Anda di halaman 1dari 12



Karthik T


This is a report on in-plant training carried out at
Ashok Leyland, Ennore plant during 18-12-2012 to
22-12-2012. This report covers the important
manufacturing process carried out at the industry.
This report includes the important aspects of
production carried out at the sections like Engines,
Axles, Frame and Chassis Assemblies. Each section
comprises of a main assembly section and several
sub-assemblies where the materials required for
main assembly are either manufactured or processed
after out-sourcing. Each assembly in turn has several
stages through which the raw material is converted
into a finished product by skilled workers and
modern technologies.

First and foremost, I thank the management of
Ashok Leyland for allowing us to carry out my in
plant training in their esteemed concern. I also thank
all the employees of the concern who spared their
time answering my questions in spite of their busy
schedule. Last but not the least I thank my institution
permitting us to undergo an In-Plant Training.

Ashok Leyland is a commercial v e h i c l e

manufacturing company based in
Chennai, India. Fo un d ed in
1948, the company is one of
I n d i a ' s l e a d i n g man u fact u rers o f
co mmer c ial v eh icl es, su ch as tru ck s
an d buses, as well as emergency and
military vehicles. Operating six plants,
Ashok Leyland also makes spare parts
and engines fo r in dustria l an d mar in e
ap p licati o n s. It se lls ab o u t
6 0 ,000 v eh icles an d ab ou t 7,0 0 0
en g in es an nu ally . It is th e
seco n d largest commercial vehicle
company in India in the medium and
heavy commercial vehicle (M&HCV)
segment with a market share of 28% (2007–
08). With passenger transportation options
ranging from 19 seaters to 80 seaters, Ashok
Leyland is a market leader in bus segment.

Chasis Assembly:
In stage 1 and 2 already assembled frond
and rear axles from the machine shop-4 is fixed on
the main frame that fabricated from the machine
shop-3 of the vehicle. In stage-3 the fixed frame
assembly is placed on the conveyor belt, where
brake chamber is fitted to it. In stage-4 steering gear
box is fitted to the main frame. In stage-5 silencer
tank is fitted to the main frame. In stage-6 fuel tank
is fixed to the stage of the chasis assembly. In stage-
7engine is mounted on the frame of chasis vehicle.
In stage-8 Radiator is fixed at the front of engine. In
stage-9 tyres for all the wheels is fitted to the drums
of the axels. In stage-10 the vehicle is toed then and
taken to another unit to make it running condition
and test is driven out. Engine Assembly :In Stage-1
crank case swr/plate/EII no is brought to the engine
assembly, here cam bearings are fixed to the crank
case of the engine. In stage-2 cam shaft types
EO/EI/No are fixed in the appropriate places in the
crank case. In stage-3 crank shaft make BM/GB is
fixed at the base of the crank case like passing
through the hole. In stage-4 m-14 studs are fixed to
the holes of the crank case. In stage-5 1st and 6th
piston is kept at the top dead centre and timing gears
are fixed to the side of the engine of the firing order.
In stage-6crank gears are fixed to the crank case to
operate the cam shafts in order to operate the valves.
In stage-7 fly wheel housing is fitted to the house of
the engine. In stage-8 the flywheel is fitted to the
housing and 90 torques is applied to it. The fly
wheel housing consists of the seal housing, flange
and fly wheel. In stage-9 Oil pump is fixed to the top
of the crankcase to circulate oil to the various parts
of the enigne. In stage-10 the readily made piston is
fitted to the bore of the crankcase and connected to
the crankshaft. Before that, Piston rings are of three
types two compression rings and oil ring is fixed on
the piston. In stage-11the conrod bolt is fixed to
connect the piston with the crank shaft. In stage-12
Idiling gear is fixed on the spindles which control
the rotations of the cam gear, cam gear and
compression gear. In stage-13 cylinder head is fixed
at the top of the crank case to which rocker arm with
valves are fixed. In stage-14 oil pump is fixed at the
bottom of the crank case with the adhesive (RTV)
paste. In stage-15 rocker assembly is fixed at the
cylinder head. In stage-16air compressor is fixed on
the crank case. In stage-17 fuel injection pump is
fixed. In stage-18 valve cover is fixed. In stage-19
oil cover is fixed. In stage-20 Injector pipe and inlet
manifold is fitted. In stage -21 side cover is fixed. In
stage-22 oil pump is fixed. In stage-23starter motor
is fixed. In stage-24 Exhaust manifold is fixed. In
stage-25 turbo charger is fixed. In stage-26 EII
fitments are fixed. In stage-27 fully assembled is
taken to the testing area where the testing are taken
for the proper function of the engine.

Main Shop-2:Fabrication of Valves:In stage-1

Facing and the centering (length) of the valves are
done here. In stage-2Sraightening (Bend removing)
is done. In the stage-3 Rough turning and finish
turning are done. In stage-4 again the straightening
is done here. In stage-5 Keyway milling (Gear
Fixing, Oil pumping) are done here. In stage-6
am milling(valve inlet, valve outlet) are done. In
stage-7 Gear hobbing is done through gear hobbing
machine. In stage-8 Gun drilling is done (through
hole). In stage-9 counter boring and tapping (nuts,
front and rear).In stage-10 oil hole drilling. In stage-
11 Washing and number punching is done. In stage-
12Index hardening and tempering and hardening are
done. In stage-13 Hardness testing(moderate
hardening) are tested here. In stage-14 once again
the straightening are done here. In stage-15
Bearing(journal) dia grindings are done. In stage-16
cam grindings are done. In stage-17
D-crack checkings are done. In stage-18 Inspection
of valves are done at the final. The flywheel housing
is tested and fitted at the engine case

SHOP 3 :

The chasis of the vehicle is startes from here at this

shop-3. The frames of the wheels are fixed together
to be sent on the chasis assembly. The skids are
mounted on the conveyor belt and frame is placed on
the skids. And frame MTG on which is mounted is
fixed across the two frames. On the rear end of the
frame BKTS both sides are aligned with taper pin.
Fit and tight FSR and BKTS on the both sides with
dummy bolts. Tilt both the fsms to 90 degree by
turning tackle and insert damps. Tight and apply
torque to the engine MTG Flinches and M12 with
bolts. Correspondingly in every stage each workers
tight appropriate bolt to the frame before taken to the
chasis assembly to make it a complete frame.

Main Shop-4:
The Main shop-4 is Mainly divided into the
two departments. They are front axle assembly and
rear axle assembly.
Front Axle Assembly:
In stage-1 Axle beam is loaded at the
conveyor belt. In stage-2 Number is punched on the
axle beam. In stage-3 Axle arm is fixed to the beam
of steering. In stage-4 Steering rod is fitted. It is
right end of the axle according to the Indian
Standard STDs. In stage-5Tracking rod is fitted. It is
used for the alignment of the wheel. It helps left side
of the tyre to turn along with the right side wheel. In
stage-6 Brake carrers with brake linings are fitted to
the fr axle beam and taken to the chasis assembly.
Rear Axle Assembly: In stage-1 Banjo casing
from outside is unloaded and fixed at the conveyor
and axle shaft is removed. In stage-2 brake lining
and 10 bolt and washer are fixed on the brake carrer
with the spring washer. In stage-3 Brake nut and bolt
are tighten and fitted 50 to 75torques. In stage-4
Ring for oil seal is fitted on the hub shim is fitted to
3 to 6 tau for the clearence flange cover is fitted with
the four bolts. In stage-5 Inner oil seal is fitted on the
ring for inner oil seal. Then inner wheel bearing is
also fitted. In stage-6 Distance Piece is fixed to align
the inner and outer wheel bearing in the same axis.
In stage-7 Dry set, where the wheel hub is fixed
roughly to verify whether increase or decrease the
Engine Assembly :
In the engine assembly section, we came to know
across the different types of commercial and marine
engines and the technicians were very helpful in
clarifying our mistakes and helping us.

1. Recognizing the manufacturing and assembly

2. Knowing the process flow.
3. Identify input and output for the process.
4. Experience the importance of working safety.
5. Understand the concepts of assemblies and
6. Importance being provided to the Quality
7. Theory being applied practically.
8. Mass-production and cost reduction without
reducing the quality, by utilising technology.
9. Knowing what the industry requires from its
10. Discipline, Punctuality and Team-Work.

It’s been privilege to do in plant training in one

of the India’s largest automotive company
Ashok Leyland. It has helped in many ways to
improve our knowledge about the actual work
done in the industries and to have hands on
experience. I once again thank the management
of Ashok Leyland for providing me such an