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# ABB Automation & Power World: April 18-21, 2011

WCS-135-1
WCS 135 1
Rigid bus design for AC substations:
Electro-mechanical considerations for substation design

May 25, 2011 | Slide 1
WCS-135-1
Rigid bus design for AC substations:
Electro-mechanical considerations for substation design

##  Speaker name: Paason Rojanatavorn, PE

 Speaker
p title: Civil Engineer
g
 Company name: ABB Inc.
 Location: Raleigh, NC

 Speaker
p name: Pathik Patel,, PE
 Speaker title: Electrical Engineer
 Company
p y name: ABB Inc.
 Location: Raleigh, NC

May 25, 2011 | Slide 2
Rigid bus design for AC substations
Topics

 Workshop Introduction
 Applicable Codes & Guides
 Bus Design Flow Chart
 Electrical Bus Design
 Types of Rigid Bus Connections
 Loads on Rigid Bus and Insulators
 Rigid Bus Design
 Insulator Check
 Summary
 Final Remarks

May 25, 2011 | Slide 3
Workshop Introduction
 Purpose
 Introduce the basics of rigid bus design for AC substations based on applicable
codes.
 Calculate forces that govern conductor span lengths, size, and station post
insulator selection.
 Optimize bus arrangements based on phase spacing requirements
requirements, short circuit
forces and environmental effects.

May 25, 2011 | Slide 4
Applicable Codes & Guides
 IEEE Std 605-2008 – IEEE Guide for Bus Design in Air Insulated
Substations
 IEEE Std 1427 - IEEE Guide for Recommended Electrical Clearances
and Insulation Levels in Air-Insulated Electrical Power Substations
 IEEE Std 1313.2 - IEEE Guide for the Application of Insulation
Coordination

 ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

##  ASCE Substation Structure Design Guide No. 113

May 25, 2011 | Slide 5
Bus Design Procedure Flow Chart

May 25, 2011 | Slide 6
Electrical Bus Design
Bus Design Considerations

May 25, 2011 | Slide 7
Electrical Bus Design
Bus Arrangements & Comparisons

May 25, 2011 | Slide 8
Electrical Bus Design
Bus Types
 Rigid Bus
Adv: Low Profile, Conductors not under strain, Insulators easy to clean, less phase clearances
Dis-Adv: span limitation (more structures, foundations), seismically less reliable than strain bus

 Strain Bus
Dis-Adv: Larger phase clearances, higher & larger structures

 G Insulated
Gas I l t d Bus
B
Adv: Minimum land area, live parts not exposed, modularized construction

May 25, 2011 | Slide 9
Electrical Bus Design
Ampacity

May 25, 2011 | Slide 10
Electrical Bus Design
Ampacity

May 25, 2011 | Slide 11
Electrical Bus Design

 BIL (Basic Impulse Level or Basic Insulation Level) – The maximum voltage
withstand of the substation or substation component
 Factors to Consider (Insulation Coordination)
 Elevation (Above 3000 ft.)
 Location (Lightning Frequency, Vicinity to the Ocean, etc.)
 Switching Surges (More of a factor at 230kV and above)
 Surge Arrestor Selection

May 25, 2011 | Slide 12
Types of rigid bus connections
 Fixed (rigid) Connection

weld

 Expansion Connection
weld

##  Restricted lateral and longitudinal displacement

 Restricted lateral rotation

 Slip Connection

##  Restricted lateral and longitudinal displacement

 Restricted lateral rotation

##  Type of connector chosen will directly impact:

 Conductor – fiber stress, deflection
 Restricted lateral and longitudinal displacement
 Insulator – cantilever, torsional forces
 Restricted lateral rotation
May 25, 2011 | Slide 13
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 extreme wind
 wind with ice

May 25, 2011 | Slide 14
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 unit weight of element = density of material x cross-sectional area
 For a circular rigid bus aluminum conductor
 Fc = δAl x π(Do2-Di2)/4 = δc x π tc(Do-tc)
 where

##  Fc is the conductor unit weight

 δAl is the density of aluminum
 tc is the conductor wall thickness
 Do is the conductor outside diameter
 Di is the conductor inside diameter

 ice unit weight on element = ice thickness x density of ice x perimeter
 For a circular conductor:
 FI = rI x δI x π(Do+rI)
 where

##  FI is the ice unit weight

 rI is the uniform radial thickness of ice
 δI i the
is h ddensity
i off iice
 Do is the conductor outside diameter
May 25, 2011 | Slide 15
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 IEEE Std 605-2008
 Thermal expansion or contraction (change in length), ∆L
 ∆L = αLi(Tf – Ti)
 where
 ∆L is the change in length
 α is the coefficient of thermal expansion
 Ti is the initial installation temperature
 Tf is final temperature
 Li is the conductor span length at the initial temperature

##  FTE = Ec x Ac x ∆L/Li = Ec x Ac x α(Tf – Ti)

 where
 FTE is the thermal force
 Ac is the conductor cross section area
 Ec is the conductor material Young’s modulus

May 25, 2011 | Slide 16
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 Example Problem:
 How much thermal expansion
p and longitudinal
g force is created from a 5” dia. Al
bus, spanning 45 ft with welded connections on each end due to change in
temperature? Consider installation temp. of 65° F and conductor temp. of 160°F.
 Solution:
Determine thermal expansion using equation 65 from IEEE Std 605-2008
∆L = αLi(Tf – Ti)
= 1.28x10
1 28 10-66 ( 1/°F) x (45’x12”)
(45’ 12”) x (160°F -65°F)
65°F)
= 0.07 inches

## Determine thermal force using equation 66 from IEEE Std 605-2008

FTE = Ec x Ac x α(Tf – Ti)
= 10000ksi x 4.299in2 x 1.28x10-6 ( 1/°F) x (160°F -65°F)
= 5.57
5 57 kips (5
(5,570
570 lbs)

 Conclusion:
Use slip fitting or expansion connector on one end of conductor to avoid thermal
expansion effects
May 25, 2011 | Slide 17
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 ASCE 7-05
 E t
Extreme wind
i d

May 25, 2011 | Slide 18
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 ASCE 7-05
 Wi d with
Wind ith iice

May 25, 2011 | Slide 19
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 Factors that affect wind loads, per ASCE Design Guide 113
 terrain and height (exposure)
 wind speed – based on location
 annual probability
 surface area
 gust response factor

May 25, 2011 | Slide 20
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 ASCE Design Guide 113
 Equivalent lateral force procedure used to
calculate seismic design force, FE
 FE = (Sa/R) x W x IFE x IMV
 where
FE is the seismic design force, lateral force applied
at the center of gravity of the structure or
component,
Sa is the design spectral response acceleration
R is the structure-response modification factor
IFE is the importance factor for earthquake loads
IMV is multi-mode effect factor

May 25, 2011 | Slide 21
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 Example Problem:
Calculate the seismic design
g force on a rigid
g bus spanning
p g 35 feet. Consider 5” Sch. 40 Al
conductor with 715.5 kcmil Al damping cable. The substation is located in San Jose, CA.
 Solution:
Solve using
g equivalent
q lateral force p
procedure described in ASCE 113.
Ss = 150% = 1.5 From USGS short period spectral response acceleration map
Fa = 1.0 Table 3-12. Site Coefficient, Fa
Sa = SDS = (2/3) Fa x Ss D i spectral
Design t l response acceleration,
l ti Sa
= (2/3) x 1.0 x 1.5
= 1.0
IFE = 1.25
1 25
R = 2.0
W = (5.057 + 0.672) x 35’
= 200.5
200 5 lbs

FE = (Sa/R) x W X IFE
= (1.0/2.0)
(1 0/2 0) x 200.5
200 5 x 1.25
1 25
= 125.3 lbs Equation 3-8 Seismic Design Force FE
May 25, 2011 | Slide 22
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 IEEE Std 605-2008
 Fault current force between parallel, infinitely long conductors
in a flat configuration due to a short circuit current, FSC

May 25, 2011 | Slide 23
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 Peak value variation factor based on type of fault and conductor location, Γ

May 25, 2011 | Slide 24
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 Half-cycle decrement factor to account for momentary peak factor effect, Df

May 25, 2011 | Slide 25
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 Mounting structure flexibility factor, Kf

May 25, 2011 | Slide 26
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 Low Bus Vs High Bus

May 25, 2011 | Slide 27
Loads on rigid bus and insulators
 Variables for Conductor Short Circuit Calculations

May 25, 2011 | Slide 28
Rigid Bus Design
 Wind Load (Extreme Wind, Wind with Ice)

##  Load Combinations (per ASCE Design Guide 113):-

 Dead + Extreme Wind + Fault Current
 Dead + Ice + Wind with Ice + Fault Current
 Dead + Seismic + Fault Current

May 25, 2011 | Slide 29
Rigid Bus Design
 Perform Structural Analysis:-
 Calculate maximum allowable bus span based on vertical deflection limits
 deflection varies with end conditions (fixed, slip, expansion)
 common limits are 1/150 or 1/200 of span length, or 0.5 to 1 times bus diameter
 deflection corresponds to the modulus of elasticity of the material
 d fl ti off member
deflection b d decreases as cross-sectional
ti l momentt off inertia
i ti iincreases

##  Calculate maximum allowable bus span based on conductor fiber stress

 fiber stress varies with end conditions (fixed, slip, expansion)
 allowable stress corresponds to the yield strength of the material
 bending and shear stresses in member decrease as cross-sectional moment of inertia increase

May 25, 2011 | Slide 30
Insulator Check
 IEEE Std 605-2008

May 25, 2011 | Slide 31
Insulator Check
 IEEE Std 605-2008

May 25, 2011 | Slide 32
Insulator Check
 Station Post Insulator
 Manufacturers catalog

May 25, 2011 | Slide 33
Summary
 Factors to consider for rigid bus design
 Ampacity
 B Size
Bus Si
 BIL level
 Ph
Phase S
Spacing
i
 Environmental and geographical conditions such as wind speed, ground
motion, temperature
p range,
g altitude, p
pollution level
 Fault Current
 Insulator Type & Strength
 Disconnect Switch Cantilever Strength
 Distance between Disconnect Switch & Bus Support
 Maximum Bus Support Spacing

##  For mostt optimal

F ti l andd accurate
t bus
b arrangement, t rigid
i id b
bus system
t should
h ld bbe
modeled in a 3D finite-element analysis software.
May 25, 2011 | Slide 34

 Paason Rojanatavorn has been on staff with ABB Inc, Power Systems Substations since 2002. He
serves as a civil engineer providing structural analysis and design for Turnkey Substation Projects
located throughout the United States. His project experience ranges from extra high voltage AIS and
GIS transmission substations to low voltage AIS and GIS distribution substations. He also provides
second expert guidance for civil works to Power Generation, Grid Systems, and Power Systems MX

Paason received his BSCE from North Carolina State University in 2002 with a focus on structures. He
is a registered Professional Engineer and currently works at the ABB Inc, Raleigh location.

 Pathik Patel received the Bachelor’s Degree in Electrical Engineering from South Gujarat University,
India in 2004 and MS in Electrical Engineering with emphasis in Power Systems from California State
University, Long Beach in 2007. In 2005 he joined Fluor Corp and worked as Engineer doing
engineering, design, power system analysis & protection of LV and MV industrial systems. He is
currently working as Substation Development Engineer with ABB in Power System – Substations
divisions in Raleigh, NC.

Mr. Patel is registered Professional Engineer in California and a member of IEEE PES & IAS societies.