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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 1 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Rasagna: What's wrong? You shiver and trem-


ble as though you had seen a ghost.
(Ç v°æߪ’-ûªoç™ ÉçéÓ N°æ-ûª\®Ω °æJ-ÆœnA ®√´úøç ´çöÀ Å稻-©èπ◊
What's happened?
éπLpç-îª-¶-ߪ÷´¤. Å™«çöÀ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’-™xØË Ææç•ç-Cμç-*-†N. Real
ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ Ç™-*ç-îªúøç Å´-Ææ®Ωç. life situations ™ OöÀ
(à´’-®·çC? à ¶μº÷û√ØÓo, vÊ°û√ØÓo ¶μºßª’çûÓ Ö†o F ¢Á·£æ«ç îª÷úø-í¬ØË ¢√úøéπç ûª®Ωîª’í¬ NE-°œ-
îª÷Æœ-†ô’x ´ùÀ-éÀ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o´¤. àç Ø√™ v°æ´÷ü¿ °∂æ’çöÀ-éπ©’ ¢Á÷í¬®·.) Ææ’hçC. Practice îËüΔlç.
Manogna: I should be more careful. I've learnt 1) A narrow escape -
ïJTçC?)
Manogna: You've arrived just a minute late. I
the lesson. OK. I'm sure you are DE Å®Ωnç ûÁ©’-Ææ÷hØË
had had a narrow escape as I was
returning from the match. How did it ÖçC éπüΔ – ûª%öÀ™
crossing the road. Look at that truck
go off? ûª°œpç--éÓ-´úøç. 4) Set the alarm bells ringing =
taking a turn there. It scraped past ÇçüÓ-∞¡† éπL-TçîË
(Å´¤ØËx. ØËEç-é¬Ææh ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ Öçú≈L. a) Even if he had been a second late cross-
by me. I'm yet to recover from the v°æ´÷ü¿ Ææ÷îª-†©’
§ƒ®∏Ωç ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊Ø√o. ÆæÍ® †’´¤y ´÷uî˝ ing the road, the truck would have a) The movement of chinese troops across
shock.
†’ç* AJ-íÌ-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤ éπüΔ? ᙫ ïJ- knocked him down. He had a narrow the border has set the alarm bells ringing
escape =
(†’´¤y äéπ\ éπ~-ùç Ç©-Ææuçí¬ ´î√a´¤.
®Óú˛ üΔô’ûª÷ Öçõ‰ v°æ´÷ü¿ç ûª%öÀ™
TçC.) ®Óú˛ üΔôúøç äéπ\-ÂÆ-éπØ˛ Ç©-Ææu-¢Á’iØ√ for the indian government = ÆæJ-£æ«ü¿’l Å´-
Rasagna: We've won of course, but just by the ÅûªúÕE ™«K úμŒ éÌØËüË. ûª%öÀ™ ûª°œpç-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. ûª© îÁjØ√ •©-í¬© éπü¿-L-éπ©’ ¶μ«®Ωûª v°æ¶μº’-û√y-EéÀ
b) The thief had a harrow escape from being
ûª°œpç--èπ◊Ø√o. Åéπ\úø ´’©’°æ¤ A®Ω’-í∫’-
skin of our teeth. We got them out in ÇçüÓ-∞¡† éπL-TçîË v°æ´÷ü¿ Ææ÷*-éπ-©’í¬
caught by the police, Before they could
ûª’†o ™«KE îª÷úø’. ††’o üΔüΔ°æ¤ ®√Ææ’-
èπ◊çô÷ §Ú®·çC. Ç ≥ƒé˙ †’ç* the end but it was a close thing. ÖØ√o®·.
see him, he hid behind the wall =
b) The indications of decontrol of petroleum
ØËEçé¬ ûË®Ω’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’.) (´’†¢Ë’ ÈíL-î√-´’-†’éÓ, é¬F ÅA éπ≠dçæ - §ÚMÆæ’©
prices are setting alarm bells ringing in
Rasagna: Your face tells all. Come, have some O’ü¿. *´-®ΩéÀ ¢√∞¡x†’ ãúÕçî√ç, é¬F *´- ¶«J-†’ç* Ç üÌçí∫ ûª%öÀ™ ûª°œpç--èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
consumers =
drink or something. But why were J-´-®Ωèπ◊ ¢√∞«x-´’-†´÷ ÅØË Nüμ¿çí¬ ¢√∞¡xûªúÕE îª÷úø-éπ-´·çüË Åûªúø’ íÓúø ¢Á†’éπ °vö-Lߪ’ç üμ¿®Ω-©Â°j Eߪ’ç-vûªù
you crossing the road at this point, ≤ƒTçC.) üΔèπ◊\-Ø√oúø’. áAh-¢Ë-ßÁ·-îªaØË Ææ÷îª-†©’ NE-ßÁ÷-í∫-üΔ-®Ω’©
í∫’çúÁ™x È®j∞¡Ÿx °æJ-Èí-Ah-Ææ’h-Ø√o®·.

By the skin of somebody's teeth


5) By the skin of somebody's teeth = ÅA éπ≠dç æ-
O’ü¿ ≤ƒCμç-îª-í∫-©-í∫úøç.
a) The team won the match by the skin of its
teeth when the lost batsman with one ball
to go hit it to the boundary = *´J •çAE
when there is a pedestrian crossing Narrow escape = hair- breadth
*´J Çô-í¬úø’ ¶˜çúø-KéÀ éÌôd-úøçûÓ Ç ïô’d Ç
a few feet away over there? Weren't escape = ¢Áçvô’-éπ-¢√-Æœ™ ûª°œpç--éÓ-
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 609
´÷uî˝E ÅA éπ≠dçæ -O’ü¿ ØÁT_çC.
you just taking life into your hands? ´úøç. b) Caught in the midst of the flames, he was
(F ¢Á·£æ«ç îª÷ÊÆhØË ûÁ©’-≤ÚhçC. ®√ The child had a hair - breadth able to escape only by the skin of his
Manogna: This amuses me. Our win escape. It rotted off the track as the
àü¿Ø√o BÆæ’éÓ. éÌEo Åúø’í∫’© teeth
was a close thing and I
= ´’çô© ´’üμ¿u *èπ◊\-èπ◊†o Åûªúø’
ü¿÷®Ωç™ §ƒü¿-î√-®Ω’©’ üΔõ‰ ´÷®Ω_ç train approached it = ¢Áçvô’-éπ-¢√-Æœ™
had a close shave. Thank
ÅA-éπ≠dçæ O’ü¿ •ßª’ô °æú≈fúø’.
6) A close thing = Èí©’°æ¤, ãô-N’éÀ Ææ´÷-Ø√-´-é¬-¨»©’
Öçõ‰, †’Ny-éπ\úË áçü¿’èπ◊ üΔöÀ-†ô’x? Gúøf ûª°œpç--èπ◊çC. È®j©’ ÆæO’-°œç-îËç-ûª™
god, I'm still alive and our M.SURESAN °æö«d© O’ü¿-†’ç* °æéπ\èπ◊ üÌJxçC.
áçûÓ v°æ´÷ü¿ç †’ç* ûª°œpç--èπ◊-Ø√o´¤ team has won. Öçúøôç.
2) (Somebody) taking life into their hands =
éπüΔ? (-ØË-†’ -Å-A éπ-≠d-Oæ ’t-ü¿/ -ûª%-öÀ-™ -ûª°œpç- a) finally spain won the match, but it was a
Manogna: I wanted to reach the medical shop v°æ´÷ü¿ç éÌE ûÁa-éÓ-´úøç/ v°æ´÷-ü¿-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† °æE-îË- close thing = ÂÆp®·Ø˛ ÈíL-*çC é¬F, *´-J-
éÓ-´-úøç, -´’-†ç -Å-A éπ-≠d-Oæ ’t-ü¿ Èí-©-´-úøç
across the street urgently - for med- ߪ’úøç/ v§ƒù«© O’CéÀ ûÁa-éÓ-´úøç. ´-®Ωèπ◊ í¬F ÅC ûË©-™‰ü¿’/ *´-J-´®Ωèπÿ
a) He took life into his hands by jumping into
Ø√é¬\Ææh -ûª-´÷-≥ƒí¬ -Å-E°œ-≤Úhç-C. -ØË-†÷
icines for my grand dad whose life Èí©’-°-´-JüÓ ûË©-E-ÆœnA.
the river to recover his shirt the current
-•-AéÀ -Ö-Ø√o. -´’-† -öÃç èπÿ-ú≈ Èí-L-*ç-C.)
is hanging by a thread. When I b) That he won by just fifty votes shows that
Notes: Scrape (Ééπ\úø) = ®√Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç; fright = was carrying away =
started I didn't see much traffic. Oh, v°æ¢√-£æ«ç™ it was a close things =
Åéπ-≤ƒt-ûª’hí¬ éπLÍí ¶μºßª’ç; In the process = Ç Åûªúø’ ߪ÷¶μ„j ãôx
my! see, my feet are still cold with
éÌô’dèπ◊§Úûª’†o ≠æ®Ω’d†’ ûÁa-éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ †C-™éÀ
v°æߪ’-ûªoç™; horrified = ¶μºßª’-v¶μ«ç-ûª’-©-´úøç; amuse ûËú≈ûÓ Èí©-´úøç ÅØËC, *´J ´®Ωèπÿ Èí©’°æ¤,
the fright.
ü¿÷éÀ ûª† v§ƒù«-©-O’-CéÀ ûÁa-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
= †´¤y-°æ¤-öÀdç-îªúøç; Go off = ï®Ω-í∫úøç b) You are taking your life into your hands by
ãôN’ ûË©EÆœn-AE ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-≤ÚhçC.
(®Óúø’fèπ◊ Å´-ûª© Ö†o ´’çü¿’© ≥ƒ°æ¤™ Look at the following expressions from the dia- driving so rashly =
E®Ωx-éπ~uçí¬ •çúÕ †úø-°æ-úøç- 7) A close shave = A narrow escape = A hair-
Åûªu-´-Ææ-®Ωçí¬ ´’çü¿’©’ éÌØ√Lq ´*açC. logue above: üΔy®√ F v§ƒù«© O’CéÀ ûÁa-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤. breadth escape = ûª%öÀ™ / ¢Áçvô’-éπ-¢√-Æœ™ 
É°æ¤p-úÓ-Í®§Ú ņo-ô’xí¬ Ö†o ´÷û√ûª 1) A narrow escape 3) Hanging by a thread = N°æ-ûª\®Ω °æJ-Æ œnA v§ƒù«-§ƒ-ߪ’ç-†’ç* ûª°œpç--éÓ-´úøç.
éÓÆæç. ؈’ üΔö«-©-†’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’ Åçûª 2) Taking life into your hands a) The economy of the state is hanging by a a) It was a close shave. The alertness of
®ΩDl ™‰ü¿’. Ŷs! îª÷úø’ Ø√§ƒ-üΔ-Lçé¬ 3) Life hanging by a thread. thread and the government is unable to the train driver averted the collision =
find money for its welfare schemes =
x-•-úÕ-§Ú®· ´ùÀ-éÀ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o®·.) 4) Set the alarm bells ringing ®√≠æZ ûª%öÀ™ ûª°œp-§Ú-®·† ŧƒßª’ç ÅC. È®j©’
Rasagna: In the process you were about to
5) .... Just by the skin of our teeth ÇJn-éπ-´u-´Ææn î√™« N°æ-ûª\®Ω °æJ-Æœn-A™ ÖçC. wúÁj´®Ω’ Åv°æ-´’-ûªhûª ÉçéÓ È®j©’†’ úμŒéÌ-†-ú≈Eo
add another emergency. Cool think- E¢√-Jç-*çC.
6) It was a close thing ÆæçÍé~´’ °æü∑¿-é¬-©èπ◊ úø•’s éπE-°œç-îªúøç ™‰ü¿’.
ing is the need in such a situation. b) The life of the within of the road accident b) The child fell from such a height on a hay
7) A close shave
The horrified look you had when I is hanging by a thread = stack, and survived. A close shave really
first saw you set the alarm bells °j expressions ÅFo èπÿú≈ v°æ´÷ü¿ç, v°æ´÷ü¿ç ®Óúø’f v°æ´÷ü¿
¶«Cμûª’úÕ °æJ-ÆœnA É°æ¤púÓ, ÉçéÓ éπ~ùç-™ØÓ = Ç Gúøf Åçûª áûª’h †’ç* í∫úÕf¢√N’ O’ü¿
ringing.
†’ç* ûª%öÀ™ ûª°œpç--éÓ-´úøç, ÅA-éπ-≠dçæ -O’ü¿ ØÁí∫’_èπ◊ (v§ƒù«§ƒßª’ °æJ-Æœn-A™) ÖçC. °æúÕçC. ûª%öÀ™ v§ƒù«-§ƒßª’ç ûª°œpçC.
E. Anil, T.N. palem.
who = á´®Ω’. áéπ\úø ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ó N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. (E®Ωy-£œ«çîªíÓ®Ω’-ûª’-†oô’x)
Q. Sir, Grammar
Who did the girl lift? = Ééπ\úø who ûª®√yûª, did -  indulge ii)
Ñ éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ á´-®ΩØ√o ǧƒKd ¢√∞¡Ÿx, 'E®Ωy-£œ«ç-îª-¶-ûª’Ø√oç—
rule
helping verb ÖçC, á´Jo Åçõ‰ girl †’ ÅE  Dalit Bahujan intellectual would conduct a (Future ™) ņo ´÷ô-©†’, news paper ™
v°æ鬮Ωç N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. É™«çöÀ Å-ØË
Questions Sentences
™‰üΔ †’ Ææ´÷-üμΔ†ç ´≤ÚhçC 鬕öÀd, who †’ whom •ü¿’©’ national seminor. report îËÊÆ-ô-°æ¤púø’, Reported/ indirect speech
ᙫ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ--¢√-L? ¢√úÕ-†ô’x.  He told his room mate in the morning that ™, will conduct èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ 'would conduct'
i. Who lifted the girl in her arm?
1. a) Who will help her? = Ç¢Á’-Èé-´®Ω’ ≤ƒßª’ç he would not attend classes since he was ÅE ´÷®Ω’-ûª’çC éπüΔ?
ii. Who did the girl lift in her arm?  direct speech ™ will not attend èπ◊ •ü¿’©’
îË≤ƒh®Ω’? going home for the Ugadi festival.
A. i) b) Who will she help? = Ç¢Á’ á´-JéÀ ≤ƒßª’ç Reported/ indirect speech ™ would not
would
Ç °œ©x†’ á´®Ω’ îËA-™éÀ áûª’h-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’? °j È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u™x Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-ú≈Eo, üΔE
ii) Ç °œ©x îËA-™éÀ á´JE áûª’h-èπ◊çC? îËÆæ’hçC? Å®√nEo ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. attend Å´¤-ûª’çC.
Ééπ\úø sentence ii)™ whom •ü¿’©’ who 2. a) Who will talk to the leader? = Ç Ø√ߪ’- A. O’®Ω’ english news paper ™ use of tenses Q. Sir, O’®Ω’ meanings ¶«í¬ N´-J-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. é¬F,
¢√ú≈ç. Modern usage™ whom ¢√úøéπç üΔüΔ°æ¤ èπ◊úÕûÓ á´®Ω’ ´÷ö«x-úø-û√®Ω’?/ á´®Ω’ Ç and conditionals †’ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç Å©-¢√-ô- NüΔu-®Ω’n-©èπ◊ Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’içC sentence †’ form
™‰ü¿’. who áèπ◊\´í¬ ¢√úË-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’ üΔE •ü¿’©’. Ø√ߪ’èπ◊-úÕûÓ ´÷ö«x-úø-û√®Ω’? ßË’uç-ü¿’èπ◊ é¬Ææh Æ洒ߪ’ç °æúø’-ûª’çC. ã°œí¬_ îªü¿’- îËߪ’úøç éπüΔ? Sentence Patterns †’ Å®√n-©ûÓ
Who ûª®√yûª ¢ÁçôØË helping verbs ( do, does, b) Who will the leader talk to? = To whom ´¤ûª÷ ÖçúøçúÕ. N´-J≤ƒh®√?
did, shall, should, etc) + object (á´-JE, üËEo, A. Sentence patterns †’ Å®√n-©ûÓ N´-Jç-î √-©çõ‰
will the leader talk? (ÉC old usage) =  Indulge éÀ Å®Ωnç í∫ûªç™ N´-Jçî√ç. îª÷úøçúÕ.
 ü¿Rûª •£æ›-ïØ˛ §ƒKd äéπ ñ«Bߪ’ íÓ≠œe (√a
á´-JéÀ, üËEéÀ á´-JûÓ, üËEûÓ ™«çöÀ v°æ¨¡o-©èπ◊ á´JûÓ Ç Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊úø’ ´÷ö«x-úø-û√úø’? î√™«ØË ÖØ√o®·. é¬F, Åçü¿’-´©x Åçûª v°æßÁ÷-ï†ç
ï¢√-•’í¬ ´îËa-´÷ô) ´ÊÆh, üΔFo 'whom' •ü¿’©’ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: To whom/ with whom 鬮Ωu-véπ´’ç) E®Ωy-£œ«ç-îª-†’çC (Would conduct). èπÿú≈ Öçúøü¿’. ´÷ô© Å®√n©÷, ÅN ¢√ú≈-Lq† Nüμ¿ç
¢√úÕ† who í¬ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L. = Who to/ who with. Who did he go with?  ûª†’ Öí¬C °æçúø’í∫èπ◊ ÉçöÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡⁄h Öçúø-ôç-´©x
ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊†o°æ¤púø’ sentence patterns ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-
Who lifted the girl? (Ééπ\úø who ûª®√yûª,
(Modern English) = With whom did he go? = class©èπ◊ ®√¶-†E ûª† room mate ûÓ Ç ®ÓV
Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’ éπüΔ? ÅçûË é¬èπ◊çú≈ îªü¿-´úøç/
i) do, does, did, shall, etc., ™«ç-öÀ helping verb. Åûªúø’ á´JûÓ ¢Á∞«xúø’? §Òü¿’l† ÅØ√oúø’. N†úøç ´©x sentence formation ûªy®Ωí¬ Å®Ωn-´’-´¤-
ii) üΔE ûª®√yûª Object ™«, á´-JE, üËEo... ™«çöÀ Q. Sir, News papers ™ tenses, conditions †’  Would conduct èπ◊ i) wishes to conduct
ûª’çC.
v°æ¨¡o-©èπ◊ Ææ´÷-üμΔ†ç ™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd Ééπ\úø Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç î√™« éπ≠dçæ í¬ ÖçC. éÀçC ¢√öÀE

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 8 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

S.Satyanarayana Murthy, Q. Don't blame & Don't blame it on me. -Ñ È®çúø’ Q. No arms beyond
Kakinada this point
expressions ´’üμ¿u ûËú≈ àN’öÀ?
Q. Sir, Degree of Comparison A.
A. Don't blame =
èπ◊ EçCç-îª-´ü¿’l Ñ Ææn©ç üΔöÀ à
Ææç•ç-Cμç-* -O’®Ω’ ®√Æœ-† -Åç-¨»--™x Don't blame it on me = ††’o ûª°æ¤p °æôdèπ◊/
Çߪ·-üμΔ©’
éÌ-Eoç-öÀ-E O’ ü¿%≠œdéÀ BÆæ’-éÌÆæ’h-Ø√o†’. ††’o ¶«üμ¿’uúÕo îËߪ’èπ◊. BÆæ’Èé∞¡xèπÿúøü¿’/
a) Suman is not so/ as tall as Pavan Çߪ·-üμΔ-©ûÓ Ç Ææn©ç
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ English ™ ᙫ express
b) India is not as/ so rich as America üΔöÀ ¢Á∞¡x-®√ü¿’.
c) Kedar does not play as (so) well as
îËߪ÷L?
(Arms = Çߪ·-üμΔ©’)
Kesava. v°æï© ¶μ«¢Ó-üËy-í¬Eo áí∫-üÓ-ÆœçC. Q. of course, of course not Q. conformably to
So/ as tall as; as/ so rich as; as (so) well as A. It has aroused the emotions of the people. A. Comformably to - -Ñ phrase -™‰-ü¿’. Conform
A. Å´¤†’. ߪ’üΔ-®Ωn¢Ë’/ éπ*a¥-ûªçí¬.
Adjective éÀ ´·çü¿’ so/ as, as so, as (so) ÅE Q. to =
of course not =
Eߪ·-éπh-¢Á’i† Ææ¶μ«-Ææç-°∂æ÷Eo v°æï©’ ûÓÆœ-®√-ï-Ø√o®Ω’. é¬ØË-é¬ü¿’. Çïcèπ◊ ™•úÕ Öçúøôç/ E•ç-üμ¿-†©èπ◊ éπô’d-•úÕ
®√-¨»®Ω’. A. People have rejected the duly constituted "Are you still in need of money?" Öçúøôç.
So/ as, as so, àüÓ äéπöÀ Öçî√L éπüΔ Â°j house committee. "Of course not. In fact I can give you In conformity to/ with = (E•ç-üμ¿-†© ™«çöÀ
-¢√é¬u-™x àC Öçî√L? Q. Ø√uߪ’-≤ƒn-Ø√Eo Çv¨¡-®·ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ v°æ¶μº’ûªyç §ƒ´¤©’ some, if you want". (ÅüËç é¬ü¿’/ é¬ØË-é¬ü¿’ ¢√öÀéÀ/ éπô’d-•úÕ ÖçC.
as ÅØ√o, so ÅØ√o äéπõ‰ Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçüΔ éπü¿’-°æ¤-ûÓçC. Éçé¬ é¬¢√-©çõ‰ ØËFoèπ◊ É´y-í∫-©†’.) His building is in conformity with the rules
As = ´™„, ™«í∫, í¬, Åçûª, Åçü¿’-´©x A. The Government is making moves to Q. Infact of the municipality = Åûª-úÕ éπôdúøç ´·E-Æœ-§ƒ-LöÃ
So = Åçûª, (í∫ûªç™ O’®Ω’ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-¨»®Ω’) approach the Court. A. In fact °j† ¢√úÕ† Nüμ¿ç îª÷úøçúÕ. E•çüμ¿-†-©èπ◊ ™•úÕ ÖçC.
as well as = so well as ÅØ√o äéπ-õ‰Ø√...? as Q. §ƒKd©’ °æ®Ω-Ææp®Ωç Æœí∫-°æô’x °æúø’ûª÷ OCμ† °æúø’-ûª’- a) Is he as strong as you? Q. in regard to
tall ÅØ√o, so tall ÅØ√o äéπ-õ‰Ø√...? Positive Ø√o®·. (Åûª-úø’ F Åçûª •©-´ç-ûª’ú≈?) A. With regard to/ (in regard to é¬ü¿’) = regard-
degree ™ Ñ N≠æ-ߪ’ç confusion í¬ ÖçC. b) Yes, he is. In fact he is stronger than ing = 'with reference to'
A. Parties are after one another's throats and
°j† îª÷úøçúÕ. È®çúø÷
as well as/ so well as éÀ Å®Ωnç ûÁ©’-í∫’™ in the process are degenerating to street I/ me = Å´¤†’. Éçé¬ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰ Ø√éπçõ‰ äéπõ‰.
Q. in behalf of
N´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. level fights. •©-´ç-ûª’úø’.
A. On behalf of (In behalf of é¬ü¿’) = ûª®Ω-°∂椆.
The son accepted the award on behalf of

He ought to have been mor e polite his father = ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o ûª®Ω-°∂椆 Çߪ’† éÌúø’èπ◊ Ç
°æ¤®Ω-≤ƒ\-®√Eo Åçü¿’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
Q. éÀçC °æüΔ-©èπ◊ Å®√n©’ ûÁL°œ, ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù©’ É´yçúÕ.
Basically, Earlier, As per, So far, gives rise
A. Not so ... as = not as ... as. In fact = Éçé¬ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰/ Eñ«-EéÀ. to, On the other hand, How about?, What
about?
A, B Åçûª íÌ°æp-é¬ü¿’= A is not so/ as great as B ´·êuçí¬ ´’†ç ´·çü¿’ îÁ°œpç-üΔ-EéÀ
A. dictionary
Not ûÓ so... as, as... as È®ç-úø÷ ¢√úÌa.
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 610
´uA-Í®-éπçí¬ îÁ§ƒp-©-†’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’/ OöÀ Å®√n-©èπ◊ îª÷úøçúÕ.
Not ™‰†-°æ¤úø’ as... as ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√-úø-û√ç. üΔE-Íé-´’Ø√o îË®√a-©-†’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤úø’ in fact Q. éÀçC-¢√-öÀEEnglish ™ à´’ç-ö«®Ω’?
A does not sing as well as B = A does not
¢√-úø-û√ç. ¢Ë’†-éÓ-úø©’ – ¢Ë’†-´÷´’ – ´’®Ω-ü¿©’ – ´’JC –
sing so well as B. (A, B Åçûª ¶«í¬ §ƒúøü¿’) = Q. èπ◊™«-©-´’üμ¿u éÃ-™«-ô©’ ´’† ü˨»-EÍé a) He is quite tall. In fact he is taller ´’†-´úø’ – ´’†-´-®√©’ – Åûªh – ´·û√hûª – ´·ûªh´y
A does not sing as well as B not
Å®·ûË, ≤Òçûªç. than most of us = Åûª-úø’ ¶«í¬ – ´·E-´’-†-´úø’ – ´·E ´’†-´-®√©’.
A. The confrontations among castes A. Niece, Uncle (¢Ë’†-´÷´’/ *Ø√o†o/ °ü¿l -Ø√-†o),
As... as so... as §Òúø’í∫’. Éçé¬ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰ ´’†™
M.SURESAN
™‰†-°æ¤úø’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√-úø-û√ç. Sister-in-law, brother-in-law, grandson,
A sings as well as B are our country's prerogative. î√-™« ´’çC éπç-õ‰ §Òúø’Íí.
Grand Daughter, Aunt, Great Grand Father/
®√ü¿’. ÅØË Åçö«ç.
She is as great as her sister (Ç¢Á’ ûª† Åéπ\çûª Q. Ñ Ææ´’-Ææuèπ◊ ®√ï-éÃߪ’ Ææçéπ-©p¢Ë’ v§ƒù«-üμΔ®Ωç. b) You call her bad? In fact she is better than
Mother, Great Grand Son/ Grand Daughter.
íÌ°æpC). Ééπ\úø she is so great as her sister, A. Political will is vital to finding a solution to you = †’¢√y¢Á’†’ ´’ç*C é¬ü¿ç-ö«¢√? ÅÆæ©’
Q. 'Be' forms III set (V
the problem. îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰ F éπç-õ‰ Ç-¢Ë’ ´’ç*C. ™ †’ç* Oô-Eo-öÀéà ûÓ)
ûª°æ¤p.
She sings as well as her sister (Ç¢Á’ ûª† Åéπ\ Q. Q. Not at all Å®√nEo N´-Jç* ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-L-´y-í∫-©®Ω’.
may have been, might have been, can have
v°æ¶μº’ûªy E®Ωxéπ~uç éπ∞¡xèπ◊ éπúø’-ûÓçC.
Åçûª ¶«í¬ §ƒ-úø’-ûª’çC) She sings so well as A. Government apathy is obvious. A. i) ii) thanks
é¬ØË é¬ü¿’ á´-®ΩØ√o îÁ°œp-†-°æ¤púø’, been, could have been, must have been,
her sister - wrong. Not at all
Q. ought have been, should have been, would
´’† ÂÆjE-èπ◊©’ O®Ó-*-ûªçí¬ §Ú®√-ú≈®Ω’. ´’†ç Å-ØÌa.
As + adjective + as Q. Nothing but have been
A. Our soldiers have fought heroically.
as good as = A. Nothing but his coming here A. may have been =
Q.
Åçûª-´’ç* ´’çvûª’©’ X¢√J ÊÆ´™ ûªJ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. ÅC ûª°æp = Öçúø’ç-úø-´îª’a.
as slowly as = makes me happy =
They may have been there =
Åçûª EüΔ-†çí¬ A. Our ministers find salvation in the service of
¢√-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®√´-úøç ûª°æp ¢√∞¡x-éπ\úø
She walks as slowly as a snail =
ÉçÍéO’ Ø√èπ◊ ÆæçûÓ≠æç É´yü¿’.
Ç¢Á’ †ûªh Srivaru. Öçúø’ç-úø-´îª’a. Éçûªèπ◊´·çüË´*a É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊
Q. In this circumstances
Åçûª EüΔ-†çí¬ †úø’-Ææ’hçC. Q. A. In these (this
´’†-Ææ’™ ´·°œp-J-íÌØË Å´u-éπh-¢Á’i† ´’üμ¿’®Ω ¶μ«¢√©’. circumstances =
Öçúø-´îª’a.
As... as = so... as Å®·ûË As adjec- é¬ü¿’) Ñ might have been = í∫ûªç™ Öçúø’ç-úø-´îª’a.
A. Inexpressible feelings of bliss that suffuse
Åçûª =
tive/ adverb as - °æJÆœnûª’™x. She might have been there = Ç¢Á’ Åéπ\úø
the soul.
á°æ¤púø®·Ø√ ¢√úÌa 'Åçûª—
ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. P. Srinivas, Mahaboobnagar
Q. éÀçC °æüΔ-©èπ◊ Å®√n-©†’ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. OöÀ Å®√n©’ (í∫ûªç™) Öçúø’ç-úø-´îª’a.
(Not) so adjective/ adverb as - Åçûª é¬ü¿’ ÅE Q. éÀçC- phrase prepositions è- π◊ Å®√n©- ’ ûÁ©- ’°æí©-∫ ®Ω’. Can have been = Öçúø-í∫-©í∫´îª’a.
Dictionary îª÷ÆœØ√ ûÁL-ߪ’-úøç-™‰ü¿’.
not Ö†o-°æ¤úË ¢√úøû√ç. with an eye to He can have been helpful = Åûª†’ ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø-
I. Superlative: He is the tallest boy in the Drinking bout, Camaraderie, Reflections (in
A. With an eye to = Ç ÖüËl-¨¡çûÓ/ Ç ü¿%≠œdûÓ. í∫L-TÖçúø-í∫-©úø’. A situation, usage î√™« rare.
class litarary sense), Human endeaver, Yawning With an eye to be a minister he is trying to Could have been = Öçúø-í∫-LÍí-¢√úË, é¬-F ™‰úø’.
Comparative: He is taller than any other gap, A well documented report, Hectic parley. please the CM = ´’çvA- é¬-¢√-©-ØË ÖüËl-¨¡çûÓ He could have been a CM = Åûª-úø’ ´·êu-
boy in the class A. Drinking bout = ´’üμ¿’-§ƒ†ç äéπ-ûª-úø´ Åûª-úø’ ´·êu-´’ç-vAE ÆæçûÓ≠æ°úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’.
Positive: No other boy in the class is so Camaraderie = ÊÆo£æ« Ææç°∂‘’-¶μ«´ç Q. in consequence of
´’ç-vAí¬ Öçúø-í∫-LÍí¢√úË (é¬-F 鬙‰ü¿’)
tall as/ as tall as he. Must have been = ÖçúÕ Öçô’çC. éπ*a-ûªçí¬.
Reflections (in litarary sense) = A. In consequence of =
He must have been happy = ¢√úø’ ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬
II. a) Comparative: Sudheer is taller than
ûª©-°æ¤©’/ üΔE °∂æL-ûªçí¬.
In consequence of his rash actions, he has
Sumanth Ç™-îª-†©’ ÖçúÕ Öçö«úø’.
Human endeaver = a lot of troubles now =
Positive: Sumanth is not so tall as/ as ´÷†-´-v°æ-ߪ’ûªoç Åûª-úÕ ûÌçü¿-®Ω-§ƒô’ You must have been happy to see your
tall as Sudheer. Yawning gap = î√-™« áèπ◊\-´- ûËú≈ Ωu© ´©x (¢√öÀ °∂æL-ûªçí¬) Åûª-úÕ-°æ¤púø’ enemy defeated = F ¨¡-vûª’´¤ ãúÕ-§Ú-´úøç îª÷Æœ
b) Comparative: Kalyan is not taller than A well daumented report = Ææç•ç-Cμûª °ævû√-©ûÓ
É•sç-ü¿’™x ÖØ√oúø’.
Q. in reference to
Kabir.
†’´¤y ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æúË Öçö«´¤.
®Ω÷-§Òç-Cç-*-† E¢Ë-Céπ. A. With reference to (In reference to Should have been = Öçú≈-LqçC, é¬F ™‰ü¿’.
Positive: Kabir is at least as tall as é¬ü¿’) =
Hectic parley = ®Ω’-Èéj†/ BJ-éπ-™‰E ´’çûª-Ø√©’. She should have been here yesterday =
Kalyan. üΔEo °æ¤®Ω-Ææ \-Jç--èπ◊E/ üΔE í∫’-Jç-*
(hectic = very busy) With reference to your application for the
positive not so tall
Ééπ\úø ™ ™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd, Ç¢Á’ E†o Ééπ\úø Öçú≈-LqçC (é¬F ™‰ü¿’)
as ÅE ®√ü¿’. Bhavani Kishan, Hanumakonda job, please appear for an interview tomor- Ought have been = Öçú≈-LqçC (FA/ üμ¿®Ωtç)
row = He ought to have been more polite =
G.G. Rao, Visakhapatnam. Q. éÀç-C-¢√-öÀ-éÀ -Å®√n-©-†’, usage -†’ -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. O’ ü¿®Ω-ë«-Ææ’h í∫’-Jç-*/ °æ¤®Ω-Ææ \-Jç--èπ◊E,
Interview Åûª-úÕçé¬Ææh áèπ◊\´ ´’®√u-ü¿í¬ Öçú≈-LqçC. é¬F ™‰úø’.
Through proper channel
O’®Ω’ Í®°æ¤ èπ◊ ®ΩçúÕ.
Q. Sir, Would have been = ÖçúËüË, é¬F ™‰ü¿’.
Q. in compliance with
éÀçC ¢√é¬uEo ûÁ©’-í∫’-™éÀ ņ’-´-Cç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
Singing is my passion and obsession. A. Through proper channel =
A. In compliance with (your orders, requests, He would have been a CM = CM í¬ ÖçúË-¢√úË
ÆæÈ®j† ÅCμ-é¬-®Ω’©
A. §ƒúøôç Ø√ í¬-úμø-¢Á’i† ¢√çîμª, Bv´ Çé¬çéπ~ üΔy®√. ´’† °j ÅCμ-é¬-JéÀ °j-†’ç--úË ÅCμ-é¬-JéÀ etc.,) = üΔEE ņ’-Ææ-JÆæ÷h/ üΔE v°æ鬮Ωç. é¬F ™‰úø’.
Q. August function, August evening, August àüÁjØ√ îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-¢√-Lq-†-°æ¤púø’, ´’† °j ÅCμ-é¬-JéÀ In compliance with your instructions, I am Q. ought to be, have to be, has to be, had to
institution etc. August
©™ ÅØË °æ-üΔ-EéÀ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰Æœ, Çߪ’†/ Ç¢Á’ ņ’-´’-AûÓ Ç°jÅCμ-é¬-JéÀ starting immediately = O’ ÇüË-¨»© v°æ鬮Ωç/ O’ be, need to be
-Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’-öÀ? ûÁLߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ÷L. Å°æ¤púø’, through proper chan- ÇüË-¨»©’ §ƒöÀÆæ÷h ¢ÁçôØË •ßª’©’üË®Ω’-ûª’Ø√o. A. É´Fo -É-C-´®Ω-™ î√™« N´-®Ωçí¬ É-î√aç.
A. August = íÌ°æp/ Ö†oûª/ NP--≠d-¢æ Á’i† nel Å´¤-ûª’çC. (Channel = ´÷®Ω_ç) comply = obey = îÁ°œp-†ô’x îËߪ’-úøç.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 15 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Nihsa, Yellandu. There isn't (is not) much milk in the glass = We are looking for-
ward to enjoy holi-
Q. Sir,
Ç í¬xÆæ’™ áèπ◊\´ §ƒ™‰ç ™‰-´¤.
days - This is
éÀçC °æüΔ©èπ◊ Å®√n-©†’
He does not have much respect for elders =
ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. wrong because,
Potential, Effect, Affect,
°ü¿l-©çõ‰ Åûª-úÕéÀ °ü¿l íı®Ω´ç/ áèπ◊\´ íı®Ω´ç/
here 'looking for-
Raise, Rise, Result oriented,
Åçûª íı®Ω´ç àç ™‰ü¿’. ward to' is followed
Factory, Company, Industry, î√-™« áèπ◊\´/ áèπ◊\´ (ÖçC) ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ – a lot by 'enjoy'- a verb.
Much, More, Apart from. of/ a good deal of/ a great deal of Åçö«ç.
Q. Please clarify
A. Potential = i) ´·çü¿’ 鬩ç™ à Nüμ¿ç-í¬-ØÁjØ√ There is a lot of milk in the vessel = Ç briefly about transi-
ûªßª÷®ΩßË’u ¨¡éÀh; ii) ≤ƒüμ¿u´’ßË’u Å´-鬨¡ç TØÁo™ §ƒ©’ áèπ◊\-´í¬ Ö-Ø√o®·. tive verbs and intransitive verbs and their Q. Sound and alarm
a) He has the potential to become a great Much milk was wasted (Wrong) usage. A. Sound = ¨¡•lç. Alarm = ¶μºßª’ç, ÇçüÓ-∞¡†
leader = Åûªúø’ íÌ°æp Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-úÕí¬ áC-Íí-¨¡éÀh/ A lot of milk was wasted (Right) A. A transitive verb has an object. Put the éπçí¬®Ω’; v°æ´÷-üΔEo Ææ÷*çîË ÆæçÍéûªç; Evü¿ †’ç*
More - comparative degree of both 'much' question whom/ what to the verb. If you get ¢Ë’-™Ô\-LÊ° í∫úÕ-ߪ÷-®Ω°æ¤ ≤˘éπ®Ωuç.
an answer, it is the object of the verb. In
ûªßª÷-®Ω-ßË’u-¨¡éÀh í∫©¢√úø’í¬ ÖØ√oúø’. = Åûª-úÕ™
and 'many' Sound the alarm = v°æ´÷ü¿ç ÅE Ææ÷*çîË
such a case the verb is transitive.
íÌ°æp Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-úÕí¬ ûªßª÷-®ΩßË’u/ áCÍí¨¡éÀh
a) There is more milk in this glass than in ÆæçÍé-û√Eo/ ¨¡¶«lEo ¢Á÷Tç.
He saw his friend yesterday. The verb
éπE-°œ-≤ÚhçC.
b) She can be a potential threat to him = that glass = Ç í¬xÆæ’™éπçõ‰ Ñ í¬xÆæ’™ here is 'saw'. Put the question He saw Q. Save your life
´·çü¿’ ´·çü¿’ Ç¢Á’ Åûª-úÕéÀ v°æ´÷ü¿é¬-J ÅßË’u (much comparative)
áèπ◊\´ §ƒ©’-Ø√o®·. éÀ whom? You get the answer 'his friend'- so A. F v§ƒù«Eo 鬧ƒ-úø’éÓ
Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC. b) There are more students in this class the verb is transitive. Q. Use fire cycle if you know
Effect = v°æ¶μ«´ç/ ´÷®Ωa-í∫-©-¨¡éÀh. than in that class = Ç é¬xÆæ’™ éπçõ‰ Ñ He saw my car yesterday. Here again, put A. Ø√èπ◊ ûÁLÆœ-†ç-ûª-´®Ωèπ◊ English ™ fire cycle ÅØË
Pollution has an effect on the climate = é¬xÆæ’™ áèπ◊\´ ´’çC °œ©x-©’-Ø√o®Ω’ the question, He saw What? and you get °æü¿ç ™‰ü¿’.
(Comparative of many) the answer, He say my car. So the verb,
¢√û√-´-®Ωùç O’ü¿ 鬩’--≠æu v°æ¶μ«´ç ÖçC. Q. Report in irregularities.
Apart from = 1) 'saw' here is transitive.
Affect = ÅüË/ ÅçûË é¬èπ◊çú≈ A. Report any (in é¬ü¿’) irregularities = Åvéπ-´÷©’
An intransitive verb has no object. That is,
v°æ¶μ«´ç éπL-Tç-îª-úøç/ ´÷®Ωa-í∫-©í∫-úøç.
Pollution affects climate = 鬩’≠æuç ¢√û√-´-®Ω- Apart from a car, he has also a scooter =
if you put the whom/ what to the verb, you à¢ÁjØ√ Öçõ‰ ûÁ-L-ߪ’°æ®Ω-.
don't get an answer.
äé𠧃®∏Ω-èπ◊úø’, E®Ωt™¸.
ù«Eo ´÷®Ω’-Ææ’hçC. Åûª-úÕéÀ é¬Í® é¬èπ◊çú≈, Ææ÷\ô®˝ èπÿú≈ ÖçC.
Q. What does Sandhya have? Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?

She can be a potential thr eat to him A. What does Sandhya have? = What has
Sandhya? =
éπL-T ÖçC?)
Ææçüμ¿uèπ◊ àç ÖçC? (Ææçüμ¿u àç
Q. ®√ùÀ àN’ éπLT ÖçC? = What has Rani?
She walks fast. Here the verb is
Raise = áûªh-úøç/ ™‰°æ-úøç; ®√ùÀ àN’ éπLT ÖçúËC? = What had Rani?
'walks'. Put the question 'She walks
He raised his hand to show his support =
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 611
éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?
Whom/ What?' (Ç¢Á’ á´-JE/ üËEE
ûª† ´’ü¿lûª’ ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Åûª-úø’ îÁ®·u áû√húø’. A. Correct.
and you don't get an
He raised an important question = Åûª-úÓ
†úø’-Ææ’hçC?) Q. You like this shirt. DEéÀ ÆæÈ®j† question tag
´·êu-¢Á’i† v°æ¨¡o†’ ™‰´-ØÁ-û√húø’. 2) ÅC ûª°æp – except - Apart from answer. So 'walk' is intransitive so
àC?
Rise = ™‰´-úøç, E©-•-úøôç, áü¿-í∫-úøç, °®Ω-í∫-úøç. cleaning the room, I have finished all are go, sit, stand, etc.
A. You like this shirt, don't you? -Éç-ü¿’-™ 
a) When the teacher enters the class the other work = í∫C ¨¡Ÿv¶μºç îËߪ’-úøç A. Saiprasad, Kusthapur. Q. Tag, 'Don't you?' (like = do like)
M.SURESAN
students rise = öÃ˝ é¬xÆˇ™ éÀ ®√í¬ØË ûª°æp, N’í∫û√ °æ†çû√ °æ‹Jh î˨»†’. Q. Sir, what are the meanings of Q. éÀçC Ø√©’í∫’ ¢√é¬u™x àN éπÈ®é˙d? since, as ©†’
NüΔu-®Ω’n©’ ™‰≤ƒh®Ω’/ ™‰* E©-•-úø-û√®Ω’/ E©-•-úø- Q. áçûª éπ≠d-°
æ æ-ú≈fúÓ Åçûª Ææ’ê-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’. following words? Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TçîË NüμΔ-Ø√Eo N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
û√®Ω’. -Ñ -¢√é¬u-Eo -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -îÁ°æpí∫-©®Ω’. Production target a) Since I haven't much strength, I can't lift
b) Whenever fuel prices rise, prices of other A. He is enjoying himself now as much as he A. ÖûªpAh ©é~¬u©’ (äéπ EKgûª 鬙«-EéÀ à ´Ææ’h´¤ áçûª this luggage.
things also rise = Éçüμ¿† üμ¿®Ω©’ °J-T-†-°æ¤p- worked hard. ÖûªpAh îËߪ÷-©-†’-éÓ-´-úøç) b) As I haven't much strength, I can't lift this
úø™«x, Éûª®Ω ´Ææ’h-´¤© üμ¿®Ω©÷ °®Ω’-í∫’-û√®·. Q. Book for you book to you. Ééπ\úø to, for ©™ Q. Plan of the way luggage.
Result oriented = °∂æL-û√Eo ≤ƒCμçîË Nüμ¿çí¬ c) As I woke up very late, it was a holiday
A.
àC Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-*Ø√ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çüΔ? üΔJ îª÷°œçîË -§ƒx-Ø˛
Ö†o. A. Book for you = äéπ-J-éÓÆæç ÉçéÌ-éπ®Ω’ öÀÈéôx yesterday.
Q. Operational feedback
The manager's plan for the increase of -™«ç-öÀN é̆-úøç/ reserve îËߪ’-úøç. d) Since I woke up very late, it was a holiday
sales is result-oriented = A. °æE à ¢Ë’-®Ωèπ◊, ¶«í¬ ïJ-TçüΔ ™‰üΔ, áçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ,
Å´’t-鬩’ °çîËç-ü¿’èπ◊ I've booked tickets for you = Fèπ◊ ؈’ öÀÈéô’x yesterday.
book î˨»†’.
áçûª ¶«í¬ ïJ-TçC– É™«çöÀ Å稻-©†’ í∫’-Jç-*
Ç ¢Ë’ØË-ï®˝ °æü∑¿éπç °∂æL-û√Eo ≤ƒCμç-îË-Cí¬ ÖçC A. (a) = (b). since = because = as = Åçü¿’-´©x/
(Åçõ‰, Ç °æü∑¿éπç ´©x Å´’t-鬩’ °®Ω’-í∫’-û√®·) Book to = Post üΔy®√/ È®j©’ üΔy®√ àüÁjØ√
Éûª-®Ω’© ÅGμ-v§ƒßª’ç. (O’®Ω’ îËÆœ†/ ≤ƒCμç-*† áçü¿’-éπçõ‰.
Factory = éπ®√t-í¬®Ωç °æç°æ-úøç. °æEE í∫’-Jç-* Éûª-®Ω’© ÅGμ-v§ƒßª’ç)
c) and d) -
Q. Accident and fatilities
O’®Ω’ Åô’C, Éô÷, Éô’C, Åô÷
Company = ¢√u§ƒ®Ω ÆæçÆæn They have booked the goods to you = ¢√∞¡Ÿx ®√¨»®Ω’. O’ sentence ©èπ◊ Å®Ωnç = ØË-†’- E†o
Industry = °æJ-v¨¡´’ ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ Post üΔy®√/ È®j©’ üΔy®√ °æ秃®Ω’ O’èπ◊. A. Accident and fatalities (fatilities é¬ü¿’) = Ç©-Ææuçí¬ ™‰´-úøç-´©x, E†o ÂÆ©´¤ ÅE.
Q. There is a lot of difference between/ among v°æ´÷ü¿ Ææç°∂æ’-ô-†©÷, ¢√öÀ ´‚©çí¬ ´’®Ω-ù«©’. E†o holiday é¬-´-úøç-´©x, Ç©-Ææuçí¬ ™‰î√†’ ÅE
the students. between - among
Gurram Shankar, Keshavapatnam Q. Procedure failures
Ñ ¢√éπuç™ éπüΔ? Å™« ÅØ√-©çõ‰, since/ as/ because yes-
Q. I came across a phrase in Dr. Laxmi- A. Procedural (Procedure é¬ü¿’) failures = 鬮Ωu-
©†’ àßË’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√úøû√ç? terday was a holiday I woke up late. Å®Ωnç
narayana English Grammar book. After look
A. between - among. E-®Ωy-£æ«ù v°ævéÀ-ߪ’™ ¢Áj°∂æ-™«u©’. äéπ-°æE îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ Å®·çC éπüΔ?
forward to you clarified to use 'ing' form. But
Éü¿lJ -´’-üμ¿u/ È®ç-úÕçöÀ ´’üμ¿u between; there was no 'ing' form in that sentence. The
Å´-©ç-GçîË °æü¿l¥A ´©x éπL-T† ¢Áj°∂æ-™«u©’. Since = As = Because = Åçü¿’-´©x/ áçü¿’-éπçõ‰.
Éü¿l-Jéπç-õ„ áèπ◊\´ ´’çC™/ È®ç-úÕçöÀ éπç-õ„ áèπ◊\´ sentence as follows like "My cousins are look Q. Actions followup (Å®·ûË, As, since ©èπ◊ ¢ËÍ® Å®√n©’ èπÿú≈
¢√öÀ™ among. forward to their scheduled visit to Newyork A. Followup actions (Action followup é¬ü¿’) äéπ ÖØ√o®·. As = ´™„. Since = í∫ûªç™ äéπ
There is no difference between the two = and Montreal". Is there any exception? Ωu ûª®√yûª ¢ÁçôØË BÆæ’éÓ¢√-Lq† Ωu. Æ洒ߪ’ç †’ç*).
A. Phrasal verbs like, look forward to, object to, You finished planning but where is the B.V. Subba Rao, Rajahmundry.
Ç È®ç-úÕçöÀ/ ¢√Rx-ü¿lJ ´’üμ¿u ûËú≈ àç ™‰ü¿’.
The three of them divided the money with a view to, committed to, etc., should follow-up? = °æü∑¿éπç °æ‹Jhî˨»´¤ é¬F üΔE ûª®√yûª
always be followed by a noun or an 'ing' Q. Sir, please give the meanings of the follow-
among themselves = ¢√-∞¡Ÿx ´·í∫’_®Ω÷ Ç îª®Ωu àC?
form. There is no exception to the rule. This ing sentences.
úø•’s†’ °æç-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’– ¢√∞¡x™ ¢√-∞¡Ÿx. is standard usage. I have decided to meet him in Chennai, and
1. The news of Venkat's is worrying.
-Ééπ\úø í∫´’-Eç-î√-LqçC, among ¢√úÕ† îÓô™«x The sentence in your letter 'My cousins are as a follow up I am starting today itself =
2. The news of Venkat is worrying.
Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓ¢√-LqçC -à-N’-ôç-õ‰– Å™«çöÀîÓô looking forward to their scheduled visit' is Åûª-úÕ-E îÁØÁj o™ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©E E®Ωg-®·ç--èπ◊Ø√o.
A. 'The news of Venkat' is worrying is correct.
Éü¿l®Ω’/ È®ç-úÕçöÀ-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ Ö-†o -N-≠æ-ߪ’ç. correct, because, in it, look forward to is fol- Å™« ņ’-èπ◊†o Ωu ûª®√yA Ωuí¬ Ñ ®√vûË
lowed by 'visit' which is a noun. 'The news of Venkat' is OK, but it is more
He divided the property equally among his •ßª’-©’-üË®Ω’-ûª’Ø√o.
Observe the following: common to say, 'The news about Venkat'.
children = Åûª-úø’ ûª† ÇÆœhE ûª† °œ©x-©-éπç-ü¿-JéÀ Q. Environmental feedback
a) We are looking forward to holidays- here Q. Please let me know whether the following
(Éü¿lJ éπç-õ‰ áèπ◊\¢Ë) Ææ´÷-†çí¬ °æçî√úø’. A.
sentence is correct.
'looking forward to' is followed by holi-
DEéÀ Ææçü¿®Ωs¥ç ûÁL-ÊÆh-í¬F Å®Ωnç îÁ°æp™‰ç.
Much = áèπ◊\´ quantity (áèπ◊\´ ¢Á·ûªhç™– Q. We care and your family cares
days which is a noun. So it is correct. Use any suitable nouns known by your pupils.
™„éπ\-°-ôdE¢√öÀE– sugar, milk, rice ™«çöÀN b) We are looking forward to enjoying holi- A. ´÷éπC ´·êuç, O’ èπ◊ô’ç-¶«-EéÀ èπÿú≈ ÅC A. To the best of my knowledge, 'known to...' is
áèπ◊\´ ÅE ûÁ-LÊ°ç-ü¿’èπ◊) days. ´·êuç. correct, rather than known by... whatever it
Much sugar = î√-™« °æçîª-üΔ®Ω; much milk = Here, 'looking forward to' is followed by Q. Safe practice is, 'known to' is the use sanctioned by stan-
áèπ◊\´ -§ƒ-©’– Å®·ûË, much E, áèπ◊\-´í¬ not ûÓ 'enjoying'- an 'ing' form. A. Íé~´’-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† (v°æ´÷ü¿çé¬E) Ωu©’. (Driving dard dictionaries.
(áèπ◊\´í¬ ™‰ü¿’ ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊) ¢√-úø-û√ç. This is correct too. with care is a safe practice)

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 22 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

E. Anil, TN Palem 2) I ate the food in the fridge. 'The food in Pavan Kumar Reddy,
Q. Sir, Grammar book clause and
™ the fridge' object of the verb 'ate'
ÅØËC Hyderabad
phrases i. Noun
í∫’Jç* îªC-N-†-°æ¤púø’ 鬕öÀd, ÅC noun phrase. Q. a) The man seen
clause ii. Adjective clause iii. Adverb Å™«Íí adjective phrase èπÿú≈. °j sentence™ near the school
clause Sentence for-
©†’ îª÷¨»†’. 'in the fridge', food Å-ØË noun -†’ í∫’-Jç-* b) The book given
mation usage
™ OöÀ v§ƒ´·-ë«uEo, E îÁ°æ¤hçC 鬕öÀd, ÅC adjective phrase. to him
Noun phrase, Adjective phrase,
ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. 3) He earned to help others. 'to help others' seen, given Å-ØË-N
Adverb phrase ©†’ í∫’Jç* èπÿú≈ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. - adverb phrase, 'earned' verbÅØË †’ past participle Å--E
A. Noun clause: Noun îËÊÆ °æEE, äéπclause í∫’-Jç-* îÁ§ÚhçC 鬕öÀd. verb
A. Smoking = §Òí∫-û√-í∫-úøç, no = èπÿúøü¿’. Do not
ûÁ-©’Ææ’. é¬-F
îËÊÆh ÅC Noun clause of a sentence Q. Compliment ÅØËC verb í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC tense Verbs
Smoke here ÅØ√o, ÅüË, Å®·ûË, No Smoking,
®Ω÷°æç í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.
Å´¤-ûª’çC. Noun 1) Subject of a
-†’ -´’-†ç éπüΔ? é¬F, äéπ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ subject í∫’Jç* 6 forms
Do not Smoke here éπç-õ‰ simple éπüΔ? ÉC
-™ -É-N -™‰-´¤éπ-üΔ?
sentence 2) object of a verb 3) Object of a A. The man seen near the school, (
English
ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’ç-ü¿E O’®Ω’ ÅØ√o®Ω’. Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀF Ææ÷\™¸- ü¿-í∫_®Ω
preposition 4) Complement í¬ ¢√-úø-û√ç. ã The book given to him
îª÷úø-•-úÕ† ´uéÀh), èπ◊ -Ö-†o v°æûËu-éπûª.
í∫’Jç* -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.
clause noun K. Divya, Banavasi.
†’ É™«Íí ¢√ú≈-´’-†’-éÓçúÕ. ÅC A. Complement, subject complement/ verb com- (Åûª-úÕéÀ -É-´-y•-úÕ† °æ¤Ææhéπç) Ñ È®çúÕçöx Ö†o
clause Å´¤-ûª’çC. plement is used to complete the sentence. seen, given past participles ÅE ÅØ√o-®Ω’ Q. Sir, English ™ éÌEo Verbs ûª®Ω’-¢√ûª off,
eg: 1) What he says is true. What he í∫üΔ?6 Forms of verbs ™ Íé-´-©ç past partici- away, up
The tiger is an animal. animal - sub-
Ééπ\úø Ééπ\úø ´çöÀ °æüΔ-©†’ áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢√ú≈L?
says ÅØË clause (says ÅØË verb ÖçúË ject complement. Tiger (subject) †’ ple ™‰-ü¿’-éπüΔ? Be form + pp - verb; Have/ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ùèπ◊ go Åçõ‰ ¢Á∞¡Ÿx ÅE Å®Ωnç. 'Ç¢Á’
group of words 鬕öÀd ÅC clause) subject has/ had/ shall have/ should have, etc + PP ¢ÁRxçC— ņ-ú≈-EéÀ She went Åçõ‰ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC
of the sentence 鬕öÀd ÅC noun clause.
í∫’-Jç-* îÁ°æ¤hçC 鬕öÀd. - verb. past participle verb
Íé-´-©ç é¬ü¿’. 鬕öÀd éπüΔ? Å™«é¬èπ◊çú≈ She went away ÅE áçü¿’èπ◊
He became angry. angry verb
2) She knows where he is. where he the man seen near the school, the book
Éçü¿’™ Ééπ\úø ¢√ú≈L? Å™« ¢√úø-éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√ °æ®Ω-¢√-™‰üΔ?
complement - verb meaning complete Peel ÅØË verb èπ◊ off ÅØË °æü¿ç áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢√ú≈L?
is clause, knows verb object given to him - groups of
ÅØË Å-ØË èπ◊ †’ Ñ È®çúø÷ èπÿú≈
'where he is' is a noun clause.
鬕öÀd îËÆæ’hçC 鬕öÀd. words without verbs, so they are phrases. I will peel off your skin, if you do it again.
Be careful. Ñ ¢√éπuç™ off ûª°æp-E-Ææ-Jí¬

This is what she gave him


¢√ú≈™«? ûÁ©’-í∫’™ 'F Ωtç ´©’-≤ƒh†’— Åçö«ç
éπüΔ! ´’J ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ peel ÅØË verb ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC
éπüΔ! üΔEéÀ off áçü¿’èπ◊?
Fling (verb) ûª®Ω’-¢√ûª away E ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. 'Ç¢Á’
èπ◊Rx† ô¢Á÷-ö«-©†’ §ƒ®Ω-¢Ë-ÆœçC— ņ-ú≈-EéÀ She
3) It depends on when he leaves (ÅC Q. Is it beautiful? – -Åç-ü¿çí¬ -Öç-üΔ? flung away rotten tomatoes ÅE áçü¿’èπ◊
Åûª-úÁ-°æ¤púø’ ¢Á∞«húø’ ÅØË üΔE-O’ü¿ ÇüμΔ-®Ω-°æúÕ Isn't it beautiful? - – Åç-ü¿çí¬ -™‰-üΔ?- ÅØ√L? ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ N´-J-≤ƒh®√?
Öçô’çC) -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 612 Åç-ü¿çí¬ -Öç-C éπ-üΔ?– -Å-E È®ç-úø’ A. É´Fo èπÿú≈ Usage (¢√úø’éπ) ´©x ¶μ«≠æ™ éÀ îËÍ®
When he leaves ÅØË clause, 'on' preposi- Å®√n-©’ -Ö-Ø√o-ߪ÷? -N-´-Jç-îªç-úÕ. expressions. OöÀéÀ É™« ¢√ú≈L, ¢√úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’
tion èπ◊ object 鬕öÀd 'when he leaves' S.P., Nirmal A. Åçü¿çí¬ ÖçC-éπüΔ?= It is beautiful, Å-ØË E•ç-üμ¿-†-©’ç-úø´¤. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ èπÿú≈ É™«çöÀ
is a noun clause. Q. Raghu likes tomatoes and so isn't it?. à sentence Å®Ωnç üΔEüË – ´÷ô©’Ø√o-®·-éπüΔ?
4) This is what she gave him what Ééπ\úø does Madhu. Raghu likes È®çúø’ Å®√n©÷, äéπ-üΔ-E-éÌ-éπöÀ ´uA-Í®éπç ¢√∞¡Ÿx ¢Á∞«x®Ω’ – ¢√∞¡Ÿx ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’.
M.SURESAN
DØËo
she gave him clause complement
ÅØË tamatoes and Madhu too ÅE éπüΔ? Å-N äÍé sentence ™ ᙫ ´î√a®Ω’ – ´îËa-¨»®Ω’
(sentence †’ complete îËÊÆ-C)í¬ ¢√ú≈ç ®√ߪ’-´î√a? ´≤ƒh®·? AØ√oúø’ – AØË-¨»úø’ (AE ¢Ë¨»úø’)
noun clause. T. Kaasi Annapurna, Kesavadasupalem
A. Raghu likes tomatoes and Madhu does
鬕öÀd ÉC èπÿú≈ à ¶μ«≠æ™ØÁjØ√ éÌEo ´÷ô©’ ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ¢√öÀE
Adjective clause: äéπ clause, adjective
too ÅØ√L.Does Öçú≈L éπüΔ? ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ®Ω°∂æ· Q. éÀç-C -¢√é¬u-©-†’ -ûÁ-©’í∫’-™ -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. Ö†oN Ö†o-ô’dí¬ ¢√úÕûË Åçûª effective í¬
îËÊÆ °æEE îËÊÆh ÅC Adjective clause Öçúø-üË¢Á÷ ņo ¶μ«´-†ûÓ éÌçûª í∫öÀdí¬ ÅØ√-©ØË
I have written a letter
Adjective noun
Å´¤-ûª’çC. á°æ¤púø÷ í∫’-Jç-* öÔ¢Á÷-ö-©†÷, ´’üμ¿’†’ èπÿú≈ É≠æd-°æ-úø-û√úø’ ÅE ÖüËl-¨¡çûÓ ´÷ö«xúø-ôç´©x ÉN ¢√úø’-éπ-™éÀ ´≤ƒh®·.
I could have written a letter
Peel the potatoes - Peel off the potatoes
îÁ°æ¤hçC. (áô’-´çöÀ ÅØË v°æ¨¡oèπ◊ Ææ´÷-üμΔ-†çí¬) Å®Ωnç ®√´îª’a.
Å™« noun †’ í∫’-Jç-* îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ äéπ clause Q. a) Since I haven't much strength, I can't lift I could write a letter
îÁèπ◊\ A®·u – îÁèπ◊\ BÊÆ-ÂÆß˝’.
¢√úÕûË ÅC adjective clause. this luggage. A. 1. ØËØÓ Öûªh®Ωç ®√¨»†’. Go - go away ¢Á∞¡Ÿx – ¢ÁRx§Ú
eg: 1) The boy who stood first in the class b) As I haven't much strength, I can't lift this 2. ؈’ Öûªh®Ωç ®√ߪ’-í∫-LÍí-üΔØËo (é¬F ®√ߪ’-™‰ü¿’) fling - fling away NÆæ’®Ω’ – NÆœ-߽ͮ’
is my cousin. 'who stood first
Ééπ\úø luggage. 3. i) Öûªh®Ωç ®√ߪ’-í∫© ≤ƒ´’®Ωn uç ÖçúËC Ø√èπ◊ áèπ◊\´ effect éÓÆæç Ñ particles (O’®Ω’ îÁ°œp†
in the class' clause 'boy'
Å-ØË ÅØË Â°j ¢√é¬u™x Å®√n™x ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? Since, As ©†’ í∫ûªç™. verbs ûª®√yûª ¢√úÕ† off, away ™«çöÀ preposi-
noun 'who
†’ í∫’-Jç-* îÁ§ÚhçC 鬕öÀd, É™«çöÀ ¢√é¬u™x ¢√úË-ô-°æ¤púø’ à E•ç-üμ¿-†©’ ii) ؈’ Öûªh®Ωç ®√≤ƒh-ØË¢Á÷. tions, adverbs) ¢√úø’-éπ-™ éÀ ´î√a®·. ÉN usage
stood first in the class' adjec-
-Å-ØË-C (¢√úø’éπ). OöÀéÀ logic, grammar rules ´Jhç-¤.
K.V. Narender, Jagtial.
§ƒöÀç-î√L?
tive clause.
A. Since = as = because. È®ç--úø÷ äéπõ‰. J. Mounika, Amalapuram
2) The place where he lives is very Q. Hats off °æü¿ç ᙫ ÇN-®Ωs¥-Nç-*çC? DE Å®Ωnç
Q. Spastic Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? Q. How about going to the movie Black?
near here. where he
Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ àN’öÀ? àßË’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-´îª’a?
A. Spastic = ¢Á’ü¿úø’ ï•’s-´©x éπçúø-®√© éπü¿-Léπ A. English ¢√∞¡Ÿx hats °ô’d-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’ éπüΔ? á´-®ΩoØ√o How about Do we
lives adjective clause.
ÅØËC -Éç-ü¿’-™ -Åç-õ‰ -Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’-öÀ?-
go to the movie Black?
Adverb clause: A clause acting as an ÆæJ-í¬ -™‰-éπ-§Ú-´-úøç– Ñ ™°æç Ö†o¢√∞¡Ÿx îËûª’©÷, ¢Á’a-éÌ-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊, ÅGμ-´÷†ç îª÷Ê°ç-ü¿’èπÿ, íı®Ω´ -Å-ØÌ-î√a?
adverb is an adverb clause. Adverb, é¬∞¡x†’ ÆæJí¬ éπü¿-©a-™‰®Ω’. Å®·ûË É°æ¤p-úŒ-´÷ô Ææ÷îª-éπçí¬, hat äéπ îËûÓh °jéÀ B≤ƒh®Ω’ (They take How about some coffee before going
-Å-™«Íí
Verb adjective
†’ í∫’-Jç-* îÁ°æ¤hçC, †’/ ÉçéÓ ¢√úø’-éπ™ ™‰ü¿’. Å™«çöÀ ï•’s†o ¢√-∞¡x†’ spastic off their hats) Åçü¿’-éπE hats off Åçõ‰ ¢Á’°æ¤p to a movie? -Å-E -O’®Ω’ í∫-ûªç-™ -ûÁ-L-§ƒ®Ω’. D-E-E
adverb †’ í∫’-Jç-* îÁ°æ¤hçC. Ñ °æ†’-©†’ äéπ ņ-úøç èπÿú≈ ûª°æ¤pí¬ Å†’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’. -ûÁ-©°æ-ú≈-EéÀ ÆæçÍé-ûªçí¬ ¢√-úø-û√ç. Do we take coffee before going to a movie?
clause adverb clause
îËÊÆh ÅC Å´¤-ûª’çC. Q. Articles, verbs, prepositions ¢Á·ü¿-™„j† Å稻© Q. Barrage °æü¿ç P. Sankar Narayana úÕéπ{-†-K™ Shall we take coffee before going to a
-™‰-üΔ
™‰ü¿’. Barrage - Reservoir - Dam OöÀ ´’üμ¿u movie?
1) She carries the box wherever she í∫’Jç* -´’®Ó-≤ƒJ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. -Å-ØÌ-î√a?
goes. 'Wherever she goes' A. How about =
A. O©’--†’-•-öÀd -N-´-J≤ƒhç.
Éçü¿’™ ÅØË ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? üΔE N≠æߪ’ç/ Ææçí∫A àçöÀ =
clause, 'carries' verb
(BÆæ’Èé∞¡Ÿ-ûª’çC) ÅØË A. Barrage = v°æ¢√-£æ…-EéÀ Åúøfçí¬ éπõ‰d-íÓúø, F®Ω’ ´%-ü∑Δ ¢√öÀ N≠æߪ’ç/ Ææçí∫A àçöÀ? = What about.
†’ í∫’-Jç-* îÁ°æ¤hçC (¢ÁRx-†-îÓ-öÀ-éπ™«x BÆæ’Èé∞¡Ÿ- K. Sri Krishna Kumar, Bapatla é¬èπ◊çú≈ E©y îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊. How about a movie this evening? =
ûª’çC) 鬕öÀd, wherever she goes, adverb Q. 'They would rather you paid them by Reservoir = -¨¡ßª’ç (Ææ®ΩÆæ’q). DE-™ E F®Ω’ ≤ƒßª’çvûªç ÆœE´÷ Ææçí∫-ûËçöÀ? (¢Á∞«l´÷?)
clause Å´¤-ûª’çC. §ÒJx-§Ú-èπ◊çú≈ Åúøfçí¬ EJtç-îËC, dam. Reservoir What about your brother? = O’ ņo
cheque'- would rather
-Ñ -¢√éπ-uç-™ part of -à
2) She is so good that everyone likes her; speech? paid, verb past form, past
-Å®·-ûË Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ (Natural) í¬F, ´÷†´ EJt-ûª-¢Á’içC Ææçí∫-ûËçöÀ?
so... that everyone likes her (artificial) í¬-F鬴a. Dam F®Ω’ E©y-îË-ߪ’-ú≈-E-Íé- English ™ conversation (Ææç¶μ«-≠æù) v§ƒ®Ωç-
Ééπ\úø ÅØË participle -N-´-J-ç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.
clause, well adverb í¬-èπ◊çú≈, Nü¿’u-ü¿’-ûªp-AhéÀ (power generation) Gμç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊, How about....?/ What about.....?
A. Would- Helping Verb
ÅØË †’ í∫’-Jç-* îÁ§ÚhçC
鬕öÀd ÅC adverb clause.
rather - adverb
èπÿú≈ ¢√úø-´îª’a. Dam -´-©x -F-öÀ-E °j°æ¤© üΔy®√, î√-™« ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√-úø-û√®Ω’.
3) He is so tall that he can touch the ceiling 鬩’-´© üΔy®√ ´C™‰ Å´-鬨¡ç Öçô’çC. How about some coffee? = 鬰∂‘ û√í∫’-üΔ´÷?/
Ééπ\úøso... that he can touch the ceiling Ñ sentence paid
™ verb.
ÅØËüË ÉC past Barrage äéπ Åúø’f-íÓúø ´÷vûª¢Ë’. 鬰∂‘ à´’Ø√o ÖçüΔ?
ÅØËclause, tall ÅØË adjective †’ í∫’-Jç-* tense, usage
Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéà (¢√úø’éπ) v°æ鬮Ωç, Q. Anthem - Song OöÀ ´’üμ¿u ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? What about the money you owe me? = Ø√
îÁ§ÚhçC 鬕öÀd, ÅC adverb clause. Å™«Íí, Present/ Future situations †’ ûÁ©’°æ¤-ûª’çC. A. Anthem = v°æ¶-üμΔ-ûªtéπ, ÆæçüË-¨»-ûªtéπ Uûªç. (FA- Å°æ¤p Ææçí∫-ûËçöÀ?
noun phrase, adjective phrase and (†’´¤y cheque üΔy®√ îÁLxç-îª-úøç, ¢√∞¡Ÿx É≠æd-°æ-úø’- ¶üμ¿, ÆæçüË-¨»Eo ûÁ-LÊ° -§ƒô) How about some coffee before going to a
adverb phrases èπÿú≈. ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’/ °æ-úø-û√®Ω’ ÅE) Song = à §ƒô-®·Ø√. movie? = Shall we take coffee before going
Phrase = a group of words without a verb. They'd (É™«çöÀîÓôx Would °æ‹Jhí¬ ®√ߪ’®Ω’) Q. C∑ßË’-ô®Ω’x ¢Á·ü¿-™„j†îÓôx No Smoking ÅE ing to a movie.
1) The book on the table is mine. The book rather you left immediately = †’-´¤y -¢Áç-ôØË form ™ ®√≤ƒh-È®ç-ü¿’èπ◊? ÉC à tense éÀçCéÀ Do we take coffee before going to a
on the table, subject of the sentence ¢ÁRx-§Ú-´-úø¢Ë’ ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ -é¬-´-©-ÆœçC. ÉC v°æÆæ’hûª ´Ææ’hçC? 'Do not smoke here' Åçõ‰ ÆæÈ®j† movie? = ´’†ç 鬰∂‘ BÆæ’èπ◊ç-üΔ´÷? (Å™«çöÀ
鬕öÀd ÅC 'Noun Phrase'. N≠æ-ߪ’-¢Á’iØ√, Past tense ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√-úø-û√ç. Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC éπüΔ! Ç™-îª-ØË-´’Ø√o ÖçüΔ?).

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 29 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

S.Naresh, Khammam On time = correct time- The match


í¬ (v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμ-Ææ’hØ√oç.
Q. ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ éÀçC °æüΔ© ´’üμ¿u began on time = Match ņ’-èπ◊†o Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ Â°Ø˛ BÆæ’-èπ◊E
ûËú≈-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. ÆæJí¬_ ¢Á·ü¿-©-®·çC. ®√ߪ’úøç ¢Á·ü¿-©’-
House - Home, say - tell, Can = able to. Å®·ûË Can Åçõ‰ îËߪ’-í∫© °ô’d)
speak - talk, in time - on time, ≤ƒ´’®Ωn uç ÖçC, î˨»®√, ™‰üΔ ÅE ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. 2) Here we go. The
can - able to, should - must, match has begun
He can sing = Åûªúø’ §ƒúø-í∫-©úø’. á°æ¤púø’
intention - opinion. = ÅCíÓ, match
§ƒú≈úø’/ §ƒúøôç ïJ-TçüΔ ™‰üΔ ÅØËC ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’.
A. House- à ÉçöÀ-ØÁjØ√/ E¢√-Ææ-ßÁ÷-í∫u-¢Á’i† à éπôd-ú≈- He is able to sing = Åûªúø’ §ƒúø-í∫-©’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’– v§ƒ®Ωç¶μºç Å®·çC. Don't = Do not (n't = not)
House
Q. HTTP, URL Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
ØÁj oØ√ Åçö«ç.
The Post Office is in the lane next to the row
§ƒúø’ûª÷ ÖØ√oúø’ éπüΔ, ÅØË Å®Ωnç ®√´îª’a. Hon'ble = Honourable.
should = must 1) Orders (Çïc©’) 2) Duties A. HTTP = ÉC Computer °æü¿ç– Hypertext
of houses on the street = Apostrophe ¢√úøôç ´’†ç ´÷ö«x-úË-ô-°æ¤púø’ pro-
Ç OCμ-™E É∞¡x -´-®ΩÆæ Transfer Protocol = Computer Language
Post Office (Nüμ¿’©’); (3) Necessity (Å´-Ææ®Ωç) ûÁ©’-°æ¤- ™ nunciation
(to control)
ûª®√yûª ÖçúË Ææçü¿’™ Ç ÖçC. ®√Æœ† N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo Eߪ’ç-vAç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ †’ •öÀd Öçô’çC. ûªy®Ωí¬ ´÷ö«x-úË
Home- ´’† èπ◊ô’ç-•-Ææ-¶μº’u-©ûÓ ´’†ç ÖçúË É©’x.
û√®·. ¢√úË v°æ´÷-ù«©’/ E•ç-üμ¿-†©’. -ô-°æ¤púø’ ÅEo ¨¡¶«l©’ ÆæJí¬ Öîªa-Jçîªç éπüΔ. That
1. You should/ must finish the work today is ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊, ûªy®Ωí¬ ´÷ö«x-úË-ô-°æ¤púø’ (In hurried
Ø√ °æ¤Ææhéπç Éçöx ÖçC = My book is at home. URL = ÉC èπÿú≈ computer èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*çüË.
(Order) speech) That's Åçö«ç. ®√ûª™  Ééπ\úø ¨¡•lç
(in my house é¬ü¿’). ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ω-ùçí¬ Home Uniform Resource Locator = Computer web
´·çü¿’ my, his, her, their- Åçõ‰ 'á´J?— ÅE 2. I should be/ must be at office from 10 AM page- WWW (World Wide Web) ÅE ´C-™‰-Æœ-†ô’d ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ apostrophe ¢√úøû√ç.
- 5 PM (Duty) Åçô’çö«ç. üΔE address. Q. Exclusive showroom ™E exclusive èπ◊
îÁ§ƒp-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’. Å™«Íí î√™«-´-®Ωèπ◊ exclusively Å-ØË °æüΔ-©èπ◊ ÆæÈ®j† ¶μ«´ç àN’öÀ?
home ´·çü¿’ 'to' (ÉçöÀéÀ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ) ®√ü¿’. 3. I should be at station by 10, or I will miss M.Venkata Reddy, Tanuku
the train A. Exclusive = v°æûËu-éπ-¢Á’i†/ v°æûËu-éπçí¬ äéπ-J-éÓÆæç/
a) I am going home = ؈’ ÉçöÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’-Ø√o†’ (؈’ °æCç-öÀéÀ ÊÆd≠æ-Ø˛™ Öçú≈L, Q. I will go to Hyderabad in next week-
(I am going to my home- ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’) Necessity.
™‰èπ◊çõ‰ È®j©’ ûª°œp-§Ú-ûª’çC)– I will go to Hyderabad next week-
äéπ-üΔ-E-éÓÆæç ÖüËl-Pç-*†, ÅE.
This class of accommodation is exclusive to
ministers =

Please attend on our guests


Ñ ®Ωéπç ´ÆæA v°æûËu-éπçí¬ ´’çvûª’-©èπ◊
´÷vûª¢Ë’.
Exclusive show room = àüÓ äÍé company éÀ
îÁçC† Öûªp-ûª’h-©èπ◊ ÖüËlPç-*† showroom. é¬F
Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ é¬èπ◊çú≈ éÌEo éπç°F©èπ◊ Exclusive
Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀ™ àC ÆæÈ®jçC? in, on show room ņ-úøç™ Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’. Exclusive
b) He left his bother at home = Åûªúø’ ¢√∞¡x àßË’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√úø-û√®Ω’? Åçõ‰ äÍé äéπ-JéÀ/ äéπ\-üΔ-EéÀ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ÅE.
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 613 A. I will go to Hyderabad next week. Q. Attend, Attend to © í∫’-Jç-* -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
ûª´·túÕo Éçöx ´CL ´î√aúø’
(His home ÅØ√-Lq† °æE™‰ü¿’, ûª°æ¤p èπÿú≈) Correct. Day/ month/ week/ year/ A. Attend = £æ…ï-®Ω-´úøç/ to be present.
Home Åçõ‰ ≤Òçûª Ü®Ω’/ Ææyü˨¡ç ÅE èπÿú≈. hour This, that,
™«çöÀ ¢√öÀ-´·çü¿’, Attend to = ¶«üμ¿u-ûªí¬ äéπ °æE-îË-ߪ’úøç/ îª÷Ææ’-
My home is Vijayawada/ India. Intention = ÖüËl¨¡ç– ´’†ç äéπ °æEE, every, next and last ´ÊÆh ¢√öÀ- éÓ-´úøç.
House üËEE ü¿%≠œd™ °ô’d-èπ◊E îËÆæ’hØ√oç ÅØË in/ on
He is attending to the construction of the
Åçõ‰ ¢√u§ƒ®Ω ÆæçÆæn ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈. ´·çü¿’ ¢√úøç.
N≠æߪ’ç. M.SURESAN i) a) There are twelve months in a
This is the latest product from the house of house =
year
Ç É©’x éπôdúøç °æE Åûªúø’ îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-
Opinion =
Tatas = Tata
ÅGμ-v§ƒßª’ç.
b) He comes here once every year.
ÆæçÆæn †’ç*... Ø√oúø’/ ¶«üμ¿u-ûªí¬ îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’.
ii) a) This happens twice (in) a week. She has to attend to her children in the
Say Tell morning =
b) This happened last week. Ç¢Á’ Öü¿ßª’ç°æ‹ô ûª† °œ©x© N≠æߪ’ç
1) Say ûª®√yûª ´uéÀh object í¬ ®√ü¿’. 1) Tellûª®√yûª ¢ÁçôØË (to ™‰èπ◊çú≈) ´uéÀh c) We may go there next week. îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ô’çC.
He said me/ him/ Ram (X) (à ´uéÀhûÓ îÁ°œpçD) éπ*aûªçí¬ ´Ææ’hçC. Q. a) Send me the details about the commis- Attend on = ®Óí∫’-©èπ◊, ÅA-ü∑¿’-©èπ◊ Ææ°æ-®Ωu©’
He told me/ her/ Ram, etc (√) sion you give to us. îËߪ’úøç.
He told to me/ to Ram, etc (X) b) Send me the details about the commis- Please attend on our guests while I am
2) Say ûª®√yûª (´·êuçí¬) äéπ-®Ω†o ´÷ô-©†’ 2) Tell object
ûª®√yûª ´uéÀh í¬ ´*a Ç ûª®√yûª sion you give us. Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀ™ àC ÆæÈ®jçC? away = ؈’ ™‰†-°æ¤púø’ ´’† ÅA-ü∑¿’© N≠æߪ’ç
ÉçéÌ-éπ-JûÓ îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. to
1) äéπ-®Ω†o ´÷ô-©†’ ÉçéÌ-éπ-JéÀ îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊, àßË’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√úø-û√®Ó N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’? îª÷Ææ’éÓ.
a) 'All right', she said Quotations
2) Ææ´÷î√®Ωç ÉîËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. A. Sentence b: Send me the details of (about In government hospitals, doctors do not
b) She said, 'let's wait' tell
´·çü¿’-í¬F, ûª®√y-ûª-í¬F, ®√ü¿’. ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈ the commission you give us.
é¬ü¿’) attend on patients properly = v°æ¶μº’ûªy ÇÆæ’
c) She said that it was not true tell
¢ÁçôØË á´-JûÓ îÁÊ°pD ®√¢√L. Give object, it, the book, etc
ûª®√yûª àü¿-®·Ø√ -°æ-vûª’™x ®Óí∫’-©†’ ú≈éπd®Ω’x ÆæJí¬ îª÷úø®Ω’.
(say ûª®√yûª 'that' clause ®√´úøç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. She told me/ her/ Ram that it was true. give
™«çöÀN ´ÊÆh, Å°æ¤púø’ 'to' ûª®√yûª ´Ææ’hçC. Q. The student is expected to attend school on
d) She said to me that it was true Give it/ the pen/ the details, etc. to us. time intime
éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? ™‰üΔ éπÈ®é¬d?
3) sayûª®√yûª infinitive (to go, to come, to sing 3) Tell ûª®√yûª ´uéÀhobject Q. Who is the producer of that picture?
í¬ ´*a ûª®√yûª A. 'On time' - correct. °j† -É-™«ç-öÀ Öûªh-®√EéÀ*a†
™«çöÀN) ®√ü¿’. She said (to) him to go (x) infinitive Who is the producer for that picture? Ñ Ææ´÷-üμΔ†ç îª÷úøçúÕ.
She told him to go (√)
®√´îª’a.
of, for
È®çúÕç-öÀ™ àC ÆæÈ®jçC? àßË’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Q. How is the world with you?
4) Say ûª®√yûª, anything, something, nothing, 4) Tell (object) me/ him/
ûª®√yûª á´-JûÓ ÅØËC ¢√úø-û√®Ω’? Good so far. Thanks - ņo-°æ¤púø’ Thank you
everything, so, hello & good bye. Ram some- A. Producer of the picture, correct. For
™«çöÀC ´*a† ûª®√yûª ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Åçõ‰ ņ-èπ◊çú≈Thanks Åçõ‰ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çüΔ?
She didn't say anything. thing/ nothing/ everything Hello/ A. ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC.
´≤ƒh®·. éÓÆæç, Ç ÖüËl-¨¡çûÓ ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.
She said something/ everything/ so (Å™« goodbye ®√ü¿’. He produced the movie for children. He is
hello/ goodbye.
îÁ°œpçC)/ responsible for this trouble. K.V.S. Sireesha, Jangareddygudem
5) She said a story/ lie/ joke/ truth ÅE ņç. 5) Tellûª®√yûª á´JûÓ ÅE îÁ°æp-èπ◊ç-ú≈ØË she tell A.Satyanarayana, Jannaram. Q. ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ àüÁjØ√ date, month, year îÁÊ°p-ô-
ÉC ûª°æ¤p. a stroy/ joke/ lie/ joke
´≤ƒh®·. Q. We write 'Yours faithfully,' etc. in letters. °æ¤púø’... eg: "12 August, 1919" ™‰üΔ "1 June,
"Yours" is not an adjective, but we use it as 1940" É™« -Öç-ô’ç-C. Ééπ\úø Twelve August,
Talk above. How could it happen kindly clarify it one June ÅØ√™«? ™‰üΔ Twelfth August, First
Speak
in detail. June ÅØ√™«? Twelfth, First Åçõ‰ ´’J 12th,
1. Formal- 1. Talk- informal-
A. Yours is usually a pronoun. The expression,
Åçõ‰ ´·êu-¢Á’i† N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-îË Åçûª ´·êu-¢Á’i†
-ô-°æ¤púø’– Speak to the manager about it = 1st ÅE °æ¤Ææh-鬙x Öçúø-üË-N’öÀ?
"Yours faithfully/ sincerely", etc evolved
N≠æߪ’ç 鬆-°æ¤púø’– °æ©-éπ-Jç-°æ¤©’,
éπ•’®Ω’x, Ææç¶μ«-≠æ-ù©’ îËÆæ’h-†o-°æ¤púø’ Talk A. Date îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’, the 12th August/ the 1st
¢Ë’ØË-ï-®˝ûÓ ´÷ö«xúÕ ûË©’a-èπ◊çüΔç– äéπ üμËuߪ÷Eo from the original expression "Your faithful
´’†-Ææ’™ °ô’d-èπ◊E ´÷ö«x-úøôç. Åçö«ç. They were talking politics. servant/ friend", etc. It's a matter of usage, June ÅØË ÅØ√L, 12 August 1919, 1 June,
2. ¶μ«≠æ©’ ûÁL-ߪ’úøç/ ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©-í∫úøç speak. She 2. Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ Ææ´÷-î √®Ωç ûÁ©-°æúøç- talk and can't be explained by grammar rules, 1940 ÅE ®√Æœ-†-°æp-öÀéÃ.
speaks two or three languages as in the case of the question tag: "Aren't I?" Q. Ç°∂‘-Ææ®˝q – Ææ®Ω’\u-©®˝q ¢Á·ü¿-™„j-†N ñ«K-îËÊÆô°æ¤púø’
[I am an Indian, aren't I- actually it should ÉçTx-≠ˇ-™ Present: Ééπ\úø Issue îËÆœ†¢√J
3. Ö°æ-Ø√uÆæç É´yúøç– 3 or 4 speakers spoke on the 3. Talk Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøç be- amn't I, shouldn't it?] Ê°®Ω’ ®√≤ƒh®Ω’. eg: Present: RamaRao,
occasion.
4. Phone Ææç¶μ«-≠æù v§ƒ®Ωç-¶μ«-EéÀ: Can I speak to 4. Talk
Ñ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ ¢√úøç. Å®·ûË She T. Emmanuel, Nellore M.A.: B.L. é¬F ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Present éÀ ņ’-¢√ü¿ç
Sriram? talked on the phone to him Åçö«ç. Q. Let's (let us) apostrophe (')s
™ ᙫ – v°æÆæ’hûªç ÅE ®√≤ƒh®Ω’. é¬F Present Åçõ‰
à®Ωp-úÕçC?'u' omit îËߪ’úøç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? Ææ´’-Jpç-*†¢√®Ω’ ÅØË Å®Ωnç éπüΔ?
In time = ņ’-èπ◊†o Ææ´÷-ߪ÷-E-éπçõ‰ ´·çü¿’ Q. Here we go Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? A. Let's (= Let us), That's (that is) É™«ç-öÀ-îÓôx, A. Circulars ™ present èπ◊ Å®Ωnç, ñ«K (issue)
He was intime at the station and caught the A. Here we go = v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμ-Ææ’hØ√oç/ àüÓ v§ƒ®Ωç¶μºç Apostrophe (') E ´’†çomit îËÊÆ ¨¡¶«l-EéÀ/ îËÆœ-†-¢√®Ω’ Åéπ\úø present (£æ…ïÈ®j ÖØ√o®Ω’) ÅE.
train without any tension = ÊÆd≠æ-Ø˛èπ◊ é¬Ææh Å´¤-ûÓçC. apostrophe (')
Åéπ~-®√-EéÀ •ü¿’©’ ¢√úøû√ç. Åçõ‰ Åçõ‰ Ç ÅCμ-é¬J Ææ´’éπ~ç (presence) ™ Ç
train
´·çü¿’-í¬ØË îË®Ω’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’, à Çü¿’®√l ™‰èπ◊çú≈ 1) Here we go. Take the pen and start áéπ\-úø-®·Ø√ ¢√úÕûË Åéπ\úø ¨¡¶«lEo (¨¡¶«l-©†’)/ Ææ®Ω’\u-©®˝ ñ«K Å®·ç-ü¿E. Present Åçõ‰ Ééπ\úø
áé¬\úø’. writing = Åéπ~-®√-©†’ ´C-™‰-Æœ-†ô’d. v°æÆæ’hûªç ÅE-é¬ü¿’.. £æ…ïÈ®j ÖØ√o®Ω’ ÅE.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish