aeroplane
horizontal surface; structure. In each specified ground load
(c) The endplate effects of outboard fins or condition, the external reactions must be placed
winglets must be taken into account in applying in equilibrium with the linear and angular inertia
the yawing conditions of CS 23.441 and 23.443 forces in a rational or conservative manner.
to the vertical surfaces in sub-paragraph (b) .
(d) When rational methods are used for CS 23.473 Ground load conditions and
computing loads, the manoeuvring loads of assumptions
CS 23.441 on the vertical surfaces and the one-g (a) The ground load requirements of this
horizontal surface load, including induced loads subpart must be complied with at the design
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

maximum weight except that CS 23.479, 23.481 CS 23.477 Landing gear arrangement
and 23.483 may be complied with at a design
CS 23.479 to 23.483, or the conditions in
landing weight (the highest weight for landing
Appendix C, apply to aeroplanes with
conditions at the maximum descent velocity)
conventional arrangements of main and nose
allowed under sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) .
gear, or main and tail gear.
(b) The design landing weight may be as
low as –
CS 23.479 Level landing conditions
(1) 95% of the maximum weight if the
(a) For a level landing, the aeroplane is
minimum fuel capacity is enough for at least
assumed to be in the following attitudes:
one-half hour of operation at maximum
continuous power plus a capacity equal to a (1) For aeroplanes with tail wheels, a
fuel weight which is the difference between normal level flight attitude;
the design maximum weight and the design
(2) For aeroplanes with nose wheels,
landing weight; or
attitudes in which –
(2) The design maximum weight less
(i) The nose and main wheels
the weight of 25% of the total fuel capacity.
contact the ground simultaneously; and
(c) The design landing weight of a twin-
(ii) The main wheels contact the
engine aeroplane may be less than that allowed
ground and the nose wheel is just clear
under sub-paragraph (b) if –
of the ground.
(1) The aeroplane meets the one-
The attitude used in subdivision (i) of this
engine-inoperative climb requirements of CS
sub-paragraph may be used in the analysis
23.67; and
required under subdivision (ii) of this sub-
(2) Compliance is shown with the fuel paragraph.
jettisoning system requirements of
(b) When investigating landing conditions,
CS 23.1001.
the drag components simulating the forces
(d) The selected limit vertical inertia load required to accelerate the tyres and wheels up to
factor at the centre of gravity of the aeroplane for the landing speed (spin-up) must be properly
the ground load conditions prescribed in this combined with the corresponding instantaneous
subpart may not be less than that which would be vertical ground reactions, and the forward-acting
obtained when landing with a descent velocity horizontal loads resulting from rapid reduction of
(V), in feet per second, equal to 4·4 (W/S) ¼, the spin-up drag loads (spring-back) must be
except that this velocity need not be more than combined with vertical ground reactions at the
3.0 m (10 ft) per second and may not be less than instant of the peak forward load, assuming wing
2.1 m (7 ft) per second. lift and a tyre sliding coefficient of friction of
0·8. However, the drag loads may not be less
(e) Wing lift not exceeding two-thirds of
than 25% of the maximum vertical ground
the weight of the aeroplane may be assumed to
reaction (neglecting wing lift).
exist throughout the landing impact and to act
through the centre of gravity. The ground (c) In the absence of specific tests or a more
reaction load factor may be equal to the inertia rational analysis for determining the wheel spin-
load factor minus the ratio of the above assumed up and spring-back loads for landing conditions,
wing lift to the aeroplane weight. the method set forth in Appendix D must be
used. If Appendix D is used, the drag
(f) If energy absorption tests are made to
components used for design must not be less than
determine the limit load factor corresponding to
those given by Appendix C.
the required limit descent velocities, these tests
must be made under CS 23.723 (a). (d) For aeroplanes with tip tanks or large
overhung masses (such as turbo-propeller or jet
(g) No inertia load factor used for design
engines) supported by the wing, the tip tanks and
purposes may be less than 2·67, nor may the
the structure supporting the tanks or overhung
limit ground reaction load factor be less than 2·0
masses must be designed for the effects of
at design maximum weight, unless these lower
dynamic responses under the level landing
values will not be exceeded in taxying at speeds
conditions of either sub-paragraph (a) (1)
up to take-off speed over terrain as rough as that
or (a) (2) (ii) . In evaluating the effects of
expected in service.
dynamic response, an aeroplane lift equal to the
weight of the aeroplane may be assumed.
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CS-23 BOOK 1

CS 23.481 Tail down landing (a) The limit vertical load factor must be
conditions 1·33.
(a) For a tail down landing, the aeroplane is (b) The attitudes and ground contacts must
assumed to be in the following attitudes: be those described in CS 23.479 for level
(1) For aeroplanes with tail wheels, an
attitude in which the main and tail wheels (c) A drag reaction equal to the vertical
contact the ground simultaneously. reaction at the wheel multiplied by a coefficient
of friction of 0·8 must be applied at the ground
(2) For aeroplanes with nose wheels,
contact point of each wheel with brakes, except
a stalling attitude, or the maximum angle
that the drag reaction need not exceed the
allowing ground clearance by each part of the
maximum value based on limiting brake torque.
aeroplane, whichever is less.
(b) For aeroplanes with either tail or nose
CS 23.497 Supplementary conditions
wheels, ground reactions are assumed to be
for tail wheels
vertical, with the wheels up to speed before the
maximum vertical load is attained. In determining the ground loads on the tail
wheel and affected supporting structures, the
following applies:
CS 23.483 One-wheel landing
conditions (a) For the obstruction load, the limit
ground reaction obtained in the tail down landing
For the one-wheel landing condition, the
condition is assumed to act up and aft through
aeroplane is assumed to be in the level attitude
the axle at 45°. The shock absorber and tyre may
and to contact the ground on one side of the main
be assumed to be in their static positions.
landing gear. In this attitude, the ground
reactions must be the same as those obtained on (b) For the sideload, a limit vertical ground
that side under CS 23.479. reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel,
in combination with a side component of equal
magnitude, is assumed. In addition –
CS 23.485 Sideload conditions
(1) If a swivel is used, the tail wheel is
(a) For the sideload condition, the aeroplane
assumed to be swivelled 90° to the aeroplane
is assumed to be in a level attitude with only the
longitudinal axis with the resultant ground
main wheels contacting the ground and with the
load passing through the axle;
shock absorbers and tyres in their static
positions. (2) If a lock, steering device, or
shimmy damper is used, the tail wheel is also
(b) The limit vertical load factor must be
assumed to be in the trailing position with the
1·33, with the vertical ground reaction divided
sideload acting at the ground contact point;
equally between the main wheels.
(c) The limit side inertia factor must be
(3) The shock absorber and tyre are
0·83, with the side ground reaction divided
assumed to be in their static positions.
between the main wheels so that –
(c) If a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy
(1) 0·5 (W) is acting inboard on one
absorption device is provided to show
side; and
compliance with CS 23.925 (b), the following
(2) 0·33 (W) is acting outboard on the applies:
other side.
(1) Suitable design loads must be
(d) The side loads prescribed in sub- established for the tail wheel, bumper, or
paragraph (c) are assumed to be applied at the energy absorption device; and
ground contact point and the drag loads may be
(2) The supporting structure of the tail
assumed to be zero.
wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device
must be designed to withstand the loads
CS 23.493 Braked roll conditions established in sub-paragraph (c) (1) .
Under braked roll conditions, with the shock
absorbers and tyres in their static positions, the
following applies:

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CS-23 BOOK 1

CS 23.499 Supplementary conditions CS 23.507 Jacking loads

for nose wheels
(a) The aeroplane must be designed for the
In determining the ground loads on nose loads developed when the aircraft is supported
wheels and affected supporting structures and on jacks at the design maximum weight assuming
assuming that the shock absorbers and tyres are the following load factors for landing gear
in their static positions, the following conditions jacking points at a three-point attitude and for
must be met: primary flight structure jacking points in the
level attitude.
(a) For aft loads, the limit force components
at the axle must be – (1) Vertical load factor of 1·35 times
the static reactions.
(1) A vertical component of
2·25 times the static load on the wheel; and (2) Fore, aft and lateral load factors of
0·4 times the vertical static reactions.
(2) A drag component of 0·8 times the
vertical load. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points
must be reacted by inertia forces so as to result in
(b) For forward loads, the limit force
no change in the direction of the resultant loads
components at the axle must be –
at the jack points.
(1) A vertical component of
(c) The horizontal loads must be considered
2·25 times the static load on the wheel; and
in all combinations with the vertical load.
(2) A forward component of 0·4 times
the vertical load.
CS 23.509 Towing loads
(c) For sideloads, the limit force
The towing loads must be applied to the
components at ground contact must be –
design of tow fittings and their immediate
(1) A vertical component of attaching structure.
2·25 times the static load on the wheel; and
(a) The towing loads specified in sub-
(2) A side component of 0·7 times the paragraph (d) must be considered separately.
vertical load. These loads must be applied at the towing
fittings and must act parallel to the ground. In
(d) For aeroplanes with a steerable nose
addition –
wheel which is controlled by hydraulic or other
power, at design take-off weight with the nose (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1·0
wheel in any steerable position the application of must be considered acting at the centre of
1·33 times the full steering torque combined with gravity; and
a vertical reaction equal to 1·33 times the
(2) The shock struts and tyres must be
maximum static reaction on the nose gear must
in their static positions.
be assumed. However, if a torque limiting
device is installed, the steering torque can be (b) For towing points not on the landing
reduced to the maximum value allowed by that gear but near the plane of symmetry of the
device. aeroplane, the drag and side tow load
components specified for the auxiliary gear
(e) For aeroplanes with a steerable nose
apply. For towing points located outboard of the
wheel, that has a direct mechanical connection to
main gear, the drag and side tow load
the rudder pedals, the mechanism must be
components specified for the main gear apply.
designed to withstand the steering torque for the
Where the specified angle of swivel cannot be
maximum pilot forces specified in CS 23.397 (b).
reached, the maximum obtainable angle must be
CS 23.505 Supplementary conditions
(c) The towing loads specified in sub-
for ski-planes
paragraph (d) must be reacted as follows:
In determining ground loads for ski-planes
(1) The side component of the towing
and assuming that the aeroplane is resting on the
load at the main gear must be reacted by a
ground with one main ski frozen at rest and the
side force at the static ground line of the
other skis free to slide, a limit side force equal to
wheel to which the load is applied.
0·036 times the design maximum weight must be
applied near the tail assembly with a factor of (2) The towing loads at the auxiliary
safety of 1. gear and the drag components of the towing
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loads at the main gear must be reacted as (2) Loads corresponding to a limit
follows: vertical load factor of 1 and coefficient of
friction of 0·8, applied to the main gear and its
(i) A reaction with a maximum
supporting structure.
value equal to the vertical reaction must
be applied at the axle of the wheel to (b) Unequal tyre loads. The loads
which the load is applied. Enough established under CS 23.471 to 23.483 must be
aeroplane inertia to achieve equilibrium applied in turn, in a 60/40% distribution, to the
must be applied. dual wheels and tyres in each dual wheel landing
gear unit.
(ii) The loads must be reacted by
aeroplane inertia. (c) Deflated tyre loads. For the deflated
tyre condition –
(d) The prescribed towing loads are as
follows, where W is the design maximum (1) 60% of the loads established under
weight: CS 23.471 to 23.483 must be applied in turn
to each wheel in a landing gear unit; and
(2) 60% of the limit drag and
sideloads and 100% of the limit vertical load
Tow point Position Magnitude No. Direction established under CS 23.485 and 23.493 or
lesser vertical load obtained under sub-
Main gear 0·225 W per 1 Forward,
paragraph (1) , must be applied in turn to each
main gear parallel to
unit drag axis wheel in the dual wheel landing gear unit.

2 Forward, at
30° to drag WATER LOADS
3 Aft, parallel to
drag axis CS 23.521 Water load conditions

4 Aft, at 30° to (a) The structure of seaplanes and

drag axis amphibians must be designed for water loads
developed during take-off and landing with the
Auxiliary Swivelled 0·3W 5 Forward
seaplane in any attitude likely to occur in normal
Gear forward 6 Aft operation at appropriate forward and sinking
0·3W 7 Forward velocities under the most severe sea conditions
likely to be encountered.
Aft 8 Aft
(b) Unless a rational analysis of the water
Swivelled 0·15W 9 Forward, in loads is made, CS 23.523 through 23.537 apply.
45° from plane, of
forward wheel
CS 23.523 Design weights and centre
10 Aft, in plane
of wheel of gravity positions

Swivelled 0·15W 11 Forward, in (a) Design weights. The water load

45° from plane of requirements must be met at each operating
aft wheel weight up to the design landing weight except
12 Aft, in plane
that, for the take-off condition prescribed in
of wheel CS 23.531, the design water take-off weight (the
maximum weight for water taxi and take-off run)
must be used.
CS 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical
loads on multiple-wheel (b) Centre of gravity positions. The critical
units centres of gravity within the limits for which
certification is requested must be considered to
(a) Pivoting loads. The aeroplane is reach maximum design loads for each part of the
assumed to pivot about one side of the main gear seaplane structure.
with –
(1) The brakes on the pivoting unit
locked; and

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

CS 23.525 Application of loads (5) W = seaplane design landing

weight in pounds.
(a) Unless otherwise prescribed, the
seaplane as a whole is assumed to be subjected to (6) Kl = empirical hull station
the loads corresponding to the load factors weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2
specified in CS 23.527. of Appendix I of CS-23.
(b) In applying the loads resulting from the (7) rx = ratio of distance, measured
load factors prescribed in CS 23.527, the loads parallel to hull reference axis, from the centre
may be distributed over the hull or main float of gravity of the seaplane to the hull
bottom (in order to avoid excessive local shear longitudinal station at which the load factor is
loads and bending moments at the location of being computed to the radius of gyration in
water load application) using pressures not less pitch of the seaplane, the hull reference axis
than those prescribed in CS 23.533 (b). being a straight line, in the plane of symmetry,
tangential to the keel at the main step.
(c) For twin float seaplanes, each float must
be treated as an equivalent hull on a fictitious (c) For a twin float seaplane, because of the
seaplane with a weight equal to one-half the effect of flexibility of the attachment of the floats
weight of the twin float seaplane. to the seaplane, the factor K1 may be reduced at
the bow and stern to 0·8 of the value shown in
(d) Except in the take-off condition of
figure 2 of Appendix I of CS-23. This reduction
CS 23.531, the aerodynamic lift on the seaplane
applies only to the design of the carry through
during the impact is assumed to be ²/3 of the
and seaplane structure.
weight of the seaplane.

CS 23.529 Hull and main float landing

CS 23.527 Hull and main float load
(a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern
(a) Water reaction load factors nw must be
landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern
computed in the following manner:
landings, the limit water reaction load factors are
(1) For the step landing case those computed under CS 23.527. In addition –

C1 Vso 2 (1) For symmetrical step landings, the

nw =
(Tan 2/3
β W1/ 3
resultant water load must be applied at the
keel, through the centre of gravity, and must
(2) For the bow and stern landing be directed perpendicularly to the keel line;
cases (2) For symmetrical bow landings, the
C1 Vso K1 resultant water load must be applied at the
nw =
(Tan 2 / 3 β)W1/ 3 x (1 + rx 2 )2 / 3 keel, one-fifth of the longitudinal distance
from the bow to the step, and must be directed
(b) The following values are used: perpendicularly to the keel line; and

(1) nw = water reaction load factor (3) For symmetrical stern landings the
(that is, the water reaction divided by seaplane resultant water load must be applied at the
weight). keel, at a point 85% of the longitudinal
distance from the step to the stern post, and
(2) C1 = empirical seaplane operations must be directed perpendicularly to the keel
factor equal to 0·012 (except that this factor line.
may not be less than that necessary to obtain
the minimum value of step load factor of (b) Unsymmetrical landing for hull and
2·33). single float seaplanes

(3) Vso = seaplane stalling speed in Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern landing
knots with flaps extended in the appropriate conditions must be investigated. In addition –
landing position and with no slipstream effect. (1) The loading for each condition
(4) β = Angle of dead rise at the consists of an upward component and a side
component equal, respectively, to 0·75 and
longitudinal station at which the load factor is
0·25 tan ß times the resultant load in the
being determined in accordance with figure 1
corresponding symmetrical landing condition;
of Appendix I of CS-23.

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

(2) The point of application and (b) Local pressures. For the design of the
direction of the upward component of the load bottom plating and stringers and their
is the same as that in the symmetrical attachments to the supporting structure, the
condition, and the point of application of the following pressure distributions must be applied:
side component is at the same longitudinal
(1) For an unflared bottom, the
station as the upward component but is
pressure at the chine is 0·75 times the pressure
directed inward perpendicularly to the plane
at the keel, and the pressures between the keel
of symmetry at a point midway between the
and chine vary linearly, in accordance with
keel and chine lines.
figure 3 of Appendix I of CS-23. The
(c) Unsymmetrical landing; twin float pressure at the keel (psi) is computed as
seaplanes. The unsymmetrical loading consists follows:
of an upward load at the step of each float of
0·75 and a side load of 0·25 tan ß at one float C2K2 VS12
Pk =
times the step landing load reached under Tan βk
CS 23.527. The side load is directed inboard,
perpendicularly to the plane of symmetry
midway between the keel and chine lines of the Pk = pressure (psi) at the keel;
float, at the same longitudinal station as the
C2 = 0·00213;
upward load.
K2 = hull station weighing factor, in
accordance with figure 2 of Appendix I
CS 23.531 Hull and main float take-off
of CS-23;
VS1 = seaplane stalling speed (knots) at the
For the wing and its attachment to the hull or
design water take-off weight with flaps
main float –
extended in the appropriate take-off
(a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to position; and
be zero; and βk = angle of dead rise at keel, in
(b) A downward inertia load, corresponding accordance with figure 1 of Appendix I
to a load factor computed from the following of CS-23.
formula, must be applied:
(2) For a flared bottom, the pressure at
CΤΟ VS1 2 the beginning of the flare is the same as that
(Tan β)W
2/3 1/ 3 for an unflared bottom, and the pressure
between the chine and the beginning of the
where– flare varies linearly, in accordance with figure
3 of Appendix I of CS-23. The pressure
n = inertia load factor
distribution is the same as that prescribed in
CTO = empirical seaplane operations factor sub-paragraph (b) (1) for an unflared bottom
equal to 0·004; except that the pressure at the chine is
computed as follows:
VS1 = seaplane stalling speed (knots) at the
design take-off weight with the flaps C3 K 2 VS1 2
extended in the appropriate take-off Pch = ×
Tan β
where –
β = angle of dead rise at the main step
(degrees); and Pch = pressure (psi) at the chine;
W = design water take-off weight in C3 = 0·0016;
K2 = hull station weighing factor, in
accordance with figure 2 of Appendix I
CS 23.533 Hull and main float bottom of CS-23;
VS1 = seaplane stalling speed (knots) at the
(a) General. The hull and main float design water take-off weight with flaps
structure, including frames and bulkheads, extended in the appropriate take-off
stringers, and bottom plating, must be designed position; and
under this paragraph.

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

β = angle of dead rise at appropriate pressures not less than those prescribed in sub-
station. paragraph (g) .
The area over which these pressures are (b) Step loading. The resultant water load
applied must simulate pressures occurring during must be applied in the plane of symmetry of the
high localised impacts on the hull or float, but float at a point three-quarters of the distance
need not extend over an area that would induce from the bow to the step and must be
critical stresses in the frames or in the overall perpendicular to the keel. The resultant limit
structure. load is computed as follows, except that the
value of L need not exceed three times the
(c) Distributed pressures. For the design of
weight of the displaced water when the float is
the frames, keel, and chine structure, the
completely submerged;
following pressure distributions apply:
(1) Symmetrical pressures are C5 VS0 2 W 2 / 3
computed as follows:
C 4K 2 VS0 2
Tan 2/3
βs 1 + ry 2 )

Tan β where –
where – L = limit load (lb.);
P = pressure (psi); C5 = 0·0053;
C4 = 0·078 C1 (with C1 computed under VS0 = seaplane stalling speed (knots) with
CS 23.527); landing flaps extended in the
appropriate position and with no
K2 = hull station weighing factor, slipstream effect;
determined in accordance with figure
2 of Appendix I of CS-23; W = seaplane design landing weight in
VS0 = seaplane stalling speed (knots) with
landing flaps extended in the βs = angle of dead rise at a station ¾ of the
appropriate position and with no distance from the bow to the step, but
slipstream effect; and need not be less than 15°; and
β = angle of dead rise at appropriate ry = ratio of the lateral distance between
station. the centre of gravity and the plane of
symmetry of the float to the radius of
(2) The unsymmetrical pressure gyration in roll.
distribution consists of the pressures
prescribed in sub-paragraph (c) (1) on one (c) Bow loading. The resultant limit load
side of the hull or main float centreline and must be applied in the plane of symmetry of the
one-half of that pressure on the other side of float at a point one-quarter of the distance from
the hull or main float centreline, in accordance the bow to the step and must be perpendicular to
with figure 3 of Appendix I of CS-23. the tangent to the keel line at that point. The
magnitude of the resultant load is that specified
These pressures are uniform and must be in sub-paragraph (b) .
applied simultaneously over the entire hull or
main float bottom. The loads obtained must be (d) Unsymmetrical step loading. The
carried into the sidewall structure of the hull resultant water load consists of a component
proper, but need not be transmitted in a fore and equal to 0·75 times the load specified in sub-
aft direction as shear and bending loads. paragraph (a) and a side component equal to 3·25
tan β times the load specified in sub-paragraph
(b). The side load must be applied
CS 23.535 Auxiliary float loads
perpendicularly to the plane of symmetry of the
(a) General. Auxiliary floats and their float at a point midway between the keel and the
attachments and supporting structures must be chine.
designed for the conditions prescribed in this
(e) Unsymmetrical bow loading. The
paragraph. In the cases specified in sub-
resultant water load consists of a component
paragraphs (b) through (e) , the prescribed water
equal to 0·75 times the load specified in sub-
loads may be distributed over the float bottom to
paragraph (b) and a side component equal to
avoid excessive local loads, using bottom
0·25 tan β times the load specified in sub-
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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

paragraph (c) . The side load must be applied be designed as prescribed in this paragraph to
perpendicularly to the plane of symmetry at a protect each occupant under those conditions.
point midway between the keel and the chine.
(b) The structure must be designed to give
(f) Immersed float condition. The resultant each occupant every reasonable chance of
load must be applied at the centroid of the cross escaping serious injury when –
section of the float at a point one-third of the
(1) Proper use is made of seats, safety
distance from the bow to the step. The limit load
belts and shoulder harnesses provided for in
components are as follows:
the design;
vertical = p gV
(2) The occupant experiences the
static inertia loads corresponding to the
C x ρV 2/3 (K VS0 )2
aft = following ultimate load factors:
(i) Upward, 3·0g for normal,
C y ρV 2/3 (K VS0 )2 utility, and commuter category
side = aeroplanes, or 4·5g for aerobatic
category aeroplanes;
where –
(ii) Forward, 9·0g;
ρ = mass density of water (slugs/ft3)
(iii) Sideward, 1·5g; and
V = volume of float (ft.3);
(iv) Downward, 6·0g when
Cx = coefficient of drag force, equal to certification to the emergency exit
0·133; provisions of sub-paragraph
23.807(d)(4) is requested; and
Cy = coefficient of side force, equal to
0·106; (3) The items of mass within the
cabin, that could injure an occupant,
K = 0·8, except that lower values may
experience the static inertia loads
be used if it is shown that the floats
corresponding to the following ultimate load
are incapable of submerging at a
speed of 0·8 Vso in normal
operations; (i) Upward, 3·0g;
Vso = seaplane stalling speed (knots) with (ii) Forward, 18·0g; and
landing flaps extended in the
(iii) Sideward, 4·5g.
appropriate position and with no
slipstream effect; and (c) Each aeroplane with retractable landing
gear must be designed to protect each occupant
g = acceleration due to gravity (ft/sec2)
in a landing –
(g) Float bottom pressures. The float (1) With the wheels retracted;
bottom pressures must be established under
(2) With moderate descent velocity;
CS 23.533, except that the value of K2 in the
formulae may be taken as 1·0. The angle of dead
rise to be used in determining the float bottom (3) Assuming, in the absence of a
pressures is set forth in sub-paragraph (b) . more rational analysis –
(i) A downward ultimate inertia
CS 23.537 Seawing loads force of 3g; and
Seawing design loads must be based on (ii) A coefficient of friction of
applicable test data. 0·5 at the ground.
(d) If it is not established that a turnover is
unlikely during an emergency landing, the
structure must be designed to protect the
occupants in a complete turnover as follows:
CS 23.561 General
(1) The likelihood of a turnover may
(a) The aeroplane, although it may be be shown by an analysis assuming the
damaged in emergency landing conditions, must following conditions:

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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

(i) The most adverse aeroplane, peak deceleration must occur in not
combination of weight and centre of more than 0·05 seconds after impact and must
gravity position; reach a minimum of 19g. For all other
seat/restraint systems, peak deceleration must
(ii) Longitudinal load factor of
occur in not more than 0·06 seconds after
impact and must reach a minimum of 15g.
(iii) Vertical load factor of 1·0g;
(2) For the second test, the change in
velocity may not be less than 12.8 m (42 ft)
(iv) For aeroplanes with tricycle per second. The seat/restraint system must be
landing gear, the nose wheel strut failed oriented in its nominal position with respect to
with the nose contacting the ground. the aeroplane and with the vertical plane of
the aeroplane yawed 10°, with no pitch,
(2) For determining the loads to be
relative to the impact vector in a direction that
applied to the inverted aeroplane after a
results in the greatest load on the shoulder
turnover, an upward ultimate inertia load
harness. For seat/restraint systems to be
factor of 3·0g and a coefficient of friction
installed in the first row of the aeroplane, peak
with the ground of 0·5 must be used.
deceleration must occur in not more than 0·05
(e) Except as provided in CS 23.787 (c) the seconds after impact and must reach a
supporting structure must be designed to restrain, minimum of 26g. For all other seat/restraint
under loads up to those specified in sub- systems, peak deceleration must occur in not
paragraph (b) (3) , each item of mass that could more than 0·06 seconds after impact and must
injure an occupant if it came loose in a minor reach a minimum of 21g.
crash landing.
(3) To account for floor warpage, the
floor rails of attachment devices used to attach
CS 23.562 Emergency landing dynamic the seat/restraint system to the airframe
conditions structure must be preloaded to misalign with
(See AMC 23.562) respect to each other by at least 10° vertically
(i.e. pitch out of parallel) and one of the rails
(a) Each seat/restraint system must be
or attachment devices must be preloaded to
designed to protect each occupant during an
misalign by 10° in roll prior to conducting the
emergency landing when –
test defined by sub-paragraph (b)(2) .
(1) Proper use is made of seats, safety
(c) Compliance with the following
belts, and shoulder harnesses provided for the
requirements must be shown during the dynamic
design; and
tests conducted in accordance with sub-
(2) The occupant is exposed to the paragraph (b) .
loads resulting from the conditions prescribed
(1) The seat/restraint system must
in this paragraph.
restrain the ATD although seat/restraint
(b) Each seat/restraint system, for crew or system components may experience
passenger occupancy during take off and deformation, elongation, displacement, or
landing, must successfully complete dynamic crushing intended as part of the design.
tests or be demonstrated by rational analysis
(2) The attachment between the seat/
supported by dynamic tests, in accordance with
restraint system and the test fixture must
each of the following conditions. These tests
remain intact, although the seat structure may
must be conducted with an occupant simulated
have deformed.
by an anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD), as
specified in Appendix J or an approved (3) Each shoulder harness strap must
equivalent with a nominal weight of 77 kg (170 remain on the ATD’s shoulder during the
lb) and seated in the normal upright position. impact.
(1) For the first test, the change in (4) The safety belt must remain on the
velocity may not be less than 9.4 m (31 ft) per ATD’s pelvis during the impact.
second. The seat/restraint system must be
(5) The results of the dynamic tests
oriented in its nominal position with respect to
must show that the occupant is protected from
the aeroplane and with the horizontal plane of
serious head injury.
the aeroplane pitched up 60°, with no yaw,
relative to the impact vector. For seat/restraint (i) When contact with adjacent
systems to be installed in the first row of the seats, structure or other items in the
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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

cabin can occur, protection must be load factor for aerobatic category aeroplanes
provided so that head impact does not need not exceed 5·0g.
exceed a head injury criteria (HIC) of
(2) The seat/restraint system test
1 000.
required by sub-paragraph (b)(1) of this
(ii) The value of HIC is defined paragraph must be conducted in accordance
as – with the following criteria:

⎤ ⎫⎪
⎪ ⎡ 1 t2 (i) The change in velocity may
HIC = ⎨(t 2 − t1)⎢ ∫ a ( t )dt ⎥ ⎬
⎢⎣ (t 2 − t1) t1
not be less than 9·4 m (31 feet) per
⎪ ⎥⎦ ⎪
⎩ ⎭MAX second.
Where – (ii) (A) The peak deceleration
t1 is the initial integration time, (gp) of 19g and 15g must be increased
expressed in seconds, and multiplied by the square of the ratio
t2 is the final integration time, of the increased stall speed to 113 km/h
expressed in seconds, (61 knots):

(t 2 − t1) is the time duration of the major gp = 19·0 (VSO/113)2

head impact, expressed in seconds, or
gp = 15·0 (VSO/113)2
a(t) is the resultant deceleration at the
centre of gravity of the head form (B) The peak deceleration
expressed as a multiple of g (units need not exceed the value reached at a
of gravity). VSO of 146 km/h (79 knots).
(iii) The peak deceleration must
(iii) Compliance with the HIC occur in not more time than time (tr)
limit must be demonstrated by which must be computed as follows:
measuring the head impact during
dynamic testing as prescribed in sub- tr = 31 = 0·96
paragraphs (b) (1) and (b) (2) or by a 32·2 (gp) gp
separate showing of compliance with the Where gp = the peak deceleration
head injury criteria using test or analysis calculated in accordance with paragraph
procedures. (d)(2)(ii) of this section and tr = the rise
(6) Loads in individual shoulder time (in seconds) to the peak
harness straps may not exceed 794 kg (1 750 deceleration.
lb). If dual straps are used for retaining the (e) An alternate approach that achieves an
upper torso, the total strap loads may not equivalent, or greater, level of occupant
exceed 907 kg (2 000 lb). protection to that required by this paragraph may
(7) The compression load measured be used if substantiated on a rational basis.
between the pelvis and the lumbar spine of the [Amdt 23/1]
ATD may not exceed 680 kg (1 500 lb).
(d) For all single-engined aeroplanes with a
VSO of more than 113 km/h (61 knots) at FATIGUE EVALUATION
maximum weight, and those twin-engined
aeroplanes of 2722 kg (6000 lb) or less CS 23.571 Metallic pressurised cabin
maximum weight with a VSO of more than 113 structures
km/h (61 knots) at maximum weight that do not (See AMC to 23.571 and
comply with CS 23.67(a)(1); 23.572)
(1) The ultimate load factors of CS For normal, utility, and aerobatic category
23.561(b) must be increased by multiplying aeroplanes, the strength, detail design, and
the load factors by the square of the ratio of fabrication of the metallic structure of the
the increased stall speed to 113 km/h (61 pressure cabin must be evaluated under one of
knots). The increased ultimate load factors the following:-
need not exceed the values reached at a VSO
of 146 km/h (79 knots). The upward ultimate (a) A fatigue strength investigation in which
the structure is shown by tests, or by analysis
supported by test evidence, to be able to
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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS-23 BOOK 1

withstand the repeated loads of variable (1) Include typical loading spectra
magnitude expected in service; or (e.g. taxi, ground-air-ground cycles,
manoeuvre, gust);
(b) A fail safe strength investigation, in
which it is shown by analysis, tests, or both that (2) Account for any significant effects
catastrophic failure of the structure is not due to the mutual influence of aerodynamic
probable after fatigue failure, or obvious partial surfaces; and
failure, of a principal structural element, and that
(3) Consider any significant effects
the remaining structures are able to withstand a
from propeller slipstream loading, and buffet
static ultimate load factor of 75 percent of the
from vortex impingements.
limit load factor at Vc, considering the combined
effects of normal operating pressures, expected
external aerodynamic pressures, and flight loads. CS 23.573 Damage tolerance and
These loads must be multiplied by a factor of fatigue evaluation of
1.15 unless the dynamic effects of failure under structure
static load are otherwise considered. (See AMC 23.573 (a) (1) & (3)
and AMC 23.573 (b))
(c) The damage tolerance evaluation of CS
23.573(b). (a) Composite airframe structure.
Composite airframe structure must be evaluated
under this paragraph instead of CS paragraphs
CS 23.572 Metallic wing, empennage
23.571 and 23.572. The composite airframe
and associated structures
structure, the failure of which would result in
(See AMC to 23.571 and
catastrophic loss of the aeroplane, in each wing
(including canards, tandem wings, and winglets),
(a) For normal, utility, and aerobatic empennage, their carrythrough and attaching
category aeroplanes, the strength, detail design, structure, moveable control surfaces and their
and fabrication of those parts of the airframe attaching structure, fuselage, and pressure cabin
structure whose failure would be catastrophic must be evaluated using the damage-tolerance
must be evaluated under one of the following criteria prescribed in sub-paragraphs (a)(1)
unless it is shown that the structure, operating through (a)(4) unless shown to be impractical.
stress level, materials and expected uses are If the applicant establishes that damage-tolerance
comparable, from a fatigue standpoint, to a criteria is impractical for a particular structure,
similar design that has had extensive satisfactory the structure must be evaluated in accordance
service experience: with sub-paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(6) . Where
bonded joints are used, the structure must also be
(1) A fatigue strength investigation in
evaluated in accordance with sub-paragraph
which the structure is shown by tests, or by
(a)(5) . The effects of material variability and
analysis supported by test evidence, to be able
environmental conditions on the strength and
to withstand the repeated loads of variable
durability properties of the composite materials
magnitude expected in service; or
must be accounted for in the evaluations required
(2) A fail-safe strength investigation by this paragraph.
in which it is shown by analysis, tests, or
(1) It must be demonstrated by tests,
both, that catastrophic failure of the structure
or by analysis supported by tests, that the
is not probable after fatigue failure, or
structure is capable of carrying ultimate load
obvious partial failure, of a principal
with damage up to the threshold of
structural element, and that the remaining
detectability considering the inspection
structure is able to withstand a static ultimate
procedures employed.
load factor of 75 percent of the critical limit
load factor at Vc. These loads must be (2) The growth rate or no-growth of
multiplied by a factor of 1.15 unless the damage that may occur from fatigue,
dynamic effects of failure under static load are corrosion, manufacturing flaws or impact
otherwise considered. damage, under repeated loads expected in
service, must be established by tests or
(3) The damage tolerance evaluation
analysis supported by tests.
of CS 23.573(b).
(3) The structure must be shown by
(b) Each evaluation required by this
residual strength tests, or analysis supported
paragraph must:-
by residual strength tests, to be able to
withstand critical limit flight loads, considered
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as ultimate loads, with the extent of detectable residual strength capability must be
damage consistent with the results of the considered in the demonstration.
damage tolerance evaluations. For
(b) Metallic airframe structure. If the
pressurised cabins, the following loads must
applicant elects to use CS 23.571(c) or CS
be withstood:
23.572(a)(3), then the damage tolerance
(i) Critical limit flight loads evaluation must include a determination of the
with the combined effects of normal probable locations and modes of damage due to
operating pressure and expected external fatigue, corrosion, or accidental damage. The
aerodynamic pressures. determination must be by analysis supported by
test evidence and, if available, service
(ii) The expected external experience. Damage at multiple sites due to
aerodynamic pressures in 1g flight fatigue must be included where the design is
combined with a cabin differential such that this type of damage can be expected to
pressure equal to 1.1 times the normal occur. The evaluation must incorporate repeated
operating differential pressure without load and static analyses supported by test
any other load. evidence. The extent of damage for residual
(4) The damage growth, between strength evaluation at any time within the
initial detectability and the value selected for operational life of the aeroplane must be
consistent with the initial detectability and
residual strength demonstrations, factored to
subsequent growth under repeated loads. The
obtain inspection intervals, must allow
residual strength evaluation must show that the
development of an inspection program
remaining structure is able to withstand critical
suitable for application by operation and
limit flight loads, considered as ultimate, with
maintenance personnel.
the extent of detectable damage consistent with
(5) For any bonded joint, the failure of the results of the damage tolerance evaluations.
which would result in catastrophic loss of the For pressurised cabins, the following load must
aeroplane, the limit load capacity must be be withstood:
substantiated by one of the following (1) The normal operating differential
methods:- pressure combined with the expected external
(i) The maximum disbonds of aerodynamic pressures applied
each bonded joint consistent with the simultaneously with the flight loading
capability to withstand the loads in sub- conditions specified in this subpart, and
paragraph (a)(3) must be determined by (2) The expected external
analysis, test, or both. Disbonds of each aerodynamic pressures in 1g flight combined
bonded joint greater than this must be with a cabin differential pressure equal to 1.1
prevented by design features; or times the normal operating differential
(ii) Proof testing must be pressure without any other load.
conducted on each production article
that will apply the critical limit design CS 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance
load to each critical bonded joint; or and fatigue evaluation of
(iii) Repeatable and reliable non- commuter category
destructive inspection techniques must aeroplanes
be established that ensure the strength of For commuter category aeroplanes:-
each joint.
(a) Metallic damage tolerance. An
(6) Structural components for which evaluation of the strength, detail design, and
the damage tolerance method is shown to be fabrication must show that catastrophic failure
impractical must be shown by component due to fatigue, corrosion, defects, or damage will
fatigue tests, or analysis supported by tests, to be avoided throughout the operational life of the
be able to withstand the repeated loads of aeroplane. This evaluation must be conducted in
variable magnitude expected in service. accordance with the provisions of CS 23.573,
Sufficient component, subcomponent, except as specified in sub-paragraph (b), for each
element, or coupon tests must be done to part of the structure that could contribute to a
establish the fatigue scatter factor and the catastrophic failure.
environmental effects. Damage up to the (b) Fatigue (safe-life) evaluation.
threshold of detectability and ultimate load Compliance with the damage tolerance
requirements of sub-paragraph (a) is not required
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CS-23 BOOK 1

if it can be established that the application of

those requirements is impractical for a particular
structure. This structure must be shown, by
analysis supported by test evidence, to be able to
withstand the repeated loads of variable
magnitude expected during its service life
without detectable cracks. Appropriate safe-life
scatter factors must be applied.

CS 23.575 Inspections and other

Each inspection or other procedure, based on
an evaluation required by CS paragraphs 23.571,
23.572, 23.573 or 23.574, must be established to
prevent catastrophic failure and must be included
in the limitations section of the instructions for
continued airworthiness required by CS 23.1529.

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 


CS 23.609  Protection of structure 
CS 23.601  General 
Each part of the structure must – 
The  suitability  of  each  questionable  design 
(a)  Be  suitably  protected  against 
detail  and  part  having  an  important  bearing  on 
deterioration  or  loss  of  strength  in  service  due  to 
safety in operations, must be established by tests. 
any cause, including – 
(1)  Weathering; 
CS 23.603  Materials and workmanship 
(See AMC 23.603)  (2)  Corrosion; and 
(a)  The suitability and durability of materials  (3)  Abrasion; and 
used  for  parts,  the  failure  of  which  could 
(b)  Have  adequate  provisions  for  ventilation 
adversely affect safety, must – 
and drainage. 
(1)  Be  established  by  experience  or 
CS 23.611  Accessibility provisions 
(2)  Meet  approved  specifications  that  (See AMC 23.611) 
ensure  their  having  the  strength  and  other 
For  each  part  that  requires  maintenance, 
properties assumed in the design data; and 
inspection,  or  other  servicing,  appropriate  means 
(3)  Take  into  account  the  effects  of  must  be  incorporated  into  the  aircraft  design  to 
environmental  conditions,  such  as temperature  allow such servicing to be accomplished. 
and humidity, expected in service. 
(b)  Workmanship  must  be  of  a  high  CS 23.613  Material  strength  properties 
standard.  and design values 
(See AMC 23.613) 
CS 23.605  Fabrication methods  (a)  Material  strength  properties  must  be 
based  on  enough  tests  of  material  meeting 
(a)  The  methods  of  fabrication  used  must 
specifications  to  establish  design  values  on  a 
produce  consistently  sound  structures.    If  a 
statistical basis. 
fabrication process (such as gluing, spot welding, 
or  heat­treating)  requires  close  control  to  reach  (b)  The  design  values  must  be  chosen  to 
this  objective,  the  process  must  be  performed  minimise  the  probability  of  structural  failure  due 
under an approved process specification.  to  material  variability.    Except  as  provided  in 
sub­paragraph  (e)  ,  compliance  with  this 
(b)  Each  new  aircraft  fabrication  method 
paragraph  must  be  shown  by  selecting  design 
must be substantiated by a test programme. 
values  that  assure  material  strength  with  the 
following probability: 
CS 23.607  Fasteners 
(1)  Where  applied  loads  are  eventually 
(See AMC 23.607 (b)) 
distributed  through  a single member within an 
(a)  Each  removable  fastener  must  assembly,  the  failure  of  which  would  result  in 
incorporate  two  retaining  devices  if  the  loss  of  loss  of  structural  integrity  of  the  component; 
such  fastener  would  preclude  continued  safe  99% probability with 95% confidence. 
flight and landing. 
(2)  For  redundant  structure,  in  which 
(b)  Fasteners  and  their  locking  devices  must  the  failure  of  individual  elements  would  result 
not  be  adversely  affected  by  the  environmental  in  applied  loads  being  safely  distributed  to 
conditions  associated  with  the  particular  other  load  carrying  members;  90%  probability 
installation.  with 95% confidence. 
(c)  No  self­locking  nut  may  be  used  on  any  (c)  The  effects  of  temperature  on  allowable 
bolt  subject to rotation in operation unless a non­  stresses used for design in an essential component 
friction  locking  device  is  used  in  addition  to  the  or  structure  must  be  considered  where  thermal 
self­locking device.  effects  are  significant  under  normal  operating 

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(d)  The  design  of  structure  must  minimise  (i)  Have  a  casting  factor  of  not 
the  probability  of  catastrophic  fatigue  failure,  less  than  1∙25  and  receive  100% 
particularly at points of stress concentration.  inspection  by  visual,  radiographic  and 
either  magnetic  particle,  penetrant  or 
(e)  Design  values  greater  than  the 
other  approved  equivalent  non­ 
guaranteed  minimum’s  required  by  this 
destructive inspection method or 
paragraph  may  be  used  where  only  guaranteed 
minimum  values  are  normally  allowed  if  a  (ii)  Have  a  casting  factor  of  not 
“premium  selection”  of  the  material  is  made  in  less  than  2∙0  and  receive  100%  visual 
which  a  specimen  of  each  individual  item  is  inspection  and  100%  approved  non­ 
tested  before  use  to  determine  that  the  actual  destructive  inspection.    When  an 
strength  properties  of  the  particular  item  will  approved  quality  control  procedure  is 
equal or exceed those used in design.  established  and  an  acceptable  statistical 
analysis  supports  reduction,  non­ 
destructive  inspection  may  be  reduced 
CS 23.619  Special factors 
from  100%,  and  applied  on  a  sampling 
The  factor  of  safety  prescribed  in  CS 23.303  basis. 
must  be  multiplied  by  the  highest  pertinent 
(2)  For  each  critical  casting  with  a 
special  factors  of  safety  prescribed  in  CS 23.621 
casting  factor  less  than  1∙50,  three  sample 
to  23.625  for  each  part  of  the  structure  whose 
castings  must  be  static  tested  and  shown  to 
strength is – 
meet – 
(1)  Uncertain; 
(i)  The  strength  requirements  of 
(2)  Likely  to  deteriorate  in  service  CS 23.305  at  an  ultimate  load  corre­ 
before normal replacement; or  sponding to a casting factor of 1∙25; and 
(3)  Subject  to  appreciable  variability  (ii)  The  deformation  requirements 
because  of  uncertainties  in  manufacturing  of  CS 23.305  at  a  load  of  1∙15 times  the 
processes or inspection methods.  limit load. 
(3)  Examples  of  these  castings  are 
CS 23.621  Casting factors  structural  attachment  fittings,  parts  of  flight 
control  systems,  control  surface  hinges  and 
(a)  General.  The  factors,  tests  and 
balance  weight  attachments,  seat,  berth,  safety 
inspections  specified  in  sub­paragraphs  (b)  to  (d) 
belt  and  fuel  and  oil  tank  supports  and 
must  be  applied  in  addition  to  those  necessary  to 
attachments and cabin pressure valves. 
establish  foundry  quality  control.    The 
inspections  must  meet  approved  specifications.  (d)  Non  critical  castings.  For  each  casting 
Sub­paragraphs (c) and (d) apply to any structural  other than those specified in  sub­paragraph (c) or 
castings  except  castings  that  are  pressure  tested  (e), the following apply: 
as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do 
(1)  Except  as  provided  in  sub­ 
not support structural loads. 
paragraph  (2)  and  (3),  the  casting  factors  and 
(b)  Bearing  stresses  and  surfaces.  The  corresponding  inspections  must  meet  the 
casting  factors  specified  in  sub­paragraphs  (c)  following table: 
and (d) – 
(1)  Need  not  exceed  1∙25  with  respect 
Casting factor  Inspection 
to  bearing  stresses  regardless  of  the  method of 
inspection used; and  2∙0 or more  100% visual. 
(2)  Need not be used with respect to the  Less than 2∙0 but  100%  visual  and  magnetic 
bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor  more than 1∙5  particle  or  penetrant  or 
is larger than the applicable casting factor.  equivalent  non­destructive 
inspection methods. 
(c)  Critical  castings.  For  each  casting 
whose  failure  would  preclude  continued  safe  1∙25 to 1∙50  100%  visual,  magnetic 
flight  and  landing  of  the  aeroplane  or  result  in  particle  or  penetrant  and 
serious injury to occupants, the following apply:  radiographic  or  approved 
equivalent  non­destructive 
(1)  Each critical casting must either – 
inspection methods.

Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–2 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(2)  The  percentage  of  castings  (d)  For  each  seat,  berth,  safety  belt  and 
inspected  by  non­visual  methods  may  be  harness,  its  attachment  to  the  structure  must  be 
reduced  below  that  specified  in  sub­paragraph  shown,  by  analysis,  tests,  or  both,  to  be  able  to 
(1)  when  an  approved  quality  control  withstand  the  inertia  forces  prescribed  in  CS 
procedure is established.  23.561 multiplied by a fitting factor of 1∙33. 
(3)  For  castings  procured  to  a 
specification  that  guarantees  the  mechanical  CS 23.627  Fatigue strength 
properties  of  the  material  in  the  casting  and 
The  structure  must  be  designed,  as  far  as 
provides  for  demonstration  of  these  properties 
practicable,  to  avoid  points  of  stress 
by  test  of  coupons  cut  from  the  castings  on  a 
concentration  where  variable  stresses  above  the 
sampling basis – 
fatigue limit are likely to occur in normal service. 
(i)  A casting factor of 1∙0 may be 
used; and 
CS 23.629  Flutter 
(ii)  The  castings  must  be  (See AMC 23.629) 
inspected  as  provided  in  sub­paragraph 
(a)  It  must  be  shown  by  the  methods  of  (b) 
(1)  for  casting  factors  of  “1∙25  to  1∙50” 
and  either  (c) or (d)  ,  that  the  aeroplane  is  free 
and tested under sub­paragraph (c) (2) . 
from  flutter,  control  reversal  and  divergence  for 
(e)  Non­structural  castings.  Castings  used  any  condition  of  operation  within  the  limit  V­n 
for  non­structural  purposes  do  not  require  envelope  and  at  all  speeds  up  to  the  speed 
evaluation, testing or close inspection.  specified for the selected method.  In addition – 
(1)  Adequate  tolerances  must  be 
CS 23.623  Bearing factors  established  for  quantities  which  affect  flutter; 
including  speed,  damping,  mass  balance  and 
(a)  Each part that has clearance (free fit) and 
control system stiffness; and 
that  is  subject  to  pounding  or  vibration,  must 
have  a  bearing  factor  large enough to provide for  (2)  The  natural  frequencies  of  main 
the effects of normal relative motion.  structural  components  must  be  determined  by 
vibration tests or other approved methods. 
(b)  For  control  surface  hinges  and  control 
system  joints,  compliance  with  the  factors  (b)  Flight  flutter  tests  must  be made to show 
prescribed  in  CS 23.657  and  23.693  respectively,  that  the  aeroplane  is  free  from  flutter,  control 
meets paragraph (a) .  reversal  and  divergence  and  to  show  by  these 
tests that –
CS 23.625  Fitting factors  (1)  Proper  and  adequate  attempts  to 
induce flutter have been made within the speed 
For each fitting (a part or terminal used to join 
range up to VD; 
one  structural  member  to  another),  the  following 
applies:  (2)  The  vibratory  response  of  the 
structure  during  the  test  indicates  freedom 
(a)  For  each  fitting  whose  strength  is  not 
from flutter; 
proven  by  limit  and  ultimate  load  tests  in  which 
actual  stress  conditions  are  simulated  in  the  (3)  A  proper  margin  of  damping  exists 
fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor  at VD; and 
of at least 1∙15 must be applied to each part of – 
(4)  There  is  no  large  and  rapid 
(1)  The fitting;  reduction in damping as VD  is approached. 
(2)  The means of attachment; and  (c)  Any  rational  analysis  used  to  predict 
freedom  from  flutter,  control  reversal  and 
(3)  The bearing on the joined members. 
divergence must cover all speeds up to 1∙2 VD. 
(b)  No  fitting  factor  need  be  used  for  joint 
(d)  Compliance  with  the  rigidity  and  mass 
designs  based  on  comprehensive  test  data  (such 
balance  criteria  (pages 4­12),  in  Airframe  and 
as  continuous  joints  in  metal  plating,  welded 
Equipment  Engineering  Report  No. 45  (as 
joints and scarf joints in wood). 
corrected)  “Simplified  Flutter  Prevention 
(c)  For each integral fitting, the part must be  Criteria”  (published  by  the  Federal  Aviation 
treated  as  a  fitting  up  to  the  point  at  which  the  Administration)  may  be  accomplished  to  show 
section properties become typical of the member.  that  the  aeroplane  is  free  from  flutter,  control 
reversal, or divergence if –
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(1)  VD/MD  for  the  aeroplane  is  less  (h)  For  aeroplanes  showing  compliance  with 
than  482  km/h  (260  knots)  (EAS)  and  less  the  damage­tolerance  criteria  of  CS  23.573,  the 
than Mach 0∙5;  aeroplane  must  be  shown  by  analysis  to  be  free 
from  flutter  up  to  VD/MD  with  the  extent  of 
(2)  The  wing  and  aileron  flutter 
damage  for  which  residual  strength  is 
prevention  criteria,  as  represented  by the wing 
torsional  stiffness  and  aileron  balance  criteria, 
are  limited  to  use  to  aeroplanes  without  large  (i)  For  modifications  to  the  type  design 
mass  concentrations  (such  as  engines,  floats,  which  could  affect  the  flutter  characteristics 
or  fuel  tanks  in  outer  wing  panels)  along  the  compliance  with  sub­paragraph  (a)    must  be 
wing span; and  shown, except that analysis alone, which is based 
on previously approved data, may be used to show 
(3)  The aeroplane – 
freedom  from  flutter,  control  reversal  and 
(i)  Does not have a T­tail or other  divergence for all speeds up to the speed specified 
unconventional tail configurations;  for the selected method. 
(ii)  Does  not  have  unusual  mass 
distributions  or  other  unconventional 
design  features  that  affect  the 
applicability of the criteria; and 
CS 23.641  Proof of strength 
(iii)  Has  fixed­fin  and  fixed­ 
stabiliser surfaces.  The  strength  of  stressed  skin  wings  must  be 
proven  by  load  tests  or  by  combined  structural 
(e)  For  turbo­propeller  powered  aeroplanes, 
analysis and load tests. 
the dynamic evaluation must include – 
(1)  Whirl  mode  degree  of  freedom 
which  takes  into  account  the  stability  of  the  CONTROL SURFACES 
plane  of  rotation  of  the  propeller  and 
significant  elastic,  inertial  and  aerodynamic 
CS 23.651  Proof of strength 
forces; and 
(a)  Limit  load  tests  of  control  surfaces  are 
(2)  Propeller,  engine,  engine  mount 
required.    These  tests  must  include  the  horn  or 
and  aeroplane  structure  stiffness  and  damping 
fitting to which the control system is attached. 
variations  appropriate  to  the  particular 
configuration.  (b)  In  structural  analyses,  rigging  loads  due 
to  wire  bracing  must  be  accounted  for  in  a 
(f)  Freedom  from  flutter,  control  reversal 
rational or conservative manner. 
and  divergence  up  to  VD/ MD  must  be  shown  as 
CS 23.655  Installation 
(1)  For  aeroplanes  that  meet  the 
criteria  of  sub­paragraphs (d) (1)  to  (d) (3)  ,  (a)  Movable  surfaces  must  be  installed  so 
after the failure, malfunction, or disconnection  that there is no interference between any surfaces, 
of  any  single  element  in  any  tab  control  their  bracing  or  adjacent  fixed  structure,  when 
system.  one  surface  is  held  in  its  most  critical  clearance 
positions  and  the  others  are  operated  through 
(2)  For  aeroplanes  other  than  those 
their full movement. 
described  in  sub­paragraph (f) (1)  ,  after  the 
failure,  malfunction,  or  disconnection  of  any  (b)  If an adjustable stabiliser is used, it must 
single  element  in  the  primary  flight  control  have  stops  that  will  limit  its  range  of  travel  to 
system,  any  tab  control  system,  or  any  flutter  that allowing safe flight and landing. 
(g)  For  aeroplanes  showing  compliance  with  CS 23.657  Hinges 
the fail­safe criteria of CS 23.571 and 23.572, the 
(a)  Control  surface  hinges,  except  ball  and 
aeroplane  must  be  shown  by  analysis  to  be  free 
roller bearing hinges, must have a factor of safety 
from  flutter  up  to  VD/MD  after  fatigue  failure,  or 
of  not  less  than  6∙67  with  respect  to  the  ultimate 
obvious  partial  failure  of  a  principal  structural 
bearing  strength  of  the  softest  material  used  as  a 

Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–4 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(b)  For  ball  or  roller  bearing  hinges,  the  (c)  It  must  be  shown  that  after  any  single 
approved  rating  of  the  bearing  may  not  be  failure  of  the  stability  augmentation  system  or 
exceeded.  any other automatic or power­operated system – 
(1)  The  aeroplane  is safely controllable 
CS 23.659  Mass balance  when  the  failure  or  malfunction  occurs  at  any 
speed or altitude within the approved operating 
The supporting structure and the attachment of 
limitations  that  is  critical  for  the  type  of 
concentrated  mass  balance  weights  used  on 
failure being considered; 
control surfaces must be designed for – 
(2)  The  controllability  and 
(a)  24g  normal  to  the  plane  of  the  control 
manoeuvrability  requirements  of  CS­23  are 
met  within  a  practical  operational  flight 
(b)  12g fore and aft; and  envelope  (for  example,  speed,  altitude,  normal 
acceleration, and aeroplane configuration) that 
(c)  12g parallel to the hinge line. 
is  described  in  the  Aeroplane  Flight  Manual; 
CONTROL SYSTEMS  (3)  The  trim,  stability,  and  stall 
characteristics  are  not  impaired  below  a  level 
needed  to  permit  continued  safe  flight  and 
CS 23.671  General 
(See AMC 23.671) 
(a)  Each  control  must  operate  easily, 
CS 23.673  Primary flight controls 
smoothly  and  positively  enough  to  allow  proper 
performance of its functions.  (a)  Primary  flight  controls  are  those  used  by 
the  pilot  for  the  immediate  control  of  pitch,  roll 
(b)  Controls  must  be arranged and identified 
and yaw. 
to  provide  for  convenience  in  operation  and  to 
prevent  the  possibility  of  confusion  and 
subsequent inadvertent operation.  CS 23.675  Stops 
(a)  Each control system must have stops that 
CS 23.672  Stability  augmentation  and  positively  limit  the  range  of  motion  of  each 
automatic  and  power  movable  aerodynamic  surface  controlled  by  the 
operated systems  system. 
If  the  functioning  of  stability  augmentation  or  (b)  Each  stop  must  be  located  so  that  wear, 
other  automatic  or  power­operated  systems  is  slackness,  or  take­up  adjustments  will  not 
necessary  to  show  compliance  with  the  flight  adversely  affect  the  control  characteristics  of  the 
characteristics  requirements  of  CS­23,  such  aeroplane  because  of  a  change  in  the  range  of 
systems  must  comply  with  CS  23.671  and  the  surface travel. 
(c)  Each  stop  must  be  able  to  withstand  any 
(a)  A  warning,  which  is  clearly  loads  corresponding  to  the  design  conditions  for 
distinguishable  to  the  pilot  under  expected  flight  the control system. 
conditions  without requiring the pilot’s attention, 
must  be  provided  for  any  failure  in  the  stability 
CS 23.677  Trim systems 
augmentation system or in any other automatic or 
power­operated  system  that  could  result  in  an  (a)  Proper  precautions  must  be  taken  to 
unsafe condition if the pilot were not aware of the  prevent  inadvertent,  improper,  or  abrupt  trim  tab 
failure.    Warning  systems  must  not  activate  the  operation.    There  must  be  means  near  the  trim 
control system.  control  to  indicate  to  the  pilot  the  direction  of 
trim  control  movement  relative  to  aeroplane 
(b)  The  design  of  the  stability  augmentation 
motion.    In  addition,  there  must  be  means  to 
system  or  of  any  other  automatic  or  power­ 
indicate  to  the  pilot  the  position  of  the  trim 
operated system must permit initial counteraction 
device  with  respect  to  both  the  range  of 
of  failures  without  requiring  exceptional  pilot 
adjustment  and,  in  the  case  of  lateral  and 
skill  or  strength,  by  either the deactivation of the 
directional  trim,  the neutral position. This means 
system,  or  a  failed  portion  thereof,  or  by 
must  be  visible  to  the  pilot  and  must  be  located 
overriding  the  failure  by  movement  of  the  flight 
and designed to prevent confusion.
controls in the normal sense. 
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

The  pitch  trim  indicator  must  be  clearly  CS 23.681  Limit load static tests 

marked  with  a  position  or  range  within  which  it 
(a)  Compliance  with  the  limit  load  require­ 
has been demonstrated that take­off is safe for all 
ments  of  CS­23  must  be  shown  by  tests  in 
centre  of  gravity  positions  and  each  flap  position 
which – 
approved for take­off. 
(1)  The  direction  of  the  test  loads 
(b)  Trimming  devices  must  be  designed  so 
produces the most severe loading in the control 
that,  when  any  one  connecting  or  transmitting 
system; and 
element in the primary flight control system fails, 
adequate  control  for  safe  flight  and  landing  is  (2)  Each  fitting,  pulley  and  bracket 
available with –  used  in  attaching  the  system  to  the  main 
structure is included. 
(1)  For  single­engine  aeroplanes,  the 
longitudinal trimming devices; or  (b)  Compliance  must  be  shown  (by  analyses 
or  individual  load  tests)  with  the  special  factor 
(2)  For  twin­engine  aeroplanes,  the 
requirements  for  control  system  joints  subject  to 
longitudinal and directional trimming devices. 
angular motion. 
(c)  Tab  controls  must  be  irreversible  unless 
the  tab  is  properly  balanced  and  has  no  unsafe 
CS 23.683  Operation tests 
flutter  characteristics.    Irreversible  tab  systems 
(See AMC 23.683) 
must  have  adequate  rigidity  and  reliability  in  the 
portion  of  the  system  from  the  tab  to  the  (a)  It  must  be  shown  by  operation  tests  that, 
attachment  of  the  irreversible  unit  to  the  when  the  controls  are  operated  from  the  pilot 
aeroplane structure.  compartment  with  the  system  loaded  as 
prescribed  in  sub­paragraph (b)  ,  the  system  is 
(d)  It  must  be  demonstrated  that  the 
free from – 
aeroplane  is  safely  controllable  and  that  the  pilot 
can  perform  all  the  manoeuvres  and  operations  (1)  Jamming; 
necessary  to  effect  a  safe  landing  following  any 
(2)  Excessive friction; 
probable  powered  trim  system  runaway  that 
reasonably might be expected in service, allowing  (3)  Excessive deflection. 
for  appropriate  time  delay  after  pilot  recognition 
(b)  The prescribed test loads are – 
of  the  trim  system  runaway.    The  demonstration 
must  be  conducted  at  the  critical  aeroplane  (1)  For  the  entire  system,  loads 
weights and centre of gravity positions.  corresponding  to  the  limit  air  loads  on  the 
appropriate  surface,  or the limit pilot forces in 
CS 23.397 (b), whichever are less; and 
CS 23.679  Control system locks 
(2)  For  secondary  controls,  loads  not 
If there is a device to lock the control system – 
less  than those corresponding to the maximum 
pilot effort established under CS 23.405. 
(a)  It  must  give  an  unmistakable  warning 
when the lock is engaged; and 
CS  23.685  Control system details 
(b)  There must be a means to – 
(a)  Each  detail  of  each  control  system  must 
(1)  Automatically  disengage  the  device  be  designed  and  installed  to  prevent  jamming, 
when  the  pilot  operates  the  primary  flight  chafing  and  interference  from  cargo,  passengers, 
controls in a normal manner; or  loose objects, or the freezing of moisture. 
(2)  Limit  the  operation  of  the  (b)  There  must  be  means  in  the  cockpit  to 
aeroplane,  when  the  device  is  engaged,  in  a  prevent  the  entry  of  foreign  objects  into  places 
manner  that  is  apparent  to  the  pilot  prior  to  where they would jam the system. 
(c)  There  must  be  means  to  prevent  the 
(c)  The  device  must  have  a  means  to  slapping of cables or tubes against other parts. 
preclude  the  possibility  of  it  becoming 
(d)  Each element of the flight control system 
inadvertently engaged in flight. 
must  have  design  features,  or  must  be 
distinctively  and  permanently  marked,  to 
minimise  the  possibility  of  incorrect  assembly 
that  could  result  in  malfunctioning  of  the control 
Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–6 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

CS 23.687  Spring devices  systems.  For ball or roller bearings, the approved 

ratings may not be exceeded. 
The reliability of any spring device used in the 
control  system  must  be  established  by  tests 
simulating service conditions unless failure of the  CS 23.697  Wing flap controls 
spring  will  not  cause  flutter  or  unsafe  flight 
(a)  Each  wing  flap  control  must  be  designed 
so  that,  when  the  flap  has  been  placed  in  any 
position  upon  which  compliance  with  the 
CS 23.689  Cable systems  performance  requirements  of  CS­23  is  based,  the 
flap  will  not  move  from  that  position  unless  the 
(a)  Each  cable,  cable  fitting,  turn­buckle, 
control  is  adjusted  or  is  moved  by  the  automatic 
splice  and  pulley  used  must  meet  approved 
operation of a flap load limiting device. 
specifications.  In addition – 
1  (b)  The  rate  of  movement  of  the  flaps  in 
(1)  No  cable  smaller  than  3∙2  mm  (  8 
response  to  the  operation  of  the pilot’s control or 
in)  diameter  may  be  used  in  primary  control 
automatic device must give satisfactory flight and 
performance  characteristics  under  steady  or 
(2)  Each cable system must be designed  changing  conditions  of  airspeed,  engine  power 
so  that  there  will  be  no  hazardous  change  in  and attitude. 
cable  tension  throughout  the  range  of  travel 
under  operating  conditions  and  temperature  (c)  If  compliance  with  CS  23.145 (b) (3) 
variations; and  necessitates  wing  flap  retraction  to  positions  that 
are not fully retracted, the wing flap control lever 
(3)  There  must  be  means  for  visual  settings  corresponding  to  those  positions  must  be 
inspection  at  each  fairlead,  pulley,  terminal  positively  located  such  that  a  definite  change  of 
and turnbuckle.  direction of movement of the lever is necessary to 
(b)  Each  kind  and  size  of  pulley  must  select settings beyond those settings. 
correspond  to  the  cable  with  which  it  is  used. 
Each  pulley  must  have  closely  fitted  guards  to 
CS 23.699  Wing flap position indicator 
prevent  the  cables  from  being  misplaced  or 
fouled,  even  when slack.  Each pulley must lie in  There  must  be  a  wing  flap  position  indicator 
the  plane  passing  through  the  cable  so  that  the  for – 
cable does not rub against the pulley flange. 
(a)  Flap  installations  with  only  the  retracted 
(c)  Fairleads  must  be  installed  so  that  they  and fully extended position, unless – 
do  not  cause  a  change  in  cable  direction  of  more 
than 3°.  (1)  A  direct  operating  mechanism 
provides a sense of “feel” and position (such as 
(d)  Clevis pins subject to load or motion and  when a mechanical linkage is employed; or 
retained  only  by  cotter  pins  may  not  be  used  in 
the control system.  (2) The  flap  position  is  readily 
determined  without  seriously  detracting  from 
(e)  Turnbuckles  must  be  attached  to  parts 
other  piloting  duties  under  any  flight 
having  angular  motion  in  a  manner  that  will  condition, day or night; and 
positively  prevent  binding  throughout  the  range 
of travel.  (b)  Flap  installation  with  intermediate  flap 
positions if – 
(f)  Tab  control  cables  are  not  part  of  the 
primary  control  system  and  may  be  less  than  (1)  Any  flap  position  other  than 
3.2mm  (1/8  inch)  diameter  in  aeroplanes  that  are  retracted  or  fully  extended  is  used  to  show 
safely  controllable  with  the  tabs  in  the  most  compliance with the performance requirements 
adverse positions.  of CS­23; and 
(2)  The  flap  installation  does  not  meet 
CS 23.693  Joints  the requirements of sub­paragraph (a) (1) .
Control  system  joints  (in  push­pull  systems) 
that are subject to angular motion, except those in 
ball  and  roller  bearing  systems,  must  have  a 
special  factor  of  safety  of  not  less  than  3∙33  with 
respect  to  the    ultimate    bearing  strength  of  the 
softest  material  used  as  a  bearing.    This  factor 
may  be  reduced  to  2∙0  for  joints  in  cable  control 
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

CS 23.701  Flap interconnection  LANDING GEAR 

(a)  The main wing flaps and related movable 
surfaces as a system must –  CS 23.721  General 
(1)  Be  synchronised  by  a  mechanical  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes  that  have  a 
interconnection  between  the  movable  flap  passenger  seating  configuration,  excluding  pilot 
surfaces  that  is  independent  of  the  flap  drive  seats,  of  10  or  more,  the  following  general 
system or by an approved equivalent means; or  requirements for the landing gear apply: 
(2)  Be  designed  so  that  the  occurrence  (a)  The  main  landing  gear  system  must  be 
of  any  failure  of  the  flap  system  that  would  designed so that if it fails due to overloads during 
result  in  an  unsafe  flight  characteristic  of  the  take­off  and  landing  (assuming  the  overloads  to 
aeroplane is extremely improbable; or  act  in  the  upward  and  aft  directions),  the  failure 
mode is not likely to cause the spillage of enough 
(b)  The  aeroplane  must  be  shown  to  have 
fuel from any part of the fuel system to constitute 
safe flight characteristics with any combination of 
a fire hazard. 
extreme  positions  of  individual  movable  surfaces 
(mechanically  interconnected  surfaces  are  to  be  (b)  Each aeroplane must be designed so that, 
considered as a single surface).  with the aeroplane under control, it can be landed 
on  a  paved runway with any one or more landing 
(c)  If  an  interconnection  is  used  in  twin­ 
gear  legs  not  extended  without  sustaining  a 
engine aeroplanes, it must be designed to account 
structural  component  failure  that  is  likely  to 
for  the  unsymmetrical  loads  resulting  from  flight 
cause  the  spillage  of  enough  fuel  to  constitute  a 
with  the  engine  on  one  side  of  the  plane  of 
fire hazard. 
symmetry  inoperative  and  the  remaining  engine 
at  take­off  power.    For  single­engine  aeroplanes  (c)  Compliance  with  the  provisions    may  be 
and  twin­engine  aeroplanes  with  no  slipstream  shown by analysis or test, or both. 
effects on the flaps, it may be assumed that 100% 
of  the  critical  air  load  acts  on  one  side  and  70% 
CS 23.723  Shock absorption tests 
on the other. 
(a)  It  must  be  shown  that  the  limit  load 
factors  selected  for  design  in  accordance  with 
CS 23.703  Take­off warning system 
CS 23.473  for  take­off  and  landing  weights, 
For  commuter  category  aeroplanes,  unless  it  respectively,  will  not  be  exceeded.    This  must  be 
can  be  shown  that  a  lift  or  longitudinal  trim  shown  by  energy  absorption  tests  except  that 
device that affects the take­off performance of the  analysis  based  on  tests  conducted  on  a  landing 
aircraft  would  not  give  an  unsafe  take­off  gear  system  with  identical  energy  absorption 
configuration  when  selected  out  of  an  approved  characteristics  may  be  used  for  increases  in 
take­off  position,  a  take­off  warning  system  must  previously approved take­off and landing weights. 
be  installed  and  must  meet  the  following 
(b)  The  landing  gear  may  not  fail,  but  may 
yield,  in  a  test  showing  its  reserve  energy 
(a)  The  system  must  provide  to  the  pilots  an  absorption capacity, simulating a descent velocity 
aural  warning  that  is  automatically  activated  of  1∙2  times  the  limit  descent  velocity,  assuming 
during the initial portion of the take­off roll if the  wing lift equal to the weight of the aeroplane. 
aeroplane  is  in  a  configuration  that  would  not 
allow a safe take­off.  The warning must continue 
CS 23.725  Limit drop tests 
until – 
(a)  If  compliance  with  CS 23.723 (a)  is 
(1)  The  configuration  is  changed  to 
shown by free drop tests, these tests must be made 
allow safe take­off, or 
on  the  complete  aeroplane, or on units consisting 
(2)  Action  is  taken  by  the  pilot  to  of wheel, tyre and shock absorber, in their proper 
abandon the take­off roll.  relation,  from  free  drop  heights  not  less  than 
those determined by the following formula: 
(b)  The  means  used  to  activate  the  system 
h  (m) =  .  0.0132 (Mg/S) ½ 
must  function  properly  for  all  authorised  take­off 
power settings and procedures and throughout the  However,  the  free  drop  height  may  not  be  less 
ranges  of  take­off  weights,  altitudes  and  than  0.234  m  (9∙2 inches)  and  need  not  be  more 
temperatures for which certification is requested.  than 0.475 m (18∙7 inches).

Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–8 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(b)  If the effect of wing lift is provided for in  where – 

free  drop  tests,  the  landing  gear must be dropped 
n j  =  the  load  factor  developed  in  the  drop 
with an effective weight equal to – 
test (that is, the acceleration (dv/dt) in 
h + ( 1 - L ) d  g’s  recorded in the drop test) plus 1∙0; 
Me =  M 
h + d  and 
where –  Me,  M  and  L  are  the  same  as  in  the  drop  test 
Me  =  the  effective  weight  to  be  used  in 
the drop test (kg);  (f)  The  value  of  n  determined  in accordance 
with  sub­paragraph (e)  may  not  be  more  than the 
h  =  Specified free drop height  (m);  limit  inertia  load  factor  used  in  the  landing 
d  =  deflection  under  impact  of  the  tyre  conditions in CS 23.473. 
(at  the  approved inflation pressure) 
plus  the  vertical  component  of  the  CS 23.726  Ground load dynamic tests 
axle travel relative to the drop mass 
(m);  (a)  If  compliance  with  the  ground  load 
requirements  of  CS 23.479  to  23.483  is  shown 
M  =  MM  for main gear units (kg), equal  dynamically  by  drop  test,  one  drop  test  must  be 
to  the  static  weight  on  that  unit  conducted  that  meets  CS 23.725  except  that  the 
with  the  aeroplane  in  the  level 
drop height must be – 
attitude  (with  the  nose  wheel  clear 
in  the  case  of  the  nose  wheel  type  (1)  2∙25  times  the  drop  height 
aeroplanes);  prescribed in CS 23.725 (a); or 
M  =  MT  for tail gear units (kg), equal to  (2)  Sufficient  to  develop  1∙5  times  the 
the  static  weight  on  the  tail  unit  limit load factor. 
with  the  aeroplane in the tail­down 
(b)  The critical landing condition for each of 
the  design  conditions  specified  in  CS 23.479  to 
M  =  MN  for nose wheel units (kg), equal  23.483 must be used for proof of strength. 
to  the  vertical  component  of  the 
static  reaction  that  would  exist  at 
CS 23.727  Reserve  energy  absorption 
the  nose  wheel,  assuming  that  the 
drop tests 
mass  of  the  aeroplane  acts  at  the 
centre  of  gravity  and  exerts  a  force  (a)  If  compliance  with  the  reserve  energy 
of  1∙0g  downward  and  0∙33g  absorption  requirements  in  CS 23.723 (b)  is 
forward; and  shown by free drop tests, the drop height may not 
be  less  than  1∙44  times  that  specified  in 
L  =  the ratio of the assumed wing lift to 
CS 23.725. 
the  aeroplane  weight,  but  not  more 
than 0∙667.  (b)  If  the  effect  of  wing  lift  is  provided  for, 
the  units  must  be  dropped  with  an  effective  mass 
g  =  The  acceleration  due  to  gravity  equal to
(m/s 2 ) 
æ h  ö , when the symbols 
Me  =  M ç ÷
(c)  The  limit  inertia  load  factor  must  be  è h + d ø
determined  in  a  rational  or  conservative  manner,  and other details are the same as in CS 23.725. 
during  the  drop  test,  using  a  landing  gear  unit 
attitude and applied drag loads, that represent the 
landing conditions.  CS  23.729  Landing  gear  extension 
and retraction system 
(d)  The value of  d used in the computation of  (See AMC 23.729 (g) 
Me  in  sub­paragraph (b)    may  not  exceed  the 
value actually obtained in the drop test.  (a)  General.  For aeroplanes with retractable 
landing gear, the following apply: 
(e)  The  limit  inertia  load  factor  must  be 
determined  from  the  drop  test  in  sub­  (1)  Each  landing  gear  retracting 
paragraph (b)    according  to  the  following  mechanism  and  its  supporting  structure  must 
formula:  be  designed  for  maximum  flight  load  factors 
M e  with  the  gear  retracted  and  must  be  designed 
n = n j + L  for  the  combination  of  friction,  inertia,  brake

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

torque  and  air  loads,  occurring  during  retardation  of  any  throttle  to  or  beyond  the 
retraction  at  any  airspeed  up  to  1∙6 VS1  with  position  for  normal  landing  approach  will 
flaps  retracted  and  for  any  load  factor  up  to  activate the warning device. 
those  specified  in  CS 23.345  for  the  flaps­ 
(2)  A  device  that  functions 
extended condition. 
continuously when the wing flaps are extended 
(2)  The  landing  gear  and  retracting  beyond  the  maximum  approach  flap  position, 
mechanism,  including  the  wheel  well  doors,  using  a  normal  landing  procedure,  if  the 
must  withstand  flight  loads,  including  loads  landing  gear  is  not  fully  extended  and  locked. 
resulting  from  all  yawing  conditions  specified  There  may  not  be  a  manual  shut­off  for  this 
in  CS 23.351,  with  the  landing  gear  extended  warning device.  The flap position sensing unit 
at  any  speed  up  to  at  least  1∙6 VS1  with  the  may  be  installed  at  any  suitable  location.    The 
flaps retracted.  system  for  this  device  may  use  any  part  of  the 
system  (including  the  aural  warning  device) 
(b)  Landing  gear  lock.  There  must  be 
for the device required in sub­paragraph (1). 
positive  means  (other  than  the  use  of  hydraulic 
pressure) to keep the landing gear extended.  (g)  Equipment  located  in  the  landing  gear 
bay.  If  the  landing  gear  bay  is  used  as  the 
(c)  Emergency  operation.  For  a  landplane 
location  for  equipment  other  than  the  landing 
having  retractable  landing  gear  that  cannot  be 
gear,  that  equipment  must  be  designed  and 
extended  manually,  there  must  be  means  to 
installed to minimise damage. 
extend the landing gear in the event of either – 
(1)  Any  reasonably  probable  failure  in 
CS 23.731  Wheels 
the normal landing gear operation system; or 
(a)  The  maximum  static  load  rating  of  each 
(2)  Any  reasonably  probable  failure  in 
wheel  may  not  be  less  than  the  corresponding 
a  power  source  that  would  prevent  the 
static ground reaction with – 
operation of the normal landing gear operation 
system.  (1)  Design maximum weight; and 
(d)  Operation  test.  The  proper  functioning  (2)  Critical centre of gravity. 
of  the  retracting  mechanism  must  be  shown  by 
(b)  The  maximum  limit  load  rating  of  each 
operation tests. 
wheel  must  equal  or  exceed  the  maximum  radial 
(e)  Position  indicator.  If  a  retractable  limit  load  determined  under  the  applicable 
landing gear is used, there must be a landing gear  ground load requirements of CS­23. 
position  indicator  (as  well  as  necessary  switches 
to actuate the indicator) or other means to inform 
CS 23.733  Tyres 
the pilot that each gear is secured in the extended 
(or  retracted)  position.  If switches are used, they  (a)  Each  landing  gear  wheel  must  have  a 
must  be  located  and  coupled  to  the  landing  gear  tyre  whose  approved  tyre  ratings  (static  and 
mechanical  system  in  a  manner  that  prevents  an  dynamic) are not exceeded – 
erroneous  indication  of  either “down and locked” 
(1)  By  a  load  on  each  main  wheel  tyre 
if  each  gear  is  not  in  the  fully  extended  position, 
(to  be  compared  to  the  static  rating  approved 
or  of  “up  and  locked”  if  each  landing  gear  is  not 
for  such  tyres)  equal  to  the  corresponding 
in the fully retracted position. 
static  ground  reaction  under  the  design 
(f)  Landing  gear  warning.  For  land­planes,  maximum weight and critical centre of gravity; 
the  following  aural  or  equally  effective  landing  and 
gear warning devices must be provided: 
(2)  By a load on nose wheel tyres (to be 
(1)  A  device  that  functions  compared  with  the  dynamic  rating  approved 
continuously  when  one  or  more  throttles  are  for such tyres) equal to the reaction obtained at 
closed  beyond  the  power  settings  normally  the  nose  wheel,  assuming  the  mass  of  the 
used  for  landing  approach  if  the  landing  gear  aeroplane  to  be  concentrated  at  the  most 
is  not  fully  extended  and  locked.    A  throttle  critical  centre  of  gravity  and  exerting  a  force 
stop  may  not  be  used  in  place  of  an  aural  of  1∙0 Mg  downward  and  0∙31 Mg  forward 
device.    If  there  is  a  manual  shut­off  for  the  (where Mg  is  the  design  maximum  weight), 
warning  device  prescribed  in  this  paragraph,  with  the  reactions  distributed  to  the  nose  and 
the  warning  system  must  be  designed  so  that,  main  wheels  by  the  principles  of  statics  and 
when  the  warning  has  been  suspended  after  with  the  drag  reaction  at  the  ground  applied 
one  or  more  throttles  are  closed,  subsequent  only at wheels with brakes.
Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–10 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(b)  If  specially  constructed  tyres  are  used,  (d)  If  anti­skid  devices  are  installed,  the 
the  wheels  must  be  plainly  and  conspicuously  devices  and  associated  systems  must  be  designed 
marked to that effect.  The markings must include  so  that  no  single  probable  malfunction  or  failure 
the make, size, number of plies and identification  will  result  in  a  hazardous  loss  of  braking  ability 
marking of the proper tyre.  or directional control of the aeroplane. 
(c)  Each  tyre  installed  on  a  retractable  (e)  In  addition,  for  commuter  category 
landing  gear  system  must,  at  the  maximum  size  aeroplanes,  the  rejected  take­off  brake  kinetic 
of  the  tyre  type  expected  in  service,  have  a  energy  capacity  rating  of  each  mainwheel  brake 
clearance  to  surrounding  structure  and  systems  assembly must not be less than the kinetic energy 
that  is  adequate  to  prevent  contact  between  the  absorption  requirements  determined  under  either 
tyre and any part of the structure or systems.  of the following methods: 
(1)  The brake kinetic energy absorption 
CS 23.735  Brakes  requirements  must  be  based  on  a  conservative 
(See AMC 23.735 (c))  rational  analysis  of  the  sequence  of  events 
expected  during  a  rejected  take­off  at  the 
(a)  Brakes  must  be  provided.    The  landing 
design take­off weight. 
brake kinetic energy capacity rating of each main 
wheel  brake  assembly  must  not  be  less  than  the  (2)  Instead  of  a  rational  analysis,  the 
kinetic  energy  absorption  requirements  kinetic  energy  absorption  requirements  for 
determined  under  either  of  the  following  each  mainwheel  brake  assembly  may  be 
methods:  derived from the following formula: 
(1)  The brake kinetic energy absorption  KE =  ½ MV 2 /N 
requirements  must  be  based  on  a  conservative 
where – 
rational  analysis  of  the  sequence  of  events 
expected  during  landing  at  the  design  landing  KE  =  Kinetic energy per wheel (Joules) 
M  =  Mass at design take­off weight (kg) 
(2)  Instead  of  a  rational  analysis,  the 
V  =  Ground  speed  in  m/s  associated  with 
kinetic  energy  absorption  requirements  for 
the maximum value of V1  selected in 
each  main  wheel  brake  assembly  may  be 
accordance with CS 23.51 (c) (1) 
derived from the following formula: 
N  =  Number of main wheels with brakes 
KE =  ½MV 2 /N 
where – 
KE  =  Kinetic energy per wheel (Joules);  CS 23.737  Skis 
M  =  Mass  at  design  landing  weight  The  maximum  limit  load  rating  for  each  ski 
(kg);  must  equal  or  exceed  the  maximum  limit  load 
determined  under  the  applicable  ground  load 
V  =  Aeroplane speed in m/s.  V must be  requirements of CS­23. 
not  less  than  VSO,  the  power  off 
stalling  speed  of  the  aeroplane  at 
sea  level,  at  the  design  landing  CS 23.745  Nose/tail­wheel steering 
weight,  and  in  the  landing  (a)  If  nose/tail­wheel  steering  is  installed,  it 
configuration; and  must be demonstrated that its use does not require 
N  =  Number  of  main  wheels  with  exceptional  pilot  skill  during  take­off  and 
brakes.  landing,  in  cross­winds  and  in  the  event  of  an 
engine  failure  or  its  use  must  be  limited  to  low 
(b)  Brakes  must  be  able  to  prevent  the  speed manoeuvring. 
wheels from rolling on a paved runway with take­  (b)  Movement  of  the  pilots  steering  control 
off  power  in  the  critical  engine,  but  need  not  must  not  interfere  with  correct  retraction  or 
prevent  movement  of  the  aeroplane  with  wheels  extension of the landing gear.
(c)  During  the  landing  distance 
determination  required  by CS 23.75,  the  pressure 
in  the  wheel  braking  system  must  not  exceed  the 
pressure specified by the brake manufacturer. 
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

CS 23.751  Main float buoyancy 
CS 23.771  Pilot compartment 
(a)  Each main float must have – 
For each pilot compartment – 
(1)  A buoyancy of 80% in excess of the 
buoyancy  required  by  that  float  to  support  its  (a)  The compartment and its equipment must 
portion of the maximum weight of the seaplane  allow  each  pilot  to  perform  his  duties  without 
or amphibian in fresh water; and  unreasonable concentration or fatigue; 
(2)  Enough watertight compartments to  (b)  Where  the  flightcrew  are  separated  from 
provide  reasonable  assurance that the seaplane  the  passengers  by  a  partition,  an  opening  or 
or amphibian will stay afloat without capsizing  openable  window  or  door  must  be  provided  to 
if  any  two  compartments  of any main float are  facilitate  communication  between  flightcrew  and 
flooded.  the passengers; and 
(b)  Each  main  float  must  contain  at  least  (c)  The  aerodynamic  controls  listed  in 
four  watertight  compartments  approximately  CS 23.779,  excluding  cables  and  control  rods, 
equal in volume.  must  be  located  with  respect  to  the  propellers  so 
that no part of the pilot or the controls lies in the 
region  between  the  plane  of  rotation  of  any 
CS 23.753  Main float design 
inboard  propeller  and  the  surface  generated  by  a 
Each  seaplane  main  float  must  meet  the  line  passing  through  the  centre  of  the  propeller 
requirements of CS 23.521.  hub  making  an  angle  of  5°  forward  or  aft  of  the 
plane of rotation of the propeller. 
CS 23.755  Hulls 
CS 23.773  Pilot compartment view 
(a)  The  hull  of a hull seaplane or amphibian 
(See AMC 23.773) 
of  680  kg  (1 500 lb)  or  more  maximum  weight 
must  have watertight compartments designed and  (a)  Each pilot compartment must be – 
arranged  so  that  the  hull,  auxiliary  floats  and 
(1)  Arranged  with  sufficiently 
tyres  (if  used),  will  keep  the  aeroplane  afloat 
extensive  clear  and  undistorted  view  to  enable 
without capsizing in fresh water when – 
the pilot to safely taxi, take­off, approach, land 
(1)  For  aeroplanes  of  2 268  kg  and  perform  any  manoeuvres  within  the 
(5 000 lb)  or  more  maximum  weight,  any  two  operating limitations of the aeroplane. 
adjacent compartments are flooded; and 
(2)  Free  from glare and reflections that 
(2) For  aeroplanes  of  680  kg  (1 500 lb)  could  interfere  with  the  pilot’s  vision. 
up  to,  but  not  including  2 268  kg  (5 000 lb)  Compliance  must  be  shown  in  all  operations 
maximum  weight,  any  single  compartment  is  for which certification is requested; and 
(3)  Designed  so  that  each  pilot  is 
(b)  Watertight  doors  in  bulkheads  may  be  protected  from  the  elements  so  that  moderate 
used for communication between compartments.  rain  conditions  do  not  unduly  impair  the 
pilot’s  view  of  the  flight  path  in  normal  flight 
and while landing. 
CS 23.757  Auxiliary floats 
(b)  Each  pilot  compartment  must  have  a 
Auxiliary floats must be arranged so that when 
means  to  either  remove  or  prevent  the  formation 
completely  submerged  in  fresh  water,  they 
of  fog  or  frost  on  an  area  of  the  internal  portion 
provide a righting movement of at least 1∙5 times 
of  the  windshield  and  side  windows  sufficiently 
the  upsetting  moment  caused  by  the  seaplane  or 
large  to  provide  the  view  specified  in  sub­ 
amphibian being tilted. 
paragraph  (a) (1)  .    Compliance  must  be  shown 
under  all  expected  external  and  internal  ambient 
operating  conditions,  unless  it  can  be  shown  that 
the  windshield  and  side  windows  can  be  easily 
cleared  by  the  pilot  without  interruption  of 
normal pilot duties.

Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–12 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

CS 23.775  Windshields and windows  (2)  A danger of fire 

(See  AMC 23.775  and 
(h)  In  addition  for  commuter  category 
AMC 23.775 (f) & (g)) 
aeroplanes, the following applies: 
(a)  The  internal  panels  of  windshields  and 
(1)  Windshield  panes  directly  in  front 
windows  must  be  constructed  of  a  nonsplintering 
of  the  pilot(s)  in  the  normal  conduct  of  their 
material, such as nonsplintering safety glass. 
duties,  and  the  supporting  structures  for  these 
(b)  The  design  of  windshields,  windows  and  panes must withstand, without penetration, the 
canopies  in  pressurised  aeroplanes  must  be  based  impact  of  a  0∙91  kg  (2  lb)  bird  when  the 
on  factors  peculiar  to  high  altitude  operation,  velocity  of  the  aeroplane  relative  to  the  bird 
including –  along  the  aeroplane’s  flight  path  is  equal  to 
the aeroplane’s maximum approach flap speed. 
(1)  The effects of continuous and cyclic 
pressurisation loadings;  (2)  The  windshield  panels  in  front  of 
the pilot(s) must be arranged so that, assuming 
(2)  The  inherent  characteristics  of  the 
the  loss  of  vision  through  any  one  panel,  one 
material used; and 
or  more  panels  remain  available  for  use  by  a 
(3)  The  effects  of  temperatures  and  pilot  seated  at  a  pilot  station  to  permit 
temperature gradients.  continued safe flight and landing. 
(c)  On  pressurised  aeroplanes,  if 
certification  for  operation  up  to  and  including  CS 23.777  Cockpit controls 
7620  m  (25 000  ft)  is  requested,  an  enclosure 
canopy  including  a  representative  part  of  the  (a)  Each cockpit control must be located and 
installation  must  be  subjected  to  special  tests  to  (except  where  its  function  is  obvious)  identified 
account  for  the  combined  effects  of  continuous  to  provide  convenient  operation  and  to  prevent 
and  cyclic  pressurisation  loadings  and  flight  confusion and inadvertent operation. 
loads,  or  compliance  with  the  fail­safe  (b)  The  controls  must  be  located  and 
requirement of sub­paragraph (d)  must be shown.  arranged  so  that  the  pilot,  when  seated,  has  full 
(d)  If  certification  for  operation  above  7620  and  unrestricted  movement  of  each  control 
m  (25 000 ft)  is  requested,  the  windshields,  without  interference  from  either  his  clothing  or 
window  panels  and  canopies  must  be  strong  the cockpit structure. 
enough to withstand the maximum cabin pressure  (c)  Powerplant controls must be located – 
differential  loads  combined  with  critical 
aerodynamic  pressure  and  temperature  effects  (1)  For twin­engined aeroplanes, on the 
after  failure  of  any  load­carrying  element  of  the  pedestal  or  overhead  at  or  near  the  centre  of 
windshield, window panel or canopy.  the cockpit; 

(e)  The  windshield  and  side  windows  (2)  For  single  and  tandem  seated 
forward  of  the  pilot’s  back  when  he  is  seated  in  single­engine  aeroplanes,  on  the  left  side 
the  normal  flight  position  must  have  a  luminous  console or instrument panel; 
transmittance value of not less than 70%  .  (3)  For  other  single­engine  aeroplanes 
at  or  near  the  centre  of  the  cockpit,  on  the 
(f)  Unless  operation  in  known  or  forecast 
pedestal, instrument panel, or overhead; and 
icing  conditions  is  prohibited  by  operating 
limitations,  a  means  must  be  provided  to  prevent  (4)  For  aeroplanes  with  side­by­side 
or  to  clear  accumulations  of  ice  from  the  pilot  seats  and  with  two  sets  of  powerplant 
windshield so that the pilot has adequate view for  controls, on left and right consoles. 
taxi,  takeoff,  approach,  landing,  and  to  perform 
(d)  The  control  location  order  from  left  to 
any  manoeuvres  within  the  operating  limitations 
right must be power (thrust) lever, propeller (rpm 
of the aeroplane. 
control)  and  mixture  control  (condition lever and 
(g)  In  the  event  of  any  probable  single  fuel  cut­off  for  turbine­powered  aeroplanes). 
failure,  a  transparency  heating  system  must  be  Power (thrust) levers must be at least 25 mm (one 
incapable  of  raising  the  temperature  of  any  inch)  higher  or  longer  to  make  them  more 
windshield  or  window  to  a  point  where  there  prominent  than  propeller  (rpm  control)  or 
would be  mixture controls. Carburettor heat or alternate air 
control  must  be  to  the  left  of  the  throttle  or  at 
(1)  Structural  failure  so  as  to 
least  20  cm  (eight  inches)  from  the  mixture 
adversely affect the integrity of the cabin; or 
control  when  located  other  than  on  a  pedestal.
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

Carburettor  heat  or  alternate  air  control,  when  (i)  Digital  controls  or  electrical 
located  on  a  pedestal  must  be  aft  or  below  the  switches must be properly labelled. 
power  (thrust)  lever.  Supercharger controls must 
(ii)  Means  must  be  provided  to 
be  located  below  or  aft  of  the  propeller  controls. 
indicate  to  the  flightcrew  the  tank  or 
Aeroplanes  with  tandem  seating  or  single­place 
function  selected.    Selector  switch 
aeroplanes  may  utilise  control  locations  on  the 
position  is  not  acceptable  as  a  means  of 
left  side  of  the  cabin  compartment;  however, 
indication.    The  “off”  or  “closed” 
location  order  from  left  to  right  must  be  power 
position must be indicated in red. 
(thrust)  lever,  propeller  (rpm  control)  and 
mixture control.  (3)  If  the  fuel  valve  selector  handle  or 
electrical  or  digital  selection  is  also  a  fuel 
(e)  Identical  powerplant  controls  for  each 
shut­off selector, the off position marking must 
engine must be located to prevent confusion as to 
be coloured red.  If a separate emergency shut­ 
the engines they control; 
off means is provided, it also must be coloured 
(1)  Conventional  twin­engine  red. 
powerplant controls must be located so that the 
left  control(s)  operates  the  left  engine  and  the 
CS 23.779  Motion  and  effect  of  cockpit 
right control(s) operates the right engine. 
(2)  On  twin­engine  aeroplanes  with 
Cockpit controls must be designed so that they 
front  and  rear  engine  locations  (tandem),  the 
operate  in  accordance  with  the  following 
left  powerplant  controls must operate the front 
movement and actuation: 
engine  and  the  right  powerplant  controls  must 
operate the rear engine.  (a)  Aerodynamic controls 
(f)  Wing  flap  and  auxiliary  lift  device  (1)  Primary 
controls must be located – 
Controls  Motion and effect 
(1)  Centrally,  or  to  the  right  of  the 
Aileron  Right  (clockwise)  for  right 
pedestal  or  powerplant  throttle  control 
wing down. 
centreline; and 
Elevator  Rearward for nose up. 
(2)  Far  enough  away  from  the  landing 
gear control to avoid confusion.  Rudder  Right  pedal  forward  for  nose 
(g)  The landing gear control must  be located 
to  the  left  of  the  throttle  centreline  or  pedestal 
(2)  Secondary 
Controls  Motion and effect 
(h)  Each  fuel  feed  selector  control  must 
comply  with  CS 23.995  and  be  located  and  Flaps (or  Forward or up for Flaps up or 
arranged  so  that  the  pilot  can  see  and  reach  it  auxiliary  auxiliary  device  stowed; 
without moving any seat or primary flight control  lift devices)  rearward  or  down  for  flaps 
when his seat is at any position in which it can be  down  or  auxiliary  device 
placed.  deployed.
(l)  For a mechanical fuel selector; 
(i)  The  indication  of  the  selected 
fuel valve position must be by means of a 
pointer  and  must  provide  positive 
identification  and  feel  (detent,  etc.,)  of 
the selected position. 
(ii)  The  position  indicator  pointer 
must  be  located  at  the  part  of  the  handle 
that  is  the  maximum  dimension  of  the 
handle  measured  from  the  centre  of 
(2)  For  electrical  or  electronic  fuel 

Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–14 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

Trim tabs  Switch  motion  or  mechanical 

(or equiva­  rotation  or  control  to  produce 
lent)  similar  rotation  of  the 
CS 23.781  Cockpit control knob shape 
aeroplane  about  an  axis 
parallel  to  the  axis  control.  (a)  Flap and landing gear control knobs must 
Axis  of  roll  trim  control  may  conform to the general shapes (but not 
be  displaced  to  accommodate  necessarily  the  exact  sizes  or  specific 
comfortable  actuation  by  the  proportions) in the following figure: 
pilot.    For  single­engined 
aeroplanes,  direction  of 
pilot’s  hand  movement  must 
be  in  the  same  sense  as 
aeroplane  response  for  rudder 
trim  if  only  a  portion  of  a 
rotational  element  is 

(b)  Powerplant and auxiliary controls 
(1)  Powerplant 
Controls  Motion and effect 
Power (thrust)  Forward  to  increase 
lever)  forward  thrust  and 
rearward  to  increase 
rearward thrust. 
(b)  Powerplant  control  knobs  must  conform 
Propellers  Forward to increase rpm.  to  the  general  shapes  (but  not 
Mixture  Forward  or  upward  for  necessarily  the  exact  sizes  of  specific 
rich.  proportions) in the following figures:

Fuel  Forward for open. 
Carburettor air  Forward  or  upward  for 
heat or  cold. 
alternate air 
Supercharger  Forward  or  upward  for 
low blower. 
Turbosuper­  Forward,  upward,  or 
chargers  clockwise  to  increase 
Rotary  Clockwise  from  off  to  full 
controls  on. 

(2)  Auxiliary 
Controls  Motion and effect 
Fuel tank  Right  for  right  tanks,  left 
selector  for left tanks. 
Landing gear  Down to extend. 
Speed brakes  Aft to extend. 

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

CS 23.783  Doors  (1)  There  must  be  a  means  to  lock  and 
(See AMC 23.783 (b))  safeguard  each  external  door,  including  cargo 
and  service  type  doors,  against  inadvertent 
(a)  Each  closed  cabin  with  passenger 
opening in flight, by persons, by cargo, or as a 
accommodations  must  have  at  least  one  adequate 
result  of  mechanical  failure  or  failure  of  a 
and easily accessible external door. 
single structural element, either during or after 
(b)  Passenger doors must not be located with  closure.
respect  to  any  propeller  disc  or  any  other 
(2)  There must be a provision for direct 
potential  hazard  so  as  to  endanger  persons  using 
visual  inspection  of  the  locking  mechanism  to 
that door. 
determine  if  the  external  door,  for  which  the 
(c)  Each  external  passenger  or  crew  door  initial  opening  movement  is  not  inward,  is 
must comply with the following requirements:  fully  closed  and  locked.    The  provisions  must 
be  discernible,  under  operating  lighting 
(1)  There  must  be  means  to  lock  and 
conditions,  by  a  crew  member  using  a 
safeguard the door against inadvertent opening 
flashlight or an equivalent lighting source. 
during  flight  by  persons,  by  cargo,  or  as  a 
result of mechanical failure.  (3)  There  must  be  a  visual  warning 
means  to  signal  a  flight­crew  member  if  the 
(2)  The door must be openable from the 
external  door  is  not  fully  closed  and  locked. 
inside  and  the  outside  when  the  internal 
The  means  must  be  designed  so  that  any 
locking mechanism is in the locked position. 
failure,  or  combination  of  failures,  that  would 
(3)  There  must  be  a  means  of  opening  result  in  an  erroneous  closed  and  locked 
which  is  simple  and  obvious  and  is  arranged  indication  is  improbable  for  doors  for  which 
and marked inside and outside so that the door  the initial opening movement is not inward. 
can  be  readily  located,  unlocked,  and  opened, 
(f)  In  addition,  for  commuter  category 
even in darkness. 
aeroplanes, the following requirements apply: 
(4)  The  door  must  meet  the  marking 
(1)  Each  passenger  entry  door  must 
requirements of CS 23.811. 
qualify  as  a  floor  level  emergency  exit.    This 
(5)  The  door  must  be  reasonably  free  exit  must  have  a  rectangular  opening  of  not 
from  jamming  as  a  result  of  fuselage  less  than  0.61  m  (24  in)  wide  by  1.22  m 
deformation in an emergency landing.  (48 in)  high,  with  corner  radii  not  greater 
than one­third the width of the exit. 
(6)  Auxiliary  locking  devices  that  are 
actuated  externally  to  the  aeroplane  may  be  (2)  If  an  integral  stair  is  installed at a 
used  but  such  devices  must  be  overridden  by  passenger  entry  door,  the  stair  must  be 
the normal internal opening means.  designed so that, when subjected to the inertia 
loads  resulting  from  the  ultimate  static  load 
(d)  In  addition,  each  external  passenger  or 
factors  in  CS  23.561(b)(2)  and  following  the 
crew  door,  for  a  commuter  category  aeroplane, 
collapse  of  one  or  more  legs  of  the  landing 
must comply with the following requirements: 
gear,  it  will  not  reduce  the  effectiveness  of 
(1)  Each  door  must  be  openable  from  emergency  egress  through  the  passenger entry 
both  the  inside  and  outside,  even  though  door. 
persons  may  be  crowded  against  the  door  on 
(g)  If  lavatory  doors  are  installed,  they  must 
the inside of the aeroplane. 
be  designed  to  preclude  an  occupant  from 
(2)  If  inward  opening  doors  are  used,  becoming  trapped  inside  the  lavatory.    If  a 
there  must  be  a  means  to  prevent  occupants  locking  mechanism  is  installed,  it  must  be 
from  crowding  against  the  door  to  the  extent  capable of being unlocked from the outside of the 
that would interfere with opening the door.  lavatory. 
(3)  Auxiliary  locking  devices  may  be 
used.  CS 23.785  Seats,  berths,  litters,  safety 
belts and shoulder harnesses 
(e)  Each  external  door  on  a  commuter 
category aeroplane, each external door forward of  There  must  be  a  seat  or  berth  for  each 
any  engine  or  propeller  on  a  normal,  utility,  or  occupant that meets the following: 
aerobatic  category  aeroplane,  and  each  door  of 
(a)  Each  seat/restraint  system  and  the 
the  pressure  vessel  on  a  pressurised  aeroplane 
supporting  structure  must  be  designed  to  support 
must comply with the following requirements: 
occupants  weighing  at  least  98  kg  (215 lb)  when
Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–16 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

subjected  to  the  maximum  load  factors  (h)  Unless  otherwise  placarded,  each  seat  in 
corresponding  to  the  specified  flight  and  ground  a  utility  or  aerobatic  category  aeroplane  must  be 
load  conditions,  as  defined  in  the  approved  designed  to  accommodate  an  occupant  wearing  a 
operating envelope of the aeroplane.  In addition,  parachute. 
these loads must be multiplied by a factor of 1∙33 
(i)  The  cabin  area  surrounding  each  seat, 
in determining the strength of all fittings and the 
including the structure, interior walls, instrument 
attachment of – 
panel,  control  wheel,  pedals,  and  seats,  within 
(1)  Each seat to the structure; and  striking  distance  of  the  occupant’s  head  or  torso 
(with  the  restraint  system  fastened)  must  be  free 
(2)  Each  safety  belt  and  shoulder 
of  potentially  injurious  objects,  sharp  edges, 
harness to the seat or structure. 
protuberances,  and  hard  surfaces.    If  energy 
(b)  Each  forward­facing  or  aft­facing  seat/  absorbing designs or devices are used to meet this 
restraint  system  in  normal,  utility,  or  aerobatic  requirement, they must protect the occupant from 
category  aeroplanes  must  consist  of  a  seat,  safety  serious  injury  when  the  occupant  is  subjected  to 
belt  and  shoulder  harness  with  a  metal­to­metal  the inertia loads resulting from the ultimate static 
latching  device  that  are  designed  to  provide  the  load  factors  prescribed  in  CS 23.561 (b) (2),  or 
occupant  protection  provisions  required  in  CS  they  must  comply  with  the  occupant  protection 
23.562.    Other  seat  orientations  must provide the  provisions  of  CS 23.562,  as  required  in  sub­ 
same  level  of  occupant  protection  as  a  forward­  paragraphs (b) and (c) . 
facing  or  aft­facing  seat  with  a  safety  belt  and 
(j)  Each  seat  track  must  be  fitted  with  stops 
shoulder harness, and must provide the protection 
to prevent the seat from sliding off the track. 
provisions of CS 23.562. 
(k)  Each  seat/restraint  system  may  use 
(c)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes  each 
design features, such as crushing or separation  of 
seat  and  the  supporting  structure  must  be 
certain  components,  to  reduce  occupant  loads 
designed  for  occupants  weighing  at  least  77  kg 
when  showing  compliance  with  the  requirements 
(170  lb)  when  subjected  to  the  inertia  loads 
of  CS 23.562;  otherwise,  the  system  must  remain 
resulting  from  the  ultimate  static  load  factors 
prescribed  in  CS 23.561 (b) (2),  and  each 
seat/restraint  system  must  be  designed  to  provide  (l)  For  the  purposes  ,  a  front  seat  is  a  seat 
the  occupant  protection  provisions  required  in  located  at  a  flight  crew  member  station  or  any 
CS 23.562;  and  each  occupant  must  be  protected  seat located alongside such a seat. 
from  serious  head  injury  when  subjected  to  the 
(m)  Each  berth,  or  provisions  for  a  litter, 
inertia  loads  resulting  from  the  emergency 
installed  parallel  to  the  longitudinal  axis  of  the 
landing  dynamic  conditions  by  a  safety  belt  and 
aeroplane,  must  be  designed  so  that  the  forward 
shoulder  harness  with  a  metal­to­metal  latching 
part  has  a  padded  end­board,  canvas  diaphragm, 
device  for  the  front  seats;  and  a  safety  belt,  or  a 
or  equivalent  means  that  can  withstand  the  load 
safety  belt  and  shoulder  harness,  for  each  seat 
reactions  from  a  98  kg  (215 lb)  occupant  when 
other than the front seats. 
subjected  to  the  inertia  loads  resulting  from  the 
(d)  Each restraint system must have a single­  ultimate  static  load  factors  of  CS 23.561 (b) (3). 
point release for occupant evacuation.  In addition – 
(e)  The  restraint  system  for  each  crew  (1)  Each  berth  or  litter  must  have  an 
member  must  allow  the  crew  member,  when  occupant  restraint  system  and  may  not  have 
seated  with  the  safety  belt  and  shoulder  harness  corners  or  other  parts  likely  to  cause  serious 
fastened,  to  perform  all  functions  necessary  for  injury  to  a  person  occupying  it  during 
flight operations.  emergency landing conditions; and 
(f)  Each  pilot  seat  must  be  designed  for  the  (2)  Occupant  restraint  system 
reactions  resulting  from  the  application  of  pilot  attachments  for  the  berth  or  litter  must 
forces to the primary flight controls as prescribed  withstand  the  inertia  loads  resulting  from  the 
in CS 23.395.  ultimate  static  load  factors  of 
CS 23.561 (b) (3). 
(g)  There  must  be  a  means  to  secure  each 
safety belt and shoulder harness, when not in use,  (n)  Proof  of  compliance  with  the  static 
to  prevent  interference  with  the  operation  of  the  strength  requirements    for  seats  and  berths 
aeroplane  and  with  rapid  occupant  egress  in  an  approved  as  part  of  the  type  design  and  for  seat 
emergency.  and berth installations may be shown by –

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(1)  Structural  analysis,  if  the  structure  (a)  When  illuminated,  be  legible  to  each 
conforms  to  conventional  aeroplane  types  for  person  seated  in  the  passenger  compartment 
which  existing  methods  of  analysis  are  known  under all probable lighting conditions; and 
to be reliable; 
(b)  Be installed so that a flight­crew member 
(2)  A  combination  of  structural  can,  when  seated  at  their  station,  turn  the 
analysis and static load tests to limit load; or  illumination on and off. 
(3)  Static load tests to ultimate loads. 
CS 23.803  Emergency evacuation 
CS 23.787  Baggage  and  cargo  (a)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes,  an 
compartments  evacuation  demonstration  must  be  conducted 
utilising  the  maximum  number  of  occupants  for 
(a)  Each  baggage  and  cargo  compartment 
which certification is desired.  The demonstration 
must – 
must  be  conducted  under  simulated  night 
(1)  Be  designed  for  its  placarded  conditions  using  only  the  emergency  exits  on  the 
maximum  weight  of  contents  and  for  the  most  critical  side  of  the  aeroplane.    The 
critical  load  distributions  at  the  appropriate  participants  must  be  representative  of  average 
maximum  load  factors  corresponding  to  the  airline  passengers  with  no  prior  practice  or 
flight and ground load conditions of CS­23.  rehearsal for the demonstration.  Evacuation must 
be completed within 90 seconds  . 
(2)  Have  means  to prevent the contents 
of  any  compartment  from  becoming  a  hazard  (b)  In  addition,  when  certification  to  the 
by shifting, and to protect any controls, wiring,  emergency  exit  provisions  of  CS  23.807(d)(4)  is 
lines, equipment, or accessories whose damage  requested,  only  the  emergency  lighting  system 
or failure would affect safe operations.  required  by  CS  23.812  may  be  used  to  provide 
cabin  interior  illumination  during  the  evacuation 
(3)  Have  a  means  to  protect  occupants 
demonstration required in sub­paragraph (a) . 
from  injury  by  the  contents  of  any 
compartment,  located  aft  of  the  occupants  and 
separated  by  structure,  when  the  ultimate  CS 23.805  Flight crew emergency exits 
forward  inertia  load  factor  is  9g and assuming 
For  aeroplanes  where  the  proximity  of  the 
the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight 
passenger  emergency  exits  to  the  flightcrew  area 
for the compartment. 
does not offer a convenient and readily accessible 
(b)  Aeroplanes  that  provide  for  baggage  or  means  of  evacuation  for  the  flightcrew,  the 
cargo  to  be  carried  in  the  same  compartment  as  following apply: 
passengers  must  have  a  means  to  protect  the 
(a)  There  must  be  either  one  emergency  exit 
occupants from injury when the baggage or  cargo 
on  each  side  of  the  aeroplane,  or  a  top  hatch 
is subjected to the inertia loads resulting from the 
emergency exit, in the flightcrew area; 
ultimate  static  load  factors  of  CS 23.561 (b) (3), 
assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo  (b)  Each  emergency  exit  must  be  located  to 
weight for the compartment.  allow  rapid  evacuation  of  the  crew  and  have  a 
size  and  shape  of  at  least  a  48­by  51  cm  (19­  by 
(c)  For  aeroplanes  that  are  used  only  for  the 
20­in) unobstructed rectangular opening; and 
carriage of cargo, the flight crew emergency exits 
must  meet  the  requirements  of  CS 23.807  under  (c)  For  each  emergency  exit  that  is  not  less 
any baggage or cargo loading conditions.  than  1∙8  metres  (6  ft)  from  the  ground,  an 
assisting  means  must  be  provided.    The  assisting 
means  may  be  a  rope  or  any  other  means 
CS 23.791  Passenger information signs 
demonstrated  to  be  suitable  for  the  purpose.    If 
For  those  aeroplanes  in  which  the  flight  crew  the  assisting  means  is  a  rope  or  an  approved 
members  can  not  observe  the  other  occupants  device equivalent to a rope, it must be­ 
seats  or  in  which  the  crew  compartment  is 
(1)  Attached  to  the  fuselage  structure 
separated  from  the  passenger  compartment,  there 
at  or  above  the  top  of  the  emergency  exit 
must be at least one illuminated sign (using either 
opening or, for a device at a pilot's emergency 
letters  or  symbols)  notifying  all  passengers  when 
exit  window,  at  another  approved  location  if 
safety  belts  must  be  fastened.    Signs  that  notify 
the  stowed  device,  or  its  attachment,  would 
when seat belts should be fastened must – 
reduce the pilot's view; and

Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–18 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(2)  Able  (with  its  attachment)  to  (6)  In  the  case  of  utility  category 
withstand a 1779 N (400 lbf) static load.  aeroplanes  certificated  for  spinning,  allow 
each  occupant  to  abandon  the  aeroplane  at  the 
highest  speed  likely  to  be  achieved  in  the 
CS 23.807  Emergency exits 
manoeuvre  for  which  the  aeroplane  is 
(a)  Number  and  location.  Emergency  exits  certificated. 
must be located to allow escape without crowding 
(c)  Tests.  The  proper  functioning  of  each 
in  any  probable  crash  attitude.    The  aeroplane 
emergency exit must be shown by tests. 
must have at least the following emergency exits: 
(d)  Doors  and  exits.    In  addition,  for 
(1)  For  all  aeroplanes  with  a  seating 
commuter  category  aeroplanes  the  following 
capacity  of  two  or  more,  excluding  aeroplanes 
requirements apply: 
with  canopies,  at  least  one  emergency  exit  on 
the  opposite  side  of  the  cabin  from  the  main  (1)  In  addition  to  the  passenger­entry 
door specified in CS 23.783.  door 
(2)  Reserved  (i)  For  an  aeroplane  with  a  total 
passenger  seating  capacity  of  15  or  fewer, 
(3)  If  the  pilot  compartment  is 
an  emergency  exit,  as  defined  in  sub­ 
separated  from  the  cabin  by  a  door  that  is 
paragraph  (b)  ,  is  required  on  each  side  of 
likely  to  block  the  pilot’s  escape  in  a  minor 
the cabin; and 
crash,  there  must  be  an  exit  in  the  pilot’s 
compartment.  The number of exits required by  (ii)  For  an  aeroplane  with  a  total 
sub­paragraph (1)    must  then  be  separately  passenger  seating  capacity  of  16  through 
determined  for  the  passenger  compartment,  19,  three  emergency  exits,  as  defined  in 
using  the  seating  capacity  of  that  sub­paragraph  (b)  ,  are  required  with  one 
compartment.  on  the  same  side  as  the  passenger  entry 
door and two on the side opposite the door. 
(4)  Emergency  exits  must  not  be 
located  with  respect  to  any  propeller  disc  or  (2)  A  means  must  be  provided  to  lock 
any  other  potential  hazard  so  as  to  endanger  each  emergency  exit  and  to  safeguard  against 
persons using that exit.  its  opening  in  flight,  either  inadvertently  by 
persons or as a result of mechanical failure.  In 
(b)  Type  and  operation.  Emergency  exits 
addition,  a  means  for  direct  visual  inspection 
must  be  movable  windows,  panels,  canopies,  or 
of  the  locking  mechanism  must  be  provided to 
external  doors,  openable  from  both  inside  and 
determine  that  each  emergency  exit  for  which 
outside  the  aeroplane,  that  provide  a  clear 
the  initial  opening  movement  is  outward  is 
unobstructed opening large enough to admit a 48­ 
fully locked. 
by­66 cm (19­by­26 in) ellipse.  Auxiliary locking 
devices  used  to  secure  the  aeroplane  must  be  (3)  Each  required  emergency  exit, 
designed  to  overridden  by  the  normal  internal  except  floor  level  exits,  must  be  located  over 
opening  means.  The  inside  handles of emergency  the  wing  or,  if  not  less  than  1.8  m  (six  feet) 
exits  which  open  outwards  must  be  adequately  from  the  ground,  must  be  provided  with  an 
protected  against  inadvertent  operation.  In  acceptable  means  to  assist  the  occupants  to 
addition, each emergency exit must –  descend  to  the  ground.    Emergency  exits  must 
be distributed as uniformly as practical, taking 
(1)  Be  readily  accessible,  requiring  no 
into account passenger seating configuration. 
exceptional agility to be used in emergencies; 
(4)  Unless  the  aeroplane  complies  with 
(2)  Have  a  method  of  opening  that  is 
sub­paragraph  (d)(1),  there  must  be  an 
simple and obvious; 
emergency  exit  on  the  side  of  the  cabin 
(3)  Be  arranged  and  marked  for  easy  opposite  the  passenger  entry  door,  provided 
location and operation, even in darkness;  that:­ 
(4)  Have  reasonable  provisions  against  (i)  For  an  aeroplane  having  a 
jamming by fuselage deformation;  passenger  seating  configuration  of  nine  or 
fewer, the emergency exit has a rectangular 
(5)  In  the  case  of  aerobatic  category 
opening  measuring  not  less  than  48  by  66 
aeroplanes,  allow  each  occupant  to  abandon 
cm (19 by 26 in) high with corner radii not 
the  aeroplane  at  any  speed  between  VSO  and 
greater than one­third the width of the exit, 
located over the wing, with a step up inside 
the  aeroplane  of  not  more  than  74  cm
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(29 in)  and  a  step  down  outside  the  illuminated  or  independently,  internally­ 
aeroplane of not more than 91 cm (36 in);  electrically  illuminated,  and  have  a  minimum 
brightness  of  at  least  0.51  cd/m 2  (160 
(ii)  For  an  aeroplane  having  a 
microlamberts).  The  colour  may  be  reversed  if 
passenger seating configuration of 10 to 19 
the  passenger  compartment  illumination  is 
passengers,  the  emergency  exit  has  a 
essentially the same. 
rectangular  opening  measuring  not  less 
than  51  cm  (20  in)  wide  by  91  cm  (36  in)  (c)  In  addition,  when  certification  to  the 
high,  with  corner  radii  not  greater  than  emergency  exit  provisions  of  CS  23.807(d)(4)  is 
one­third  the  width  of  the  exit,  and  with  a  requested, the following apply: 
step  up  inside  the  aeroplane  of  not  more 
(1)  Each  emergency  exit,  its  means  of 
than  51  cm  (20  in).    If  the  exit  is  located 
access,  and  its  means  of  opening,  must  be 
over  the  wing,  the  step  down  outside  the 
conspicuously marked; 
aeroplane  may  not  exceed  69  cm  (27  in) 
and  (2)  The  identity  and  location  of  each 
emergency  exit  must  be  recognisable  from  a 
(iii)  The  aeroplane  complies  with 
distance equal to the width of the cabin; 
the  additional  requirements  of  CS 
23.561(b)(2)(iv),  CS  23.803(b),  CS  (3)  Means  must  be  provided  to  assist 
23.811(c),  CS  23.812,  CS  23.813(b),  and  occupants  in  locating  the  emergency  exits  in 
CS 23.815.  conditions of dense smoke; 
(e)  For  twin­engined  aeroplanes,  ditching  (4)  The location of the operating handle 
emergency  exits  must  be  provided  in  accordance  and instructions for opening each emergency exit 
with  the  following  requirements,  unless  the  from  inside  the  aeroplane  must  be  shown  by 
emergency  exits  required  by sub­paragraph (a) or  marking  that  is  readable  from  a  distance  of  76 
(d) s already comply with them:  cm (30 in); 
(1)  One  exit  above  the  waterline  on  (5)  Each passenger entry door operating 
each  side  of  the  aeroplane  having  the  a handle must:­ 
dimensions  specified  in  sub­paragraph  (b)  or 
(i)  Be  self­illuminated  with  an 
(d), as applicable; and 
initial  brightness  of  at  least  0.51  micro 
(2)  If  side  exits  cannot  be  above  the  candela/m 2  (160 microlamberts); or 
waterline;  there  must  be  a  readily  accessible 
(ii)  Be  conspicuously  located  and 
overhead  hatch  emergency  exit  that  has  a 
well  illuminated  by  the  emergency  lighting 
rectangular  opening  measuring  not  less  than 
even  in  conditions  of occupant crowding at 
51 cm (20 in) wide by 91 cm (36 in) long, with 
the door; 
corner radii not greater than one­third width of 
the exit.  (6)  Each  passenger  entry  door  with  a 
locking  mechanism  that  is  released  by  rotary 
motion of the handle must be marked:­ 
CS 23.811  Emergency exit marking 
(i)  With red arrow, with a shaft of 
(a)  Each emergency exit and external door in 
at  least  three­fourths  of  25  mm  (an  inch) 
the  passenger  compartment  must  be  externally 
wide  and  a  head  twice  the  width  of  the 
marked  and  readily  identifiable  from  outside  the 
shaft, extending along at least 70 degrees of 
aeroplane by – 
arc at a radius approximately equal to three­ 
(1)  A  conspicuous  visual  identification  fourths of the handle length; 
scheme; and 
(ii)  So  that  the  centre  line  of  the 
(2)  A permanent decal  or placard on or  exit handle is within : 25 mm (one inch) of 
adjacent  to  the  emergency  exit  which  shows  the  projected  point  of  the  arrow  when  the 
the  means  of  opening  the  emergency  exit,  handle  has  reached  full  travel  and  has 
including  any  special  instructions,  if  released the locking mechanism; and 
(iii)  With  the  word  "open"  in  red 
(b)  In  addition,  for  commuter  category  letters,  25  mm  (one  inch)  high,  placed 
aeroplanes,  these  exits  and  doors  must  be  horizontally near the head of the arrow; and 
internally  marked  with  the  word  “exit”  by  a  sign 
(7)  In  addition  to  the  requirements  of 
which  has  white  letters  25  mm  (1  in)  high  on  a 
sub­paragraph (a) , the external marking of each 
red  background  51  mm  (2  in)  high,  be  self­ 
emergency exit must:­
Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–20 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(i)  Include  a  51  mm  (2­inch)  excess of 2g and a velocity change in excess 

colourband outlining the exit; and  of  1.07  m/s  (3.5  feet­per­second),  acting 
along the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane; 
(ii)  Have  a  colour  contrast  that  is 
readily  distinguishable  from  the 
surrounding  fuselage  surface.  The contrast  (3)  Any other emergency condition 
must be such that if the reflectance (i.e. the  exists  where  automatic  activation  of  the 
ratio  of  the  luminous  flux  reflected  by  a  emergency lighting is necessary to aid with 
body  to  a  luminous  flux  it  receives)  of  the  occupant evacuation. 
darker  colour  is  15  percent  or  less,  the 
(g)  The emergency lighting system must 
reflectance  of  the  lighter  colour  must  be  at 
be  capable  of  being  turned  off  and  reset  by  the 
least  45  percent.    When  the  reflectance  of 
flightcrew after automatic activation. 
the darker colour is greater than 15 percent, 
at  least  30  percent  difference  between  its  (h)  The emergency lighting system must 
reflectance and the reflectance of the lighter  provide internal lighting, including:­ 
colour must be provided. 
(1)  Illuminated  emergency  exit 
marking and locating signs including those 
CS 23.812  Emergency lighting  required in CS 23.811(b); 
When  certification  to  the  emergency  exit  (2)  Sources  of general illumination 
provisions  of  CS  23.807(d)(4)  is  requested,  the  in  the  cabin  that  provide  an  average 
following apply:  illumination  of  not  less  than  0.5  lux  (0.05 
foot­candle)  and  an  illumination  at  any 
(a)  An  emergency  lighting  system, 
point  of  not  less  than  0.1  lux  (0.01  foot­ 
independent  of  the  main  cabin  lighting  system, 
candle)  when  measured  along  the  centre 
must  be  installed.    However,  the  source  of 
line  of  the  main  passenger  aisle(s)  and  at 
general  cabin  illumination  may  be  common  to 
the seat armrest height; and 
both  emergency  and  main  lighting  system  if  the 
power supply to the emergency lighting system is  (3)  Floor  proximity  emergency 
independent  of  the  power  supply  to  the  main  escape  path  marking  that  provides 
lighting system.  emergency  evacuation  guidance  for  the 
aeroplane  occupants  when  all  sources  of 
(b)  There  must  be  a  crew  warning  light 
illuminations  more  than  1.2  m  (4  feet) 
that illuminates in the cockpit when power is on 
above  the  cabin  aisle  floor  are  totally 
in  the  aeroplane  and  the  emergency  lighting 
control device is not armed. 
(i)  The  energy  supply  to  each 
(c)  The  emergency  lights  must  be 
emergency  lighting  unit  must  provide  the 
operable  manually  from  the  flightcrew  station 
required  level  of  illumination  for  at  least  10 
and  be  provided  with  automatic  activation.   The 
minutes  at  the  critical  ambient  conditions  after 
cockpit control device must have "on," "off," and 
activation of the emergency lighting system. 
"armed"  positions  so  that,  when  armed  in  the 
cockpit,  the  lights  will  operate  by  automatic  (j)  If  rechargeable  batteries  are  used  as 
activation.  the  energy  supply  for  the  emergency  lighting 
system,  they  may  be  recharged  from  the  main 
(d)  There  must  be  a  means to safeguard 
electrical power system of the aeroplane provided 
against  inadvertent  operation  of  the  cockpit 
the  charging  circuit  is  designed  to  preclude 
control device from the "armed" or "on" position. 
inadvertent  battery  discharge  into  the  charging 
(e)  The  cockpit  control  device  must  circuit  faults.    If  the  emergency  lighting  system 
have  provisions  to  allow  the  emergency  lighting  does  not  include  a  charging  circuit,  battery 
system  to  be  armed or activated at any time that  condition monitors are required. 
it may be needed. 
(k)  Components  of  the  emergency 
(f)  When  armed,  the  emergency  lighting  system,  including  batteries,  wiring, 
lighting  system,  must  activate  and  remained  relays,  lamps,  and  switches,  must  be  capable  of 
lighted when:­  normal  operation  after  being  subjected  to  the 
inertia  forces  resulting  from  the  ultimate  load 
(1)  The  normal  electrical  power  of 
factors prescribed in CS 23.561(b)(2). 
the aeroplane is lost; or 
(l)  The emergency lighting system must 
(2)  The aeroplane is subjected to an 
be  designed  so  that  after  any  single  transverse
impact  that  results  in  a  deceleration  in 
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

vertical separation of the fuselage during a crash  CS 23.815  Width of aisle 

a)  Except  as  provided  in  sub­paragraph  (b), 
(1)  At  least  75  percent  of  all  for  commuter  category  aeroplanes,  the  width  of 
electrically  illuminated  emergency  lights  the  main  passenger  aisle  at  any  point  between 
required  by  this  paragraph  remain  seats  must  equal  or  exceed  the  values  in  the 
operative; and  following table: 
(2)  Each  electrically  illuminated 
exit  sign  required  by CS  23.811(b)  and  (c)  Minimum main passenger aisle 
remains  operative,  except  those  that  are  width 
directly  damaged  by  the  fuselage 
separation.  Number of  Less than 63 cm  63 cm (25 in) 
Passenger  (25 in) from  and more from 
Seats  floor  floor 
CS 23.813  Emergency exit access 
cm (in)  cm (in) 
(a)  For  commuter  category  aeroplanes, 
access  to  window­type  emergency  exits  may  not  10 to 19.......  23 (9)  38 (15) 
be obstructed by seats or seat backs.  b)  When  certification  to  the  emergency  exit 
(b)  In  addition,  when  certification  to  the  provisions  of  §  23.807(d)(4)  is  requested,  the 
emergency  exit  provisions  of  CS  23.807(d)(4)  is  main  passenger  aisle  width  at  any  point  between 
requested,  the  following  emergency  exit  access  the  seats  must  equal  or  exceed  the  following 
must be provided:  values: 

(1)  The  passageway  leading  from  the 

aisle  to  the  passenger  entry  door  must  be 
unobstructed and at least 51 cm (20 in) wide.  Minimum main passenger aisle 
(2)  There  must  be  enough  space  next to  width 
the  passenger  entry  door  to  allow  assistance  in  Number of  Less than 63 cm  63 cm (25 in) 
evacuation  of  passengers  without  reducing  the  Passenger  (25 in) from  and more from 
unobstructed  width  of  the  passageway  below  51  Seats  floor  floor 
cm (20 in). 
cm (in)  cm (in) 
(3)  If  it  is  necessary  to  pass  through  a 
passageway  between  passenger  compartments  to  Less than 10  30 (12)  38 (15) 
reach a required emergency exit from any seat in 
11 to 19  30 (12)  51 (20) 
the  passenger  cabin,  the  passageway  must  be 
unobstructed;  however,  curtains  may  be  used  if  A  narrower  width  not  less  than  23  cm  (9  in) 
they allow free entry through the passageway.  may  be  approved  when  substantiated  by  tests 
found necessary by the Agency. 
(4)  No  door  may  be  installed  in  any 
partition  between  passageway  compartments 
unless  that  door  has  a  means  to  latch  it  in  the  CS 23.831  Ventilation 
open position.  The latching means must be able 
(a)  Each  passenger  and  crew  compartment 
to  withstand  the  loads  imposed  upon  it  by  the 
must  be  suitably  ventilated.    Carbon  monoxide 
door  when  the  door  is  subjected  to  the  inertia 
concentration  may  not  exceed  one  part  in  20 000 
loads  resulting  from  the  ultimate  static  load 
parts of air. 
factors prescribed in CS 23.561(b)(2). 
(b)  For  pressurised  aeroplanes,  the 
(5)  If  it  is  necessary  to  pass  through  a 
ventilating  air  in  the  flight  crew  and  passenger 
door­way  separating  the  passenger  cabin  from 
compartments  must  be  free  of  harmful  or 
other  areas  to  reach  a  required  emergency  exit 
hazardous concentrations of gases and vapours in 
from  any  passenger  seat,  the  door  must  have  a 
normal  operations  and  in  the  event  of  reasonably 
means  to  latch  it  in  the  open  position.    The 
probable  failures  or  malfunctioning  of  the 
latching  means  must  be  able  to  withstand  the 
ventilating,  heating,  pressurisation,  or  other 
loads imposed upon it by the door when the door 
systems  and  equipment.    If  accumulation  of 
is subjected to the inertia loads resulting from the 
hazardous quantities of smoke in the cockpit area 
ultimate  static  load  factors  prescribed  in  CS 
is reasonably probable, smoke evacuation must be 
readily  accomplished  starting  with  full

Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–22 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

pressurisation  and  without  depressurising  beyond  (8)  A  means  to  stop  rotation  of  the 
safe limits.  compressor  or  to  divert  airflow  from  the  cabin 
if continued rotation of an engine­driven cabin 
compressor  or  continued  flow  of  any 
PRESSURISATION  compressor  bleed  air  will  create  a  hazard  if  a 
malfunction occurs. 
CS 23.841  Pressurised cabins 
CS 23.843  Pressurisation tests 
(a)  If  certification  for  operation  over  7620m 
(25 000 ft)  is  requested,  the  aeroplane  must  be  (a)  Strength  test.  The  complete  pressurised 
able  to  maintain  a  cabin  pressure  altitude  of  not  cabin,  including  doors,  windows,  canopy  and 
more  than  4572m  (15 000 ft)  in  event  of  any  valves, must be tested as a pressure vessel for the 
probable  failure  or  malfunction  in  the  pressure differential specified in CS 23.365 (d). 
pressurisation system. 
(b)  Functional  tests.  The  following 
(b)  Pressurised  cabins  must  have  at  least  the  functional tests must be performed: 
following  valves,  controls  and  indicators,  for 
(1)  Tests  of  the  functioning  and 
controlling cabin pressure. 
capacity  of  the  positive  and  negative  pressure 
(1)  Two  pressure  relief  valves  to  differential  valves  and  of  the  emergency 
automatically  limit  the  positive  pressure  release  valve,  to  simulate  the  effects  of  closed 
differential  to  a  predetermined  value  at  the  regulator valves. 
maximum  rate  of  flow  delivered  by  the 
(2)  Tests  of  the  pressurisation  system 
pressure source.  The combined capacity of the 
to show proper functioning under each possible 
relief  valves  must  be  large  enough  so  that  the 
condition  of  pressure,  temperature  and 
failure  of  any  one  valve  would  not  cause  an 
moisture,  up  to  the  maximum  altitude  for 
appreciable  rise  in  the  pressure  differential. 
which certification is requested. 
The  pressure  differential  is  positive  when  the 
internal pressure is greater than the external.  (3)  Flight  tests,  to  show  the 
performance  of  the  pressure  supply,  pressure 
(2)  Two  reverse  pressure  differential 
and  flow  regulators,  indicators  and  warning 
relief  valves  (or  their  equivalent)  to 
signals,  in  steady  and  stepped  climbs  and 
automatically  prevent  a  negative  pressure 
descents  at  rates  corresponding  to  the 
differential  that  would  damage  the  structure. 
maximum  attainable  within  the  operating 
However,  one  valve  is  enough  if  it  is  of  a 
limitations  of  the  aeroplane,  up  to  the 
design  that  reasonably  precludes  its 
maximum  altitude  for  which  certification  is 
(3)  A  means  by  which  the  pressure 
(4)  Tests  of  each  door  and  emergency 
differential can be rapidly equalised. 
exit,  to  show  that  they  operate  properly  after 
(4)  An  automatic  or  manual  regulator  being subjected  to the flight tests prescribed in 
for  controlling  the  intake  or  exhaust  airflow,  sub­paragraph (3) . 
or  both,  for  maintaining  the  required  internal 
pressure and airflow rates. 
(5)  Instruments  to  indicate  to  the  pilot 
the  pressure  differential,  the  cabin  pressure 
altitude  and  the  rate  of  change  of  cabin  CS 23.851  Fire extinguishers 
pressure altitude.  (See AMC 23.851 (c)) 
(6)  Warning  indication  at  the  pilot  (a)  There  must  be  at  least  one  hand  fire 
station  to  indicate  when  the  safe  or  pre­set  extinguisher for use in the pilot compartment that 
pressure  differential  is  exceeded  and  when  a  is  located  within  easy  access  of  the  pilot  while 
cabin  pressure  altitude of 3048m (10 000 ft) is  seated. 
(b)  There  must  be  at  least  one  hand  fire 
(7)  A  warning  placard  for  the  pilot  if  extinguisher  located  conveniently  in  the 
the  structure  is  not  designed  for  pressure  passenger compartment:­ 
differentials  up  to  the  maximum  relief  valve 
(1)  Of  each  aeroplane  accommodating 
setting in combination with landing loads. 
more than 6 passengers; and

Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(2)  Of  each  commuter  category  must  be  located  on  or  near  each  disposal 
aeroplane  receptacle door. 
(c)  For  hand  fire  extinguishers,  the  (2)  Lavatories  must  have  “No 
following apply:  Smoking”  or  “No  Smoking  in  Lavatory” 
placards  located  conspicuously  on  each  side of 
(1)  The  types  and  quantity  of  each 
the  entry  door  and  self­contained,  removable 
extinguishing  agent  used  must  be  appropriate 
ashtrays  located  conspicuously  on  or  near  the 
to  the  kinds  of  fire  likely  to  occur  where  that 
entry  side  of  each  lavatory  door,  except  that 
agent is to be used. 
one  ashtray  may  serve  more  than  one  lavatory 
(2)  Each  extinguisher  for  use  in  a  door  if  it  can  be  seen  from  the  cabin  side  of 
personnel  compartment  must  be  designed  to  each  lavatory  door  served.    The  placards  must 
minimise  the  hazard  of  toxic  gas  have  red  letters  at  least  13  mm (½ in) high on 
concentrations.  a white background at least 25 mm (1 in) high 
(a  “No  Smoking”  symbol  may  be  included  on 
the placard). 
CS 23.853  Passenger  and  crew 
compartment interiors  (3)  Materials  (including  finishes  or 
decorative  surfaces  applied  to  the  materials 
For  each  compartment  to  be  used  by  the  crew 
used  in    each    compartment    occupied  by  the 
or passengers – 
crew  or  passengers  must  meet  the  following 
(a)  The  materials  must  be  at  least  flame­  test criteria as applicable: 
(i)  Interior  ceiling  panels, 
(b)  Reserved.  interior  wall  panels,  partitions,  galley 
structure,  large  cabinet  walls,  structural 
(c)  If smoking is to be prohibited, there must 
flooring,  and  materials  used  in  the 
be  a  placard  so  stating  and  if  smoking  is  to  be 
construction  of  stowage  compartments 
allowed – 
(other  than  underseat  stowage 
(1)  There  must  be  an  adequate  number  compartments  and  compartments  for 
of self­contained, removable ashtrays; and  stowing  small  items  such  as  magazines 
and  maps)  must  be  self­extinguishing 
(2)  Where  the  crew  compartment  is 
when tested vertically in accordance with 
separated  from  the  passenger  compartment, 
the  applicable  portions  of  Appendix  F  of 
there  must  be  at  least  one  illuminated  sign 
CS­23  or  by  other  equivalent  methods. 
(using  either  letters  or  symbols)  notifying  all 
The  average  burn  length  may  not  exceed 
passengers when smoking is prohibited.  Signs 
15  cm  (6  in)  and  the  average  flame  time 
which  notify  when  smoking  is  prohibited 
after removal of the flame source may not 
must – 
exceed  15  seconds.    Drippings  from  the 
(i)  When  illuminated,  be  legible  test  specimen  may  not  continue  to  flame 
to each passenger seated in the passenger  for  more  than  an  average  of  3  seconds 
cabin  under  all  probable  lighting  after falling. 
conditions; and 
(ii)  Floor  covering,  textiles 
(ii)  Be  so  constructed  that  the  (including draperies and upholstery), seat 
crew  can  turn  the  illumination  on  and  cushions,  padding,  decorative  and  non 
off  .  decorative  coated  fabrics,  leather,  trays 
and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, 
(d)  In  addition,  for  commuter  category 
thermal  and  acoustical  insulation  and 
aeroplanes the following requirements apply: 
insulation  covering,  air  ducting,  joint 
(1)  Each disposal receptacle for towels,  and  edge  covering,  cargo  compartment 
paper,  or  waste  must  be  fully  enclosed  and  liners,  insulation  brakes,  cargo  covers 
constructed  of  at  least  fire  resistant  materials  and  transparencies,  moulded  and 
and  must  contain  fires  likely  to  occur  in  it  thermoformed  parts,  air  ducting  joints, 
under  normal  use.    The  ability  of  the  disposal  and  trim  strips  (decorative  and  chafing), 
receptacle  to  contain  those  fires  under  all  that  are  constructed  of  materials  not 
probable  conditions  of  wear,  misalignment,  covered  in  sub­paragraph  (d) (3) (iv) 
and  ventilation  expected  in  service  must  be  must  be  self  extinguishing  when  tested 
demonstrated  by  test.    A  placard  containing  vertically  in  accordance  with  the 
the  legible  words  “No  Cigarette  Disposal”  applicable portions of Appendix F of CS­
Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–24 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

23 or other approved equivalent methods.  other­wise  protected,  so  that  ignition  will  not 

The average burn length may not  exceed  occur  if  the  firewall  is  subjected  to  a  flame 
20 cm  (8 in)  and the average flame time  temperature  of  not  less  than  1 093°C  (2 000°F) 
after removal of the flame source may not  for  15 minutes.    For  self­extinguishing  materials 
exceed  15  seconds.    Drippings  from  the  (except  electrical  wire  and  cable  insulation  and 
test  specimen  may  not  continue  to  flame  small  parts  that  the  Agency  finds  would  not 
for  more  than  an  average  of  5  seconds  contribute  significantly  to  the  propagation  of  a 
after falling.  fire),  a  vertical  self­extinguishing  test  must  be 
conducted  in  accordance  with  Appendix F  of CS­ 
(iii)  Motion  picture  film  must  be 
23  or  an  equivalent  method  approved  by  the 
safety  film  meeting  the  Standard 
Agency.  The average burn length of the material 
Specifications  for  Safety  Photographic 
may  not  exceed  15  cm  (6 in)  and  the  average 
Film  PH1.25  (available  from  the 
flame time after removal of the flame source may 
American  National  Standards  Institute, 
not  exceed  15 seconds.    Drippings  from  the 
1430  Broadway,  New  York,  N.Y.  10018) 
material  test  specimen  may not continue to flame 
or  an  FAA  approved  equivalent.    If  the 
for  more  than  an  average  of  3 seconds  after 
film travels through ducts, the ducts must 
meet  the  requirements  of  sub­paragraph 
(d) (3) (ii) . 
CS 23.855  Cargo  and  baggage  compart­ 
(iv)  Acrylic  windows  and  signs, 
ment fire protection 
parts  constructed  in  whole  or  in  part  of 
elastomeric  materials,  edge­lighted  (a)  Sources  of  heat  within  each  cargo  and 
instrument  assemblies  consisting  of  two  baggage compartment  that are capable of igniting 
or  more  instruments  in  a  common  the  compartment  contents  must  be  shielded  or 
housing,  seat  belts,  shoulder  harnesses,  insulated to prevent such ignition. 
and  cargo  and  baggage  tiedown 
(b)  For normal, utility and aerobatic category 
equipment,  including  containers,  bins, 
aeroplanes, each cargo and baggage compartment 
pallets,  etc.,  used  in  passenger  or  crew 
must  be  constructed  of  materials  which  are  at 
compartments,  may  not  have  an  average 
least flame resistant. 
burn rate greater than 63 mm (2∙5 in) per 
minute  when  tested  horizontally  in  (c)  In  addition,  for  commuter  category 
accordance  with  the  applicable  portions  aeroplanes, each cargo and baggage compartment 
of  Appendix  F  of  CS­23  or  by  other  must  meet  the  provisions  of  CS 23.853 (d) (3), 
approved equivalent methods.  and either – 
(v)  Except  for  electrical  wire  (1)  Be  located  where  the  presence  of  a 
cable  insulation,  and  for  small  parts  fire would easily be discovered by a pilot while 
(such  as  knobs,  handles,  rollers,  at  his  station,  or  be  equipped  with  a  separate 
fasteners,  clips,  grommets,  rub  strips,  smoke  detector  or  fire  detector  system  to  give 
pulleys,  and  small  electrical  parts)  that  warning  at  the  pilot  station,  and  provide 
the  Agency  finds  would  not  contribute  sufficient  access  in  flight  to  enable  a  pilot  to 
significantly  to  the  propagation  of  a  fire,  reach  any  part  of  the  compartment  with  the 
materials  in  items  not  specified  in  contents of a hand­held fire extinguisher, or 
(d) (3) (i), (ii), (iii) or (iv)  may not have 
(2)  Be  equipped  with  a  separate  smoke 
a  burn  rate  greater than 10  cm (4 in) per 
detector or fire detector system to give warning 
minute  when  tested  horizontally  in 
at  the  pilot  station  and  have  floor  panels  and 
accordance  with  the  applicable  portions 
ceiling and sidewall liner panels constructed of 
of  Appendix  F  of  CS­23  or  by  other 
materials  which  have  been  tested  at  a  45° 
approved equivalent methods. 
angle  in  accordance  with  the  applicable 
(e)  Lines,  tanks,  or  equipment  containing  portions  of  Appendix  F  of  CS­23.    The  flame 
fuel,  oil,  or  other  flammable  fluids  may  not  be  must  not  penetrate  (pass  through)  the material 
installed  in  such  compartments unless adequately  during  application  of  the  flame  or  subsequent 
shielded,  isolated,  or  otherwise  protected  so  that  to  its  removal.    The  average  flame  time  after 
any breakage or failure of such an item would not  removal  of  the  flame  source  must  not  exceed 
create a hazard.  15 seconds and the average glow time must not 
exceed  10  seconds.    The compartment must be 
(f)  Aeroplane  materials  located  on  the cabin 
so  constructed as to provide fire protection not
side  of  the  firewall  must  be  self­extinguishing  or 
be located at such a distance from the firewall, or 
Amendment 1

Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

less than that required of its individual panels,  airstream  under  any  operating  condition, 

or  including  reverse  flow  or  malfunctioning  of 
the heater or its associated components; and 
(3)  Be  constructed  and  sealed  to 
contain any fire within the compartment.  (2)  No combustion air duct may restrict 
the  prompt  relief  of  any  backfire  that,  if  so 
restricted, could cause heater failure. 
CS 23.859  Combustion  heater  fire 
protection  (d)  Heater  controls:  general.  Provision 
must  be  made  to  prevent  the  hazardous 
(a)  Combustion  heater  fire  regions.  The 
accumulation  of  water  or  ice  on  or  in  any  heater 
following  combustion  heater  fire  regions  must  be 
control  component,  control  system  tubing,  or 
protected  from  fire  in  accordance  with  the 
safety control. 
applicable  provisions  of  CS 23.1182  to  23.1191 
and 23.1203:  (e)  Heater safety controls 
(1)  The  region  surrounding  the  heater,  (1)  Each  combustion  heater  must  have 
if  this  region  contains  any  flammable  fluid  the following safety controls: 
system  components  (excluding  the  heater  fuel 
(i)  Means  independent  of  the 
system) that could – 
components  for  the  normal  continuous 
(i)  Be  damaged  by  heater  control  of  air  temperature,  airflow  and 
malfunctioning; or  fuel  flow  must  be  provided  to 
automatically  shut  off  the  ignition  and 
(ii)  Allow  flammable  fluids  or 
fuel  supply  to  that  heater  at  a  point 
vapours  to  reach  the  heater  in  case  of 
remote  from  that  heater  when  any  of  the 
following occurs: 
(2)  The  region  surrounding  the  heater, 
(A)  The  heat  exchanger 
if  the  heater  fuel  system  has  fittings  that,  if 
temperature exceeds safe limits. 
they  leaked,  would  allow  fuel  vapour  to  enter 
this region.  (B)  The  ventilating  air 
temperature exceeds safe limits. 
(3)  The  part  of  the  ventilating  air 
passage  that  surrounds  the  combustion  (C)  The  combustion  airflow 
chamber.  becomes  inadequate  for  safe 
(b)  Ventilating  air  ducts.  Each  ventilating 
air  duct  passage  through  any  fire  region  must  be  (D)  The  ventilating  airflow 
fireproof. In addition –  becomes  inadequate  for  safe 
(1)  Unless  isolation  is  provided  by 
fireproof  valves  or  by  equally  effective  means,  (ii)  Means  to  warn  the  crew  when 
the  ventilating  air  duct  downstream  of  each  any  heater  whose  heat  output  is  essential 
heater  must  be  fireproof  for  a  distance  great  for  safe  operation  has  been  shut  off  by 
enough  to  ensure  that  any  fire  originating  in  the  automatic  means  prescribed  in  sub­ 
the heater can be contained in the duct; and  paragraph (i) . 
(2)  Each  part  of  any  ventilating  duct  (2)  The  means for complying with sub­ 
passing  through  any  region  having  a  paragraph (1) (i)    for  any  individual  heater 
flammable  fluid  system must be constructed or  must – 
isolated  from  that  system  so  that  the 
(i)  Be independent of components 
malfunctioning  of  any  component  of  that 
serving  any  other  heater  whose  heat 
system  cannot  introduce  flammable  fluids  or 
output  is  essential  for  safe  operations; 
vapours into the ventilating airstream. 
(c)  Combustion  air  ducts.  Each  combustion 
(ii)  Keep  the  heater  off  until 
air  duct  must  be  fireproof  for  a  distance  great 
restarted by the crew. 
enough  to  prevent  damage  from  backfiring  or 
reverse flame propagation.  In addition –  (f)  Air  intakes.  Each  combustion  and 
ventilating  air  intake  must  be  located  so  that  no 
(1)  No  combustion  air  duct may have a 
flammable  fluids  or  vapours  can  enter  the  heater 
common  opening  with  the  ventilating 
system under any operating condition – 
airstream  unless  flames  from  backfires  or 
reverse  burning  cannot  enter  the  ventilating  (1)  During normal operation; or
Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–26 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(2)  As a result of the malfunctioning of  (3)  Possible  ignition  sources,  including 

any other component.  electrical  faults,  over­heating  of  equipment 
and malfunctioning of protective devices. 
(g)  Heater  exhaust.  Heater  exhaust  systems 
must  meet  the  provisions  of  CS 23.1121  and  (4)  Means  available  for  controlling  or 
23.1123.  In addition, there must be provisions in  extinguishing  a  fire,  such  as  stopping  flow  of 
the  design  of  the  heater  exhaust  system  to  safely  fluids,  shutting  down  equipment,  fireproof 
expel  the  products  of  combustion  to  prevent  the  containment, or use of extinguishing agents. 
occurrence of – 
(5)  Ability  of  aeroplane  components 
(1)  Fuel  leakage  from  the  exhaust  to  that  are  critical  to  safely  of flight to withstand 
surrounding compartments;  fire and heat. 
(2)  Exhaust  gas  impingement  on  (c)  If  action  by  the  flightcrew  is  required  to 
surrounding equipment or structure;  prevent  or  counteract  a  fluid  fire  (e.g.  equipment 
shut­down  or  actuation  of  a  fire  extinguisher), 
(3)  Ignition  of  flammable  fluids  by  the 
quick  acting  means  must  be  provided  to  alert  the 
exhaust,  if  the  exhaust  is  in  a  compartment 
containing flammable fluid lines; and 
(d)  Each  area  where  flammable  fluids  or 
(4)  Restrictions  in  the  exhaust  system 
vapours might escape by leakage of a fluid system 
to  relieve  backfires  that,  if  so  restricted,  could 
must be identified and defined. 
cause heater failure. 
(h)  Heater  fuel  systems.  Each  heater  fuel 
CS 23.865  Fire protection of flight controls, 
system  must  meet  each  powerplant  fuel  system 
engine  mounts  and  other  flight 
requirement affecting safe heater operation.  Each 
heater  fuel  system  component  within  the 
(See AMC 23.865) 
ventilating  airstream  must  be  protected  by 
shrouds  so  that  no  leakage  from  those  Flight  controls,  engine  mounts,  and  other 
components can enter the ventilating airstream.  flight  structure  located  in  designated  fire  zones, 
or in adjacent areas that would be subjected to the 
(i)  Drains.  There  must  be  means  to  safely 
effects  of  fire  in  the  designated  fire  zones,  must 
drain  fuel  that  might  accumulate  within  the 
be constructed of fireproof material or be shielded 
combustion  chamber  of  the  heater  exchanger.  In 
so  that  they  are  capable  of  withstanding  the 
addition – 
effects  of  a  fire.  Engine  vibration  isolators  must 
(1)  Each part of any drain that operates  incorporate  suitable  features  to  ensure  that  the 
at  high  temperatures  must  be  protected  in  the  engine  is  retained if the non­fireproof portions of 
same manner as heater exhausts; and  the isolators deteriorate from the effects of a fire. 
(2)  Each  drain  must  be  protected  from 
hazardous  ice  accumulation  under  any 
operating condition. 

CS 23.863  Flammable fluid fire protection 
CS 23.867  Electrical  bonding  and 
(a)  In  each  area  where  flammable  fluids  or  protection  against  lightning 
vapours  might  escape  by  leakage  of  a  fluid  and static electricity 
system,  there  must  be  means  to  minimise  the 
(a)  The  aeroplane  must  be  protected  against 
probability  of  ignition  of  the  fluids  and  vapours 
catastrophic effects from lightning. 
and the resultant hazard if ignition does occur. 
(b)  For  metallic  components,  compliance 
(b)  Compliance with sub­paragraph (a)  must 
with sub­paragraph (a)  may be shown by – 
be  shown  by  analysis  or  tests  and  the  following 
factors must be considered:  (1)  Bonding  the  components  properly 
to the airframe; or 
(1)  Possible  sources  and  paths  of  fluid 
leakage and means of detecting leakage.  (2)  Designing the components so that a 
strike will not endanger the aeroplane. 
(2)  Flammability  characteristics  of 
fluids,  including  effects  of  any  combustible  or  (c)  For  non­metallic  components, 
absorbing materials.  compliance  with  sub­paragraph (a)    may  be 
shown by –
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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R
CS­23 BOOK 1 

(1)  Designing  the  components  to 

minimise the effect of a strike; or 
(2)  Incorporating  acceptable  means  of 
diverting  the  resulting  electrical  current  so  as 
not to endanger the aeroplane. 


CS 23.871  Levelling means 
There must be means for determining when the 
aeroplane is in a level position on the ground.

Amendment 1

01.02.01  1–D–28 
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

GENERAL CS 23.903 Engines and auxiliary power

(See AMC 23.903 (a) (1) and
CS 23.901 Installation
AMC 23.903 (f))
(a) For the purpose of CS-23, the aeroplane
(a) Each turbine engine must either –
powerplant installation includes each component
that – (1) Comply with CS E-790 and
CS E-800, or
(1) Is necessary for propulsion; and
(2) Be shown to have a foreign
(2) Affects the safety of the major object ingestion service history in similar
propulsive units. installation locations which has not
(b) Each powerplant installation must be resulted in any unsafe condition.
constructed and arranged to – (b) Turbine engine installations. For turbine
(1) Ensure safe operation to the engine installations –
maximum altitude for which approval is (1) Design precautions must be taken to
requested. minimise the hazards to the aeroplane in the
(2) Be accessible for necessary event of an engine rotor failure or of a fire
inspections and maintenance. originating inside the engine which burns
through the engine case. (See AMC 20-128A)
(c) Engine cowls and nacelles must be easily
removable or openable by the pilot to provide (2) The powerplant systems associated
adequate access to and exposure of the engine with engine control devices, systems and
compartment for pre-flight checks. instrumentation must be designed to give
reasonable assurance that those operating
(d) Each turbine engine installation must be limitations that adversely affect turbine rotor
constructed and arranged to – structural integrity will not be exceeded in
(1) Result in carcass vibration service.
characteristics that do not exceed those (c) Engine isolation. The powerplants must
established during the type certification of the be arranged and isolated from each other to allow
engine. operation, in at least one configuration, so that the
(2) Provide continued safe operation failure or malfunction of any engine, or the failure
without a hazardous loss of power or thrust or malfunction (including destruction by fire in the
while being operated in rain for at least engine compartment) of any system that can affect
3 minutes with the rate of water ingestion being an engine will not –
not less than 4% by weight, of the engine (1) Prevent the continued safe operation
induction airflow rate at the maximum installed of the remaining engines; or
power or thrust approved for take-off and at
flight idle. (2) Require immediate action by any
crew member for continued safe operation of
(e) The powerplant installation must comply the remaining engine.
with –
(d) Starting and stopping (piston engine)
(1) The installation instructions
provided under – (1) The design of the installation must
be such that risk of fire or mechanical damage
(i) The engine type certificate, to the engine or aeroplane, as a result of starting
and the engine in any conditions in which starting is
(ii) The propeller type certificate to be permitted, is reduced to a minimum. Any
or equivalent approval. techniques and associated limitations for engine
starting must be established and included in the
(2) The applicable provisions of this
aeroplane flight manual or applicable operating
placards. Means must be provided for –
(f) Each auxiliary power unit installation (i) Restarting any engine in flight,
must meet the applicable portions of CS-23. and

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CS-23 BOOK 1

(ii) Stopping any engine in flight, speed of the engines, following the in-flight shut-
after engine failure, if continued engine down of all engines, is insufficient to provide the
rotation would cause a hazard to the necessary electrical power for engine ignition, a
aeroplane. power source independent of the engine-driven
(2) In addition, for commuter category electrical power generating system must be
aeroplanes, the following apply: provided to permit in-flight engine ignition for
(i) Each component of the
stopping system on the engine side of the (h) Auxiliary power units. Each APU must
firewall that might be exposed to fire must meet the requirements of CS-APU.
be at least fire resistant.
(ii) If hydraulic propeller CS 23.904 Automatic power reserve
feathering systems are used for this system
purpose, the feathering lines must be at
least fire resistant under the operating If installed, an automatic power reserve (APR)
conditions that may be expected to exist system that automatically advances the power or
during feathering. thrust on the operating engine, when either engine
fails during take-off, must comply with Appendix
(e) Starting and stopping (turbine engine). H of CS 23.
Turbine engine installations must comply with the
CS 23.905 Propellers
(1) The design of the installation must
be such that risk of fire or mechanical damage (a) (reserved)
to the engine or the aeroplane, as a result of (b) Engine power and propeller shaft
starting the engine in any conditions in which rotational speed may not exceed the limits for
starting is to be permitted, is reduced to a which the propeller is certificated.
minimum. Any techniques and associated
limitations must be established and included in (c) Each featherable propeller must have a
the aeroplane flight manual, or applicable means to unfeather it in flight.
operating placards. (d) Each component of the propeller blade
(2) There must be means for stopping pitch control system must meet the requirements of
combustion within any engine and for stopping CS-P-210.
the rotation of any engine if continued rotation (e) All areas of the aeroplane forward of the
would cause a hazard to the aeroplane. Each pusher propeller that are likely to accumulate and
component of the engine stopping system shed ice into the propeller disc during any
located in any fire zone must be fire resistant. operating condition must be suitably protected to
If hydraulic propeller feathering systems are prevent ice formation, or it must be shown that any
used for stopping the engine, the hydraulic ice shed into the propeller disc will not create a
feathering lines or hoses must be fire resistant. hazardous condition. (See AMC 23.905 (e))
(3) It must be possible to restart any (f) Each pusher propeller must be marked so
engine in flight. Any techniques and associated that the disc is conspicuous under normal daylight
limitations must be established and included in ground conditions.
the Aeroplane Flight Manual, or applicable
operating placards. (g) If the engine exhaust gases are discharged
into the pusher propeller disc, it must be shown by
(4) It must be demonstrated in flight tests, or analysis supported by tests, that the
that when restarting engines following a false propeller is capable of continuous safe operation.
start, all fuel or vapour is discharged in such a (See AMC 23.905 (g))
way that it does not constitute a fire hazard.
(h) All engine cowlings, access doors, and
(f) Restart envelope. An altitude and other removable items must be designed to ensure
airspeed envelope must be established for the that they will not separate from the aeroplane and
aeroplane for in-flight engine restarting and each contact the pusher propeller.
installed engine must have a restart capability
within that envelope.
(g) Restart capability. For turbine engine-
powered aeroplanes, if the minimum windmilling
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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

CS 23.907 Propeller vibration (3) Airflow through the intercooler must

(See AMC 23.907 (a)) not discharge directly on any aeroplane
component (e.g. windshield) unless such
(a) Each propeller other than a conventional
discharge is shown to cause no hazard to the
fixed pitch wooden propeller must be shown to
aeroplane under all operating conditions.
have vibration stresses, in normal operating
conditions, that do not exceed values that have (e) Engine power, cooling characteristics,
been shown by the propeller manufacturer to be operating limits, and procedures affected by the
safe for continuous operation. This must be shown turbocharger system installations must be
by – evaluated. Turbocharger operating procedures and
limitations must be included in the aeroplane flight
(1) Measurement of stresses through
manual in accordance with CS 23.1581.
direct testing of the propeller;
(2) Comparison with similar
CS 23.925 Propeller clearance
installations for which these measurements have
been made; or Propeller clearances with the aeroplane at the
most adverse combination of weight and centre of
(3) Any other acceptable test method or
gravity and with the propeller in the most adverse
service experience that proves the safety of the
pitch position, may not be less than the following:
(a) Ground clearance. There must be a
(b) Proof of safe vibration characteristics for
clearance of at least 18 cm (7 in) (for each
any type of propeller, except for conventional,
aeroplane with nose wheel landing gear) or 23 cm
fixed-pitch, wood propellers must be shown where
(9 in) (for each aeroplane with tail wheel landing
gear) between each propeller and the ground with
the landing gear statically deflected and in the
CS 23.909 Turbo charger systems level, normal take-off, or taxying attitude,
(See AMC 23.909 (a) (1)) whichever is the most critical. In addition, for
each aeroplane with conventional landing gear
(a) Each turbo charger must be approved
struts using fluid or mechanical means for
under the engine type certificate or it must be
absorbing landing shocks, there must be positive
shown that the turbo charger system, while in its
clearance between the propeller and the ground in
normal engine installation and operating in the
the level take-off attitude with the critical tyre
engine environment –
completely deflated and the corresponding landing
(1) Can withstand, without defect, an gear strut bottomed. Positive clearance for
endurance test of 150 hours that meets the aeroplanes using leaf spring struts is shown with a
applicable requirements of CS-E 440, and deflection corresponding to 1·5g.
(2) Will have no adverse effect upon the (b) Aft mounted propellers. In addition to the
engine. clearance specified in sub-paragraph (a) an
aeroplane with an aft mounted propeller must be
(b) Control system malfunctions, vibrations
designed such that the propeller will not contact
and abnormal speeds and temperatures expected in
the runway surface when the aeroplane is in the
service may not damage the turbo charger
maximum pitch attitude attainable during normal
compressor or turbine.
take-off and landings.
(c) Each turbo charger case must be able to
(c) Water clearance. There must be a
contain fragments of a compressor or turbine that
clearance of at least 46 cm (18 in) between each
fails at the highest speed that is obtainable with
propeller and the water, unless compliance with
normal speed control devices in-operative.
CS 23.239 can be shown with a lesser clearance.
(d) Each intercooler installation, where
(d) Structural clearance. There must be –
provided, must comply with the following:
(1) At least 25 mm (1 in) radial
(1) The mounting provisions of the
clearance between the blade tips and the
intercooler must be designed to withstand the
aeroplane structure, plus any additional radial
loads imposed on the system;
clearance necessary to prevent harmful
(2) It must be shown that, under the vibration;
installed vibration environment, the intercooler
(2) At least 12·7 mm (½ in) longitudinal
will not fail in a manner allowing portions of
clearance between the propeller blades or cuffs
the intercooler to be ingested by the engine, and
and stationary parts of the aeroplane; and
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CS-23 BOOK 1

(3) Positive clearance between other considered if this kind of failure is extremely
rotating parts of the propeller or spinner and remote.
stationary parts of the aeroplane.
(2) Compliance with sub-paragraph
(b) (1) may be shown by failure analysis or
CS 23.929 Engine installation ice testing, or both, for propeller systems that allow
protection propeller blades to move from the flight low-
pitch position to a position that is substantially
Propellers and other components of complete
less than that at the normal flight low-pitch
engine installations must be protected against the
position. The analysis may include or be
accumulation of ice as necessary to enable
supported by the analysis made to show
satisfactory functioning without appreciable loss
compliance with the requirements of CS-P for
of thrust when operated in the icing conditions for
the propeller and associated installation
which certification is requested.
(3) For turbopropeller-powered,
CS 23.933 Reversing systems
commuter category aeroplanes the requirements
(a) For turbojet and turbofan reversing of sub-paragraph (a) (2) apply. Compliance
systems – with this paragraph must be shown by failure
analysis, testing, or both, for propeller systems
(1) Each system intended for ground
that allow the propeller blades to move from
operation only must be designed so that during
the flight low-pitch position to a position thatis
any reversal in flight the engine will produce no
substantially less than that at normal flight, low-
more than flight idle thrust. In addition, it must
pitch stop position. The analysis may include,
be shown by analysis or test, or both, that –
or be supported by, the analysis made to show
(i) Each operable reverser can be compliance for the type certification of the
restored to the forward thrust position; or propeller and associated installation
(ii) The aeroplane is capable of components.
continued safe flight and landing under
any possible position of the thrust CS 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine
reverser. thrust reverser system tests
(2) Each system intended for in-flight Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan
use must be designed so that no unsafe engines must meet the appropriate requirements of
condition will result during normal operation of CS-E 650 and CS-E 890.
the system, or from any failure (or likely
combination of failures) of the reversing
system, under any operating condition including CS 23.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting
ground operation. Failure of structural systems
elements need not be considered if the (a) Turbopropeller-powered aeroplane
probability of this kind of failure is extremely propeller-drag limiting systems must be designed
remote. so that no single failure or malfunction of any of
(3) Each system must have means to the systems during normal or emergency operation
prevent the engine from producing more than results in propeller drag in excess of that for which
idle thrust when the reversing system the aeroplane was designed under the structural
malfunctions, except that it may produce any requirements of CS-23. Failure of structural
greater thrust that is shown to allow directional elements of the drag limiting systems need not be
control to be maintained, with aerodynamic considered if the probability of this kind of failure
means alone, under the most critical reversing is extremely remote.
condition expected in operation. (b) As used in this paragraph, drag limiting
(b) For propeller reversing systems – systems include manual or automatic devices that,
when actuated after engine power loss can move
(1) Each system must be designed so the propeller blades toward the feather position to
that no single failure (or reasonably likely reduce windmilling drag to a safe level.
combination of failures) or malfunction of the
system will result in unwanted reverse thrust
under any expected operating condition. CS 23.939 Powerplant operating
Failure of structural elements need not be characteristics

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CS-23 BOOK 1

(a) Turbine engine powerplant operating 0·75cc of free water per 3.8 l (US-gallon) added
characteristics must be investigated in flight to and cooled to the most critical condition for icing
determine that no adverse characteristics (such as likely to be encountered in operation.
stall, surge, or flameout) are present, to a
hazardous degree, during normal and emergency
CS 23.953 Fuel system independence
operations within the range of operating
limitations of the aeroplane and of the engine. (a) Each fuel system for a twin-engine
aeroplane must be arranged so that, in at least one
(b) Turbocharged reciprocating engine
system configuration, the failure of any one
operating characteristics must be investigated in
component will not result in the loss of power of
flight to assure that no adverse characteristics, as a
more than one engine or require immediate action
result of an inadvertent overboost, surge, flooding,
by the pilot to prevent the loss of power of more
or vapour lock, are present during normal or
than one engine.
emergency operation of the engine(s) throughout
the range of operating limitations of both
aeroplane and engine. CS 23.954 Fuel system lightning
(c) For turbine engines, the air inlet system
must not, as a result of airflow distortion during The fuel system must be designed and arranged
normal operation, cause vibration harmful to the to prevent the ignition of fuel vapour within the
engine. system by –
(a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having a
CS 23.943 Negative acceleration high probability of stroke attachment;
No hazardous malfunction of an engine, an (b) Swept lightning strokes on areas where
auxiliary power unit approved for use in flight, or swept strokes are highly probable; and
any component or system associated with the
(c) Corona or streamering at fuel vent outlets.
powerplant or auxiliary power unit may occur
when the aeroplane is operated at the negative
accelerations within the flight envelopes CS 23.955 Fuel flow
prescribed in CS 23.333. This must be shown for
(a) General. The ability of the fuel system to
the greatest value and duration of the acceleration
provide fuel at the rates specified in this paragraph
expected in service.
and at a pressure sufficient for proper engine
operation must be shown in the attitude that is
most critical with respect to fuel feed and quantity
of unusable fuel. These conditions may be
simulated in a suitable mock-up. In addition –
CS 23.951 General
(1) The quantity of fuel in the tank may
(a) Each fuel system must be constructed and not exceed the amount established as the
arranged to ensure fuel flow at a rate and pressure unusable fuel supply for that tank under
established for proper engine and auxiliary power CS 23.959 (a) plus that necessary to show
unit functioning under each likely operating compliance with this paragraph;
condition, including any manoeuvre for which
(2) If there is a fuel flowmeter, it must
certification is requested and during which the
be blocked during the flow test and the fuel
engine or auxiliary power unit is permitted to be in
must flow through the meter or its by-pass.
(3) If there is a flowmeter without a by-
(b) Each fuel system must be arranged so
pass, it must not have any failure mode that
that –
would restrict fuel flow below the level
(1) No fuel pump can draw fuel from required in this fuel flow demonstration;
more than one tank at a time; or
(4) The fuel flow must include that flow
(2) There are means to prevent needed for vapour return flow, jet pump drive
introducing air into the system. flow and for all other purposes for which fuel is
(c) Each fuel system for a turbine engine
must be capable of sustained operation throughout (b) Gravity systems. The fuel flow rate for
its flow and pressure range with fuel initially gravity systems (main and reserve supply) must be
saturated with water at 27°C (80°F) and having
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CS-23 BOOK 1

150% of the take-off fuel consumption of the intended operation condition and manoeuvre. The
engine. conditions may be simulated in a suitable mock-
up. This flow must –
(c) Pump systems. The fuel flow rate for each
pump system (main and reserve supply) for each (1) Be shown with the aeroplane in the
reciprocating engine, must be 125% of the fuel most adverse fuel feed condition (with respect
flow required by the engine at the maximum take- to altitudes, attitudes and other conditions) that
off power approved under CS-23. is expected in operation; and
(1) This flow rate is required for each (2) For twin-engine aeroplanes,
main pump and each emergency pump, and notwithstanding the lower flow rate allowed by
must be available when the pump is operating sub-paragraph (d), be automatically uninter-
as it would during take-off; rupted with respect to any engine until all the
fuel scheduled for use by that engine has been
(2) For each hand-operated pump, this
consumed. In addition –
rate must occur at not more than 60 complete
cycles (120 single strokes) per minute. (i) For the purposes of this
paragraph, “fuel scheduled for the use by
(3) The fuel pressure, with main and
that engine” means all fuel in any tank
emergency pumps operating simultaneously, intended for use by a specific engine.
must not exceed the fuel inlet pressure limits of
the engine, unless it can be shown that no (ii) The fuel system design must
adverse effect occurs. clearly indicate the engine for which fuel
in any tank is scheduled.
(d) Auxiliary fuel systems and fuel transfer
systems. Sub-paragraphs (b), (c) and (f) apply to (iii) Compliance with this
each auxiliary and transfer system, except that – paragraph must require no pilot action
after completion of the engine starting
(1) The required fuel flow rate must be phase of operations.
established upon the basis of maximum
continuous power and engine rotational speed, (3) For single engine aeroplanes,
instead of take-off power and fuel consumption; require no pilot action after completion of the
and engine starting phase of operations unless
means are provided that unmistakenly alert the
(2) If there is a placard providing pilot to take any needed action at least five
operating instructions, a lesser flow rate may be minutes prior to the needed action; such pilot
used for transferring fuel from any auxiliary action must not cause any change in engine
tank into a larger main tank. This lesser flow operation; and such pilot action must not
rate must be adequate to maintain maximum distract pilot attention from essential flight
continuous power but the flow rate must not duties during any phase of operations for which
overfill the main tank at lower engine power. the aeroplane is approved.
(e) Multiple fuel tanks. For reciprocating
engines that are supplied with fuel from more than CS 23.957 Flow between interconnected
one tank, if engine power loss becomes apparent tanks
due to fuel depletion from the tank selected, it
must be possible after switching to any full tank, (a) It must be impossible, in a gravity feed
in level flight, to obtain 75% maximum continuous system with interconnected tank outlets, for
power on that engine in not more than – enough fuel to flow between the tanks to cause an
overflow of fuel from any tank vent under the
(1) 10 seconds for naturally aspirated conditions in CS 23.959, except that full tanks
single-engine aeroplanes; must be used.
(2) 20 seconds for turbocharged single- (b) If fuel can be pumped from one tank to
engine aeroplanes, provided that 75% maximum another in flight, the fuel tank vents and the fuel
continuous naturally aspirated power is transfer system must be designed so that no
regained within 10 seconds; or structural damage to any aeroplane component can
(3) 20 seconds for twin-engine occur because of overfilling of any tank.
(f) Turbine engine fuel systems. Each turbine CS 23.959 Unusable fuel supply
engine fuel system must provide at least 100% of (See AMC 23.959 (a))
the fuel flow required by the engine under each
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CS-23 BOOK 1

(a) The unusable fuel supply for each tank (2) For each integral tank, the pressure
must be established as not less than that quantity at developed during the maximum limit
which the first evidence of malfunctioning occurs acceleration of the aeroplane with a full tank,
under the most adverse fuel feed condition with simultaneous application of the critical
occurring under each intended operation and flight limit structural loads.
manoeuvre involving that tank. Fuel system
(3) For each non-metallic tank with
component failures need not be considered.
walls supported by the aeroplane structure and
(b) In addition, the effect on the unusable fuel constructed in an acceptable manner using
quantity as a result of a failure of any pump must acceptable basic tank material and with actual
be determined. or simulated support conditions, a pressure of
14 kPa (2 psi) for the first tank of a specific
design. The supporting structure must be
CS 23.961 Fuel system hot weather
designed for the critical loads occurring in the
flight or landing strength conditions combined
(See AMC 23.961)
with the fuel pressure loads resulting from the
Each fuel system must be free from vapour lock corresponding accelerations.
when using fuel at its critical temperature, with
(b) Each fuel tank with large, unsupported, or
respect to vapour formation, when operating the
unstiffened flat surfaces, whose failure or
airplane in all critical operating and environmental
deformation could cause fuel leakage, must be able
conditions for which approval is requested. For
to withstand the following test without leakage,
turbine fuel, the initial temperature must be 43oC –
failure or excessive deformation of the tank walls:
0o, + 2.7o (110oF, -0o, +5o) or the maximum
outside air temperature for which approval is (1) Each complete tank assembly and its
requested, whichever is more critical. support must be vibration tested while mounted
to simulate the actual installation.
CS 23.963 Fuel tanks: general (2) Except as specified in sub-
paragraph (b) (4) , the tank assembly must be
(a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand,
vibrated for 25 hours at a total displacement of
without failure, the vibration, inertia, fluid and
not less than 0·8 of a mm ( 132 in) (unless another
structural loads that it may be subjected to in
displacement is substantiated) while 2 3 filled
with water or other suitable test fluid.
(b) Each flexible fuel tank liner must be
(3) The test frequency of vibration must
shown to be suitable for the particular application.
be as follows:
(c) Each integral fuel tank must have
(i) If no frequency of vibration
adequate facilities for interior inspection and
resulting from any rpm within the normal
operating range of engine or propeller
(d) The total usable capacity of the fuel tanks speeds is critical, the test frequency of
must be enough for at least ½ hour of operation at vibration is the number of cycles per
maximum continuous power. minute obtained by multiplying the
maximum continuous propeller speed in
(e) Each fuel quantity indicator must be rpm by 0·9 for propeller-driven
adjusted, as specified in CS 23.1337 (b), to aeroplanes, except that for non-propeller
account for the unusable fuel supply determined driven aeroplanes, the test frequency of
under CS 23.959 (a). vibration is 2 000 cycles per minute.
(ii) If only one frequency of
CS 23.965 Fuel tank tests vibration resulting from any rpm within
(a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand the normal operating range of engine or
the following pressures without failure or leakage: propeller speeds is critical, that frequency
must be the test frequency.
(1) For each conventional metal tank
and non-metallic tank with walls not supported (iii) If more than one frequency of
by the aeroplane structure, a pressure of 24 kPa vibration resulting from any rpm within
(3·5 psi), or that pressure developed during the normal operating range of engine or
maximum ultimate acceleration with a full tank, propeller speeds is critical, the most
critical of these frequencies must be the
whichever is greater.
test frequency.

Amendment 1
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

(4) Under sub-paragraph (3) (ii) and not result from improper securing or loss of the
(iii) , the time of test must be adjusted to fuel filler cap.
accomplish the same number of vibration cycles
(b) Each tank compartment must be ventilated
that would be accomplished in 25 hours at the
and drained to prevent the accumulation of
frequency specified in sub-paragraph (3) (i) .
flammable fluids or vapours. Each compartment
(5) During the test, the tank assembly adjacent to a tank that is an integral part of the
must be rocked at a rate of 16 to 20 complete aeroplane structure must also be ventilated and
cycles per minute, through an angle of 15° on drained.
either side of the horizontal (30° total), about an
(c) No fuel tank may be on the engine side of
axis parallel to the axis of the fuselage, for 25
the firewall. There must be at least 13 mm (½ in)
of clearance between the fuel tank and the firewall.
(c) Each integral tank using methods of No part of the engine nacelle skin that lies
construction and sealing not previously proven to immediately behind a major air opening from the
be adequate by test data or service experience must engine compartment may act as the wall of an
be able to withstand the vibration test specified in integral tank.
sub-paragraphs (1) to (4) of paragraph (b).
(d) Each fuel tank must be isolated from
(d) Each tank with a non-metallic liner must personnel compartments by a fume-proof and fuel-
be subjected to the sloshing test outlined in sub- proof enclosure that is vented and drained to the
paragraph (5) of paragraph (b) , with the fuel at exterior of the aeroplane. The required enclosure
room temperature. In addition, a specimen liner of must sustain any personnel compartment
the same basic construction as that to be used in pressurisation loads without permanent
the aeroplane must, when installed in a suitable deformation or failure under the conditions of
test tank, withstand the sloshing test with fuel at a CS 23.365 and 23.843. A bladder type fuel cell, if
temperature of 43°C (110°F). used, must have a retaining shell at least
equivalent to a metal fuel tank in structural
CS 23.967 Fuel tank installation
(e) Fuel tanks must be designed, located and
(a) Each fuel tank must be supported so that
installed –
tank loads are not concentrated. In addition –
(1) So as to retain fuel when subjected
(1) There must be pads, if necessary, to
to the inertia loads resulting from the ultimate
prevent chafing between each tank and its
static load factors prescribed in
CS 23.561 (b) (2); and
(2) Padding must be non-absorbent or
(2) So as to retain fuel under conditions
treated to prevent the absorption of fuel;
likely to occur when an aeroplane lands on a
(3) If a flexible tank liner is used, it paved runway at a normal landing speed under
must be supported so that it is not required to each of the following conditions:
withstand fluid loads;
(i) The aeroplane in a normal
(4) Interior surfaces adjacent to the liner landing attitude and its landing gear
must be smooth and free from projections that retracted.
could cause wear, unless –
(ii) The most critical landing gear
(i) Provisions are made for leg collapsed and the other landing gear
protection of the liner at those points; or legs extended.
(ii) The construction of the liner In showing compliance with sub-
itself provides such protection. paragraph (e) (2) , the tearing away of an engine
mount must be considered unless all the engines
(5) A positive pressure must be
are installed above the wing or on the tail or
maintained within the vapour space of each
fuselage of the aeroplane.
bladder cell under all conditions of operation
except for a particular condition for which it is (3) For commuter category aeroplanes,
shown that a zero or negative pressure will not fuel tanks within the fuselage contour must be
cause the bladder cell to collapse; and able to resist rupture and be in a protected
position so that exposure of the tanks to
(6) Siphoning of fuel (other than minor
scraping action with the ground is unlikely.
spillage) or collapse of bladder fuel cells may

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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

CS 23.969 Fuel tank expansion space diameter of the fuel filler opening must be no
larger than 60 mm (2·36 in).
Each fuel tank must have an expansion space of
not less than 2% of the tank capacity, unless the (f) For aeroplanes with turbine engines, the
tank vent discharges clear of the aeroplane (in inside diameter of the fuel filler opening must be
which case no expansion space is required). It no smaller than 75 mm (2·95 in).
must be impossible to fill the expansion space
inadvertently with the aeroplane in the normal
CS 23.975 Fuel tank vents and
ground attitude.
carburettor vapour vents
(a) Each fuel tank must be vented from the
CS 23.971 Fuel tank sump
top part of the expansion space. In addition –
(a) Each fuel tank must have a drainable
(1) Each vent outlet must be located and
sump with an effective capacity, in the normal
constructed in a manner that minimises the
ground and flight attitudes, of 0·25% of the tank
possibility of its being obstructed by ice or
capacity, or 0·24 litres (0·05 Imperial
other foreign matter;
gallon/ 116 US-gallon), whichever is greater.
(2) Each vent must be constructed to
(b) Each fuel tank must allow drainage of any
prevent siphoning of fuel during normal
hazardous quantity of water from any part of the
tank to its sump with the aeroplane in the normal
ground attitude. (3) The venting capacity must allow the
rapid relief of excessive differences of pressure
(c) Each reciprocating engine fuel system
between the interior and exterior of the tank;
must have a sediment bowl or chamber that is
accessible for drainage; has a capacity of 30 cm3 (4) Airspaces of tanks with inter-
(1 oz) for every 75·7 litres (16·7 Imperial connected outlets must be inter-connected;
gallon/20 US-gallon) of fuel tank capacity; and
(5) There may be no points in any vent
each fuel tank outlet is located so that, in the
line where moisture can accumulate with the
normal flight attitude, water will drain from all
aeroplane in either the ground or level flight
parts of the tank except the sump to the sediment
attitudes unless drainage is provided .
bowl or chamber.
(6) No vent may terminate at a point
(d) Each sump, sediment bowl and sediment
where the discharge of fuel from the vent outlet
chamber drain required by sub-paragraphs (a), (b)
will constitute a fire hazard or from which
and (c) must comply with the drain provisions of
fumes may enter personnel compartments; and
CS 23.999 (b) (1) and (2).
(7) Vents must be arranged to prevent
the loss of fuel, except fuel discharged because
CS 23.973 Fuel tank filler connection
of thermal expansion, when the aeroplane is
(a) Each fuel tank filler connection must be parked in any direction on a ramp having a 1%
marked as prescribed in CS 23.1557 (c). slope.
(b) Spilled fuel must be prevented from (b) Each carburettor with vapour elimination
entering the fuel tank compartment or any part of connections and each fuel injection engine
the aeroplane other than the tank itself. employing vapour return provisions must have a
separate vent line to lead vapours back to the top
(c) Each filler cap must provide a fuel-tight
of one of the fuel tanks. If there is more than one
seal for the main filler opening. However, there
tank and it is necessary to use these tanks in a
may be small openings in the fuel tank cap for
definite sequence for any reason, the vapour vent
venting purposes or for the purpose of allowing
line must lead back to the fuel tank to be used first,
passage of a fuel gauge through the cap provided
unless the relative capacities of the tanks are such
such openings comply with the requirements of CS
that return to another tank is preferable.
23.975 (a).
(c) For aerobatic category aeroplanes,
(d) Each fuel filling point, except pressure
excessive loss of fuel during aerobatic
fuelling connection points, must have a provision
manoeuvres, including short periods of inverted
for electrically bonding the aeroplane to ground
flight, must be prevented. It must be impossible
fuelling equipment.
for fuel to siphon from the vent when normal flight
(e) For aeroplanes with engines requiring has been resumed after any aerobatic manoeuvre
gasoline as the only permissible fuel, the inside for which certification is requested.
Amendment 1
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

CS 23.977 Fuel tank outlet CS 23.991 Fuel pumps

(a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the
tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer following apply:
must –
(1) For reciprocating engine
(1) For reciprocating engine-powered installations having fuel pumps to supply fuel to
aeroplanes, have 3 to 6 meshes per cm (8 to 16 the engine, at least one pump for each engine
meshes per inch); and must be directly driven by the engine and must
meet CS 23.955. This pump is a main pump.
(2) For turbine engine-powered
aeroplanes, prevent the passage of any object (2) For turbine engine installations,
that could restrict fuel flow or damage any fuel each fuel pump required for proper engine
system component. operation, or required to meet the fuel system
requirements of this subpart (other than those in
(b) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet
sub-paragraph (b)), is a main pump. In
strainer must be at least five times the area of the
addition –
outlet line.
(i) There must be at least one
(c) The diameter of each strainer must be at
main pump for each turbine engine;
least that of the fuel tank outlet.
(ii) The power supply for the main
(d) Each strainer must be accessible for pump for each engine must be
inspection and cleaning. independent of the power supply for each
main pump for any other engine; and
CS 23.979 Pressure fuelling systems (iii) For each main pump, provision
For pressure fuelling systems, the following must be made to allow the by-pass of each
applies: positive displacement fuel pump other
than a fuel injection pump approved as
(a) Each pressure fuelling system fuel part of the engine.
manifold connection must have means to prevent
the escape of hazardous quantities of fuel from the (b) Emergency pumps. There must be an
system if the fuel entry valve fails. emergency pump immediately available to supply
fuel to the engine if any main pump (other than a
(b) An automatic shut-off means must be fuel injection pump approved as part of an engine)
provided to prevent the quantity of fuel in each fails. The power supply for each emergency pump
tank from exceeding the maximum quantity must be independent of the power supply for each
approved for that tank. This means must – corresponding main pump.
(1) Allow checking for proper shut-off (c) Warning means. If both the main pump
operation before each fuelling of the tank; and and emergency pump operate continuously, there
(2) For commuter category aeroplanes, must be a means to indicate to the appropriate
provide indication at each fuelling station, of flight-crew members a malfunction of either pump.
failure of the shut-off means to stop fuel flow at (d) Operation of any fuel pump may not
the maximum level. affect engine operation so as to create a hazard,
(c) A means must be provided to prevent regardless of the engine power or thrust setting or
damage to the fuel system in the event of failure of the functional status of any other fuel pump.
the automatic shut-off means prescribed in sub-
paragraph (b).
CS 23.993 Fuel system lines and fittings
(d) All parts of the fuel system up to the tank
which are subjected to fuelling pressures must (a) Each fuel line must be installed and
have a proof pressure of 1·33 times and an ultimate supported to prevent excessive vibration and to
pressure of at least 2·0 times, the surge pressure withstand loads due to fuel pressure and
likely to occur during fuelling. accelerated flight conditions.
(b) Each fuel line connected to components of
the aeroplane between which relative motion could
FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS exist must have provisions for flexibility.

Amendment 1
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

(c) Each flexible connection in fuel lines that for the selector to pass through the “OFF”
may be under pressure and subjected to axial position when changing from one tank to
loading must use flexible hose assemblies. another.
(d) Each flexible hose must be shown to be
suitable for the particular application. CS 23.997 Fuel strainer or filter
(e) No flexible hose that might be adversely There must be a fuel strainer or filter between
affected by exposure to high temperatures may be the fuel tank outlet and the inlet of either the fuel
used where excessive temperatures will exist metering device or an engine driven positive
during operation or after shut-down of an engine displacement pump, whichever is nearer the fuel
or auxiliary power unit. tank outlet. This fuel strainer or filter must –
(a) Be accessible for draining and cleaning
CS 23.994 Fuel system components and must incorporate a screen or element which is
easily removable;
Fuel system components in an engine nacelle or
in the fuselage must be protected from damage (b) Have a sediment trap and drain except that
which could result in spillage of enough fuel to it need not have a drain if the strainer or filter is
constitute a fire hazard as a result of a wheels-up easily removable for drain purposes;
landing on a paved runway.
(c) Be mounted so that its weight is not
supported by the connecting lines or by the inlet or
CS 23.995 Fuel valves and controls outlet connections of the strainer or filter itself,
unless adequate strength margins under all loading
(a) There must be a means to allow
conditions are provided in the lines and
appropriate flight-crew members to rapidly shut
connections; and
off, in flight, the fuel to each engine individually.
(d) Have the capacity (with respect to
(b) No shut-off valve may be on the engine
operating limitations established for the engine) to
side of any firewall. In addition, there must be
ensure that engine fuel system functioning is not
means to –
impaired, with the fuel contaminated to a degree
(1) Guard against inadvertent operation (with respect to particle size and density) that is
of each shut-off valve; and greater than that established for the engine during
its type certification.
(2) Allow appropriate flight-crew
members to reopen each valve rapidly after it (e) In addition, for commuter category
has been closed. aeroplanes, unless means are provided in the fuel
system to prevent the accumulation of ice on the
(c) Each valve and fuel system control must
filter, a means must be provided automatically to
be supported so that loads resulting from its
maintain the fuel flow if ice clogging of the filter
operation or from accelerated flight conditions are
not transmitted to the lines connected to the valve.
(d) Each valve and fuel system control must
CS 23.999 Fuel system drains
be installed so that gravity and vibration will not
affect the selected position. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow
safe drainage of the entire fuel system with the
(e) Each fuel valve handle and its connections
aeroplane in its normal ground attitude.
to the valve mechanism must have design features
that minimise the possibility of incorrect (b) Each drain required by sub-paragraph (a)
installation. and CS 23.971 must –
(f) Each valve must be constructed, or (1) Discharge clear of all parts of the
otherwise incorporate provisions, to preclude aeroplane;
incorrect assembly or connection of the valve.
(2) Have a drain valve –
(g) Fuel tank selector valves must –
(i) That has manual or automatic
(1) Require a separate and distinct means for positive locking in the closed
action to place the selector in the “OFF” position;
position; and (ii) That is readily accessible;
(2) Have the tank selector positions (iii) That can be easily opened and
located in such a manner that it is impossible closed;
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Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

(iv) That allows the fuel to be an auxiliary control independent of the main
caught for examination; jettisoning control, the system may be designed to
jettison all the fuel.
(v) That can be observed for
proper closing; and (e) For turbine engine-powered aeroplanes,
(vi) That is either located or the jettisoning system must be designed so that it
protected to prevent fuel spillage in the is not possible to jettison fuel in the tanks used for
event of a landing with landing gear take-off and landing below the level allowing
retracted. climb from sea level to 3048 m (10 000 ft) and
thereafter allowing 45 minutes cruise at a speed
for maximum range.
CS 23.1001 Fuel jettisoning system
(f) The fuel jettisoning valve must be
(a) If the design landing weight is less than designed to allow flight-crew members to close the
that permitted under the requirements of valve during any part of the jettisoning operation.
CS 23.473 (b), the aeroplane must have a fuel
jettisoning system installed that is able to jettison (g) Unless it is shown that using any means
enough fuel to bring the maximum weight down to (including flaps, slots and slats) for changing the
the design landing weight. The average rate of airflow across or around the wings does not
fuel jettisoning must be at least 1% of the adversely affect fuel jettisoning, there must be a
maximum weight per minute, except that the time placard, adjacent to the jettisoning control, to warn
required to jettison the fuel need not be less than flight-crew members against jettisoning fuel while
10 minutes. the means that change the airflow are being used.

(b) Fuel jettisoning must be demonstrated at (h) The fuel jettisoning system must be
maximum weight with flaps and landing gear up designed so that any reasonably probable single
and in – malfunction in the system will not result in a
hazardous condition due to unsymmetrical
(1) A power-off glide at 1·4 VS1; and jettisoning of, or inability to jettison, fuel.
(2) A climb, at the speed at which one-
engine in-operative en-route climb data has
been established in accordance with OIL SYSTEM
CS 23.69(b), with the critical engine inoperative
and the remaining engine at maximum CS 23.1011 General
continuous power; and (See AMC 23.1011 (b))
(3) Level flight at 1·4 VS1, if the results (a) For oil systems and components that have
of the tests in the conditions specified in sub- been approved under the engine airworthiness
paragraphs (1) and (2) show that this condition requirements and where those requirements are
could be critical. equal to or more severe than the corresponding
(c) During the flight tests prescribed in sub- requirements of subpart E of CS-23, that approval
paragraph (b) , it must be shown that – need not be duplicated. Where the requirements of
subpart E of CS-23 are more severe, substantiation
(1) The fuel jettisoning system and its must be shown to the requirements of subpart E.
operation are free from fire hazard;
(b) Each engine and auxiliary power unit
(2) The fuel discharges clear of any part must have an independent oil system that can
of the aeroplane; supply it with an appropriate quantity of oil at a
(3) Fuel or fumes do not enter any parts temperature not above that safe for continuous
of the aeroplane; and operation.

(4) The jettisoning operation does not (c) The usable oil tank capacity may not be
adversely affect the controllability of the less than the product of the endurance of the
aeroplane. aeroplane under critical operating conditions and
the maximum oil consumption of the engine under
(d) For reciprocating engine powered the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to
aeroplanes, the jettisoning system must be ensure adequate circulation and cooling.
designed so that it is not possible to jettison the
fuel in the tanks used for take-off and landing (d) For an oil system without an oil transfer
below the level allowing 45 minutes flight at 75% system, only the usable oil tank capacity may be
maximum continuous power. However, if there is considered. The amount of oil in the engine oil

Amendment 1
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

lines, the oil radiator and the feathering reserve, temperature. No oil tank outlet diameter may be
may not be considered. less than the diameter of the engine oil pump inlet.
Each oil tank used with a turbine engine must have
(e) If an oil transfer system is used and the
means to prevent entrance into the tank itself, or
transfer pump can pump some of the oil in the
into the tank outlet, of any object that might
transfer lines into the main engine oil tanks, the
obstruct the flow of oil through the system. There
amount of oil in these lines that can be pumped by
must be a shut-off valve at the outlet of each oil
the transfer pump may be included in the oil
tank used with a turbine engine, unless the external
portion of the oil system (including oil tank
supports) is fire-proof.
CS 23.1013 Oil tanks
(f) Flexible liners. Each flexible oil tank
(a) Installation. Each oil tank must be liner must be of an acceptable kind.
installed to –
(g) Each oil tank filler cap of an oil tank that
(1) Meet the requirements of is used with an engine must provide an oil tight
CS 23.967 (a) and (b); and seal.
(2) Withstand any vibration, inertia and
fluid loads expected in operation. CS 23.1015 Oil tank tests
(b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion Each oil tank must be tested under CS 23.965,
space must be provided so that – except that –
(1) Each oil tank used with a (a) The applied pressure must be 34 kPa
reciprocating engine has an expansion space of (5 psi) for the tank construction instead of the
not less than the greater of 10% of the tank pressures specified in CS 23.965 (a).
capacity or 1·9 litres (0·42 Imperial gallon/0·5
(b) For a tank with a non-metallic liner the
US-gallon) and each oil tank used with a
test fluid must be oil rather than fuel as specified
turbine engine has an expansion space of not
in CS 23.965 (d) and the slosh test on a specimen
less than 10% of the tank capacity; and
liner must be conducted with the oil at 121°C
(2) It is impossible to fill the expansion (250°F); and
space inadvertently with the aeroplane in the
(c) For pressurised tanks used with a turbine
normal ground attitude.
engine, the test pressure may not be less than
(c) Filler connection. Each oil tank filler 34 kPa (5 psi) plus the maximum operating
connection must be marked as specified in pressure of the tank.
CS 23.1557 (c). Each recessed oil tank filler
connection of an oil tank used with a turbine
CS 23.1017 Oil lines and fittings
engine, that can retain any appreciable quantity of
oil, must have provisions for fitting a drain. (a) Oil lines. Oil lines must meet CS 23.993
and must accommodate a flow of oil at a rate and
(d) Vent. Oil tanks must be vented as
pressure adequate for proper engine functioning
under any normal operating conditions.
(1) Each oil tank must be vented to the
(b) Breather lines. Breather lines must be
engine from the top part of the expansion space
arranged so that –
so that the vent connection is not covered by oil
under any normal flight condition. (1) Condensed water vapour or oil that
might freeze and obstruct the line cannot
(2) Oil tank vents must be arranged so
accumulate at any point;
that condensed water vapour that might freeze
and obstruct the line cannot accumulate at any (2) The breather discharge will not
point. constitute a fire hazard if foaming occurs, or
cause emitted oil to strike the pilot’s
(3) For aerobatic category aeroplanes,
there must be means to prevent hazardous loss
of oil during aerobatic manoeuvres, including (3) The breather does not discharge into
short periods of inverted flight. the engine air induction system;
(e) Outlet. No oil tank outlet may be (4) For aerobatic category aeroplanes,
enclosed by any screen or guard that would reduce there is no excessive loss of oil from the
the flow of oil below a safe value at any operating
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CS-23 BOOK 1

breather during aerobatic manoeuvres, (b) Have drain valves, or other closures,
including short periods of inverted flight; and employing manual or automatic shut-off means for
positive locking in the closed position; and
(5) The breather outlet is protected
against blockage by ice or foreign matter. (c) Be located or protected to prevent
inadvertent operation.
CS 23.1019 Oil strainer or filter
CS 23.1023 Oil radiators
(a) Each turbine engine installation must
incorporate an oil strainer or filter through which Each oil radiator and its supporting structures
all of the engine oil flows and which meets the must be able to withstand the vibration, inertia and
following requirements: oil pressure loads to which it would be subjected
in operation.
(1) Each oil strainer or filter that has a
by-pass must be constructed and installed so
that oil will flow at the normal rate through the
CS 23.1027 Propeller feathering system
rest of the system with the strainer or filter
completely blocked. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses
engine oil and that oil supply can become depleted
(2) The oil strainer or filter must have
due to failure of any part of the oil system, a
the capacity (with respect to operating
means must be incorporated to reserve enough oil
limitations established for the engine) to ensure
to operate the feathering system.
that engine oil system functioning is not
impaired when the oil is contaminated to a (b) The amount of reserved oil must be
degree (with respect to particle size and enough to accomplish feathering and must be
density) that is greater than that established for available only to the feathering pump.
the engine for its type certification.
(c) The ability of the system to accomplish
(3) The oil strainer or filter, unless it is feathering with the reserved oil must be shown.
installed at an oil tank outlet, must incorporate a
(d) Provision must be made to prevent sludge
means to indicate contamination before it
or other foreign matter from affecting the safe
reaches the capacity established in accordance
operation of the propeller feathering system.
with sub-paragraph (2) .
(4) The by-pass of a strainer or filter
must be constructed and installed so that the COOLING
release of collected contaminants is minimised
by appropriate location of the by-pass to ensure
CS 23.1041 General
that collected contaminants are not in the by-
pass flow path. The powerplant and auxiliary power unit
cooling provisions must maintain the temperatures
(5) An oil strainer or filter that has no
of powerplant components and engine fluids and
by-pass, except one that is installed at an oil
auxiliary power unit components and fluids
tank outlet, must have a means to connect it to
within the limits established for those components
the warning system required in
and fluids under the most adverse ground, water
CS 23.1305 (c)(9).
and flight operations to the maximum altitude and
(b) Each oil strainer or filter in a powerplant maximum ambient atmospheric temperature
installation using reciprocating engines must be conditions for which approval is requested, and
constructed and installed so that oil will flow at after normal engine and auxiliary power unit
the normal rate through the rest of the system with shutdown.
the strainer or filter element completely blocked.

CS 23.1043 Cooling tests

CS 23.1021 Oil system drains (a) General. Compliance with CS 23.1041
A drain or drains must be provided to allow safe must be shown on the basis of tests, for which the
drainage of the oil system. Each drain must – following apply:
(a) Be accessible; (1) If the tests are conducted under
ambient atmospheric temperature conditions
deviating from the maximum for which
approval is requested, the recorded powerplant
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CS-23 BOOK 1

temperatures must be corrected under sub- CS 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for
paragraphs (c) and (d) , unless a more rational turbine engine-powered
correction method is applicable. aeroplanes
(2) Corrected temperatures (a) Compliance with CS 23.1041 must be
determined under sub-paragraph (a) (1) must shown for all phases of operation. The aeroplane
not exceed established limits. must be flown in the configurations, at the speeds
and following the procedures recommended in the
(3) The fuel used during the cooling
aeroplane flight manual for the relevant stage of
tests must be of the minimum grade approved
flight, corresponding to the applicable
for the engine(s).
performance requirements, which are critical
(4) For turbocharged engines, each relative to cooling.
turbocharger must be operated through that part
(b) Temperatures must be stabilised under the
of the climb profile for which operation with
conditions from which entry is made into each
the turbocharger is requested.
stage of flight being investigated, unless the entry
(5) For reciprocating engines the condition normally is not one during which
mixture settings must be the leanest component and engine fluid temperatures would
recommended for climb. stabilise (in which case, operation through the full
entry condition must be conducted before entry
(b) Maximum ambient atmospheric tempera-
into the stage of flight being investigated in order
ture. A maximum ambient atmospheric
to allow temperatures to reach their natural levels
temperature corresponding to sea-level conditions
at the time of entry). The take-off cooling test
of at least 38°C (100°F) must be established. The
must be preceded by a period during which the
assumed temperature lapse rate is 2°C (3·6°F) per
powerplant component and engine fluid
305 m (thousand feet) of altitude above sea-level
temperatures are stabilised with the engines at
until a temperature of -56·5°C (-69·7°F) is
ground idle. (See AMC 23.1045 (b))
reached, above which altitude the temperature is
considered constant at -56·5°C (-69·7°F). (c) Cooling tests for each stage of flight must
However, for winterisation installations, the be continued until –
applicant may select a maximum ambient
(1) The component and engine fluid
atmospheric temperature corresponding to sea-
temperatures stabilise; or
level conditions of less than 38°C (100°F).
(2) The stage of flight is completed; or
(c) Correction factor (except cylinder
barrels). Temperatures of engine fluids and (3) An operating limitation is reached.
powerplant components (except cylinder barrels)
for which temperature limits are established, must CS 23.1047 Cooling test procedures for
be corrected by adding to them the difference reciprocating engine-powered
between the maximum ambient atmospheric aeroplanes
temperature for the relevant altitude for which
approval has been requested and the temperature Compliance with CS 23.1041 must be shown
of the ambient air at the time of the first for the climb (or descent, for twin-engined
occurrence of the maximum fluid or component aeroplanes with negative one-engine-inoperative
temperature recorded during the cooling test. rates of climb) stage of flight. The aeroplane must
be flown in the configurations, at the speeds and
(d) Correction factor for cylinder barrel following the procedures recommended in the
temperatures. Cylinder barrel temperatures must aeroplane flight manual, corresponding to the
be corrected by adding to them 0·7 times the applicable performance requirements, which are
difference between the maximum ambient critical relative to cooling.
atmospheric temperature for the relevant altitude
for which approval has been requested and the
temperature of the ambient air at the time of the
first occurrence of the maximum cylinder barrel LIQUID COOLING
temperature recorded during the cooling test.
CS 23.1061 Installation
(a) General. Each liquid-cooled engine must
have an independent cooling system (including
coolant tank) installed so that –

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(1) Each coolant tank is supported so (2) If flammable coolant is used, the air
that tank loads are distributed over a large part intake duct to the coolant radiator must be
of the tank surface; located so that (in case of fire) flames from the
nacelle cannot strike the radiator.
(2) There are pads or other isolation
means between the tank and its supports to (f) Drains. There must be an accessible drain
prevent chafing; and that –
(3) Pads or any other isolation means (1) Drains the entire cooling system
that is used must be non-absorbent or must be (including the coolant tank, radiator and the
treated to prevent absorption of flammable engine) when the aeroplane is in the normal
fluids; and ground attitude;
(4) No air or vapour can be trapped in (2) Discharges clear of the entire
any part of the system, except the coolant tank aeroplane; and
expansion space, during filling or during
(3) Has means to positively lock it
(b) Coolant tank. The tank capacity must be
at least 3·8 litres (0·83 Imperial gallon/1 US-
CS 23.1063 Coolant tank tests
gallon), plus 10% of the cooling system capacity.
In addition – Each coolant tank must be tested under
CS 23.965, except that –
(1) Each coolant tank must be able to
withstand the vibration, inertia and fluid loads (a) The test required by CS 23.965 (a) (1)
to which it may be subjected in operation; must be replaced with a similar test using the sum
of the pressure developed during the maximum
(2) Each coolant tank must have an
ultimate acceleration with a full tank or a pressure
expansion space of at least 10% of the total
of 24 kPa (3·5 psi), whichever is greater, plus the
cooling system capacity; and
maximum working pressure of the system; and
(3) It must be impossible to fill the
(b) For a tank with a non-metallic liner the
expansion space inadvertently with the
test fluid must be coolant rather than fuel as
aeroplane in the normal ground attitude.
specified in CS 23.965 (d) and the slosh test on a
(c) Filler connection. Each coolant tank filler specimen liner must be conducted with the coolant
connection must be marked as specified in at operating temperature.
CS 23.1557 (c). In addition –
(1) Spilled coolant must be prevented
from entering the coolant tank compartment or
any part of the aeroplane other than the tank
itself; and CS 23.1091 Air induction system
(2) Each recessed coolant filler (a) The air induction system for each engine
connection must have a drain that discharges and auxiliary power unit and their accessories
clear of the entire aeroplane. must supply the air required by that engine and
auxiliary power unit under the operating
(d) Lines and fittings. Each coolant system
conditions for which certification is requested.
line and fitting must meet the requirements of
CS 23.993, except that the inside diameter of the (b) Each reciprocating engine installation
engine coolant inlet and outlet lines may not be must have at least two separate air intake sources
less than the diameter of the corresponding engine and must meet the following:
inlet and outlet connections.
(1) Primary air intakes may open within
(e) Radiators. Each coolant radiator must be the cowling if that part of the cowling is
able to withstand any vibration, inertia and coolant isolated from the engine accessory section by a
pressure load to which it may normally be fire-resistant diaphragm or if there are means to
subjected. In addition – prevent the emergence of backfire flames.
(1) Each radiator must be supported to (2) Each alternate air intake must be
allow expansion due to operating temperatures located in a sheltered position and may not open
and prevent the transmittal of harmful vibration within the cowling if the emergence of backfire
to the radiator; and flames will result in a hazard.

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(3) The supplying of air to the engine (ii) 22°C (40°F), if a fluid de-icing
through the alternate air intake system may not system meeting the requirements of
result in a loss of excessive power in addition to CS 23.1095 to 23.1099 is installed;
the power loss due to the rise in air temperature.
(4) Each single-engine aeroplane with a
(4) Each automatic alternate air door sea-level engine using a carburettor tending to
must have an override means accessible to the prevent icing has a sheltered alternate source of
flight crew. air with a preheat of not less than that provided
by the engine cooling air downstream of the
(5) Each automatic alternate air door
cylinders; and
must have a means to indicate to the flight crew
when it is not closed. (5) Each twin-engined aeroplane with
sea-level engines using a carburettor tending to
(c) For turbine engine-powered aeroplanes –
prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a
(1) There must be means to prevent heat rise of 50°C (90°F) with the engines at
hazardous quantities of fuel leakage or overflow 75% of maximum continuous power.
from drains, vents or other components of
(6) Each aeroplane with sea level or
flammable fluid systems from entering the
altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems
engine or auxiliary power unit and their
not having fuel metering components projecting
accessories intake system; and
into the airstream on which ice may form, and
(2) The aeroplane must be designed to introducing fuel into the air induction system
prevent water or slush on the runway, taxi way, downstream of any components or other
or other airport operating surfaces from being obstruction on which ice produced by fuel
directed into the engine or auxiliary power unit evapouration may form, has a sheltered
air intake ducts in hazardous quantities, and the alternate source of air with a preheat of not less
air intake ducts must be located or protected so than 16ºC (60ºF) with the engines at 75 percent
as to minimise the ingestion of foreign matter of its maximum continuous power.
during take-off, landing and taxying.
(b) Turbine engines
(1) Each turbine engine and its air inlet
CS 23.1093 Induction system icing
system must operate throughout the flight
power range of the engine (including idling),
(a) Reciprocating engines. Each without the accumulation of ice on engine or
reciprocating engine air induction system must inlet system components that would adversely
have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless affect engine operation or cause a serious loss
this is done by other means, it must be shown that, of power or thrust –
in air free of visible moisture at a temperature of
(i) Under the icing conditions
-1°C (30°F) –
specified in CS-Definitions; and
(1) Each aeroplane with sea-level (ii) In snow, both falling and
engines using conventional venturi carburettors blowing, within the limitations established
has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of for the aeroplane for such operation.
50°C (90°F) with the engines at 75% of
maximum continuous power; (2) Each turbine engine must idle for 30
minutes on the ground, with the air bleed
(2) Each aeroplane with altitude engines available for engine icing protection at its
using conventional venturi carburettors has a critical condition, without adverse effect, in an
preheater that can provide a heat rise of 67°C atmosphere that is at a temperature between -9°
(120°F) with the engines at 75% of maximum and -1°C (between 15° and 30°F) and has a
continuous power; liquid water content not less than 0·3 grams per
(3) Each aeroplane with altitude engines cubic metre in the form of drops having a mean
using carburettors tending to prevent icing has a effective diameter not less than 20 microns,
preheater that, with the engines at 60% of maxi- followed by momentary operation at take-off
mum continuous power, can provide a heat rise power or thrust. During the 30 minutes of idle
of – operation, the engine may be run up
periodically to a moderate power or thrust
(i) 56°C (100°F); or setting in a manner acceptable to the Agency.
(c) Reciprocating engines with
superchargers. For aeroplanes with reciprocating
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engines having superchargers to pressurise the air CS 23.1101 Induction air preheater design
before it enters the carburettor, the heat rise in the
Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater
air caused by that supercharging at any altitude
must be designed and constructed to –
may be utilised in determining compliance with
sub-paragraph (a) if the heat rise utilised is that (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when
which will be available, automatically, for the the induction air preheater is not being used during
applicable altitudes and operating condition engine operation.
because of supercharging.
(b) Allow inspection of the exhaust manifold
parts that it surrounds; and
CS 23.1095 Carburettor de-icing fluid flow
(c) Allow inspection of critical parts of the
preheater itself.
(a) If a carburettor de-icing fluid system is
used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each
CS 23.1103 Induction system ducts
engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed in
pounds per hour, of not less than 2·5 times the (a) Each induction system duct must have a
square root of the maximum continuous power of drain to prevent the accumulation of fuel or
the engine. moisture in the normal ground and flight attitudes.
No drain may discharge where it will cause a fire
(b) The fluid must be introduced into the air
induction system –
(b) Each duct connected to components
(1) Close to, and upstream of, the
between which relative motion could exist must
carburettor; and
have means for flexibility.
(2) So that it is equally distributed over
(c) Each flexible induction system duct must
the entire cross section of the induction system
be capable of withstanding the effects of
air passages.
temperature extremes, fuel, oil, water, and solvents
to which it is expected to be exposed in service
CS 23.1097 Carburettor de-icing fluid and maintenance without hazardous deterioration
system capacity or delamination.
(a) The capacity of each carburettor de-icing (d) For reciprocating engine installations,
fluid system – each induction system duct must be:-
(1) May not be less than the greater of – (1) Strong enough to prevent induction
system failures resulting from normal backfire
(i) That required to provide fluid
at the rate specified in CS 23.1095 for a conditions; and
time equal to 3% of the maximum (2) Fire resistant in any compartment
endurance of the aeroplane; or for which a fire extinguishing system is
(ii) 20 minutes at that flow rate; required.
and (e) Each inlet system duct for an auxiliary
(2) Need not exceed that required for power unit must be:-
two hours of operation. (1) Fireproof within the auxiliary power
(b) If the available preheat exceeds 28°C unit compartment;
(50°F) but is less than 56°C (100°F), the capacity (2) Fireproof for a sufficient distance
of the system may be decreased in proportion to upstream of the auxiliary power unit
the heat rise available in excess of 28°C (50°F). compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow
from burning through the duct and entering any
other compartment of the aeroplane in which a
CS 23.1099 Carburettor de-icing fluid hazard would be created by the entry of the hot
system detail design gases;
Each carburettor de-icing fluid system must (3) Constructed of materials suitable to
meet the applicable requirements for the design of the environmental conditions expected in
a fuel system, except as specified in CS 23.1095 service, except in those areas requiring
and 23.1097. fireproof or fire resistant materials; and

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(4) Constructed of materials that will (b) The turbocharger supply air must be taken
not absorb or trap hazardous quantities of from a source where it cannot be contaminated by
flammable fluids that could be ignited by a harmful or hazardous gases or vapours following
surge or reverse-flow condition. any probable failure or malfunction of the engine
exhaust, hydraulic, fuel, or oil system.
(f) Induction system ducts that supply air to a
cabin pressurisation system must be suitably
constructed of material that will not produce CS 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air
hazardous quantities of toxic gases or isolated to system
prevent hazardous quantities of toxic gases from
For turbine engine bleed air systems, the
entering the cabin during a powerplant fire.
following applies:
(a) No hazard may result if duct rupture or
CS 23.1105 Induction system screens
failure occurs anywhere between the engine port
If induction system screens are used on and the aeroplane unit served by the bleed air.
reciprocating engines –
(b) The effect on aeroplane and engine
(a) Each screen must be upstream of the performance of using maximum bleed air must be
carburettor or fuel injection system; established.
(b) No screen may be in any part of the (c) Hazardous contamination of cabin air
induction system that is the only passage through systems may not result from failures of the engine
which air can reach the engine, unless – lubricating system.
(1) The available preheat is at least
56°C (100°F); and
(2) The screen can be de-iced by heated
CS 23.1121 General
(c) No screen may be de-iced by alcohol
For powerplant and auxiliary power unit
alone; and
installations, the following applies:
(d) It must be impossible for fuel to strike any
(a) Each exhaust system must ensure safe
disposal of exhaust gases without fire hazard or
carbon monoxide contamination in any personnel
CS 23.1107 Induction system filters compartment.
On reciprocating-engine installations, if an air (b) Each exhaust system part with a surface
filter is used to protect the engine against foreign hot enough to ignite flammable fluids or vapours
material particles in the induction air supply-- must be located or shielded so that leakage from
any system carrying flammable fluids or vapours
(a) Each air filter must be capable of
will not result in a fire caused by impingement of
withstanding the effects of temperature extremes,
the fluids or vapours on any part of the exhaust
rain, fuel, oil, and solvents to which it is expected
system including shields for the exhaust system.
to be exposed in service and maintenance; and
(c) Each exhaust system must be separated by
(b) Each air filter must have a design feature
fireproof shields from adjacent flammable parts of
to prevent material separated from the filter media
the aeroplane that are outside of the engine and
from interfering with proper fuel metering
auxiliary power unit compartment.
(d) No exhaust gases may discharge
dangerously near any fuel or oil system drain.
CS 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air
system (e) No exhaust gases may be discharged
where they will cause a glare seriously affecting
The following applies to turbocharged bleed air
pilot vision at night.
systems used for cabin pressurisation:
(f) Each exhaust system component must be
(a) The cabin air system may not be subject
ventilated to prevent points of excessively high
to hazardous contamination following any
probable failure of the turbocharger or its
lubrication system. (g) If significant traps exist, each turbine
engine and auxiliary power unit exhaust system
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must have drains discharging clear of the (a) Powerplant controls must be located and
aeroplane, in any normal ground and flight arranged under CS 23.777 and marked under
attitude, to prevent fuel accumulation after the CS 23.1555 (a).
failure of an attempted engine or auxiliary power
(b) Each flexible control must be shown to be
unit start.
suitable for the particular application.
(h) Each exhaust heat exchanger must
(c) Each control must be able to maintain any
incorporate means to prevent blockage of the
necessary position without –
exhaust port after any internal heat exchanger
failure. (1) Constant attention by flight-crew
members; or
(i) For the purposes of compliance with
CS 23.603 the failure of any part of the exhaust (2) Tendency to creep due to control
system will adversely affect safety. loads or vibration.
(d) Each control must be able to withstand
CS 23.1123 Exhaust system operating loads without failure or excessive
(a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof
and corrosion-resistant and must have means to (e) For turbine engine-powered aeroplanes,
prevent failure due to expansion by operating no single failure or malfunction, or probable
temperatures. combination thereof, in any powerplant control
system may cause the failure of any powerplant
(b) Each exhaust system must be supported to
function necessary for safety.
withstand the vibration and inertia loads to which
it may be subjected in operation. (f) The portion of each powerplant control
located in the engine compartment that is required
(c) Parts of the system connected to
to be operated in the event of fire must be at least
components between which relative motion could
fire resistant.
exist must have means for flexibility.
(g) Powerplant valve controls located in the
cockpit must have –
CS 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers
(1) For manual valves, positive stops or
For reciprocating engine-powered aeroplanes
in the case of fuel valves suitable index
the following applies:
provisions, in the open and closed position; and
(a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be
(2) For power-assisted valves, a means
constructed and installed to withstand the
to indicate to the flight crew when the valve –
vibration, inertia and other loads that it may be
subjected to in normal operation. In addition – (i) Is in the fully open or fully
closed position; or
(1) Each exchanger must be suitable for
continued operation at high temperatures and (ii) Is moving between the fully
resistant to corrosion from exhaust gases; open and fully closed position.
(2) There must be means for inspection
of critical parts of each exchanger; and CS 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls
(3) Each exchanger must have cooling Means must be provided on the flight deck for
provisions wherever it is subject to contact with the starting, stopping, monitoring, and emergency
exhaust gases. shutdown of each installed auxiliary power unit.
(b) Each heat exchanger used for heating
ventilating air must be constructed so that exhaust CS 23.1143 Engine controls
gases may not enter the ventilating air. (See AMC 23.1143 (g))
(a) There must be a separate power or thrust
control for each engine and a separate control for
POWERPLANT CONTROLS AND each supercharger that requires a control.
(b) Power, thrust and supercharger controls
must be arranged to allow –
CS 23.1141 Powerplant controls: general
(See AMC 23.1041 (g) (2)) (1) Separate control of each engine and
each supercharger; and
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(2) Simultaneous control of all engines (1) The controls must be grouped and
and all superchargers. arranged to allow –
(c) Each power, thrust or supercharger (i) Separate control of each
control must give a positive and immediate engine; and
responsive means of controlling its engine or
(ii) Simultaneous control of all
supercharger. engines.
(d) The power, thrust or supercharger (2) The control must require a separate
controls for each engine or supercharger must be and distinct operation to move the control
independent of those for every other engine or towards lean or shut-off position.
(b) Each manual engine mixture control
(e) For each fluid injection (other than fuel) must be designed so that, if the control separates at
system and its controls not provided as part of the the engine fuel metering device, the aeroplane is
engine, it must be shown that the flow of the capable of continuing safe flight.
injection fluid is adequately controlled.
(f) If a power or thrust control, or a fuel CS 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch
control (other then a mixture control) incorporates controls
a fuel shut-off feature, the control must have a
means to prevent the inadvertent movement of the (a) If there are propeller speed or pitch
control into the shut-off position. The means controls, they must be grouped and arranged to
must – allow –
(1) Have a positive lock or stop at the (1) Separate control of each propeller;
idle position; and and
(2) Require a separate and distinct (2) Simultaneous control of all
operation to place the control in the shut-off propellers.
position. (b) The controls must allow ready
(g) For reciprocating single-engine synchronisation of all propellers on twin-engine
aeroplanes, each power or thrust control must be aeroplanes.
designed so that if the control separates at the
engine fuel metering device, the aeroplane is CS 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls
capable of continuing safe flight.
If there are propeller feathering controls
installed, it must be possible to feather each
CS 23.1145 Ignition switches propeller separately. Each control must have
(a) Ignition switches must control and shut means to prevent inadvertent operation.
off each ignition circuit on each engine.
(b) There must be means to quickly shut off CS 23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust
all ignition on twin-engine aeroplanes by the and propeller pitch settings
groupings of switches or by a master ignition below the flight regime
control. For turbine engine installations, each control for
(c) Each group of ignition switches, except reverse thrust and for propeller pitch settings
ignition switches for turbine engines for which below the flight regime must have means to
continuous ignition is not required, and each prevent its inadvertent operation. The means must
master ignition control must have a means to have a positive lock or stop at the flight idle
prevent its inadvertent operation. position and must require a separate and distinct
operation by the crew to displace the control from
the flight regime (forward thrust regime for
CS 23.1147 Mixture controls turbojet powered aeroplanes).
(See AMC 23.1147 (b))
(a) If there are mixture controls, each engine CS 23.1157 Carburettor air temperature
must have a separate control and each mixture controls
control must have guards or must be shaped or
arranged to prevent confusion by feel with other There must be a separate carburettor air
controls. temperature control for each engine.

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CS 23.1163 Powerplant accessories (1) The condition of an inoperative

(a) Each engine mounted accessory must –
(2) The condition of a completely
(1) Be approved for mounting on the
depleted battery with the generator running at
engine involved and use the provisions on the
its normal operating speed; and
engines for mounting; or
(3) The condition of a completely
(2) Have torque limiting means on all
depleted battery with the generator operating at
accessory drives in order to prevent the torque
idling speed if there is only one battery.
limits established for those drives from being
exceeded; and (d) There must be means to warn appropriate
crew members if malfunctioning of any part of the
(3) In addition to sub-paragraphs
electrical system is causing the continuous
(a) (1) or (a) (2) , be sealed to prevent
discharge of any battery used for engine ignition.
contamination of the engine oil system and the
accessory system. (e) Each turbine engine ignition system must
be independent of any electrical circuit that is not
(b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or
used for assisting, controlling or analysing the
sparking must be installed to minimise the
operation of that system.
probability of contact with any flammable fluids or
vapours that might be present in a free state. (f) In addition, for commuter category
aeroplanes, each turbopropeller ignition system
(c) Each generator rated at or more than
must be an essential electrical load.
6 kilowatts must be designed and installed to
minimise the probability of a fire hazard in the
event it malfunctions.
(d) If the continued rotation of any accessory
remotely driven by the engine is hazardous when
CS 23.1181 Designated fire zones;
malfunctioning occurs, a means to prevent rotation
regions included
without interfering with the continued operation of
the engine must be provided. Designated fire zones are –
(e) Each accessory driven by a gearbox that is (a) For reciprocating engines –
not approved as part of the powerplant driving the
(1) The power section;
gearbox must –
(2) The accessory section;
(1) Have torque limiting means to
prevent the torque limits established for the (3) Any complete powerplant compart-
affected drive from being exceeded; ment in which there is no isolation between the
power section and the accessory section.
(2) Use the provisions on the gearbox
for mounting; and (b) For turbine engines –
(3) Be sealed to prevent contamination (1) The compressor and accessory
of the gearbox oil system and the accessory sections;
(2) The combustor, turbine and tailpipe
sections that contain lines or components
CS 23.1165 Engine ignition systems carrying flammable fluids or gases.
(a) Each battery ignition system must be (3) Any complete powerplant compart-
supplemented by a generator that is automatically ment in which there is no isolation between
available as an alternate source of electrical energy compressor, accessory, combustor, turbine and
to allow continued engine operation if any battery tailpipe sections.
becomes depleted.
(c) Any auxiliary power unit compartment;
(b) The capacity of batteries and generators and
must be large enough to meet the simultaneous
(d) Any fuel burning heater and other
demands of the engine ignition system and the
combustion equipment installation described in
greatest demands of any electrical system
CS 23.859.
components that draw from the same source.
(c) The design of the engine ignition system
must account for –
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CS 23.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls unavailable to the remaining engine that would
(See AMC 23.1182) be available to that engine with that valve open.
Components, lines and fittings, except those (3) Operation of any shut-off means
subject to the provisions of CS 23.1351 (e), may not interfere with the later emergency
located behind the engine compartment firewall operation of other equipment such as propeller
must be constructed of such materials and located feathering devices.
at such distances from the firewall that they will
(4) Each shut-off must be outside of the
not suffer damage sufficient to endanger the
engine compartment unless an equal degree of
aeroplane if a portion of the engine side of the
safety is provided with the shut-off inside the
firewall is subjected to a flame temperature of not
less than 1093°C (2 000°F) for 15 minutes.
(5) No hazardous amount of flammable
fluid may drain into the engine compartment
CS 23.1183 Lines, fittings and
after shut-off .
(6) There must be means to guard
(a) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (b) ,
against inadvertent operations of each shut-off
each component, line and fitting carrying
means and to make it possible for the crew to
flammable fluids, gas or air in any area subject to
reopen the shut-off means in flight after it has
engine fire conditions must be at least fire
been closed.
resistant, except that flammable fluid tanks and
supports which are part of and attached to the (b) Turbine engine installations need not have
engine must be fireproof or be enclosed by a an engine oil system shut-off if –
fireproof shield unless damage by fire to any non-
(1) The oil tank is integral with, or
fireproof part will not cause leakage or spillage of
mounted on, the engine; and
flammable fluid. Components must be shielded or
located so as to safeguard against the ignition of (2) All oil system components external
leaking flammable fluid. Flexible hose assemblies to the engine are fireproof or located in areas
(hose and end fittings) must be shown to be not subject to engine fire conditions.
suitable for the particular application. An integral
(c) Power-operated valves must have means
oil sump of less than 23·7 Litres (5·2 Imperial
to indicate to the flight crew when the valve has
gallon/25 US-quarts) capacity on a reciprocating
reached the selected position and must be designed
engine need not be fireproof nor be enclosed by a
so that the valve will not move from the selected
fireproof shield.
position under vibration conditions likely to exist
(b) Sub-paragraph (a) does not apply to – at the valve location.
(1) Lines, fittings and components
which are already approved as part of a type CS 23.1191 Firewalls
certificated engine; and
(a) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, fuel
(2) Vent and drain lines and their burning heater and other combustion equipment
fittings, whose failure will not result in, or add must be isolated from the rest of the aeroplane by
to, a fire hazard. firewalls, shrouds or equivalent means.
(b) Each firewall or shroud must be
constructed, so that no hazardous quantity of
CS 23.1189 Shut-off means
liquid, gas or flame can pass from that
(See AMC 23.1189 (a) (5))
compartment to other parts of the aeroplane.
(a) For each twin-engined aeroplane the
(c) Each opening in the firewall or shroud
following apply:
must be sealed with close fittings, fireproof
(1) Each engine installation must have grommets, bushings or firewall fittings.
means to shut off or otherwise prevent
(d) Reserved.
hazardous quantities of fuel, oil, de-icing fluid
and other flammable liquids from flowing into, (e) Each firewall and shroud must be
within, or through any engine compartment, fireproof and protected against corrosion.
except in lines, fittings and components forming
(f) Compliance with the criteria for fireproof
an integral part of an engine.
materials or components must be shown as
(2) The closing of the fuel shut-off follows:
valve for any engine may not make any fuel
Amendment 1
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

(1) The flame to which the materials or (e) Each part of the cowling subjected to high
components are subjected must be 1093 ± 83°C temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system
(2 000 ± 150°F). ports or exhaust gas impingement, must be fire-
(2) Sheet materials approximately 25
cm (10 in) square must be subjected to the flame (f) Each nacelle of a twin-engine aeroplane
from a suitable burner. with turbocharged engines must be designed and
constructed so that with the landing gear retracted,
(3) The flame must be large enough to
a fire in the engine compartment will not burn
maintain the required test temperature over an
through a cowling or nacelle and enter a nacelle
area approximately 13 cm (5 in) square.
area other than the engine compartment.
(g) Firewall material and fittings must resist
(g) In addition for commuter category
flame penetration for at least 15 minutes.
aeroplanes, the aeroplane must be designed so that
(h) The following materials may be used in no fire originating in any engine compartment can
firewalls or shrouds without being tested as enter, either through openings or by burn-through,
required by this paragraph: any other region where it would create additional
(1) Stainless steel sheet, 0·38 mm
(0·015 in) thick.
CS 23.1195 Fire extinguishing systems
(2) Mild steel sheet (coated with
aluminium or otherwise protected against (a) For commuter category aeroplanes, fire-
corrosion) 0·45 mm (0·018 in) thick. extinguishing systems must be installed and
compliance shown with the following:
(3) Terne plate, 0·45 mm (0·018 in)
thick. (1) Except for combustor, turbine and
tailpipe sections of turbine engine installations
(4) Monel metal, 0·45 mm (0·018 in)
that contain lines or components carrying
flammable fluids or gases for which a fire
(5) Steel or copper base alloy firewall originating in these sections is shown to be
fittings. controllable, there must be a fire extinguisher
system serving each designated fire zone.
(6) Titanium sheet, 0·41 mm (0·016 in)
thick. (2) The fire extinguishing system, the
quantity of the extinguishing agent, the rate of
discharge and the discharge distribution must be
CS 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment
adequate to extinguish fires. An individual
“one-shot” system may be used.
For air-cooled radial engines, the engine power
(3) The fire extinguishing system for a
section and all portions of the exhaust system must
nacelle must be able to simultaneously protect
be isolated from the engine accessory compartment
each zone of the nacelle for which protection is
by a diaphragm that meets the firewall
requirements of CS 23.1191.
(b) If an auxiliary power unit is installed in
any aeroplane certificated to CS-23, that auxiliary
CS 23.1193 Cowling and nacelle
power unit compartment must be served by a fire
(a) Each cowling must be constructed and extinguishing system meeting the requirements of
supported so that it can resist any vibration, inertia sub-paragraph (a) (2) .
and air loads to which it may be subjected in
CS 23.1197 Fire extinguishing agents
(b) There must be means for rapid and
For commuter category aeroplanes, the
complete drainage of each part of the cowling in
following applies:
the normal ground and flight attitudes. No drain
may discharge where it will cause a fire hazard. (a) Fire extinguishing agents must –
(c) Cowling must be at least fire-resistant. (1) Be capable of extinguishing flames
emanating from any burning fluids or other
(d) Each part behind an opening in the engine
combustible materials in the area protected by
compartment cowling must be at least fire-resistant
the fire extinguishing system; and
for a distance of at least 61 cm (24 in) aft of the
Amendment 1
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1

(2) Have thermal stability over the CS 23.1201 Fire extinguishing system
temperature range likely to be experienced in materials
the compartment in which they are stored.
For commuter category aeroplanes, the
(b) If any toxic extinguishing agent is used, following apply:
provisions must be made to prevent harmful
(a) No material in any fire extinguishing
concentrations of fluid or fluid vapours (from
system may react chemically with any
leakage during normal operation of the aeroplane
extinguishing agent so as to create a hazard.
or as a result of discharging the fire extinguisher
on the ground or in flight) from entering any (b) Each system component in an engine
personnel compartment even though a defect may compartment must be fireproof.
exist in the extinguishing system. This must be
shown by test except for built-in carbon dioxide
CS 23.1203 Fire detector system
fuselage compartment fire extinguishing systems
for which – (a) There must be means that ensures the
prompt detection of a fire in –
(1) 2.3 kg (five pounds) or less of
carbon dioxide will be discharged, under (1) Each designated fire zone of –
established fire control procedures, into any (i) Twin-engine turbine powered
fuselage compartment; or aeroplanes;
(2) Protective breathing equipment is (ii) Twin-engine reciprocating
available for each flight crew member on flight engine powered aeroplanes incorporating
deck duty. turbochargers;
(iii) Aeroplanes with engine(s)
CS 23.1199 Extinguishing agent located where they are not readily visible
containers from the cockpit; and
For commuter category aeroplanes, the (iv) All commuter category
following apply: aeroplanes.
(a) Each extinguishing agent container must (2) The auxiliary power unit
have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the compartment of any aeroplane incorporating an
container by excessive internal pressures. auxiliary power unit.
(b) The discharge end of each discharge line (b) Each fire detector system must be
from a pressure relief connection must be located constructed and installed to withstand the
so that discharge of the fire extinguishing agent vibration, inertia and other loads to which it may
would not damage the aeroplane. The line must be subjected in operation.
also be located or protected to prevent clogging
caused by ice or other foreign matter. (c) No fire detector may be affected by any
oil, water, other fluids, or fumes that might be
(c) A means must be provided for each fire present.
extinguishing agent container to indicate that the
container has discharged or that the charging (d) There must be means to allow the crew to
pressure is below the established minimum check, in flight, the functioning of each fire
necessary for proper functioning. detector electric circuit.

(d) The temperature of each container must be (e) Wiring and other components of each fire
maintained, under intended operating conditions, detector system in a designated fire zone must be
to prevent the pressure in the container from – at least fire-resistant.

(1) Falling below that necessary to

provide an adequate rate of discharge; or
(2) Rising high enough to cause
premature discharge.
(e) If a pyrotechnic capsule is used to
discharge the extinguishing agent, each container
must be installed so that temperature conditions
will not cause hazardous deterioration of the
pyrotechnic capsule.
Amendment 1
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS­23 BOOK 1 

(b)  The  discharge  end of each discharge line  (2)  The  auxiliary  power  unit 

from  a  pressure  relief connection must be located  compartment  of  any  aeroplane  incorporating 
so  that  discharge  of  the  fire  extinguishing  agent  an auxiliary power unit. 
would  not  damage  the  aeroplane.    The  line  must 
(b)  Each  fire  detector  system  must  be 
also  be  located  or  protected  to  prevent  clogging 
constructed  and  installed  to  withstand  the 
caused by ice or other foreign matter. 
vibration,  inertia and other loads to which it may 
(c)  A  means  must  be  provided  for  each  fire  be subjected in operation. 
extinguishing  agent  container to indicate that the 
(c)  No  fire  detector  may  be  affected  by  any 
container  has  discharged  or  that  the  charging 
oil,  water,  other  fluids,  or  fumes  that  might  be 
pressure  is  below  the  established  minimum 
necessary for proper functioning. 
(d)  There must be means to allow the crew to 
(d)  The  temperature  of  each  container  must 
check,  in  flight,  the  functioning  of  each  fire 
be  maintained,  under  intended  operating 
detector electric circuit. 
conditions,  to  prevent  the  pressure  in  the 
container from –  (e)  Wiring  and  other  components  of  each 
fire  detector  system  in  a  designated  fire  zone 
(1)  Falling  below  that  necessary  to 
must be at least fire­resistant.
provide an adequate rate of discharge; or 
(2)  Rising  high  enough  to  cause 
premature discharge. 
(e)  If  a  pyrotechnic  capsule  is  used  to 
discharge the extinguishing agent, each container 
must  be  installed  so  that  temperature  conditions 
will  not  cause  hazardous  deterioration  of  the 
pyrotechnic capsule. 

CS 23.1201  Fire  extinguishing  system 

For  commuter  category  aeroplanes,  the 
following apply: 
(a)  No  material  in  any  fire  extinguishing 
system  may  react  chemically  with  any 
extinguishing agent so as to create a hazard. 
(b)  Each  system  component  in  an  engine 
compartment must be fireproof. 

CS 23.1203  Fire detector system 
(a)  There  must  be  means  that  ensures  the 
prompt detection of a fire in – 
(1)  Each designated fire zone of – 
(i)  Twin­engine  turbine  powered 
(ii)  Twin­engine  reciprocating 
engine  powered  aeroplanes  incorporating 
(iii)  Aeroplanes  with  engine(s) 
located where they are not readily visible 
from the cockpit; and 
(iv)  All  commuter  category 

Amendment 1
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R


GENERAL and the horizon line beyond that necessary for

parallax correction.
CS 23.1301 Function and installation (g) In addition, for commuter category
Each item of installed equipment must –
(1) If airspeed limitations vary with
(a) Be of a kind and design appropriate to its
altitude, the airspeed indicator must have a
intended function;
maximum allowable airspeed indicator showing
(b) Be labelled as to its identification, the variation of VMO with altitude.
function or operating limitations, or any applicable
(2) The altimeter must be a sensitive
combination of these factors;
(c) Be installed according to limitations
(3) Having a passenger seating
specified for that equipment;
configuration of 10 or more, excluding the
(d) Function properly when installed. pilot’s seats and that are approved for IFR
operations, a third attitude instrument must be
provided that:
CS 23.1303 Flight and navigation
instruments (i) Is powered from a source
independent of the electrical generating
The following are the minimum required flight
and navigational instruments:
(ii) Continues reliable operation
(a) An airspeed indicator.
for a minimum of 30 minutes after total
(b) An altimeter. failure of the electrical generating system;
(c) A non-stabilised magnetic direction (iii) Operates independently of any
indicator . other attitude indicating system;
(d) For reciprocating engine-powered (iv) Is operative without selection
aeroplanes of more than 2 722 kg (6 000 lb) after total failure of the electrical
maximum weight and turbine engine-powered generating system;
aeroplanes, a free air temperature indicator or an
(v) Is located on the instrument
air temperature indicator which provides
panel in a position acceptable to the
indications that are convertible to free air.
Authority that will make it plainly visible
(e) A speed warning device for – to and usable by any pilot at the pilot’s
station; and
(1) Turbine engine-powered aeroplanes;
and (vi) Is appropriately lighted during
all phases of operation.
(2) Other aeroplanes for which
VMO/MMO and VD/MD are established under
CS 23.335 (b) (4) and 23.1505 (c) if VMO/MMO CS 23.1305 Powerplant instruments
is greater than 0·8 VD/MD.
The following are required powerplant
The speed warning device must give effective instruments:
aural warning (differing distinctively from aural
(a) For all aeroplanes.-
warnings used for other purposes) to the pilots
whenever the speed exceeds VMO plus 11 km/h (1) A fuel quantity indicator for each
(6 knots) or MMO + 0·01. The upper limit of the fuel tank, installed in accordance with
production tolerance for the warning device may CS 23.1337(b).
not exceed the prescribed warning speed. The (2) An oil pressure indicator for each
lower limit must be set to minimise nuisance engine.
(f) When an attitude display is installed the (3) An oil temperature indicator for
instrument design must not provide any means, each engine.
accessible to the flight crew, of adjusting the (4) An oil quantity measuring device
relative positions of the attitude reference symbol for each oil tank which meets the requirements
of CS 23.1337(d).
Amendment 1
1–F–1 Date
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

(5) A fire warning means for those (3) A fuel low pressure warning means
aeroplanes required to comply with for each engine.
CS 23.1203.
(4) A fuel low level warning means for
(b) For reciprocating engine-powered any fuel tank that should not be depleted of
aeroplanes. In addition to the powerplant fuel in normal operations.
instruments required by sub-paragraph (a), the
(5) A tachometer indicator (to indicate
following powerplant instruments are required:
the speed of the rotors with established limiting
(1) An induction system air speeds) for each engine.
temperature indicator for each engine equipped
(6) An oil low pressure warning means
with a preheater and having induction air
for each engine.
temperature limitations that can be exceeded
with preheat. (7) An indicating means to indicate the
functioning of the powerplant ice protection
(2) A tachometer indicator for each
system for each engine.
(8) For each engine, an indicating
(3) A cylinder head temperature
means for the fuel strainer or filter required by
indicator for-
CS 23.997 to indicate the occurrence of
(i) Each air-cooled engine with contamination of the strainer or filter before it
cowl flaps; reaches the capacity established in accordance
with CS 23.997(d).
(ii) Removed and reserved.
(9) For each engine, a warning means
(iii) Each commuter category
for the oil strainer or filter required by
CS 23.1019, if it has no bypass, to warn the
(4) A fuel pressure indicator for pump pilot of the occurrence of contamination of the
fed engines. strainer or filter screen before it reaches the
capacity established in accordance with
(5) A manifold pressure indicator for
CS 23.1019(a)(5).
each altitude engine and for each engine with a
controllable propeller. (10) An indicating means to indicate the
functioning of any heater used to prevent ice
(6) For each turbocharger installation:
clogging of fuel system components.
(i) If limitations are established
(d) For turbojet/turbofan engine-powered
for either carburettor (or manifold) air
aeroplanes. In addition to the powerplant
inlet temperature or exhaust gas or
instruments required by sub-paragraphs (a) and
turbocharger turbine inlet temperature,
(c), the following powerplant instruments are
indicators must be furnished for each
temperature for which the limitation is
established unless it is shown that the (1) For each engine, an indicator to
limitation will not be exceeded in all indicate thrust or to indicate a parameter that
intended operations. can be related to thrust, including a free air
temperature indicator if needed for this
(ii) If its oil system is separate
from the engine oil system, oil pressure
and oil temperature indicators must be (2) For each engine, a position
provided. indicating means to indicate to the flight crew
when the thrust reverser, if installed, is in the
(7) A coolant temperature indicator for
reverse thrust position.
each liquid-cooled engine.
(e) For turbopropeller-powered aeroplanes
(c) For turbine engine-powered aeroplanes
In addition to the powerplant instruments required
In addition to the powerplant instruments required
by sub-paragraphs (a) and (c) , the following
by sub-paragraph (a) , the following powerplant
powerplant instruments are required:
instruments are required:
(1) A torque indicator for each engine.
(1) A gas temperature indicator for
each engine. (2) A position indicating means to
indicate to the flight crew when the propeller
(2) A fuel flowmeter indicator for each
blade angle is below the flight low pitch
position, for each propeller, unless it can be

Amendment 1
Date 1–F–2
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

shown that such occurrence is highly continued safe flight and landing of the
improbable. aeroplane must be extremely improbable;
CS 23.1309 Equipment, systems and (ii) The occurrence of any other
installations failure condition that would significantly
reduce the capability of the aeroplane or
(a) Each item of equipment, each system, and
the ability of the crew to cope with
each installation –
adverse operating conditions must be
(1) When performing its intended improbable.
function, may not adversely affect the response,
(3) Warning information must be
operation, or accuracy of any –
provided to alert the crew to unsafe system
(i) Equipment essential to safe operating conditions and to enable them to take
operation; or appropriate corrective action. Systems,
controls, and associated monitoring and
(ii) Other equipment unless there
warning means must be designed to minimise
is a means to inform the pilot of the
crew errors that could create additional hazards.
(4) Compliance with the requirements
(2) In a single-engine aeroplane, must
of sub-paragraph (b) (2) may be shown by
be designed to minimise hazards to the
analysis and, where necessary, by appropriate
aeroplane in the event of a probable
ground, flight, or simulator test. The analysis
malfunction or failure.
must consider –
(3) In a twin-engine aeroplane, must be
(i) Possible modes of failure,
designed to prevent hazards to the aeroplane in
including malfunctions and damage from
the event of a probable malfunction or failure.
external sources;
(4) In a commuter category aeroplane,
(ii) The probability of multiple
must be designed to safeguard against hazards
failures, and the probability of undetected
to the aeroplane in the event of their
malfunction or failure.
(iii) The resulting effects on the
(b) The design of each item of equipment,
aeroplane and occupants, considering the
each system, and each installation must be
stage of flight and operating conditions;
examined separately and in relationship to other
aeroplane systems and installations to determine if
the aeroplane is dependent upon its function for (iv) The crew warning cues,
continued safe flight and landing and, for corrective action required, and the crew’s
aeroplanes not limited to VFR conditions, if failure capability of determining faults.
of a system would significantly reduce the
(c) Each item of equipment, each system, and
capability of the aeroplane or the ability of the
each installation whose functioning is required for
crew to cope with adverse operating conditions.
certification and that requires a power supply, is an
Each item of equipment, each system, and each
“essential load” on the power supply. The power
installation identified by this examination as one
sources and the system must be able to supply the
upon which the aeroplane is dependent for proper
following power loads in probable operating
functioning to ensure continued safe flight and
combinations and for probable durations:
landing, or whose failure would significantly
reduce the capability of the aeroplane or the ability (1) Loads connected to the power
of the crew to cope with adverse operating distribution system with the system functioning
conditions, must be designed to comply with the normally.
following additional requirements:
(2) Essential loads after failure of –
(1) It must perform its intended function
(i) Any one engine on two-engine
under any foreseeable operating condition.
aeroplanes; or
(2) When systems and associated
(ii) Any power converter or energy
components are considered separately and in
storage device.
relation to other systems –
(3) Essential loads for which an
(i) The occurrence of any failure
alternate source of power is required by the
condition that would prevent the
Amendment 1
1–F–3 Date
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

operating rules, after any failure or malfunction life must be addressed in the instructions for
in any one power supply system, distribution continued airworthiness requirements of CS
system, or other utilisation system. 23.1529;
(d) In determining compliance with sub- (3) Not inhibit the primary display of
paragraph (c) (2) , the power loads may be attitude, airspeed, altitude, or powerplant
assumed to be reduced under a monitoring parameters needed by any pilot to set power
procedure consistent with safety in the kinds of within established limitations, in any normal
operations authorised. mode of operation.
(e) In showing compliance with this (4) Not inhibit the primary display of
paragraph with regard to the electrical power engine parameters needed by any pilot to
system and to equipment design and installation, properly set or monitor powerplant limitations
critical environmental and atmospheric conditions, during the engine starting mode of operation;
including radio frequency energy and the effects
(5) Have an independent magnetic
(both direct and indirect) of lightning strikes, must
direction indicator and an independent
be considered. For electrical generation,
secondary mechanical altimeter, airspeed
distribution, and utilisation equipment required by
indicator, magnetic direction indicator, and
or used in complying with this subpart, the ability
attitude instrument, or individual electronic
to provide continuous, safe service under
display indicators for the altimeter, airspeed,
foreseeable environmental conditions may be
and attitude that are independent from the
shown by environmental tests, design analysis, or
aeroplane’s primary electrical power system.
reference to previous comparable service
These secondary instruments may be installed
experience on other aeroplanes.
in panel positions that are displaced from the
(f) As used in this paragraph, “systems” primary positions specified by CS 23.1321 (d),
refers to all pneumatic systems, fluid systems, but must be located where they meet the pilot’s
electrical systems, mechanical systems, and visibility requirements of CS 23.1321 (a).
powerplant systems included in the aeroplane
(6) Incorporate sensory cues for the
design, except for the following:
pilot that are equivalent to those in the
(1) Powerplant systems provided as part instrument being replaced by the electronic
of the certificated engine. display indicators; and
(2) The flight structure (such as wing, (7) Incorporate visual displays of
empennage, control surfaces and their systems, instrument markings, required by CS 23.1541 to
the fuselage, engine mounting, and landing gear 23.1553, or visual displays that alert the pilot to
and their related primary attachments) whose abnormal operational values or approaches to
requirements are specific in Subparts C and D established limitation values, for each parameter
of CS-23. required to be displayed by CS-23.
(b) The electronic display indicators,
including their systems and installations, and
considering other aeroplane systems, must be
designed so that one display of information
CS 23.1311 Electronic display essential for continued safe flight and landing will
instrument systems remain available to the crew, without need for
immediate action by any pilot for continued safe
(a) Electronic display indicators, including
operation, after any single failure or probable
those with features that make isolation and
combination of failures.
independence between powerplant instrument
systems impractical, must – (c) As used in this paragraph “instrument”
includes devices that are physically contained in
(1) Meet the arrangement and visibility
one unit, and devices that are composed of two or
requirements of CS 23.1321;
more physically separate units or components
(2) Be easily legible under all lighting connected together (such as a remote indicating
conditions encountered in the cockpit, including gyroscopic direction indicator that includes a
direct sunlight, considering the expected elec- magnetic sensing element, a gyroscopic unit, an
tronic display brightness level at the end of an amplifier, and an indicator connected together).
electronic display indicator’s useful life. As used in this paragraph “primary” display refers
Specific limitations on display system useful to the display of a parameter that is located in the

Amendment 1
Date 1–F–4
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

instrument panel such that the pilot looks at it first CS 23.1322 Warning, caution and
when wanting to view that parameter. advisory lights
If warning, caution or advisory lights are
CS 23.1321 Arrangement and visibility installed in the cockpit, they must, unless
otherwise approved by the Agency, be –
(a) Each flight, navigation and powerplant
instrument for use by any required pilot during (a) Red, for warning lights (lights indicating a
take-off, initial climb, final approach, and landing hazard which may require immediate corrective
must be located so that any pilot seated at the action);
controls can monitor the aeroplane’s flight path
(b) Amber, for caution lights (lights
and these instruments with minimum head and eye
indicating the possible need for future corrective
movement. The powerplant instruments for these
flight conditions are those needed to set power
within powerplant limitations. (c) Green, for safe operation lights; and
(b) For each twin-engined aeroplane, identical (d) Any other colour, including white, for
powerplant instruments must be located so as to lights not described in sub-paragraphs (a) to (c),
prevent confusion as to which engine each provided the colour differs sufficiently from the
instrument relates. colours prescribed in sub-paragraphs (a) to (c) to
avoid possible confusion.
(c) Instrument panel vibration may not
damage, or impair the accuracy of, any instrument. (e) Effective under all probable cockpit
lighting conditions.
(d) For each aeroplane the flight instruments
required by CS 23.1303 and, as applicable, by the
Operating Rules must be grouped on the CS 23.1323 Airspeed indicating system
instrument panel and centred as nearly as
(a) Each airspeed indicating instrument must
practicable about the vertical plane of the pilot’s
be calibrated to indicate true airspeed (at sea-level
forward vision. In addition –
with a standard atmosphere) with a minimum
(1) The instrument that most effectively practicable instrument calibration error when the
indicates the attitude must be on the panel in the corresponding pitot and static pressures are
top centre position; applied.
(2) The instrument that most effectively (b) Each airspeed system must be calibrated
indicates airspeed must be adjacent to and in flight to determine the system error. The system
directly to the left of the instrument in the top error, including position error, but excluding the
centre position; airspeed indicator instrument calibration error,
may not exceed 3% of the calibrated airspeed or
(3) The instrument that most effectively
9.3 km/h (5 knots), whichever is greater,
indicates altitude must be adjacent to and
throughout the following speed ranges:
directly to the right of the instrument in the top
centre position; and (1) 1·3 VS1 to VMO/MMO or VNE,
whichever is appropriate with flaps retracted.
(4) The instrument that most effectively
indicates direction of flight, other than the (2) 1·3 VS1 to VFE with flaps extended.
magnetic direction indicator required by
(c) The design and installation of each airspeed
CS 23.1303(c), must be adjacent to and directly
indicating system must provide positive drainage of
below the instrument in the top centre position.
moisture from the pitot static plumbing.
(5) Electronic display indicators may be
(d) If certification for instrument flight rules or
used for compliance with sub-paragraphs (d)(1)
flight in icing conditions is requested, each airspeed
to (d)(4) when such displays comply with
system must have a heated pitot tube or an equivalent
requirements in CS 23.1311.
means of preventing malfunction due to icing.
(e) If a visual indicator is provided to indicate
(e) In addition, for commuter category
malfunction of an instrument, it must be effective
aeroplanes, the airspeed indicating system must be
under all probable cockpit lighting conditions.
calibrated to determine the system error during the
accelerate-take-off ground run. The ground run
calibration must be obtained between 0.8 of the
minimum value of V1 and 1.2 times the maximum
value of V1, considering the approved ranges of
Amendment 1
1–F–5 Date
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

altitude and weight. The ground run calibration must differential pressure or 30 m (100 ft),
be determined assuming an engine failure at the whichever is greater.
minimum value of V1.
(3) If a static pressure system is
(f) For commuter category aeroplanes, where provided for any instrument, device, or system
duplicate airspeed indicators are required, their required by the operating rules, each static
respective pitot tubes must be far enough apart to pressure port must be designed or located in
avoid damage to both tubes in a collision with a bird. such a manner that the correlation between air
pressure in the static pressure system and true
ambient atmospheric static pressure is not
CS 23.1325 Static pressure system
altered when the aeroplane encounters icing
(a) Each instrument provided with static conditions. An anti-icing means or an alternate
pressure case connections must be so vented that source of static pressure may be used in
the influence of aeroplane speed, the opening and showing compliance with this requirement. If
closing of windows, airflow variations, moisture, the reading of the altimeter, when on the
or other foreign matter will least affect the alternate static pressure system differs from the
accuracy of the instruments except as noted in sub- reading of the altimeter when on the primary
paragraph (b) (3) . static system by more than 15m (50 ft), a
correction card must be provided for the
(b) If a static pressure system is necessary for
alternate static system.
the functioning of instruments, systems, or
devices, it must comply with the provisions of sub- (c) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (d) ,
paragraphs (1) to (3) . if the static pressure system incorporates both a
primary and an alternate static pressure source, the
(1) The design and installation of a
means for selecting one or the other source must
static pressure system must be such that –
be designed so that –
(i) Positive drainage of moisture
(1) When either source is selected, the
is provided;
other is blocked off; and
(ii) Chafing of the tubing and
(2) Both sources cannot be blocked off
excessive distortion or restriction at bends
in the tubing, is avoided; and
(d) For unpressurised aeroplanes, sub-
(iii) The materials used are durable,
paragraph (c) (1) does not apply if it can be
suitable for the purpose intended and
demonstrated that the static pressure system
protected against corrosion.
calibration, when either static pressure source is
(2) A proof test must be conducted to selected, is not changed by the other static pressure
demonstrate the integrity of the static pressure source being open or blocked.
system in the following manner:
(e) Each static pressure system must be
(i) Unpressurised aeroplanes. calibrated in flight to determine the system error.
Evacuate the static pressure system to a The system error, in indicated pressure altitude, at
pressure differential of approximately sea-level, with a standard atmosphere, excluding
3.4⋅kPa (1 inch of mercury) or to a instrument calibration error, may not exceed ±9 m
reading on the altimeter, 305 m (1 000 ft) (± 30 ft) per 185 km/h (100 knot) speed for the
above the aircraft elevation at the time of appropriate configuration in the speed range
the test. Without additional pumping for a between 1·3 VSO with flaps extended and 1·8 VS1
period of 1 minute, the loss of indicated with flaps retracted. However, the error need not
altitude must not exceed 30 m (100 ft) on be less than ±9 m (± 30 ft).
the altimeter.
(f) Reserved.
(ii) Pressurised aeroplanes.
(g) For aeroplanes prohibited from flight
Evacuate the static pressure system until a
under instrument flight rules (IFR) or known icing
pressure differential equivalent to the
conditions in accordance with CS 23.1525, sub-
maximum cabin pressure differential for
paragraph (b) (3) does not apply.
which the aeroplane is type certificated is
achieved. Without additional pumping for
a period of 1 minute, the loss of indicated CS 23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems
altitude must not exceed 2% of the
If a flight instrument pitot heating system is
equivalent altitude of the maximum cabin
installed to meet the requirements specified in
Amendment 1
Date 1–F–6
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS 23.1323(d), an indication system must be must be located on the control wheel (both control
provided to indicate to the flight crew when that pitot wheels if the aeroplane can be operated from either
heating system is not operating. The indication pilot seat) on the side opposite the throttles, or on
system must comply with the following the stick control (both stick controls if the
requirements: aeroplane can be operated from either pilot seat),
such that it can be operated without moving the
(a) The indication provided must incorporate an
hand from its normal position on the control.
amber light that is in clear view of a flightcrew
member. (c) Unless there is automatic synchronisation,
each system must have a means to readily indicate
(b) The indication provided must be designed to
to the pilot the alignment of the actuating device in
alert the flight crew if either of the following
relation to the control system it operates.
conditions exist:
(d) Each manually-operated control for the
(1) The pitot heating system is switched
system operation must be readily accessible to the
pilot. Each control must operate in the same plane
(2) The pitot heating system is switched and sense of motion as specified in CS 23.779 for
“on” and any pitot tube heating element is cockpit controls. The direction of motion must be
inoperative plainly indicated on or near each control.
(e) Each system must be designed and
CS 23.1327 Magnetic direction indicator adjusted so that, within the range of adjustment
available to the pilot, it cannot produce hazardous
(a) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (b):
loads on the aeroplane or create hazardous
(1) Each magnetic direction indicator deviations in the flight path, under any flight
must be installed so that its accuracy is not condition appropriate to its use, either during
excessively affected by the aeroplane’s normal operation or in the event of a malfunction,
vibration or magnetic fields; and assuming that corrective action begins within a
reasonable period of time.
(2) The compensated installation may
not have a deviation, in level flight, greater than (f) Each system must be designed so that a
10° on any heading. single malfunction will not produce a hardover
signal in more than one control axis. If the auto-
(b) A magnetic non-stabilised direction
matic pilot integrates signals from auxiliary
indicator may deviate more than 10° due to the
controls or furnishes signals for operation of other
operation of electrically powered systems such as
equipment, positive interlocks and sequencing of
electrically heated windshields if either a magnetic
engagement to prevent improper operation are
stabilised direction indicator, which does not have
a deviation in level flight greater than 10° on any
heading, or a gyroscopic direction indicator is (g) There must be protection against adverse
installed. Deviations of a magnetic non-stabilised interaction of integrated components, resulting
direction indicator of more than 10° must be from a malfunction.
placarded in accordance with CS 23.1547 (c).
(h) If the automatic pilot system can be
coupled to airborne navigation equipment, means
CS 23.1329 Automatic pilot system must be provided to indicate to the flightcrew the
current mode of operation. Selector switch
If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must
position is not acceptable as a means of indication.
meet the following:
(a) Each system must be designed so that the
CS 23.1331 Instruments using a power
automatic pilot can –
(1) Be quickly and positively
For each instrument that uses a power source, the
disengaged by the pilots to prevent it from
following apply:
interfering with their control of the aeroplane;
or (a) Each instrument must have an integral
visual power annunciator or separate power indictor
(2) Be sufficiently over-powered by one
to indicate when power is not adequate to sustain
pilot to let him control the aeroplane.
proper instrument performance. If a separate
(b) If the provisions of sub-paragraph (a)(1) indicator is used, it must be located so that the pilot
are applied, the quick release (emergency) control using the instruments can monitor the indicator with

Amendment 1
1–F–7 Date
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

minimum head and eye movement. The power must In addition –

be sensed at or near the point where it enters the
(1) Each fuel quantity indicator must be
instrument. For electric and vacuum/pressure
calibrated to read “zero” during level flight
instruments, the power is considered to be adequate
when the quantity of fuel remaining in the tank
when the voltage or the vacuum/pressure,
is equal to the unusable fuel supply determined
respectively, is within approved limits.
under CS 23.959 (a);
(b) The installation and power supply systems
(2) Each exposed sight gauge used as a
must be designed so that-
fuel quantity indicator must be protected against
(1) The failure of one instrument will not damage;
interfere with the proper supply of energy to the
(3) Each sight gauge that forms a trap in
remaining instrument; and
which water can collect and freeze must have
(2) The failure of the energy supply from means to allow drainage on the ground;
one source will not interfere with the proper
(4) There must be a means to indicate
supply of energy from any other source.
the amount of usable fuel in each tank when the
(c) There must be at least two independent aeroplane is on the ground (such as by a stick
sources of power (not driven by the same engine on gauge).
twin-engine aeroplanes), and a manual or an
(5) Tanks with interconnected outlets
automatic means to select each power source.
and airspaces may be considered as one tank
and need not have separate indicators; and
CS 23.1335 Flight director systems
(6) No fuel quantity indicator is
If a flight director system is installed, means required for an auxiliary tank that is used only
must be provided to indicate to the flightcrew its to transfer fuel to other tanks if the relative size
current mode of operation. Selector switch of the tank, the rate of fuel transfer and
position is not acceptable as a means of indication. operating instructions are adequate to –
(i) Guard against overflow; and
CS 23.1337 Powerplant instruments
(ii) Give to the flight-crew
members a prompt warning if transfer is
(a) Instruments and instrument lines not proceeding as planned.
(1) Each powerplant and auxiliary (c) Fuel flowmeter system. If a fuel
power unit instrument line must meet the flowmeter system is installed, each metering
requirements of CS 23.993. component must have a means to by-pass the fuel
supply if malfunctioning of that component
(2) Each line carrying flammable fluids
severely restricts fuel flow.
under pressure must –
(d) Oil quantity indicator. There must be a
(i) Have restricting orifices or
means to indicate the quantity of oil in each tank –
other safety devices at the source of
pressure to prevent the escape of (1) On the ground (such as by a stick
excessive fluid if the line fails; and gauge); and
(ii) Be installed and located so that (2) In flight, if there is an oil transfer
the escape of fluids would not create a system or a reserve oil supply system.
(3) Each powerplant and auxiliary
power unit instrument that utilises flammable
fluids must be installed and located so that the
escape of fluid would not create a hazard. CS 23.1351 General
(See AMC 23.1351 (a) (2) and
(b) Fuel quantity indicator. There must be
AMC 23.1351 (b) (5) (iv))
means to indicate to the flight-crew members the
quantity of usable fuel in each tank during flight. (a) Electrical system capacity. Each
An indicator calibrated in appropriate units and electrical system must be adequate for the intended
clearly marked to indicate those units, must be use. In addition –

Amendment 1
Date 1–F–8
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

(1) Electric power sources, their the electrical power sources from the
transmission cables, and their associated control system;
and protective devices, must be able to furnish
(iii) The system must be designed
the required power at the proper voltage to each
so that voltage and frequency, if
load circuit essential for safe operation; and
applicable, at the terminals of the essential
(2) Compliance with sub-paragraph (1) load equipment can be maintained within
must be shown as follows: the limits for which the equipment is
designed during any probable operating
(i) For normal, utility and
aerobatic category aeroplanes, by an
electrical load analysis, or by electrical (iv) If two independent sources of
measurements, that account for the electrical power for particular equipment
electrical loads applied to the electrical or systems are required, their electrical
system in probable combinations and for energy supply must be ensured by means
probable durations; and such as duplicate electrical equipment,
throwover switching, or multi-channel or
(ii) For commuter category aero-
loop circuits separately routed; and
planes, by an electrical load analysis that
accounts for the electrical loads applied to (v) For the purpose of complying
the electrical system in probable with sub-paragraph (b) (5) , the
combinations and for probable durations. distribution system includes the
distribution busses, their associated
(b) Functions. For each electrical system, the
feeders, and each control and protective
following apply:
(1) Each system, when installed, must
(c) Generating system. There must be at least
be –
one generator/alternator if the electrical system
(i) Free from hazards in itself, in supplies power to load circuits essential for safe
its method of operation, and in its effects operation. In addition –
on other parts of the aeroplane;
(1) Each generator/alternator must be
(ii)Protected from fuel, oil, water, able to deliver its continuous rated power, or
other detrimental substances and such power as is limited by its regulation
mechanical damage; and system;
(iii) So designed that the risk of (2) Generator/alternator voltage control
electrical shock to crew, passengers and equipment must be able to dependably regulate
ground personnel is reduced to a the generator/alternator output within rated
minimum. limits;
(2) Electric power sources must (3) Automatic means must be provided
function properly when connected in to prevent either damage to any
combination or independently. alternator/generator, or adverse effects on the
aeroplane electrical system, due to reverse
(3) No failure or malfunction of any
current. A means must also be provided to
electric power source may impair the ability of
disconnect each generator/alternator from the
any remaining source to supply load circuits
battery and the other generators/alternators.
essential for safe operation.
(4) There must be a means to give
(4) Reserved.
immediate warning to the flightcrew of a failure
(5) In addition, for commuter category of any generator/alternator; and
aeroplanes, the following apply:
(5) Each generator/alternator must have
(i) Each system must be designed an overvoltage control designed and installed to
so that essential load circuits can be prevent damage to the electrical system, or to
supplied in the event of reasonably equipment supplied by the electrical system,
probable faults or open circuits including that could result if that generator/alternator
faults in heavy current carrying cables; were to develop an overvoltage condition.
(ii) A means must be accessible in (d) Instruments. A means must exist to
flight to the flight-crew members for the indicate to appropriate flight-crew members the
individual and collective disconnection of
Amendment 1
1–F–9 Date
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

electric power system quantities essential for safe (a) Each storage battery must be designed and
operation. installed as prescribed in this paragraph.
(1) For normal, utility, and aerobatic (b) Safe cell temperatures and pressures must
category aeroplanes with direct current systems, be maintained during any probable charging and
an ammeter that can be switched into each discharging condition. No uncontrolled increase
generator feeder may be used and, if only one in cell temperature may result when the battery is
generator exists, the ammeter may be in the recharged (after previous complete discharge) –
battery feeder.
(1) At maximum regulated voltage or
(2) For commuter category aeroplanes, power;
the essential electric power system quantities
(2) During a flight of maximum
include the voltage and current supplied by each
duration; and
(3) Under the most adverse cooling
(e) Fire resistance. Electrical equipment
condition likely to occur in service.
must be so designed and installed that in the event
of a fire in the engine compartment, during which (c) Compliance with sub-paragraph (b) must
the surface of the firewall adjacent to the fire is be shown by tests unless experience with similar
heated to 1 100°C (2 000°F) for 5 minutes or to a batteries and installations has shown that
lesser temperature substantiated for the aeroplane, maintaining safe cell temperatures and pressures
the equipment essential to continued safe operation presents no problem.
and located behind the firewall will function
(d) No explosive or toxic gases emitted by
satisfactorily and will not create an additional fire
any battery in normal operation, or as the result of
any probable malfunction in the charging system
(f) External power. If provisions are made or battery installation, may accumulate in
for connecting external power to the aeroplane and hazardous quantities within the aeroplane.
that external power can be electrically connected
(e) No corrosive fluids or gases that may
to equipment other than that used for engine
escape from the battery may damage surrounding
starting, means must be provided to ensure that no
structures or adjacent essential equipment.
external power supply having a reverse polarity, or
a reverse phase sequence, can supply power to the (f) Each nickel cadmium battery installation
aeroplane’s electrical system. The external power capable of being used to start an engine or
connection must be located so that its use will not auxiliary power unit must have provisions to
result in a hazard to the aeroplane or ground prevent any hazardous effect on structure or
personnel. essential systems that may be caused by the
maximum amount of heat the battery can generate
(g) It must be shown by analysis, tests or both,
during a short circuit of the battery or of its
that the aeroplane can be operated safely in VFR
individual cells.
conditions, for a period of not less than five minutes,
with the normal electrical power (electrical power (g) Nickel cadmium battery installations
sources excluding the battery and any other stand-by capable of being used to start an engine or
electrical sources) inoperative, with critical type fuel auxiliary power unit must have –
(from the standpoint of flameout and restart
(1) A system to control the charging
capability), and with the aeroplane initially at the
rate of the battery automatically so as to prevent
maximum certificated altitude. Parts of the electrical
battery overheating; or
system may remain on if:-
(2) A battery temperature sensing and
(1) A single malfunction, including a
over temperature warning system with a means
wire bundle or junction box fire, cannot result
for disconnecting the battery from its charging
in loss of the part turned off and the part turned
source in the event of an over temperature
on; and
condition; or
(2) The part turned on are electrically
(3) A battery failure sensing and
and mechanically isolated from the parts turned
warning system with a means for disconnecting
the battery from its charging source in the event
of battery failure.
CS 23.1353 Storage battery design and (h) In the event of a complete loss of the
installation primary electrical power generating system, the

Amendment 1
Date 1–F–10
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

battery must be capable of providing 30 minutes of of 60° in accordance with the applicable portions
electrical power to those loads that are essential to of Appendix F of CS-23 or other approved
continued safe flight and landing. The 30-minute equivalent methods. The average burn length must
time period includes the time needed for the not exceed 76 mm (3 in) and the average flame
pilot(s) to recognise the loss of generated power time after removal of the flame source must not
and to take appropriate load shedding action. exceed 30 seconds. Drippings from the test
specimen must not continue to flame for more than
an average of 3 seconds after falling.
CS 23.1357 Circuit protective devices
(a) Protective devices, such as fuses or circuit
CS 23.1361 Master switch arrangement
breakers, must be installed in all electrical circuits
other than – (a) There must be a master switch
arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each
(1) The main circuits of starter motors
electric power source from the power distribution
used during starting only; and
systems, except as provided in sub-paragraph (b) .
(2) Circuits in which no hazard is The point of disconnection must be adjacent to the
presented by their omission. sources controlled by the switch arrangement. A
separate switch may be incorporated into the
(b) A protective device for a circuit essential
arrangement for each separate power source
to flight safety may not be used to protect any
provided the switch arrangement can be operated
other circuit.
by one hand with a single movement.
(c) Each resettable circuit protective device
(b) Load circuits may be connected so that
(“trip free” device in which the tripping
they remain energised when the master switch is
mechanism cannot be over-ridden by the operating
open; if –
control) must be designed so that –
(1) The circuits are isolated, or
(1) A manual operation is required to
physically shielded, to prevent their igniting
restore service after tripping; and
flammable fluids or vapours that might be
(2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, liberated by the leakage or rupture of any
the device will open the circuit regardless of the flammable fluid systems; and
position of the operating control.
(2) The circuits are required for
(d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or continued operation of the engine; or
replace a fuse is essential to safety in flight, that
(3) The circuits are protected by circuit
circuit breaker or fuse must be so located and
protective devices with a rating of five amperes
identified that it can be readily reset or replaced in
or less adjacent to the electric power source.
In addition, two or more circuits installed in
(e) For fuses identified as replaceable in
accordance with the requirements of sub-paragraph
flight –
(b) (2) must not be used to supply a load of more
(1) There must be one spare of each than five amperes.
rating or 50% spare fuses of each rating,
(c) The master switch or its controls must be
whichever is greater; and
so installed that the switch is easily discernible and
(2) The spare fuse(s) must be readily accessible to a crew member.
accessible to any required pilot.
CS 23.1365 Electric cables and
CS 23.1359 Electrical system fire equipment
(a) Each electric connecting cable must be of
(a) Components of the electrical system must adequate capacity.
meet the applicable fire protection requirements of
(b) Any equipment that is associated with any
CS 23.1182 and 23.863.
electrical cable installation and that would
(b) Electrical cables, terminals and equipment overheat in the event of a circuit overload or fault
in designated fire zones, that are used during must be flame resistant and must not emit
emergency procedures, must be fire-resistant. dangerous quantities of toxic fumes.
(c) Insulation on electrical wire and cable (c) Means of identification must be provided
must be self-extinguishing when tested at an angle for electrical cables, connectors and terminals.
Amendment 1
1–F–11 Date
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

(d) Electrical cables must be installed such CS 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights
that the risk of mechanical damage and/or damage
Each taxi and landing light must be designed
caused by fluids, vapours or sources of heat, is
and installed so that –
(a) No dangerous glare is visible to the pilots;
(e) Main power cables (including generator
cables) must be designed to allow a reasonable (b) The pilot is not seriously affected by
degree of deformation and stretching without halation;
failure and must –
(c) It provides enough light for night
(1) Be separated from flammable fluid operations; and
lines; or
(d) It does not cause a fire hazard in any
(2) Be shrouded by means of configuration.
electrically insulated flexible conduit or
equivalent, which is in addition to the normal
CS 23.1385 Position light system
cable insulations.
(f) Where a cable cannot be protected by a
(a) General. Each part of each position light
circuit protection device or other overload
system must meet the applicable requirements and
protection it must not cause a fire hazard under
each system as a whole must meet the
fault conditions.
requirements of CS 23.1387 to 23.1397.
(b) Left and right position lights. Left and
CS 23.1367 Switches
right position lights must consist of a red and a
Each switch must be – green light spaced laterally as far apart as
practicable and installed on the aeroplane such
(a) Able to carry its rated current;
that, with the aeroplane in the normal flying
(b) Constructed with enough distance or position, the red light is on the left side and the
insulating material between current carrying parts green light is on the right side.
and the housing so that vibration in flight will not
(c) Rear position light. The rear position
cause shorting;
light must be a white light mounted as far aft as
(c) Accessible to appropriate flight-crew practicable on the tail or on each wing tip.
members; and
(d) Light covers and colour filters. Each light
(d) Labelled as to operation and the circuit cover or colour filter must be at least flame-
controlled. resistant and may not change colour or shape or
lose any appreciable light transmission during
normal use.
CS 23.1387 Position light system
CS 23.1381 Instrument lights dihedral angles
The instrument lights must – (a) Except as provided in sub-paragraph (e) ,
each position light must, as installed, show
(a) Make each instrument and control easily
unbroken light within the dihedral angles
readable and discernible;
described in this paragraph.
(b) Be installed so that their direct rays, and
(b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two
rays reflected from the windshield or other
intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the
surface, are shielded from the pilot’s eyes; and
longitudinal axis of the aeroplane, and the other at
(c) Have enough distance or insulating 110° to the left of the first, as viewed when
material between current carrying parts and the looking forward along the longitudinal axis.
housing so that vibration in flight will not cause
(c) Dihedral angle R (right) is formed by two
intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the
A cabin dome light is not an instrument light. longitudinal axis of the aeroplane, and the other at
110° to the right of the first, as viewed when
looking forward along the longitudinal axis.

Amendment 1
Date 1–F–12
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

(d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two overlaps may be used with main beam
intersecting vertical planes making angles of 70° intensities substantially greater than the minima
to the right and to the left, respectively, to a specified in CS 23.1391 and 23.1393, if the
vertical plane passing through the longitudinal overlap intensities in relation to the main beam
axis, as viewed when looking aft along the intensities do not adversely affect signal clarity.
longitudinal axis. When the peak intensity of the left and right
position lights is more than 100 candelas, the
(e) If the rear position light, when mounted as
maximum overlap intensities between them may
far aft as practicable in accordance with
exceed the values in CS 23.1395 if the overlap
CS 23.1385 (c), cannot show unbroken light
intensity in Area A is not more than 10% of
within dihedral angle A (as defined in sub-
peak position light intensity and the overlap
paragraph (d) ), a solid angle or angles of
intensity in Area B is not more than 2·5% of
obstructed visibility totalling not more than
peak position light intensity.
0·04 steradians is allowable within that dihedral
angle, if such solid angle is within a cone whose (c) Rear position light installation. A single
apex is at the rear position light and whose rear position light may be installed in a position
elements make an angle of 30° with a vertical line displaced laterally from the plane of symmetry of
passing through the rear position light. an aeroplane if –
(1) The axis of the minimum cone of
illumination is parallel to the flight path in level
CS 23.1389 Position light distribution
flight; and
and intensities
(2) There is no obstruction aft of the
(a) General. The intensities prescribed in this
light and between planes 70° to the right and
paragraph must be provided by new equipment
left of the axis of maximum illumination.
with each light cover and colour filter in place.
Intensities must be determined with the light
source operating at a steady value equal to the CS 23.1391 Minimum intensities in the
average luminous output of the source at the horizontal plane of position
normal operating voltage of the aeroplane. The lights
light distribution and intensity of each position
Each position light intensity must equal or
light must meet the requirements of sub-
exceed the applicable values in the following
paragraph (b) .
(b) Position lights. The light distribution and Dihedral angle (light Angle from right Intensity
intensities of position lights must be expressed in included) or left of (candelas)
terms of minimum intensities in the horizontal longitudinal axis
plane, minimum intensities in any vertical plane measured from
and maximum intensities in over-lapping beams, dead ahead
within dihedral angles L, R and A, must meet the L and R ................. 0° to 10° ....... 40
following requirements: (red and green). 10° to 20° ...... 30
(1) Intensities in the horizontal plane. 20° to 110° ..... 5
Each intensity in the horizontal plane (the plane A (rear white)........ 110° to 180° .... 20
containing the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane
and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of
the aeroplane) must equal or exceed the values CS 23.1393 Minimum intensities in any
in CS 23.1391. vertical plane of position
(2) Intensities in any vertical plane.
Each intensity in any vertical plane (the plane Each position light intensity must equal or
perpendicular to the horizontal plane) must exceed the applicable values in the following
equal or exceed the appropriate value in table:
CS 23.1393, where I is the minimum intensity
prescribed in CS 23.1391 for the corresponding Angle above or below Intensity
angles in the horizontal plane. the horizontal plane
(3) Intensities in overlaps between
adjacent signals. No intensity in any overlap
between adjacent signals may exceed the values
in CS 23.1395, except that higher intensities in
Amendment 1
1–F–13 Date
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

0 1·00 I. “x” is not less than 0·300 and not greater than
0° to 5° 0·90 I. 0·540;
5° to 10° 0·80 I.
“y” is not less than “x–0·040” or “y°–0·010”,
10° to 15° 0·70 I.
whichever is the smaller; and
15° to 20° 0·50 I.
20° to 30° 0·30 I. “y” is not greater than “x+0·020” nor “0·636–
30° to 40° 0·10 I. 0·400x”;
40° to 90° 0·05 I.
Where “y°” is the “y” co-ordinate of the
Planckian radiator for the value of “x” considered.
CS 23.1395 Maximum intensities in
overlapping beams of CS 23.1399 Riding light
position lights
(a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a
No position light intensity may exceed the seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that it
applicable values in the following table, except as can –
provided in CS 23.1389 (b) (3): (1) Show a white light for at least 3·2
Maximum intensity km (2 miles) at night under clear atmospheric
Overlaps Area A Area B conditions; and
(candelas) (candelas) (2) Show the maximum unbroken light
Green in dihedral angle L 10 1 practicable when the aeroplane is moored or
Red in dihedral angle R 10 1 drifting on the water.
Green in dihedral angle A 5 1 (b) Externally hung lights may be used.
Red in dihedral angle A 5 1
Rear white in dihedral
angle L 5 1 CS 23.1401 Anti-collision light system
Rear white in dihedral (a) General. The aeroplane must have an
angle R 5 1 anti-collision light system that –
Where – (1) Consist of one or more approved
(a) Area A includes all directions in the anti-collision lights located so that their light
adjacent dihedral angle that pass through the light will not impair the flight-crew members’ vision
source and intersect the common boundary plane or detract from the conspicuity of the position
at more than 10° but less than 20°; and lights; and

(b) Area B includes all directions in the (2) Meet the requirements of sub-
adjacent dihedral angle that pass through the light paragraphs (b) to (f) .
source and intersect the common boundary plane (b) Field of coverage. The system must
at more than 20°. consist of enough lights to illuminate the vital
areas around the aeroplane, considering the
CS 23.1397 Colour specifications physical configuration and flight characteristics of
the aeroplane. The field of coverage must extend
Each position light colour must have the in each direction within at least 75° above and 75°
applicable International Commission on below the horizontal plane of the aeroplane, except
Illumination chromaticity co-ordinates as follows: that there may be solid angles of obstructed
(a) Aviation red – visibility totalling not more than 0·5 steradians.

“y” is not greater than 0·335; and (c) Flashing characteristics. The
arrangement of the system, that is, the number of
“z” is not greater than 0·002. light sources, beam width, speed of rotation, and
(b) Aviation green – other characteristics, must give an effective flash
frequency of not less than 40, nor more than 100,
“x” is not greater than 0·440–0·320y; cycles per minute. The effective flash frequency is
“x” is not greater than y–0·170; and the frequency at which the aeroplane’s complete
anti-collision light system is observed from a
“y” is not less than 0·390-0·170x. distance, and applies to each sector of light
(c) Aviation white – including any overlaps that exist when the system
consists of more than one light source. In
Amendment 1
Date 1–F–14
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

overlaps, flash frequencies may exceed 100, but loads resulting from the ultimate static load
not 180, cycles per minute. factors specified in CS 23.561 (b) (3).
(d) Colour. Each anti-collision light must be
either aviation red or aviation white and must meet CS 23.1415 Ditching equipment
the applicable requirements of CS 23.1397.
(a) Emergency flotation and signalling
(e) Light intensity. The minimum light equipment required by the operating rules must be
intensities in any vertical plane, measured with the installed so that it is readily available to the crew
red filter (if used) and expressed in terms of and passengers.
“effective” intensities, must meet the requirements
(b) Each raft and each life preserver must be
of sub-paragraph (f) . The following relation must
be assumed:
(c) Each raft released automatically or by the
∫t1 I ( t ) dt pilot must be attached to the aeroplane by a line to
Ie =
0·2 + (t 2 − t1) keep it alongside the aeroplane. This line must be
where – weak enough to break before submerging the
Ie = effective intensity (candelas). empty raft to which it is attached.

I(t) = instantaneous intensity as a (d) Each signalling device required by the

function of time. operating rules, must be accessible, function
satisfactorily and must be free of any hazard in its
(t 2 − t1) = flash time interval (seconds). operation.

Normally, the maximum value of effective CS 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot

intensity is obtained when t2 and t1 are chosen so system
that the effective intensity is equal to the
instantaneous intensity at t2 and t1. If certification with ice protection provisions is
desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is
(f) Minimum effective intensities for anti- installed –
collision lights. Each anti-collision light effective
intensity must equal or exceed the applicable (a) The system must meet the requirements
values in the following table: specified in CS 23.1419.

Angle above or below Effective intensity (b) The system and its components must be
the horizontal plane: (candelas) designed to perform their intended function under
any normal system operating temperature or
0° to 5° 400 pressure, and
5° to 10° 240 (c) Means to indicate to the flight crew that
10° to 20° 80 the pneumatic de-icer boot system is receiving
20° to 30° 40 adequate pressure and is functioning normally
30° to 75° 20 must be provided.

SAFETY EQUIPMENT CS 23.1419 Ice protection

(See AMC 23.1419)

CS 23.1411 General If certification with ice protection provisions is

desired, compliance with the following
(a) Required safety equipment to be used by requirements must be shown:
the flightcrew in an emergency, such as automatic
life-raft releases, must be readily accessible. (a) The recommended procedures for the use
of the ice protection equipment must be set forth in
(b) Stowage provisions for required safety the Aeroplane Flight Manual or in approved
equipment must be furnished and must – manual material.
(1) Be arranged so that the equipment is (b) An analysis must be performed to
directly accessible and its location is obvious; establish, on the basis of the aeroplane’s
and operational needs, the adequacy of the ice
(2) Protect the safety equipment from protection system for the various components of
damage caused by being subjected to the inertia the aeroplane. In addition, tests of the ice
protection system must be conducted to
Amendment 1
1–F–15 Date
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

demonstrate that the aeroplane is capable of when the aeroplane is being operated when any
operating safely in continuous maximum and headset is being used. (See AMC 23.1431(e))
intermittent maximum icing conditions as
described in AMC-1.
CS 23.1435 Hydraulic systems
(c) Compliance with all or portions may be
(a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be
accomplished by reference, where applicable
designed as follows:
because of similarity of the designs to analysis and
tests performed for the type certification of a type (1) Each hydraulic system and its
certificated aircraft. elements must withstand, without yielding, the
structural loads expected in addition to
(d) When monitoring of the external
hydraulic loads.
surfaces of the aeroplane by the flight crew is
required for proper operation of the ice protection (2) A means to indicate the pressure in
equipment, external lighting must be provided each hydraulic system which supplies two or
which is adequate to enable the monitoring to be more primary functions must be provided to the
done at night. flightcrew.
(3) There must be means to ensure that
the pressure, including transient (surge)
pressure, in any part of the system will not
exceed the safe limit above design operating
CS 23.1431 Electronic equipment pressure and to prevent excessive pressure
resulting from fluid volumetric changes in all
(a) In showing compliance with
lines which are likely to remain closed long
CS 23.1309(b)(1) and (2) with respect to radio and
enough for such changes to occur.
electronic equipment and their installations,
critical environmental conditions must be (4) The minimum design burst pressure
considered. must be 2·5 times the operating pressure.
(b) Radio and electronic equipment, controls, (b) Tests. Each system must be substantiated
and wiring must be installed so that operation of by proof pressure tests. When proof-tested, no
any unit or system of units will not adversely part of any system may fail, malfunction, or
affect the simultaneous operation of any other experience a permanent set. The proof load of
radio or electronic unit, or system of units. each system must be at least 1·5 times the
maximum operating pressure of that system.
(c) For those aeroplanes required to have more
than one flight-crew member, or whose operation (c) Accumulators. A hydraulic accumulator
will require more than one flight-crew member, the or reservoirs may be installed on the engine side of
cockpit must be evaluated to determine if the flight any firewall if –
crew members, when seated at their duty station, can
(1) It is an integral part of an engine or
converse without difficulty under the actual cockpit
propeller system, or
noise conditions when the aeroplane is being
operated. If the aeroplane design includes provisions (2) The reservoir is non-pressurised and
for the use of communication headsets, the the total capacity of all such non-pressurised
evaluation must also consider conditions where reservoirs is one litre (one US-quart) or less.
headsets are being used. If the evaluation shows
conditions under which it will be difficult to
CS 23.1437 Accessories for twin-engine
converse, an intercommunication system must be
For twin-engine aeroplanes, engine-driven
(d) If installed, communication equipment
accessories essential to safe operation must be
incorporates transmitter “on-off” switching, that
distributed among the two engines so that the
switching means must be designed to return from the
failure of any one engine will not impair safe
“transmit” to the “off” position when it is released
operation through the malfunctioning of these
and ensure that the transmitter will return to the off
(non-transmitting) state.
(e) If provisions for the use of communication
headsets are provided, it must be demonstrated that
the flight crew members will receive all aural
warnings under the actual cockpit noise conditions
Amendment 1
Date 1–F–16
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS 23.1438 Pressurisation and CS 23.1443 Minimum mass flow of

pneumatic systems supplemental oxygen
(a) Pressurisation system elements must be (a) If continuous flow oxygen equipment is
burst pressure tested to 2·0 times, and proof installed, the installation must comply with the
pressure tested to 1·5 times, the maximum normal requirements of either sub-paragraphs (a) (1) and
operating pressure. (a) (2) or sub-paragraph (a) (3) .
(b) Pneumatic system elements must be burst (1) For each passenger, the minimum
pressure tested to 3·0 times, and proof pressure mass flow of supplemental oxygen required at
tested to 1·5 times, the maximum normal operating various cabin pressure altitudes may not be less
pressure. than the flow required to maintain, during
inspiration and while using the oxygen
(c) An analysis, or a combination of analysis
equipment (including masks) provided, the
and test, may be substituted for any test required
following mean tracheal oxygen partial
by sub-paragraph (a) or (b) if the Agency finds it
equivalent to the required test.
(i) At cabin pressure altitudes
above 3048m (10 000 ft) up to and
CS 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and
including 5639m (18 500 ft), a mean
tracheal oxygen partial pressure of 100
(a) If certification with supplemental oxygen mm Hg when breathing 15 litres per
equipment is requested, or the aeroplane is minute, Body Temperature, Pressure,
approved for operations at or above altitudes Saturated (BTPS) and with a tidal volume
where oxygen is required to be used by the of 700 cc with a constant time interval
operating rules, oxygen equipment must be between respirations.
provided that meets the requirements and
(ii) At cabin pressure altitudes
CS 23.1443 to 23.1449. Portable oxygen
above 5639m (18 500 ft) up to and
equipment may be used to meet the requirements
including 12192m (40 000 ft), a mean
of CS-23 if the portable equipment is shown to
tracheal oxygen partial pressure of 83·8
comply with the applicable requirements, is
mm Hg when breathing 30 litres per
identified in aeroplane type design, and its
minute BTPS, and with a tidal volume of
stowage provisions are found to be in compliance
1100 cc with a constant time interval
with the requirements of CS 23.561.
between respirations.
(b) The oxygen system must be free from
(2) For each flight-crew member, the
hazards in itself, in its method of operation, and its
minimum mass flow may not be less than the
effect upon other components.
flow required to maintain, during inspiration, a
(c) There must be a means to allow the crew mean tracheal oxygen partial pressure of 149
to readily determine, during the flight, the quantity mm Hg when breathing 15 litres per minute,
of oxygen available in each source of supply. BTPS, and with a maximum tidal volume of 700
cc with a constant time interval between
(d) Each required flight-crew member must
be provided with –
(3) The minimum mass flow of
(1) Demand flow oxygen equipment if
supplemental oxygen supplied for each user
the aeroplane is to be certificated for operation
must be at a rate not less than that shown in the
above 7620m (25 000 ft).
following figure for each altitude up to and
(2) Pressure demand oxygen equipment including the maximum operating altitude of the
if the aeroplane is to be certificated for aeroplane.
operation above 12192m (40 000 ft).
(e) There must be a means, readily available
to the crew in flight, to turn on and shut off the
oxygen supply at the high pressure source. This
requirement does not apply to chemical oxygen

Amendment 1
1–F–17 Date
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

(a) Except for flexible lines from oxygen

outlets to the dispensing units, or where shown to
5 be otherwise suitable to the installation, non-
4.2 LPM
40 000 metallic tubing must not be used for any oxygen
4 line that is normally pressurised during flight.
3.5 LPM
35 000 (b) Non-metallic oxygen distribution lines
3 must not be routed where they may be subjected to
elevated temperatures, electrical arcing, and
released flammable fluids that might result from
any probable failure.

0.8 LPM CS 23.1447 Equipment standards for
12 500
oxygen dispensing units
10 20 30 40 If oxygen dispensing units are installed, the
Cabin Pressure Altitude following apply:
Thousands of Feet (a) There must be an individual dispensing
(b) If demand equipment is installed for use unit for each occupant for whom supplemental
by flight-crew members, the minimum mass flow oxygen is to be supplied. Each dispensing unit
of supplemental oxygen required for each must –
crewmember may not be less than the flow (1) Provide for effective utilisation of
required to maintain, during inspiration, a mean the oxygen being delivered to the unit.
tracheal oxygen partial pressure of 122 mm Hg up
to and including a cabin pressure altitude of (2) Be capable of being readily placed
10668m (35 000 ft), and 95% oxygen between into position on the face of the user.
cabin pressure altitudes of 10668 and 12192m (3) Be equipped with a suitable means
(35 000 and 40 000 ft), when breathing 20 litres to retain the unit in position on the face.
per minute BTPS. In addition, there must be
means to allow the crew to use undiluted oxygen at (4) If radio equipment is installed, the
their discretion. flight crew oxygen dispensing units must be
designed to allow the use of that equipment and
(c) If first aid oxygen equipment is installed, to allow communication with any other required
the minimum mass flow of oxygen to each user crew member while at their assigned duty
may not be less than 4 litres per minute, STPD. station.
However, there may be a means to decrease this
flow to not less than 2 litres per minute, STPD, at (b) If certification for operation up to and
any cabin altitude. The quantity of oxygen including 5486m (18 000 ft) (MSL) is requested,
required is based upon an average flow rate of 3 each oxygen dispensing unit must –
litres per minute per person for whom first aid (1) Cover the nose and mouth of the
oxygen is required. user; or
(d) As used in this paragraph – (2) Be a nasal cannula, in which case
(1) BTPS means Body Temperature, one oxygen dispensing unit covering both the
and Pressure, Saturated (which is, 37°C, and the nose and mouth of the user must be available.
ambient pressure to which the body is exposed, In addition, each nasal cannula or its connecting
minus 47 mm Hg, which is the tracheal pressure tubing must have permanently affixed –
displaced by water vapour pressure when the (i) A visible warning against
breathed air becomes saturated with water smoking while in use;
vapour at 37°C).
(ii) An illustration of the correct
(2) STPD means Standard, method of donning; and
Temperature, and Pressure, Dry (which is 0°C
at 760 mm Hg with no water vapour). (iii) A visible warning against use
with nasal obstructions or head colds with
resultant nasal congestion.
CS 23.1445 Oxygen distributing system (c) If certification for operation above 5486m
(18 000 ft) (MSL) is requested, each oxygen

Amendment 1
Date 1–F–18
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

dispensing unit must cover the nose and mouth of (1) The rate of oxygen flow, in litres per
the user. minute;
(d) For a pressurised aeroplane designed to (2) The duration of oxygen flow in
operate at flight altitudes above 7620m minutes, for the replaceable generator element;
(25 000 ft) (MSL), the dispensing units must meet and
the following:
(3) A warning that the replaceable
(1) The dispensing units for passengers generator element may be hot, unless the
must be connected to an oxygen supply terminal element construction is such that the surface
and be immediately available to each occupant, temperature cannot exceed 38°C (100°F).
wherever seated.
(2) The dispensing units for CS 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen
crewmembers must be automatically presented equipment
to each crewmember before the cabin pressure
Oxygen equipment and lines must –
altitude exceeds 4572m (15 000 ft), or the units
must be of the quick-donning type, connected to (a) Not be in any designated fire zone.
an oxygen supply terminal that is immediately
(b) Be protected from heat that may be
available to crewmembers at their station.
generated in, or escaped from, any designated fire
(e) If certification for operation above 9144m zone.
(30 000 ft) is requested, the dispensing units for
(c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen
passengers must be automatically presented to
cannot cause ignition of grease, fluid, or vapour
each occupant before the cabin pressure altitude
accumulations that are present in normal operation
exceeds 4572m (15 000 ft).
or that may result from the failure or malfunction
(f) If an automatic dispensing unit (hose and of any other system.
mask, or other unit) system is installed, the crew
must be provided with a manual means to make the
CS 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equip-
dispensing units immediately available in the event
ment from rupture
of failure of the automatic system.
(a) Each element of the oxygen system must
have sufficient strength to withstand the maximum
CS 23.1449 Means for determining use
pressure and temperature in combination with any
of oxygen
externally applied loads arising from consideration
There must be a means to allow the crew to of limit structural loads that may be acting on that
determine whether oxygen is being delivered to the part of the system.
dispensing equipment.
(b) Oxygen pressure sources and the lines
between the source and shut-off means must be –
CS 23.1450 Chemical oxygen generators
(1) Protected from unsafe temperatures;
(a) For the purpose of this paragraph, a and
chemical oxygen generator is defined as a device
(2) Located where the probability and
which produces oxygen by chemical reaction.
hazard of rupture in a crash landing are
(b) Each chemical oxygen generator must be minimised.
designed and installed in accordance with the
following requirements:
CS 23.1457 Cockpit voice recorders
(1) Surface temperature developed by
(a) Each cockpit voice recorder required by
the generator during operation may not create a
the operating rules must be approved and must be
hazard to the aeroplane or to its occupants.
installed so that it will record the following:
(2) Means must be provided to relieve
(1) Voice communications transmitted
any internal pressure that may be hazardous.
from or received in the aeroplane by radio.
(c) In addition to meeting the requirements in
(2) Voice communications of flight
sub-paragraph (b) , each portable chemical oxygen
crewmembers on the flight deck.
generator that is capable of sustained operation by
successive replacement of a generator element
must be placarded to show –

Amendment 1
1–F–19 Date
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

(3) Voice communications of flight- (5) And that as far as is practicable all
crew members on the flight deck, using the sounds received by the microphone listed in
aeroplane’s interphone system. sub-paragraph (c) (1), (2) and (4) must be
recorded without interruption irrespective of the
(4) Voice or audio signals identifying
position of the interphone-transmitter key
navigation or approach aids introduced into a
switch. The design must ensure that sidetone
headset or speaker.
for the flight crew is produced only when the
(5) Voice communications of flight- interphone, public address system, or radio
crew members using the passenger loudspeaker transmitters are in use.
system, if there is such a system and if the
(d) Each cockpit voice recorder must be
fourth channel is available in accordance with
installed so that –
the requirements of sub-paragraph (c) (4) (ii) .
(1) It receives its electric power from
(b) The recording requirements of sub-
the bus that provides the maximum reliability
paragraph (a) (2) must be met by installing a
for operation of the cockpit voice recorder
cockpit-mounted area microphone, located in the
without jeopardising service to essential or
best position for recording voice communications
emergency loads.
originating at the first and second pilot stations
and voice communications of other crewmembers (2) There is an automatic means to
on the flight deck when directed to those stations. simultaneously stop the recorder and prevent
The microphone must be so located and, if each erasure feature from functioning, within 10
necessary, the preamplifiers and filters of the minutes after crash impact; and
recorder must be so adjusted or supplemented, so
(3) There is an aural or visual means for
that the intelligibility of the recorded
pre-flight checking of the recorder for proper
communications is as high as practicable when
recorded under flight cockpit noise conditions and
played back. Repeated aural or visual play-back (e) The record container must be located and
of the record may be used in evaluating mounted to minimise the probability of rupture of
intelligibility. the container as a result of crash impact and
consequent heat damage to the record from fire. In
(c) Each cockpit voice recorder must be
meeting this requirement, the record container
installed so that the part of the communication or
must be as far aft as practicable, but may not be
audio signals specified in sub-paragraph (a)
where aft mounted engines may crush the
obtained from each of the following sources is
container during impact. However, it need not be
recorded on a separate channel:
outside of the pressurised compartment.
(1) For the first channel, from each
(f) If the cockpit voice recorder has a bulk
boom, mask, or handheld microphone, headset,
erasure device, the installation must be designed to
or speaker used at the first pilot station.
minimise the probability of inadvertent operations
(2) For the second channel from each and actuation of the device during crash impact.
boom, mask, or handheld microphone, headset,
(g) Each recorder container must –
or speaker used at the second pilot station.
(1) Be either bright orange or bright
(3) For the third channel-from the
cockpit-mounted area microphone.
(2) Have reflective tape affixed to its
(4) For the fourth channel from –
external surface to facilitate its location under
(i) Each boom, mask, or handheld water; and
microphone, headset, or speaker used at
(3) Have an underwater locating device,
the station for the third and fourth
when required by the operating rules, on or
adjacent to the container which is secured in
(ii) If the stations specified in sub- such manner that they are not likely to be
paragraph (c) (4) (i) are not required or if separated during crash impact.
the signal at such a station is picked up by
another channel, each microphone on the
CS 23.1459 Flight recorders
flight deck that is used with the passenger
(See AMC 23.1459 (b))
loudspeaker system, if its signals are not
picked up by another channel. (a) Each flight recorder required by the
operating rules must be installed so that –
Amendment 1
Date 1–F–20
CS-23 BOOK 1 Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

(1) It is supplied with airspeed, altitude, (1) Be either bright orange or bright
and directional data obtained from sources that yellow;
meet the accuracy requirements of CS 23.1323,
(2) Have reflective tape affixed to its
23.1325 and 23.1327, as appropriate;
external surface to facilitate its location under
(2) The vertical acceleration sensor is water; and
rigidly attached, and located longitudinally
(3) Have an underwater locating device,
either within the approved centre of gravity
when required by the operating rules, on or
limits of the aeroplane, or at a distance forward
adjacent to the container which is secured in
or aft of these limits that does not exceed 25%
such a manner that they are not likely to be
of the aeroplane’s mean aerodynamic chord;
separated during crash impact.
(3) It receives its electrical power from
(e) Any novel or unique design or operational
the bus that provides the maximum reliability
characteristics of the aeroplane must be evaluated
for operation of the flight recorder without
to determine if any dedicated parameters must be
jeopardising service to essential or emergency
recorded on flight recorders in addition to or in
place of existing requirements.
(4) There is an aural or visual means for
pre-flight checking of the recorder for proper
CS 23.1461 Equipment containing high
recording of data in the storage medium.
energy rotors
(5) Except for recorders powered solely
(a) Equipment containing high energy rotors
by the engine-driven electrical generator
must meet sub-paragraphs (b), (c) or (d) .
system, there is an automatic means to
simultaneously stop a recorder that has a data (b) High energy rotors contained in
erasure feature and prevent each erasure feature equipment must be able to withstand damage
from functioning, within 10 minutes after crash caused by malfunctions, vibration, abnormal
impact; and speeds and abnormal temperatures. In addition –
(b) Each non-ejectable record container must (1) Auxiliary rotor cases must be able to
be located and mounted so as to minimise the contain damage caused by the failure of high
probability of container rupture resulting from energy rotor blades; and
crash impact and subsequent damage to the record
(2) Equipment control devices, systems
from fire. In meeting this requirement the record
and instrumentation must reasonably ensure that
container must be located as far aft as practicable,
no operating limitations affecting the integrity
but need not be aft of the pressurised
of high energy rotors will be exceeded in
compartment, and may not be where aft-mounted
engines may crush the container upon impact.
(c) It must be shown by test that equipment
(c) A correlation must be established between
containing high energy rotors can contain any
the flight recorder readings of airspeed, altitude,
failure of a high energy rotor that occurs at the
and heading and the corresponding readings
highest speed obtainable with the normal speed
(taking into account correction factors) of the first
control devices inoperative.
pilot’s instruments. The correlation must cover the
airspeed range over which the aeroplane is to be (d) Equipment containing high energy rotors
operated, the range of altitude to which the must be located where rotor failure will neither
aeroplane is limited, and 360° of heading. endanger the occupants nor adversely affect
Correlation may be established on the ground as continued safe flight.
(d) Each recorder container must –

Amendment 1
1–F–21 Date
Annex to ED Decision 2009/001/R

CS-23 BOOK 1


GENERAL and VD/MD or the maximum speed shown under

CS 23.251 may not be less than the speed margin
established between VC/MC and VD/MD under
CS 23.1501 General
CS 23.335(b), or the speed margin found
(a) Each operating limitation specified in necessary in the flight tests conducted under
CS 23.1505 to 23.1527 and other limitations and CS 23.253.
information necessary for safe operation must be
CS 23.1507 Manoeuvring speed
(b) The operating limitations and other
The maximum operating maneuvering speed,
information necessary for safe operation must be
VO, must be established as an operating limitation.
made available to the crew members as prescribed
VO is a selected speed that is not greater than VS√n
in CS 23.1541 to 23.1589.
established in CS 23.335(c).

CS 23.1505 Airspeed limitations

CS 23.1511 Flap extended speed
(a) The never-exceed speed VNE must be
(a) The flap extended speed VFE must be
established so that it is –
established so that it is –
(1) Not less than 0·9 times the minimum
(1) Not less than the minimum value of
value of VD allowed under CS 23.335; and
VF allowed in CS 23.345 (b); and
(2) Not more than the lesser of –
(2) Not more than VF established under
(i) 0·9 VD established under CS 23.345 (a), (c) and (d).
CS 23.335; or
(b) Additional combinations of flap setting,
(ii) 0·9 times the maximum speed airspeed and engine power may be established if
shown under CS 23.251. the structure has been proven for the
corresponding design conditions.
(b) The maximum structural cruising speed
VNO must be established so that it is –
CS 23.1513 Minimum control speed
(1) Not less than the minimum value of
VC allowed under CS 23.335; and The minimum control speed(s) VMC, determined
under CS 23.149 (b), must be established as an
(2) Not more than the lesser of – operating limitation(s).
(i) VC established under CS
23.335; or CS 23.1519 Weight and centre of gravity
(ii) 0·89 VNE established under The weight and centre of gravity ranges,
sub-paragraph (a) . determined under CS 23.23 must be established as
(c) Sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) do not apply to operating limitations.
turbine aeroplanes or to aeroplanes for which a
design diving speed VD/MD is established under CS 23.1521 Powerplant limitations
CS 23.335 (b) (4). For those aeroplanes, a
maximum operating limit speed (VMO/MMO (a) General. The powerplant limitations pre-
airspeed or Mach number, whichever is critical at scribed in this section must be established so that
a particular altitude) must be established as a they do not exceed the corresponding limits for
speed that may not be deliberately exceeded in any which the engines or propellers are type
regime of flight (climb, cruise, or descent) unless a certificated.
higher speed is authorised for flight test or pilot (b) Take-off operation. The powerplant take-
training operations. VMO/MMO must be established off operation must be limited by –
so that it is not greater than the design cruising
speed VC/MC and so that it is sufficiently below (1) The maximum rotational speed
VD/MD and the maximum speed shown under (rpm);
CS 23.251 to make it highly improbable that the (2) The maximum allowable manifold
latter speeds will be inadvertently exceeded in pressure (for reciprocating engines);
operations. The speed margin between VMO/MMO
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(3) The maximum allowable gas (4) Communications,

temperature (for turbine engines);
(5) Operation and monitoring of all
(4) The time limit for the use of the essential aeroplane systems,
power or thrust corresponding to the limitations
(6) Command decisions, and
established in sub-paragraphs (1) to (3) ; and
(7) The accessibility and ease of
(5) The maximum allowable cylinder
operation of necessary controls by the
head (as applicable), liquid coolant and oil
appropriate crew member during all normal and
emergency operations when at the crew member
(c) Continuous operation. The continuous flight station.
operation must be limited by –
(b) The accessibility and ease of operation of
(1) The maximum rotational speed; necessary controls by the appropriate crew
member; and
(2) The maximum allowable manifold
pressure (for reciprocating engines); (c) The kinds of operation authorised under
CS 23.1525.
(3) The maximum allowable gas
temperature (for turbine engines); and
CS 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating
(4) The maximum allowable cylinder
head, oil and liquid coolant temperatures.
The maximum passenger seating configuration
(d) Fuel grade or designation. The minimum
must be established.
fuel grade (for reciprocating engines), or fuel
designation (for turbine engines), must be
established so that it is not less than that required CS 23.1525 Kinds of operation
for the operation of the engines within the
The kinds of operation (such as VFR, IFR, day
limitations in sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) . or night) and the meteorological conditions (such
(e) Ambient temperature. For all aeroplanes as icing) to which the operation of the aeroplane is
except reciprocating engine-powered aeroplanes of limited or from which it is prohibited, must be
2 722 kg (6 000 lb) or less maximum weight, established appropriate to the installed equipment.
ambient temperature limitations (including
limitations for winterisation installations if CS 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude
applicable) must be established as the maximum
ambient atmospheric temperature at which (a) The maximum altitude up to which
compliance with the cooling provisions of operation is allowed, as limited by flight,
CS 23.1041 to 23.1047 is shown. structural, powerplant, functional, or equipment
characteristics, must be established.

CS 23.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation
of not more than 7620 m (25 000 ft) must be
If an auxiliary power unit is installed, the established for pressurised aeroplanes, unless
limitations established for the auxiliary power unit compliance with CS 23.775 (e) is shown.
must be specified in the operating limitations for
the aeroplane.
CS 23.1529 Instructions for continued
CS 23.1523 Minimum flight crew
Instructions for continued airworthiness in
The minimum flight crew must be established accordance with Appendix G must be prepared.
so that it is sufficient for safe operation
considering –
(a) The workload on individual crew
members and, in addition for commuter category
aeroplanes, each crew member workload CS 23.1541 General
determination must consider the following: (a) The aeroplane must contain –
(1) Flight path control, (1) The markings and placards specified
(2) Collision avoidance, in CS 23.1545 to 23.1567; and
(3) Navigation, (2) Any additional information,
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instrument markings and placards required for arc with the lower limit at VSO at the maximum
the safe operation if it has unusual design, weight and the upper limit at the flaps-extended
operating, or handling characteristics. speed VFE established under CS 23.1511.
(b) Each marking and placard prescribed in (5) For reciprocating twin-engine-
sub-paragraph (a) – powered aeroplanes of 2 722 kg (6 000 lb) or
less maximum weight, for the speed at which
(1) Must be displayed in a conspicuous
compliance has been shown with CS 23.69 (b)
place; and
relating to rate of climb, at maximum weight
(2) May not be easily erased, disfigured and at sea-level, a blue radial line.
or obscured.
(6) For reciprocating twin-engine-
(c) For aeroplanes which are to be certificated powered aeroplanes of 2 722 kg (6 000 lb) or
in more than one category – less maximum weight, for the maximum value
of minimum control speed (one-engine-
(1) One category upon which the
inoperative) determined under CS 23.149 (b),
placards and markings are to be based must be
VMC, a red radial line.
selected for the aeroplane; and
(c) If VNE or VNO vary with altitude, there
(2) The placards and marking
must be means to indicate to the pilot the
information for all categories in which the
appropriate limitations throughout the operating
aeroplane is to be certificated must be furnished
altitude range.
in the Aeroplane Flight Manual.
(d) Sub-paragraphs (b) (1) to (b) (3) and sub-
paragraph (c) do not apply to aircraft for which a
CS 23.1543 Instrument markings: general
maximum operating speed VMO/MMO is established
(See AMC 23.1543 (b))
under CS 23.1505 (c). For those aircraft there
For each instrument – must either be a maximum allowable airspeed
indication showing the variation of VMO/MMO with
(a) When markings are on the cover glass of
altitude or compressibility limitations (as
the instrument, there must be means to maintain
appropriate), or a radial red line marking for
the correct alignment of the glass cover with the
VMO/MMO must be made at lowest value of
face of the dial; and
VMO/MMO established for any altitude up to the
(b) Each arc and line must be wide enough maximum operating altitude for the aeroplane.
and located to be clearly visible to the pilot.
(c) All related instruments must be calibrated CS 23.1547 Magnetic direction indicator
in compatible units.
(a) A placard meeting the requirements of
this section must be installed on or near the
CS 23.1545 Airspeed indicator magnetic direction indicator.
(a) Each airspeed indicator must be marked as (b) The placard must show the calibration of
specified in sub-paragraph (b) , with the marks the instrument in level flight with the engines
located at the corresponding indicated airspeeds. operating.
(b) The following markings must be made: (c) The placard must state whether the
calibration was made with radio receivers on or
(1) For the never-exceed speed VNE, a
radial red line.
(d) Each calibration reading must be in terms
(2) For the caution range, a yellow arc
of magnetic headings in not more than 30°
extending from the red line specified in sub-
paragraph (1) to the upper limit of the green
arc specified in sub-paragraph (3) . (e) If a magnetic non-stabilised direction
indicator can have a deviation of more than 10°
(3) For the normal operating range, a
caused by the operation of electrical equipment,
green arc with the lower limit at VS1 with
the placard must state which electrical loads, or
maximum weight and with landing gear and
combination of loads, would cause a deviation of
wing flaps retracted, and the upper limit at the
more than 10° when turned on.
maximum structural cruising speed VNO
established under CS 23.1505 (b).
(4) For the flap operating range, a white
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CS 23.1549 Powerplant and auxiliary placard adjacent to the selector valve for that
power unit instruments tank; and
For each required powerplant and auxiliary (4) Each valve control for any engine of
power unit instrument, as appropriate to the type a twin-engine aeroplane must be marked to
of instruments – indicate the position corresponding to each
engine controlled.
(a) Each maximum and if applicable,
minimum safe operating limit must be marked with (d) Usable fuel capacity must be marked as
a red radial or a red line; follows:
(b) Each normal operating range must be (1) For fuel systems having no selector
marked with a green arc or green line not controls, the usable fuel capacity of the system
extending beyond the maximum and minimum safe must be indicated at the fuel quantity indicator.
(2) For fuel systems having selector
(c) Each take-off and precautionary range controls, the usable fuel capacity available at
must be marked with a yellow arc or a yellow line; each selector control position must be indicated
and near the selector control.
(d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit or (e) For accessory, auxiliary and emergency
propeller range that is restricted because of controls –
excessive vibration stresses must be marked with
(1) If retractable landing gear is used,
red arcs or red lines.
the indicator required by CS 23.729 must be
marked so that the pilot can, at any time,
CS 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator ascertain that the wheels are secured in the
extreme positions; and
Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in
sufficient increments to indicate readily and (2) Each emergency control must be red
accurately the quantity of oil. and must be marked as to method of operation.
No control other than an emergency control
shall be this colour.
CS 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator
A red radial line must be marked on each
CS 23.1557 Miscellaneous markings and
indicator at the calibrated zero reading, as
specified in CS 23.1337 (b) (1).
(a) Baggage and cargo compartments and
ballast location. Each baggage and cargo
CS 23.1555 Control markings
compartment, and each ballast location, must have
(See AMC 23.1555 (e) (2))
a placard stating any limitations on contents,
(a) Each cockpit control, other than primary including weight, that are necessary under the
flight controls and simple push-button type starter loading requirements.
switches, must be plainly marked as to its function
(b) Seats. If the maximum allowable weight
and method of operation.
to be carried in a seat is less than 77 kg (170 lb), a
(b) Each secondary control must be suitably placard stating the lesser weight must be
marked. permanently attached to the seat structure.
(c) For powerplant fuel controls – (c) Fuel, oil and coolant filler openings. The
following apply:
(1) Each fuel tank selector control must
be marked to indicate the position (1) Fuel filler openings must be marked
corresponding to each tank and to each existing at or near the filler cover with –
cross feed position;
(i) For reciprocating engine-
(2) If safe operation requires the use of powered aeroplanes –
any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence
(A) The word „Avgas“; and
must be marked on or near the selector for those
tanks; (B) The minimum fuel grade.
(3) The conditions under which the full (ii) For turbine engine-powered
amount of usable fuel in any restricted usage aeroplanes –
fuel tank can safely be used must be stated on a
(A) The words „Jet Fuel“; and
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(B) The permissible fuel occupants.

designations, or references to the
Aeroplane Flight Manual (AFM) for
CS 23.1563 Airspeed placards
permissible fuel designations.
There must be an airspeed placard in clear view
(iii) For pressure fuelling systems,
of the pilot and as close as practicable to the
the maximum permissible fuelling supply
airspeed indicator. This placard must list –
pressure and the maximum permissible
defuelling pressure. (a) The operating manoeuvring speed, Vo;
(2) Oil filler openings must be marked (b) The maximum landing gear operating
at or near the filler cover with – speed VLO; and
(i) The word „Oil“; and (c) For reciprocating engine-powered
[aeroplanes of more than 2 722 kg (6 000 lb)]
(ii) The permissible oil
maximum weight and turbine engine-powered
designation, or references to the
aeroplanes, the maximum value of the minimum
Aeroplane Flight Manual (AFM) for
control speed (one-engine-inoperative) determined
Permissible oil designations.
under CS 23.149 (b), VMC.
(3) Coolant filler openings must be
marked at or near the filler cover with the word
CS 23.1567 Flight manoeuvre placard
(a) For normal category aeroplanes, there
(d) Emergency exit placards. Each placard
must be a placard in front of and in clear view of
and operating control for each emergency exit
the pilot stating: „No aerobatic manoeuvres
must be red. A placard must be near each
including spins, approved“.
emergency exit control and must clearly indicate
the location of that exit and its method of (b) For utility category aeroplanes, there must
operation. be –
(e) The system voltage of each direct current (1) A placard in clear view of the pilot
installation must be clearly marked adjacent to its stating: „Aerobatic manoeuvres are limited to
external power connection. the following........“ (list approved manoeuvres
and the recommended entry speed for each);
CS 23.1559 Operating limitations placard
(2) For those aeroplanes that do not
(a) There must be a placard in clear view of
meet the spin requirements for aerobatic
the pilot stating –
category aeroplanes, an additional placard in
(1) That the aeroplane must be operated clear view of the pilot stating: „Spins
in accordance with the Aeroplane Flight Prohibited“.
Manual; and
(c) For aerobatic category aeroplanes, there
(2) The certification category of the must be a placard in clear view of the pilot listing
aeroplane to which the placards apply. the approved aerobatic manoeuvres and the
recommended entry airspeed for each. If inverted
(b) For aeroplanes certificated in more than
flight manoeuvres are not approved, the placard
one category, there must be a placard in clear view
must bear a notation to this effect.
of the pilot, stating that other limitations are
contained in the Aeroplane Flight Manual. (d) For aerobatic category aeroplanes and
utility category aeroplanes approved for spinning,
(c) There must be a placard in clear view of
there must be a placard in clear view of the pilot –
the pilot that specifies the kind of operations to
which the operation of the aeroplane is limited or (1) Listing the control actions for
from which it is prohibited under CS 23.1525. recovery from spinning manoeuvres; and
(2) Stating that recovery must be
CS 23.1561 Safety equipment initiated when spiral characteristics appear, or
after not more than 6 turns or not more than any
(a) Safety equipment must be plainly marked
greater number of turns for which the aeroplane
as to method of operation.
has been certificated.
(b) Stowage provisions for required safety
equipment must be marked for the benefit of
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AEROPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL CS 23.1583 Operating limitations

The Aeroplane Flight Manual must contain
CS 23.1581 General operating limitations determined under CS-23,
including the following:
(a) An Aeroplane Flight Manual must be
submitted to the Agency and it must contain the (a) Airspeed limitations
(1) Information necessary for the
(1) Information required by CS 23.1583 marking of the airspeed limits on the indicator
to 23.1589. as required in CS 23.1545, and the significance
of each of those limits and of the colour coding
(2) Other information that is necessary
used on the indicator.
for safe operation because of design, operating
or handling characteristics. (2) The speeds VMC, Vo, VLE and VLO
and their significance.
(3) Further information necessary to
comply with the relevant operating rules. (3) In addition, for turbine powered
commuter category aeroplanes –
(b) Approved information
(i) The maximum operating limit
(1) Except as provided in sub-paragraph
speed, VMO/MMO and a statement that this
(b)(2), each part of the Aeroplane Flight
speed must not be deliberately exceeded
Manual containing information prescribed in
in any regime of flight (climb, cruise or
CS 23.1583 to 23.1589 must be approved,
descent) unless a higher speed is
segregated, identified and clearly distinguished
authorised for flight test or pilot training;
from each unapproved part of that Aeroplane
Flight Manual. (ii) If an airspeed limitation is
based upon compressibility effects, a
(2) The requirements of sub-paragraph
statement to this effect and information as
(b) (1) do not apply to reciprocating engine-
to any symptoms, the probable behaviour
powered aeroplanes of 2 722 kg (6 000 lb) or
of the aeroplane and the recommended
less maximum weight, if the following is met:
recovery procedures; and
(i) Each part of the Aeroplane
(iii) The airspeed limits must be
Flight Manual containing information
shown in terms of VMO/MMO instead of
prescribed in CS 23.1583 must be limited
VNO and VNE.
to such information and must be
approved, identified and clearly (b) Powerplant limitations
distinguished from each other part of the
(1) Limitations required by CS 23.1521.
Aeroplane Flight Manual.
(2) Explanation of the limitations, when
(ii) The information prescribed in
CS 23.1585 to 23.1589 must be
determined in accordance with the (3) Information necessary for marking
applicable requirements of CS-23 and the instruments required by CS 23.1549 to
presented in its entirety in a manner 23.1553.
acceptable to the Agency.
(c) Weight
(c) The units used in the Aeroplane Flight
(1) The maximum weight; and
Manual must be the same as those marked on the
appropriate instruments and placards. (2) The maximum landing weight, if the
design landing weight selected by the applicant
(d) All Aeroplane Flight Manual operational
is less than the maximum weight.
airspeeds must, unless otherwise specified, be
presented as indicated Airspeeds. (3) For normal, utility and aerobatic
category reciprocating engine-powered
(e) Provisions must be made for stowing the
aeroplanes of more than 2 722 kg (6 000 lb)
Aeroplane Flight Manual in a suitable fixed
maximum weight and for turbine engine-
container which is readily accessible to the pilot.
powered aeroplanes in the normal, utility and
(f) Revisions and/or Amendments. Each aerobatic category, performance operating
Aeroplane Flight Manual must contain a means for limitations as follows:
recording the incorporation of revisions and/or
(i) The maximum take-off weight
for each aerodrome altitude and ambient
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temperature within the range selected by section.

the applicant at which the aeroplane
(1) Normal category aeroplanes. No
complies with the climb requirements of
aerobatic manoeuvres, including spins, are
CS 23.63 (c) (1).
(ii) The maximum landing weight
(2) Utility category aeroplanes. A list
for each aerodrome altitude and ambient
of authorised manoeuvres demonstrated in the
temperature within the range selected by
type flight tests, together with recommended
the applicant at which the aeroplane
entry speeds and any other associated
complies with the climb requirements of
limitations. No other manoeuvre is authorised.
CS 23.63 (c) (2).
(3) Aerobatic category aeroplanes. A
(4) For commuter category aeroplanes,
list of approved flight manoeuvres
the maximum take-off weight for each
demonstrated in the type flight tests, together
aerodrome altitude and ambient temperature
with recommended entry speeds and any other
within the range selected by the applicant at
associated limitations.
which –
(4) Aerobatic category aeroplanes and
(i) The aeroplane complies with
utility category aeroplanes approved for
the climb requirements of
spinning. Spin recovery procedure established
CS 23.63 (d) (1); and
to show compliance with CS 23.221 (c).
(ii) The accelerate-stop distance
(5) Commuter category aeroplanes.
determined under CS 23.55 is equal to the
Manoeuvres are limited to any manoeuvre
available runway length plus the length of
incident to normal flying, stalls (except whip
any stopway, if utilised; and either,
stalls) and steep turns in which the angle of
(iii) The take-off distance bank is not more than 60°.
determined under CS 23.59 (a) is equal to
(f) Manoeuvre load factor. The positive limit
the available runway length; or
load factors in g’s, and in addition the negative
(iv) At the option of the applicant, limit load factor for aerobatic category aeroplanes.
the take-off distance determined under
(g) Minimum flight crew. The number and
CS 23.59 (a) is equal to the available