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1) Classification of aircrafts:

2) Environmental conditions while designing an aircraft

Environmental factors[edit]
An increase in the number of aircraft also means greater carbon emissions. Environmental scientists
have voiced concern over the main kinds of pollution associated with aircraft, mainly noise and
emissions. Aircraft engines have been historically notorious for creating noise pollution and the
expansion of airways over already congested and polluted cities have drawn heavy criticism, making
it necessary to have environmental policies for aircraft noise.[6][7] Noise also arises from the airframe,
where the airflow directions are changed.[8]Improved noise regulations have forced designers to
create quieter engines and airframes.[9] Emissions from aircraft include particulates, carbon
dioxide (CO2), Sulfur dioxide(SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), various oxides of nitrates and
unburnt hydrocarbons.[10] To combat the pollution, ICAO set recommendations in 1981 to control
aircraft emissions.[11] Newer, environmentally friendly fuels have been developed[12] and the use of
recyclable materials in manufacturing[13] have helped reduce the ecological impact due to aircraft.
Environmental limitations also affect airfield compatibility. Airports around the world have been built
to suit the topography of the particular region. Space limitations, pavement design, runway end
safety areas and the unique location of airport are some of the airport factors that influence aircraft
design. However changes in aircraft design also influence airfield design as well, for instance, the
recent introduction of new large aircraft (NLAs) such as the superjumbo Airbus A380, have led to
airports worldwide redesigning their facilities to accommodate its large size and service
3) Air worthiness certificate

A standard airworthiness certificate is an airworthiness certificate issued for an aircraft by

the national aviation authority in the state in which the aircraft is registered. A standard airworthiness
certificate is one of the certificates that are mandatory if an aircraft is to be used in commercial
operations. In the USA, Australia and some other countries, a standard airworthiness certificate is
issued in one of the following categories:[1]

 Transport
 Commuter
 Normal
 Utility
 Acrobatic
 Manned free balloons
 Special class of aircraft
The airworthiness certificate must be carried on board the aircraft and must be presented to a
representative of the aviation authority upon request.
A standard airworthiness certificate remains valid as long as the aircraft meets its approved type
design and is in a condition for safe operation. In the USA, a standard airworthiness certificate
remains effective providing the maintenance, preventive maintenance and alterations are performed
in accordance with relevant requirements and the aircraft remains registered in the USA.[2]
A standard airworthiness certificate ceases to be valid when the aircraft ceases to be registered.
Change of ownership of an aircraft does not require re-issue or re-validation of that aircraft's
standard airworthiness certificate.
In contrast to a standard airworthiness certificate, an aircraft may be issued with a special
airworthiness certificate. Examples of aircraft which are not eligible for standard airworthiness
certificates but may be eligible for special airworthiness certificates include agricultural aircraft,
experimental aircraft, and some ex-military aircraft.[1]

4) Choice of engine

Turbo prop:

Engine Name:rr300

The affordable RR300 makes smooth and reliable turbine-powered

flight possible for a new generation of aircraft.
Designed as a replacement for piston engines in light helicopters and general aviation
aircraft, the engine is optimised for performance in the 240-300 shp power range.

The engine has a certified multi-fuel capability and proven turbine engine
responsiveness, smoothness and worry-free reliability. A maintenance philosophy of a
2000 hour Preventative Maintenance Inspection (PMI) has been incorporated to assure
dependable power and predictable performance for the owner/operator.
Flight hours

Top power range

Pressure ratio

 Power (shp) - 240-300
 Pressure ratio - 6.2
 Length (in) - 37.6
 Width (in) - 21.5
 Basic weight (lb) - 201 (dry)
 Compressor - 1 stage centrifugal
 Turbine - 2 stage GP, 2 stage PT

 Robinson R66
 Scott's - Bell 47 GT-6
 RotorWay 300T Eagle

Specifications (RR300)[edit]
Data from Rolls-Royce[5]
General characteristics

 Type: Twin-spool turboshaft

 Length: 37.6 inches (96 cm)
 Diameter: 21.5 inches (55 cm)
 Dry weight: 201 pounds (91 kg)

 Compressor: Single-stage centrifugal

 Turbine: 2 stage GP, 2 stage PT

 Maximum power output: 240–300 shaft horsepower (180–220 kW)

 Overall pressure ratio: 6.2
 Power-to-weight ratio: 0.67 pounds per horsepower (0.41 kg/kW)