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ST3I-INF-00268

MATERIALS VALIDATION/RECOMMENDATION STUDY


Pág: i
FOR THE SURFACE FACILITIES CONSIDERED IN THE
Rev. 1
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR) PROJECT
Fecha: 06/03/2009

MATERIALS VALIDATION / RECOMMENDATION


STUDY FOR THE SURFACE FACILITIES
CONSIDERED IN THE “ENHANCED OIL
RECOVERY” (EOR) PROJECT
CONFIDENTIAL REPORT

Client: VEPICA, C.A.


Ing, Rubén Leal

Prepared by: G. Navas


B. Luciani
E. Bello

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

LIST OF TABLES iv

GLOSSARY v

SUMMARY vii

1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. STUDY’S SCOPE 2
3. CORROSION IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTION FACILITIES 3

3.1 CO2 Corrosion 3

3.2 H2S Corrosion 4

3.3 Corrosion in petroleum production processes containing both CO2 and H2S 6

3.4 Fluid Velocity and Flow Pattern 7

3.5 Corrosion rate Estimation 9

4. EROSION IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTION FACILITIES 11

4.1 Risk of damage under stratified flow condition 12

4.2 Erosion rate estimation 13

5. METHODOLOGY OF EVALUATION 13

5.1 Reference documents 14

5.2 Main Assumptions 16

6. INPUT DATA TABLES 19

7. RESULTS TABLES AND DISCUSSION 31


7.1 Piping connectivity and equipment identification 31

7.2 Corrosion rate and flow pattern results 31

7.3 Risk of Other Mechanism of Degradation 33

7.4 Erosion Rates Results 34

8. OTHER CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 43

REFERENCES 44
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Page

ANNEX A. EVALUATION OF SLOTTED LINERS SAMPLES RECOVERED FROM


WELL JA-11.ST3I-INF-00184. 2006.

ANNEX B. CONECTIVIDAD LINES AND EQUIPMENT

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LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table 1. Partial pressure of CO2 and corrosivity criteria 4

Table 2. Reference documents 14

Table 3. Produced water chemical and physical analysis 18

Table 4. Input data of evaluated piping 20

Table 5. Input data of evaluated equipment 25

Table 6. Input data of stream properties considered in the evaluation 26

Table 7. Input data required to estimate the erosion rates 29

Table 8. Corrosion/Erosion Results, Piping Material validation and Corrosion


Conclusions/Recommendations 35

Table 9. Corrosion Results and Equipment Material Validation 41

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GLOSSARY

EOR: Enhanced Oil Recovery

EHO: Extra Heavy Oil

BPD: Barrel per day

SAGD: Steam Assisted Gravity Drain

HASD: Horizontal Alternating Steam Drive

SD: Steam Drive

ECRC: Erosion-Corrosion Research Center

CRA: Corrosion Risk Assessment is a qualitative o quantitative evaluation to determine possible


degradation mechanisms associated to oil or gas facilities.

ND: Nominal diameter (inches)

ID: Internal Diameter (inches)

CA: Corrosion Allowance (inches/mm)

mpy: Mils per year

Vcor = Corrosion rate or corrosion severity index (mpy)

Vcorr max: Maximum Corrosion rate Allowed: CA/Service life (mpy)

Vcorr calc: Corrosion rate estimated by Predict model (mpy)

V max Erosion rate: Maximum erosion rate Allowed: CA/Service life (mpy)

Erosion rate calc: Erosion rate estimated by ECRC model (mpy)

HRC: Rockwell C scale of hardness

BH: Brinell scale of hardness

CS: Carbon steel

SS: Stainless steel


Ksi: kilo-pound [force] per square inch. It is used to specify stress and Young's modulus.

PWHT: Post Welded Heat Treatment

Service Life: is the period of useful service for a particular component (years)

P: Design operation pressure (Psia)

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GLOSSARY
T: Design operational temperature (°F)

Qgas: Gas production rate (MMSCFD)

Qoil: Oil production rate (barrels/day)

Qwater: Water production rate (barrels/day)


dgas: Gas density (Lb/ft3)
doil: Oil density (kg/m3)
dwater : Water density (kg/m3)

µgas : Gas viscosity (centipoise)

µwater: Water viscosity (centipoise)


µoil: Oil viscosity (centipoise)

Sgas: Gas specific gravity (specific gravity of air = 1.0)

Zgas: Gas Compressibility Factor

σL: Liquid surface tension (dyne/cm).

USL : Superficial liquid velocity (ft/s). it is referred to the velocity of the liquid if the liquid were to occupy
the whole cross-section of the pipe

USG : Superficial gas velocity (ft/s). it is referred to the velocity of the gas if the gas were to occupy the
whole cross-section of the pipe

Umixture: Velocity of the mixture (ft/s)

Flow Pattern: Flow regime in the piping based on type of flow. Horizontal or Vertical

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SUMMARY
The Enhanced Oil Recovery Project comprises the construction of new surface facilities (EOR for
production of extra heavy oil (EHO: 8.5 API). The objectives of the project are to increase the crude oil
recovery, by using proven technologies, and to test the reservoir behavior by using three mechanism
of hot production: “Steam Assisted Gravity Drain” (SAGD), Horizontal Alternating Steam Drive”
(HASD) and “Steam Drive” (SD). It is estimated that produced gas contains between 8- 50% mol CO2
and 1.2-4.5% mol H2S (dilution effect due to a mixture of produced gas with gas lift and/or steam will
decrease CO2 and H2S up to 9% and 0.8% respectively). The corrosive contaminants (CO2 and H2S)
in presence of produced water, dissolved salts and/or solids particles (sand) will create a
corrosive/erosive environment that would affect mechanical integrity of the equipments. To prevent
corrosion problems in piping, static equipments and pumps, VEPICA has included in the development
of the basic engineering phase, the criteria for materials selection and specifications, based on their
own experience on similar facilities. Additionally it was considered necessary to contract ST3I, C.A to
carry out a Corrosion Risk Assessment (CRA) study, in order to validate/complement the requirements
for material selection and to detect critical equipments, which conform the objectives of this study.

Validation/recommendation of the materials selected in this study, are based on estimated corrosion
rate or corrosion severity index calculated with commercial software Predict 4.0®, which considers a
multiphase flow regime at the design conditions. This study also includes the estimation of the erosion
rate at elbows and straight sections in piping, using the model developed by the Erosion-Corrosion
Research Center (ECRC) at the University of Tulsa.

The study´s scope comprises the following facilities: Piping, static equipments and pumps associated
to EOR Clusters; Gathering and Distribution Network (cluster well production main/test header); and
emulsion/ gas separation: group separator and emulsion stripper and test separator.

Predicted corrosion rates results for almost all studied piping and associated equipment, varies
between 0-2 mpy. Exception occurs for piping and equipment where the predicted corrosion rates vary
between 6- 57 mpy such as:

o Outlet Produced Gas Condenser A-5502 associated piping (12-PG-55-019-BA-6H-PP),

o Produced Gas Separator D-5504,

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o Condensate Pumps P-5501-A/B to Group Separator D-5503 piping (3-PW-55-004-BA6Q-PP /


3-PW-55-005-BA6Q-PP / 3-PW-55-006-BA6Q-PP)

o Outlet piping of Produced Gas Separator D-5504 to Mixed Gas Separator D-8101 (8-PG-55-
001-BA6H-PP)

These high corrosion rates and highly aggressive environment are due to an interactive effect of the
following parameters: acidic or low pH, low operation temperature that increases film solubility and
CO2 and H2S solubility in condense liquid water. In this case the system is dominated by H2S
corrosion, and the tendency of environmental cracking (Sulfide Stress Cracking, SSC or Hydrogen
Induced Cracking, HIC) is increased. Similar corrosion behavior was observed for the Test Separator
D-5501 piping and associated equipment.

For all straight piping and elbows the estimated results for penetration rates or erosion values are very
low, < 5 mpy and < 6 mpy respectively, so fails or problems due to this phenomenon will not be
expected. Exception occurs for multiphase production mixture piping of SAGD Production Well 2, 4,
and 6 (stream 1001) where the erosion rate is approximately 33 mpy. This high value for erosion rate
is caused by the high rate (232fts/s) of multiphase flow, due to small nominal diameter (6”) of the
piping.

Recommendations given in this study allow validating VEPICA’s preliminary materials and
metallurgical selection, with slight changes in corrosion allowance (from 3.8 mm to 3.2 mm) for piping
with corrosion rates between 0-2 mpy.

Recommendations consider additional metallurgical requirements, to increase HIC/SCC resistance for


Group Separator D-5503 and Produced Gas Separator D-5504. For Test Separator D-5501 and Test
Gas Separator D-5502 apply the same requirements.

For Test Separator Condenser associated piping 12-PG-55-019-BA6H-PP, the predictive model
shows a warning and uncertainty of the results, but due to the high CO2 and H2S content of HASD
well, it is recommended to use batch inhibitor injection to control corrosion any time permanent well
HASD is produced.

For Condensate pumps P-5501A/B and Emulsion Transfer pumps P-5502A/B material change is
recommended to D1 and D2 respectively in conformance to API STD 610.

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1. INTRODUCTION
The Enhanced Recovery Oil Project comprises the construction of new surface facilities (EOR
Process Area and two new clusters) for production of extra heavy oil (EHO: 8.5 API). The objectives
of the project are to increase the crude oil recovery, by using proven technologies, and to test the
reservoir behavior by using three mechanism of hot production: “Steam Assisted Gravity Drain”
(SAGD), “Horizontal Alternating Steam Drive” (HASD) and “Steam Drive” (SD). Once mechanisms
performances are evaluated, decision will be taken to apply them in large scale. The extra heavy oil
will be produced by combining steam injection and gas lift. The Project has been designed to
produce 4000 BPD EHO.

Wellheads and surface facilities for steam injection and multiphase product recovery are located at
the Process Area.

The mixture of oil, produced gas, steam condensate, steam and lift gas from each production well is
collected into the Group Header and sent to the common Group Separator. The produced gas is
separated from the emulsion, and routed to the fuel gas system, mixed with natural gas coming from
Main Station and then used as fuel gas for the Steam Generators.

The emulsion containing H2S is stripped in the Emulsion Stripper. The combined effect of the
pressure reduction and the stripping gas will decrease the H2S content of the emulsion before
cooling and pumping to the Main Station by existing trunkline T1.

The aquifer water from Petrocedeño area will be used for steam generation. Water treatment
includes water de-oiling, sand filtration and ion exchange. Finally, the treated boiler feed water is
routed to the steam generator.

It is estimated that produced gas contains between 8- 50% mol CO2 and 1.2- 4.5% mol H2S (dilution
effect due to a mixture of produced gas with gas lift and/or steam will decrease CO2 and H2S up to
9% and 0.8% respectively). The corrosive contaminants (CO2 and H2S) in presence of produced
water, dissolve salts and/or solids particles (sand) that will create a corrosive/erosive environment
that would affect mechanical integrity of the equipments. To prevent corrosion problems in piping and
static equipments, VEPICA has included in the development of basic engineering phase, the criteria
for materials selection and specifications, based on their own experience on similar facilities.
Additionally it was considered necessary to contract ST3I to carry out a “Corrosion Risk

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Assessment”, in order to validate/complement the requirements for material selection and to detect
critical equipments, which are the objectives of this study.

2. STUDY’S SCOPE
Validation/recommendation of the material selected in this study, is based on a corrosion risk
assessment methodology, which considers not only the estimated corrosion rate obtained for
process piping and equipments but also the best operational practices and material performance in
similar facilities. To estimate the corrosion rate or the corrosion severity index, commercial software
Predict 4.0® was used, which considers a multiphase flow regime at the design conditions.
Validation activities include the following:

• Gathering, reviewing and analysis of the data provided by Vepica: Design basis, Process
diagrams (PFD), piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID), Process simulation (ASPEN HYSYS
Version 2006.5), Piping Class document, guideline for material selection and metallurgical
diagram, expected useful life for the equipment and piping, fluid characterization (oil/gas),
physical and chemical analysis of water production and sand content.

• Line connectivity and piping and equipment identification.

• Estimation of Corrosion rate by using Predict 4.0® software considering the impact of the H2S
gas content, other corrosive species, temperature effects, oil/water/gas effects, velocity
effects etc. and identification of possible and/or additional degradation mechanisms
associated with the operational conditions of the process.

• Sand contents estimation using the model developed by the Erosion-Corrosion Research
Center (ECRC) at the University of Tulsa in order to evaluate the erosion rate at elbows and
straight sections in piping.

• Validation/recommendation of materials and thickness for piping and equipment, based on


corrosion rates will be indicated in the metallurgic diagrams provided by VEPICA.

• Summary table indicating critical piping and equipment.

• Actions/recommendations for corrosion control.

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3. CORROSION IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTION FACILITIES

The production of oil and gas, its transportation, refining and its subsequent uses as fuel, raw
materials for chemicals process constitute a complex and demanding process. Corrosion is a major
problem encountered in the Petroleum Industry over the world, because the cost of lost time, the cost
to replace the equipment and components. It is estimated that around 40% of the carbon steel
produced in the world is used for replacement of corroded materials.

Detrimental Corrosion in oil production facilities occurs because free water is present in most of the
oil and gas production wells, either as production water or condensate water.

Corrosion severity and damage on metallic structures depends on the effect of many environmental
factors such as: presence of CO2 and H2S, temperature, system pressure, water chemistry, fluid
velocity, presence of erosive particles etc. Following will be discussed the corrosion mechanisms
encountered affecting the integrity of the components and facilities in oil/gas production.

3.1 CO2 Corrosion

Carbon Dioxide CO2 is a gas contaminant present in oil and gas production. In absence of free water
CO2 is a non-corrosive agent for carbon steel or low alloy steels, but CO2 is highly soluble in water
increasing its corrosivity significantly. CO2 corrosion is known as “sweet corrosion” and the
mechanism of corrosion for iron can be separate in three different steps:

• CO2 is dissolved in water and hydrate to carbonic acid

CO2 + H2O ⇔ H2CO3 (eq. 1)

• Carbonic acid which is a weak acid will dissociate to form bicarbonate ions and subsequently
carbonate ions,

H2CO3 ⇔ H+ + HCO3- (eq. 2)

HCO3- ⇔ H+ + CO3-2 (eq. 3)

• Carbonate ions react with ferrous ions to form ferrous carbonate as corrosion product

Fe2+ + CO3-2 ⇒ FeCO3 (eq. 4)

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Ferrous carbonate (FeCO3) would provide a continuous and tightly adherent film and diminish
corrosion rate depending on the operational parameter such as: temperature, fluid velocity, pressure
and free oxygen content. Conditions favoring a protective ferrous carbonate film and therefore low
corrosion rate are:

• Elevated temperature >100°C (212 °F), decreases film solubility, decreases CO2 solubility and
accelerates precipitation kinetics.

• High pH, decreases CO2 solubility.

• Lack of turbulence.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is an acid gas that dissolves in liquid water to produce a reduction in the
system pH. Therefore the pH varies with the amount of CO2 dissolved. Typically, the pH decreases
with increasing amounts of CO2 in solution. The lower the pH, the more aggressive is the
environment from the standpoint of corrosion. The amount of CO2 in solution increases with
increasing mole fraction of CO2 in the gas phase and with increasing partial pressure of CO2.
Corrosion severity generally increases with CO2 partial pressure. Partial pressure of CO2 is related to
corrosion rate as follow in the Table 1:

Table 1 Partial pressure of CO2 and corrosivity criteria.


Partial pressure CO2 Corrosivity Criteria

< 48 kPa (7 Psi) Negligible

[48 a 97] kPa [7 to 17 Psi] Negligible to slight

[97 a 193] kPa [14 to 30 Psi] Moderate

> 193 kPa (30 Psi) Severe

3.2 H2S Corrosion

H2S corrosion is known as sour corrosion and plays an important role in oil crude and gas production
operations. Gaseous hydrogen sulfide dissolved in water, is a weak acid and therefore is corrosive
because it is a source of hydrogen ions. This corrosion process becomes critical for high pressure
systems. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), like carbon dioxide dissolves in aqueous environments to
contribute to a reduction in the system pH. Typically, the pH decreases with increasing amounts of
H2S in solution.
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Three types of degradation mechanism can be identified in wet H2S environments: general or
uniform corrosion which occurs at lower temperatures and H2S partial pressure, sulfide stress
cracking (SSC) and hydrogen induced cracking (HIC). For any of three types the corrosion, the first
step of the mechanism is dissolution of hydrogen sulfide in water and then reduction of hydrogen ion
and corrosion of iron according to the following reactions:
H 2 S ⇔ HS − + H + (eq. 5)

HS − ⇔ H + + S 2 − (eq. 6)
Fe ⇒ Fe 2 + + 2 e − (eq. 7)
2 e − + 2 H + + Fe 2 + ⇒ 2 H 0 + FeS (eq. 8)

Iron sulfide corrosion products can be important in corrosion control, because of the low solubility,
rapid precipitation and mechanical properties of such corrosion products, velocity effects are
generally not encountered in sour systems. Iron sulfide can have different molecular composition
FexSy depending on gaseous hydrogen sulfide partial pressure and temperature. For general or

uniform corrosion, which occurs at lower temperatures and H2S partial pressure < 0.1 psi
(0.00689476 Bar) an adequately protective film often forms, but above this pressure iron sulfide
corrosion products are more porous and less protectors.

SULFIDE STRESS CRACKING (SSC) is a special H2S corrosion type where susceptible alloys,
especially steels under stress (applied or residual) react with hydrogen sulfide, forming metal sulfide
and atomic hydrogen. Atomic hydrogen diffuses into the metal matrix and embrittle the crystalline
structure. When the concentration of hydrogen atoms becomes critical and the tensile stress exceeds
the threshold level, SSC occurs. H2S does not actively participate in the SSC reaction; sulfides
promote the entry of hydrogen atoms into the base material.

SSC is most severe at temperature < 80 °C (<176 °F). Above 80 °C (176 °F) the diffusion rate of
hydrogen is so fast that the hydrogen passes through the material in such a rapid manner that the
critical concentration of hydrogen is not reached.

The standard NACE MR0175 specifies the proper materials, heat treatment conditions and strength
levels to provide good service life in sour gas and oil environments. MR0175 shall apply to conditions
containing condensate water and H2S partial pressure in a wet gas phase, gas condensate or crude oil
system is equal or greater than 0.05 psia (0.00344738 Bar) and total pressure for multiphase systems

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exceeds 265 psia (18 Bar). For Carbon and low alloy steels, SSC resistance is obtained if hardness is
below 22HRC. Also if welding or significant cold working is done, stress relief is required.

HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING (HIC) is also a brittle mechanical fracture caused because atomic
hydrogen diffuses into the metal matrix to preferential sites, such as non metallic inclusions, at that point
two hydrogen atoms combine to form hydrogen molecule and hydrogen blister can be formed or step
wise cracking. According to NACE TM-01-77 some steels of medium strength (< 80 Ksi), are
susceptible to this phenomenon and factors promoting this attack are: acidic pH < 5, temperature at or
near room temperature, cold work, external stress not necessarily close to yield stress and H2S partial
pressure above 0.015 psia (0.001034214 Bars )

3.3 Corrosion in petroleum production processes containing both, CO2 and H2S

The presence of each of corrosives agents H2S and CO2 in aqueous medium causes severe damage,
as was mentioned above. In production environments containing CO2 and H2S, corrosion is a complex
issue governed by film layers stability of iron sulfides film (FexSy) and ferrous carbonate film (FeCO3)

at varying operation temperatures.

A simplified calculation based on the partial pressure ratio of both corrosive agents (PpCO2 /Pp H2S),
allows estimating the relative corrosion mechanism as follow:

PpCO2/Pp H2S > 200 Sweet Corrosion (CO2 relative domination)

PpCO2/PpH2S < 200 Sour Corrosion (H2S relative domination)

According to Ikeda et al (1) at operation temperatures above 150 °C (302 °F), the corrosion reaction
falls back to the standard CO2-based corrosion, with a FeCO3 film that is more stable than the iron

sulfides film.

In this study the ratio PpCO2/PpH2S for all process is < 200, but operation temperatures vary for
each process piping or associated equipment i.e. for produced gas condenser, piping and produced
gas separator and test separator (piping and equipment), operation temperatures are close 60°C
(140°C), for other processes (i.e. clusters, gathering, and distribution network operation temperatures
are between 174 °C and 181°C (284 °F and 358 °F). this differences in operation temperature and its
consequences are discussed later on in this study.

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3.4 Fluid Velocity and Flow Pattern

In multiphase (i.e. gas, water liquid hydrocarbon) production, the flow rate influences the corrosion
rate of steel in two ways. First, it determines the flow behavior. In general terms static conditions
occur at low velocities, stratified flow at intermediate conditions and turbulent flow at higher flow
rates. Second, flow can also accelerate corrosion with increasing velocity through increased mass
transport and at still higher flow rates by removal of protective corrosion films (i.e. corrosion products
and inhibitor films). One measure, which can be used to define the flow conditions in multiphase flow
systems, is the superficial liquid velocity. For velocities values less than about 3 ft/sec (1 meter/sec),
flow behavior is considered static. Typically, high velocities (> 4 m/s for non-inhibited systems) in the
production stream leads to mechanical removal of corrosion films and the ensuing exposure of the
fresh metal surface to the corrosive medium leads to significantly higher corrosion rates.

When co-current flow of multi-phases occurs, the phases take up a variety of configurations, known
as flow patterns. The particular flow pattern depends on the conditions of pressure, flow and channel
geometry. In corrosion prediction and assessment for oil and gas production, the flow pattern or
successive flow patterns, that would exist and shear stress at the wall, are essential.

Four flow patterns occur for a vertical flow: bubbly, slug, churn and annular (Figure 1). At low gas
flow rates, the gas phase tends to rise through the continuous liquid medium as small discrete
bubbles giving rise to the name, bubbly flow. As the gas flow rate increases the smaller bubbles
begin to coalesce forming larger bubbles. At sufficiently high gas flow rates, the agglomerated
bubbles become large enough to occupy almost the entire pipe cross-section and give the name of
slugs to the flow regime.

At still higher flow rates the shear stress between bubble and the liquid film increases, finally causing
a breakdown of the liquid film and the bubbles. The resulting churning motion of the fluids gives rise
to the name of this flow pattern.

The final flow pattern, annular flow, occurs at extremely high gas flow rates which causes the entire
gas phase to flow through the central portion of the tube.

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Fig. 1 Flow pattern in vertical flow

The flow patterns in horizontal flow can be broadly divided into – stratified, wavy, annular, slug,
bubble and dispersed/mist flow. Figure 2 depicts the flow patterns pictorically.

Stratified flow occurs when the liquid flows along the bottom of the pipe and the gas flows over a
smooth liquid-gas interface.

Wave flow occurs when the gas phase traveling at a greater velocity than the liquid phase as to
cause ripples in the liquid.

Annular flow occurs when the liquid forms a film around the inside wall of the pipe and the gas flows
at high velocities in the center of the pipe.

Slug flow occurs when waves of liquid are picked up by a more rapidly moving gas to form a frothy
slug, which passes through the pipe at a much greater velocity than the average liquid velocity. The
gas phase is more pronounced than in bubble flow. Although the liquid phase is still continuous the
gas bubbles coalesce to form stable bubbles with almost the diameter of the pipe. Bubble flow occurs
when bubbles of gas move along the upper part of the pipe at approximately the same velocity as the
liquid. The bubbles move at random velocities depending on their respective diameter.

Mist flow is the regime in which most or nearly all of the liquid is entrained as spray by the gas. This
is also called as dispersed flow/spray flow and may result in droplet impingement on the metal
surface, causing significant erosion damage.

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Fig 2 Flow pattern in horizontal flow.

3.5 Corrosion rate estimation


For prediction of corrosion rate of carbon steel piping, a computer predictive model (Predict 4.0®)
based on the De Waard, Milliams and Lotz of Shell correlation was used.

PREDICT system addresses one of the most significant issues in corrosion evaluation, i.e.,
assessment of corrosion rates of steels exposed to corrosive environments. Predict performs a
rigorous evaluation of large number of environmental parameters to assess the corrosive severity of
the environment and determine a corrosion rate in steels.

The system uses initially a widely accepted CO2-based corrosion prediction model to obtain an a
preliminary assessment of corrosion rate in carbon steels. But this number is modified to account for
the synergistic effects of other factors such as temperature, H2S, chlorides, velocity effects and
inhibition to estimate corrosion severity as is explained in Figure 3 where the flow chart delineate
the hierarchical reasoning structure of the Predict system.

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Fig. 3 Determination of corrosion severity index.

It is important to realize that the model also considers the oil wetting effect, which is present in heavy
oil production activities. The model classifies the production environment as oil or gas dominated
condition, based on the gas/oil ratio (GOR). If the environment has a GOR < 890 m3/m3 (5000 Scf/bbl
in English units) it denotes an oil dominated systems and the tendency for corrosion and
environmental cracking (SSC or HIC) is reduced. In this study, the gas/oil ratio (GOR) for almost all
the evaluated streams is < 5000 Scf/bbl.

The low in corrosion rates for some piping, in this study, may be caused by the possible inhibiting
effect of the oil film on the metal surface, which effectively reduces the corrosivity of the environment.
The persistence of the oil phase would be a contributing factor on providing protection, even if high
water cut is present.

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4. EROSION IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTION FACILITIES

As it was pointed out in the previous sections of this report there is a real possibility of damage to the
production facilities due to sand ingress to piping and equipment. Depending on the amount of sand
and other factors related with the fluid properties and flow dynamics the damage could be:

• Erosion associated with high fluid velocity, low viscosity fluids, and homogeneous flow.

• Abrasion associated with friction damage between the sand and the pipe wall, in flows with low
velocities, and low viscosity fluids. Typical flow regimes are heterogeneous and salting ones.

• Plugging associated with high solid contents and low fluid velocities, leading in settling pattern of
flow.

The mechanism of particle induced damage and its intensity depends on the flow pattern in the lines.
Although strict relations may not be reliable stated, the following qualitative tendencies are shown
Figure 4.

• Homogeneous flow. In this case, uniform erosion damage develops. Severe erosion typically
appears in the zone where the flow changes its direction and it is induced by the particles which
tends to keep their original trajectory and strike against the inner surface of the elbow. In straight
lines, the erosion rate tends to be much lower.

• Intermediate or salting flow. According to this pattern, a large amount of solid particles is
expected to slide over the pipe floor, carried by water. Sliding particles trace a longitudinal
abrasion groove, in the “6 hour” position, which, in extreme conditions, could completely cut the
pipe wall. Abrasion could also enhance corrosion, since the pasivation layer is mechanically
removed during flow.

• Stationary bed. Produced by a stratified flow. Solid deposits build a porous medium on the pipe
floor, trough which low viscosity liquid fractions (mainly water) could irregularly flow. Randomly,
thin flow arms, carrying fine solid particles, could reach the pipe wall and produce erosion
channels which, eventually, perforate the material. This damage mechanism is highly enhanced
by the presence of corrosion agents.

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Fig. 4 Flow patterns for liquid-solid systems.

4.1 Risk of damage under stratified flow condition


In the cases where the flow pattern is not homogeneous but stratified, solid particles tend to slide
over the pipe floor and/or deposit on it, randomly enhancing the action of different damage
mechanisms, such as:
• Corrosion. Persistent stratified flow with separated water phase along the pipe cans origin “hour
6“corrosion. Attack is associated with non uniformity of the aqueous environments at surface type
concentration cell corrosion. Corrosion occurs when the environment near the metal surface
differs from region to region. These differences create anodes and cathodes (regions differing in
electrochemical potential). Local-action corrosion cells are established, and anodic areas lose
metal by corrosion. Also, if sedimentation exists, is possible the occurrence of under-deposit and
microbiological corrosion mechanisms which are highly enhanced by free stagnated water phase.

• Abrasion. During stratified flow, a large amount of solid particles is expected to slide over the
tube floor and trace a longitudinal abrasion groove, which, in extreme conditions, could
completely cut the tube wall.

• Channeling. Solid deposits build a porous medium on the pipe floor, trough which low viscosity
liquid fraction (mainly water) could irregularly flow. Randomly, thin flow arms, carrying fine solid

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particles, could reach the tube wall and produce erosion channels, which eventually, perforate
the material. This damage mechanism is highly enhanced by the presence of corrosion agents.

4.2 Erosion rate Estimation


The model developed by the Erosion-Corrosion Research Center (ECRC) at the University of Tulsa
was used to estimate erosion rates, which considers a homogeneous flow pattern in straight lines
and standard elbows. The model also considers the following parameters:

• Piping characteristics:

o Inner diameter.

o Shape: straight line; elbow; tee.

o Material: chemical composition and hardness.

o Roughness of the inner surface.

• Characteristics of the phases contained in the flow:

o Solid: volume fraction, density, particle size and shape.

o Water: density, viscosity and rate.

o Oil: density, viscosity and rate.

o Gas: density, viscosity and rate.

5. METHODOLOGY OF EVALUATION
The following methodologies with their results and recommendations are listed below:

• Corrosion risk assessment analysis using:

o The process provided data and review of operational experience/best practices in similar
installations.

o Commercial software Predict® v4.0 based on the De Waard. Milliams correlation for
prediction of corrosion rate of carbon steel lines.

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• Evaluation of possible erosion mechanism due to sand presence by using the model developed
by the Erosion-Corrosion Research Center (ECRC) at the University of Tulsa which considers
this phenomenon.

• Validation/recommendation of materials and thickness for piping and equipment, based on


corrosion /erosion rates will be indicated in the metallurgic diagrams provided by VEPICA.

• Corrosion Control recommendation.

5. 1 Reference documents

This Input data for study was based on the following reference documents provided by VEPICA.
(Table 2)
Table 2 Reference documents.
Document N° Rev.
Produced water composition ATTACHMENT 13 ---
Simulation process SN
Process Description M901-00-00-B-RP-001 B0
Process and Utilities Design Basis
M901-00-00-B-DC-001 C0
Specification
Piping Material Classes M901-00-00-L-SP-001 C0
Guidelines for Material Selection M901-50-00-A-RP-001 A1
Block Flow Diagram - Design Base Case M901-00-00-B-PF-001 C0
Process Flow Diagram - EOR Process Area -
Emulsion/gas Separation - Test Separator M901-50-14-B-PF-001 C0
Process Flow Diagram - EOR Process Area -
Emulsion/gas Separation -Group Separator M901-50-14-B-PF-002 C0
Process Flow Diagram - EOR Cluster C1 -
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Wells M901-C1-10-B-PF-001 C0
EOR Cluster C1 Steam Drive Production
wells M901-C1-10-B-PF-002 C0
EOR Cluster C2 Steam Drive Injection Wells M901-C2-10-B-PF-001 C0
EOR Cluster C1 - Horizontal Alternating
Steam Drive Wells M901-C1-10-B-PF-003 C0
EOR Cluster C1 - Gathering and Distribution M901-C1-10-B-PF-004 C0
Emulsion / Gas Separation (Test Separator) M901-50-14-B-PI-001 C0

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Table 2 Reference documents.

Document N° Rev.
Piping & Instrument Diagram EOR Process
Area – Emulsion / Gas Separation – Test
Gas Separator M901-50-14-B-PI-003 B0
Piping & Instrument Diagram EOR Process
Area – Emulsion / Gas Separation – Group
Separator M901-50-14-B-PI-010 B0
Piping & Instrument Diagram EOR Process
Area – Emulsion / Gas Separation –
Produced Gas Condenser M901-50-14-B-PI-012 B0
Piping & Instrument Diagram EOR Process
Area – Emulsion / Gas Separation –
Produced Gas Separator M901-50-14-B-PI-013 B0
Piping & Instrument Diagram EOR Process
Area – Emulsion / Gas Separation–
Condensate Pumps M901-50-14-B-PI-014 B0
Piping & Instrument Diagram EOR Process
Area – Emulsion / Gas Separation–
Emulsion/BFW Exchangers M901-50-14-B-PI-015 A1
Piping & Instrument Diagram EOR Process
Area – Emulsion / Gas Separation –
Emulsion Stripper M901-50-14-B-PI-016 A1
Piping & Instrument Diagram EOR Process
Area – Emulsion / Gas Separation –
Emulsion Cooler M901-50-14-B-PI-018 A1
Piping & Instrument Diagram EOR Process
Area – Emulsion / Gas Separation –
Emulsion Trim Cooler M901-50-14-B-PI-019 A1
Piping & Instrument Diagram EOR Process
Area – Emulsion / Gas Separation –
Emulsion Transfer Pumps M901-50-14-B-PI-020 A1
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 - HP Steam / Assisted Gravity Drainage
Injection Well M901-C1-10-B-PI-001 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 - HP Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage
Production Well M901-C1-10-B-PI-002 B0

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Table 2 Reference documents.

Document N° Rev.
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 - HP Steam Drive Production Well M901-C1-10-B-PI-003 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 – Horizontal Alternating Steam Drive
Alternating Production / Injection Well M901-C1-10-B-PI-004 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 – Horizontal Alternating Steam Drive
Permanent Production Well M901-C1-10-B-PI-005 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 – Well Production Main / Test Header M901-C1-10-B-PI-006 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 - Lift Gas and Blanket Gas / Casing Gas
Header Distribution Header M901-C1-10-B-PI-011 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 SAGD Injection Wells Tag Number List M901-C1-10-B-PI-020 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 SAGD Production Wells Tag Number List M901-C1-10-B-PI-021 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 HASD Alt. and Perm. Prod. Wells Tag
Number List M901-C1-10-B-PI-022 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C1 SD Production Wells Tag Number List M901-C1-10-B-PI-023 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C2 - HP Steam and Fuel Gas Distribution
Header M901-C2-00-B-PI-005 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C2 – Steam Drive Injection Well M901-C2-10-B-PI-001 B0
Piping and Instrument Diagram EOR Cluster
C2 SD Injection Wells Tag Number List M901-C2-10-B-PI-030 B0

5.2 Main Assumptions

Along with this study the following premises and assumptions were taken:

• The material selection for this study was based on the basic Engineering of EOR Project (simplified
concept), as given in the reference documents

• Fluids properties, flow rates, P and T operation conditions and contaminants content (CO2 and
H2S) showed in Table 6, were taken from HYSYS 2006.5 process simulations, given by VEPICA.

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• The design service life for clusters and well production main/test header is 10 years and for EOR
process area is 30 years, according to Process and Utilities Design Basis Specification.
Therefore the maximum corrosion allowance rate according to design are 15 mpy, and 5 mpy
respectively.

• The risk analysis herein reported considers erosion and corrosion as independent damage
mechanisms, i.e. the corrosive flow is not supposed to contain solid particles, while erosive flow is
not corrosive, except for the Multiphase production mixture of SD Production well #10 and #11 /
5501 where stratified pattern occurs.

• Produced gas contains between 8- 50% mol CO2 and 1.2- 4.5% mol H2S. According to Process
and Utilities Design Basis Specification, the H2S levels in the produced gas are due to the
aquathermolysis phenomenon and CO2 level has been set between 8 and 50 % mol. Dilution effect
is mostly a result of a mixture of produced gas with gas lift and/or steam, that decrease CO2 and
H2S up to 9% mol and 0.8% mol respectively.

• The study did not consider the O2 effect on corrosion rates, because this is a closed system.

• Produced water composition (Based on initial Pre-FEED/FEED assumption) was provided by the
client (see Table 3).

• pH values used in this study are as follow:

For Clusters, Gathering and Distribution Network (cluster well production main/test header):

o Measured pH (8.1) for produced water (pH was given by the client. Table 3).

o Calculated pH (7) this pH is calculated by the predictive corrosion mode at equilibrium


conditions

For EOR process area: Produced gas condenser, piping and produced gas separator

o Calculated pH (4) this pH is calculated by the predictive corrosion model, at equilibrium


conditions. The software uses the water to gas ratio and the dew point as the means to
determine availability of an aqueous medium in order to estimate corrosion.

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Table 3 Produced water chemical and physical analysis.

Component Produced Water


Concentration
Na+ 2450 mg/L
K+ 79 mg/L
Ca++ 5.1 mg/L
Mg++ 9.2 mg/L
SiO2= 400 mg/L
CO3= 25 mg/L
HCO3- 2473 mg/L
SO4= 1.8 mg/L
Cl- 2436 mg/L
Total Hardness 50.5 mg/L
pH 8.1
TDS 7491
Oil and Grease 300 mg/l
DOC 469 mg/L
Total Alkalinity 2069.6 mg/l

• Sand characterization and morphology was taken from a previous study made for SINCOR,
identified as ST3I-INF-00184, dated 14/07/2006. (See Annex A). The mean particle diameter is 200
µm and sharp solid particles.

• 400 mg/L of sand content was considered for all piping. The rest of the parameters were taken
from information provided by VEPICA.

• The Corrosion Rate estimation study comprises the following facilities:

o Piping, static equipments and pumps associated to EOR Clusters. Gathering and
Distribution Network (cluster well production main/test header), emulsion/ gas separation:
group separator and emulsion striper and test separator. The corrosion rate estimation for
the test separator and its associated piping and equipment, was estimated only for the
permanent producing well HASD, which has the highest content of CO2 and H2S (aprox.
10% mol and 0.8 % mol respectively) comparing to other wells produced by different
technologies ( aprox. 5% mol .and 0.6 % respectively)

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o Fuel gas piping to OTSG’s

• The scope of this study agreed with Vepica and Petrocedeño representatives does not included:

o Utilities lines such as vent lines, drainage line, combustible gas and condensates return
lines and industrial services.

o Boiler Feed Water Treatment.

o Steam generator. Steam distribution header.

o Lift gas distribution header

o Diluent distribution header

• It is important to mention that predictive commercial software is applicable only for piping carrying
multiphase fluid and not for static or rotating equipment. However, the results obtained for piping,
can be extrapolated to static equipment due to the fact they operate continuously and are highly
efficient but recommendations will be given for equipment which operate intermittently, such as the
test separator.

• For calculation the model consider just carbon steel material. All piping was specified seamless
type.

• All materials selected in this study will conform the ASTM standard specifications.

6. INPUT DATA TABLES

The Input data related to the evaluated piping and associated equipment (identification. dimensions.
mechanical characteristics and material specification) is shown in Tables 4 and 5. Input data referred
to process streams properties and flow conditions is shown in Table 6.

Table 7 shows the Input data required to estimate the erosion rates for Clusters, Gathering and
Distribution Network.

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Table 4 Input data of evaluated piping.


2 2 2 2
ND ID Material according to CA Service
1 VEPICA Guidelines for 3
Description P&ID Line Number Stream [in] [in] [in] life
Process Material Selection
Document /piping classs Years
Multiphase production from
Reservoir ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
SAGD Production well #2 / M901-C1-10-B-PI-002 6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC 6 5.761 0.150 10
(SAGD) XS
1001
SAGD 6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC / ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
Reservoir (SAGD) / 5501 M901-C1-10-B-PI-002 1001 6 5.761 0.150 10
6-P-02-001-DA6Q-HC XS
Multiphase production
ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
mixture of SAGD Production 1002 6 5.761 0.150 10
XS
well #2. #4 and #6 / 5501
Multiphase production from
Reservoir ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
SD Production well #10 / M901-C1-10-B-PI-003 6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC 6 5.761 0.150 10
(SD) XS
1003
6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC / ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
SD Reservoir (SD) / 5501 M901-C1-10-B-PI-003 1003 6 5.761 0.150 10
6-P-10-001-DA6Q-HC XS
5.761 /
Multiphase production
6/8/ 7.625 / ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
mixture of SD Production well 1004 0.150 10
10 / 12 9.562 / XS / XS / 80 / 80
#10 and #11 / 5501
11.374
Multiphase production from Reservoir
ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
HASD Alternating Production M901-C1-10-B-PI-004 6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC (Alternating 6 5.761 0.150 10
80
well #7 / 1005 HASD)
Reservoir (Alternating HASD) 6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC / ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
M901-C1-10-B-PI-004 1005 6 5.761 0.150 10
/ 5501 6-P-07-001-DA6Q-HC XS
Multiphase production from Reservoir
HASD ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
HASD Permanent Production M901-C1-10-B-PI-005 6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC (Permanent 6 5.761 0.150 10
XS
well #8 / 1006 HASD)
Reservoir (Permanent HASD) 6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC / ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
M901-C1-10-B-PI-005 1006 6 5.761 0.150 10
/ 5501 6-P-08-001-DA6Q-HC XS
5.761 /
Multiphase production
6/8/ 7.625 / ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
mixture of HASD wells #7. #8 1007 0.150 10
10 / 12 9.562 / XS / XS / 80 / 80
and #9 / 5501
11.374
1: Data from Simulation process. 2: Piping class Doc.M901-00-00-L-SP-001 rev. C0. 3: Process and Utilities Design Basis Specification.Doc M901-00-00-B-DC-
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Table 4 Input data of evaluated piping (continuation).


2 2 2 2
ND ID Material according to CA Service
1 VEPICA Guidelines for 3
Description P&ID Line Number Stream [in] [in] [in] life
Process Material Selection
Document /piping classs Years
Clusters Header Multiphase production Header
M901-C1- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
to Group from SAGD. HASD and SD / 12-P-00-001-DA6Q-HC 5501 12 11.374 0.150 10
10-B-PI-006 80
Separator 24-P-55-001-DA6Q-HC
Clusters Header Multiphase production Header
M901-C1- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
to Group (SAGD. HASD and SD) / 12-P-55-001-DA6Q-HC 5501 12 11.374 0.150 10
10-B-PI-006 80
Separator Group Separator D-5503
Group Separator D-5503
Group Separator (Lower Group Separator) / 5501V 30
Upper Group Separator
Group Separator D-5503 /
M901-50- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
Group Separator Produced Gas Condenser A- 12-PG-55-012-BA6H-HC 5505 12 11.938 0.150 30
14-B-PI-010 40
5502
Bottom of Lower Group
Group Separator 5501L 30
Separator / 5502
Bottom of Upper Group
Group Separator 5502.2 30
Separator / 5502
Bottom of Group Separator /
M901-50- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
Group Separator Emulsion-BWF Exchanger E- 6-P-55-005-BA6Q-HC 5502 6 5.761 0.150 30
14-B-PI-010 XS
5502
5505 + 5513 / Produced Gas M901-50- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
Group Separator 12-PG-55-012-BA6H-PP 5506 12 11.938 0.150 30
Condenser A-5502 14-B-PI-012 40

A-5502 / Produced Gas M901-50- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH


Group Separator 12-PG-55-019-BA6H-PP 5507 12 11.938 0.150 30
Separator D-5504 14-B-PI-012 40
Top of D-5504 / Mixed Gas M901-50- 5508.1 / ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
Group Separator 8-PG-55-047-BA6H-PP 8 7.981 0.150 30
Separator D-8101 14-B-PI-013 5508 STD
Bottom of Produced Gas
Separator D-5504 / M901-50- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
Group Separator 3-PW-55-004-BA6Q-PP 5509.1 3 2.900 0.150 30
Condensate Pumps P-5501- 14-B-PI-013 XS
A/B Header
Condensate Pumps Header /
M901-50- 3-PW-55-005-BA6Q-PP / ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
Group Separator Condensate Pumps P-5501- 5509.1 3 2.900 0.150 30
14-B-PI-014 3-PW-55-006-BA6Q-PP XS
A/B
1: Data from Simulation process. 2: Piping class Doc.M901-00-00-L-SP-001 rev. C0. 3: Process and Utilities Design Basis Specification.Doc M901-00-00-B-DC-
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Table.4 Input data of evaluated piping (continuation).


2
1 2 2 Material according 2
Stream ND ID to VEPICA Guidelines CA Service
3
Description P&ID Line Number [in] [in] for Material Selection [in] life
Process Document /piping Years
classs
M901-50-14- 5509 ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group Separator 5509 Header / D-5503 2-PW-55-002-BA6Q-PP 2 1.939 0.150 30
B-PI-014 SCH XS

M901-50-14- 5509 ASTM A106 Gr. B


Group Separator 5509 Header / D-5503 3-PW-55-011-BA6Q-PP 3 2.900 0.150 30
B-PI-010 SCH XS
Bottom of Group Separator
M901-50-14- 5502 ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group Separator D-5503 / Emulsion-BWF 6-P-55-005-BA6Q-HC 6 5.761 0.150 30
B-PI-010 SCH XS
Exchangers E-5502-A/B
Bottom of Group Separator
M901-50-14- 3-P-55-017-BA6Q-HC / ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group Separator D-5503 / Emulsion-BWF 5502 3 2.900 0.150 30
B-PI-015 3-P-55-005-BA6Q-HC SCH XS
Exchangers E-5502-A/B
E-5502-A/B / Emulsion M901-50-14- 3-P-55-006-BA6Q-HC / ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group Separator 5503 3 2.900 0.150 30
Stripper D-5505 B-PI-015 3-P-55-019-BA6Q-HC SCH XS
E-5502-A/B / Emulsion M901-50-14- ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group Separator 6-P-55-006-BA6Q-HC 5503 6 5.761 0.150 30
Stripper D-5505 B-PI-015 SCH XS
Group Separator
E-5502-A/B / Emulsion M901-50-14- 3-P-55-006-BA6Q-HC / ASTM A106 Gr. B
/ Emulsion 5504 3 2.900 0.150 30
Stripper D-5505 B-PI-015 3-P-55-019-BA6Q-HC SCH XS
Stripper
Group Separator
E-5502-A/B / Emulsion M901-50-14- ASTM A106 Gr. B
/ Emulsion 6-P-55-006-BA6Q-HC 5504 6 5.761 0.150 30
Stripper D-5505 B-PI-015 SCH XS
Stripper
Emulsion Top of D-5505 / stream M901-50-14- ASTM A106 Gr. B
2-PG-55-016-BA6H-PP 5513 2 1.939 0.150 30
Stripper 5505 B-PI-016 SCH XS
Emulsion Bottom of D-5505 / 10-P-55- M901-50-14- ASTM A106 Gr. B
10-P-55-007-BA6Q-HC 5510 10 9.750 0.150 30
Stripper 007-BA6Q-HC B-PI-016 SCH XS
10-P-55-007-BA6Q-HC /
Emulsion M901-50-14- 6-P-55-007-BA6Q-HC / ASTM A106 Gr. B
Emulsion Coolers E-5503- 5510 6 5.761 0.150 30
Stripper B-PI-016 6-P-55-019-BA6Q-HC SCH XS
A/B

Emulsion E-5503-A/B / 10-P-55-018- M901-50-14- 6-P-55-018-BA6Q-HC / 5511 ASTM A106 Gr. B


6 5.761 0.150 30
Stripper BA6Q-HC B-PI-018 6-P-55-021-BA6Q-HC SCH XS

1: Data from Simulation process. 2: Piping class Doc.M901-00-00-L-SP-001 rev. C0. 3: Process and Utilities Design Basis Specification.Doc M901-00-00-B-DC-
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Table 4 Input data of evaluated piping (continuation).


2 2 2 2
ND ID Material according to CA Service
1 VEPICA Guidelines for 3
Description P&ID Line Number Stream [in] [in] [in] life
Process Material Selection
Document /piping classs Years
Emulsion E-5503-A/B / Emulsion Trim M901-50-14-B- 10-P-55-018-BA6Q- 5511 ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
10 9.750 0.150 30
Stripper Cooler A-5503 PI-018 HC XS
Emulsion E-5503-A/B / Emulsion Trim M901-50-14-B- 10-P-55-018-BA6Q- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
5512.1 10 9.750 0.150 30
Stripper Cooler A-5503 PI-018 HC XS
Emulsion From A-5503 / Emulsion M901-50-14-B- 10-P-55-013-BA6Q- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
5512 10 9.750 0.150 30
Stripper Transfer Pumps P5502-A/B PI-019 PP XS

10-P-55-012-BA6Q-
Emulsion From A-5503 / Emulsion M901-50-14-B- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
HC / 10-P-55-015- 5512 10 9.750 0.150 30
Stripper Transfer Pumps P5502-A/B PI-020 XS
BA6Q-HC
8-P-55-014-BA6Q-
Emulsion M901-50-14-B- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
From P5502-A/B HC / 8-P-55-016- 5514 8 7.813 0.150 30
Stripper PI-020 60
BA6Q-HC
Emulsion M901-50-14-B- 8-P-55-003-BA6Q- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
From P5502-A/B 5514 8 7.813 0.150 30
Stripper PI-020 HC 60
6-P-DD-002-DA6Q-
Test Separator M901-C1-10-B- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
1005 / Test-5501 HC / 6-P-07-002- Test-1005 6 5.761 0.150 30
HASD PI-004 XS
DA6Q-HC
6-P-DD-002-DA6Q-
Test Separator M901-C1-10-B- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
1006 / Test-5501 HC / 6-P-08-002- Test-1006 6 5.761 0.150 30
HASD PI-005 XS
DA6Q-HC
Test production mixture of
Test Separator ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
HASD wells #7. #8 and #9 / Test-1007 6 5.761 0.150 30
HASD XS
Test-5501
Multiphase production
Clusters Test
Header from SAGD. HASD M901-C1-10-B- 12-P-00-002-DA6Q- 11.374 ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
Header to Test Test-5501 12 0.150 30
and SD / 12-P-55-002-DA6Q- PI-006 HC 80
Separator
HC

1: Data from Simulation process. 2: Piping class Doc.M901-00-00-L-SP-001 rev. C0. 3: Process and Utilities Design Basis Specification.Doc M901-00-00-B-DC-
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Table 4 Input data of evaluated piping (continuation).


2 2 2 2
ND ID Material according to CA Service
1 Vepica Guidelines for 3
Description P&ID Line Number Stream [in] [in] [in] life
Process Material Selection
Document /piping classs Years
Test Separator M901-50- 14- 6-P-DD-002-DA6Q- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
1006 / Test Separator D-5501 Test-1006/101 6 5.761 0.150 30
HASD B-PI-001 HC XS
Test Separator Top of D-5501 / Test Separator M901-50- 14- 6-PG-55-003-BA6H- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
102 6 5.690 0.150 30
HASD Condenser A-5501 B-PI-001 HC STD
Test Separator Bottom of D-5501 / Group M901-50- 14- 4-P-55-004-BA6Q- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
103 6 5.761 0.150 30
HASD Separator D-5503 B-PI-001 HC XS

Test Separator Top of D-5501 / Test Separator M901-50- 14- 6-PG-55-008-BA6H- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
104 6 5.690 0.150 30
HASD Condenser A-5501 B-PI-001 PP STD

Test Separator A-5501 / Test Gas Separator D- M901-50-14-B- 6-PG-55-008-BA6H- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
105 6 5.690 0.150 30
HASD 5502 PI-002 PP STD
Test Separator Top of D-5502 /Mixed Gas M901-50-14-B- 4-PG-55-002-BA6H- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
106 4 4.026 0.150 30
HASD Separator D-8101 PI-002 PP STD
Test Separator Top of D-5502 /Mixed Gas M901-50-14-B- 4-PG-55-002-BA6H- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
107 4 4.026 0.150 30
HASD Separator D-8101 PI-003 PP STD
Test Separator Bottom of D-5502 / Group M901-50-14-B- 2-PW-55-001-BA6Q- ASTM A106 Gr. B SCH
108 2 1.939 0.150 30
HASD Separator D-5503 PI-003 PP XS

1: Data from Simulation process. 2: Piping class Doc.M901-00-00-L-SP-001 rev. C0. 3: Process and Utilities Design Basis Specification.Doc M901-00-00-B-DC-
001.REV C0

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Table 5 Input data of evaluated equipment.


Service
Design Material and C.A (according to VEPICA Guidelines for 3
Equipment Identification Type 2 life
P (Bar) / T (°C)
1 Material Selection Document )
Years
Test Separator Normalized SA516 Gr70. Complete with PWHT and corrosion 30
D-5501
Vertical V 20 / 215 allowance (3.8mm)
Test Separator Condenser 30
Cooler 20 / 215 CS with corrosion allowance. (3.2 mm)
A-5501
Test Gas Separator Horizontal Normalized SA516 Gr70. Complete with PWHT and corrosion 30
D-5502
20 / 215 allowance. (3.8mm)
V
Group Separator Normalized SA516 Gr70. Complete with PWHT and corrosion 30
D-5503
Vertical V 20 / 215 allowance. (3.8mm)

Produced Separator 30
Condenser A-5502
Cooler 20 / 215 CS with corrosion allowance (3.2 mm)

Produced Gas Separator Horizontal Normalized SA516 Gr70. Complete with PWHT and corrosion 30
D-5504
20 / 215 allowance. (3.8mm)
V
Cast steel and fabricated with minimum welding. Any welding 30
Condensate pumps to be subjected to PWHT. 12% Chrome SS Internals
P-5501A/B
Pumps 18.6 / 150

Cast steel and fabricated with minimum welding. Any welding 30


Emulsion /BFW Exchanger Cold side: 23.9 /55 to be subjected to PWHT. 12% Chrome SS Internals
E-5502 A/B
Exchanger
Hot side: 20 /215
Emulsion Stripper Normalized SA516 Gr70. complete with PWHT and corrosion 30
D-5505
Vertical V 20 / 215 allowance. (3.8mm)
Emulsion Cooler Cold side: 24 /215 Carbon steel with corrosion allowance. (3.2mm) 30
E-5503 A/B Exchanger
Hot side: 20 /215
30
Emulsion Trim Cooler Cooler 20 / 215 Intermittent. CS with corrosion allowance (3.2 mm)
A-5503
Emulsion Transfer Pump 64 /65 Cast steel and fabricated with minimum welding. Any welding 30
P-5502A/B
Pumps to be subjected to PWHT. 12% Chrome SS Internals

1: Piping & Instrument Diagram. Rev B0. 2: Guidelines for Material Selection Document. M901-50-00-A-RP-001. Rev. A1. 3: Process and Utilities Design Basis
Specification.Doc M901-00-00-B-DC-001.Rev.C0.

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Table 6 Input data of stream properties considered in the evaluation 1

P T Qgas Qcrudo Qagua dgas dcrudo dagua µgas µcrudo µagua σagua
Process Stream o % CO2 3 3 3 Sgas Zgas pH
[psia] [ F] %H2S [MMSCFD] [bbls/d] [bbls/d] [Lb/ft ] [Kg/m ] [Kg/m ] [cP] [cP] [cP] [dina/cm]
measured

SAGD 8.1
1001 174.2 343.0 2.560 0.052 2.789 543.2 1537.0 0.3960 920.4 882.1 0.0130 22.3 0.155 0.709 0.961 74.75
SAGD 1002 174.2 343.0 2.560 0.052 8.368 1630.0 4611.0 0.3960 920.4 882.1 0.0130 22.3 0.155 0.709 0.961 74.75 8.1
SAGD 1002 174.2 343.0 2.560 0.052 8.368 1630.0 4611.0 0.3960 920.4 882.1 0.0130 22.3 0.155 0.709 0.961 74.75 8.1
SAGD 1002 174.2 343.0 2.560 0.052 8.368 1630.0 4611.0 0.3960 920.4 882.1 0.0130 22.3 0.155 0.709 0.961 74.75 8.1
SAGD 1002 174.2 343.0 2.560 0.052 8.368 1630.0 4611.0 0.3960 920.4 882.1 0.0130 22.3 0.155 0.709 0.961 74.75 8.1
SD 8.1
1003 174.2 358.2 6.440 0.570 1.064 456.7 707.4 0.4318 914.5 873.5 0.0127 18.3 0.148 0.776 0.947 74.59
SD 1004 174.2 358.2 6.440 0.570 2.128 913.4 1415.0 0.4318 914.5 873.5 0.0127 18.3 0.148 0.776 0.947 74.59 8.1
SD 1004 174.2 358.2 6.440 0.570 2.128 913.4 1415.0 0.4318 914.5 873.5 0.0127 18.3 0.148 0.776 0.947 74.59 8.1
SD 1004 174.2 358.2 6.440 0.570 2.128 913.4 1415.0 0.4318 914.5 873.5 0.0127 18.3 0.148 0.776 0.947 74.59 8.1
SD 1004 174.2 358.2 6.440 0.570 2.128 913.4 1415.0 0.4318 914.5 873.5 0.0127 18.3 0.148 0.776 0.947 74.59 8.1
HASD 8.1
1005 174.2 343.8 3.809 0.187 3.246 910.8 1805.0 0.4062 919.4 881.7 0.0130 21.7 0.155 0.727 0.960 74.74
HASD 1006 174.2 351.7 9.718 0.852 0.940 458.2 577.8 0.4509 916.5 877.2 0.0130 19.5 0.151 0.808 0.951 74.66 8.1
HASD 1007 174.2 345.6 5.134 0.337 4.193 1369.0 2381.0 0.4163 918.7 880.7 0.0130 21.1 0.154 0.745 0.958 74.72 8.1
HASD 1007 174.2 345.6 5.134 0.337 4.193 1369.0 2381.0 0.4163 918.7 880.7 0.0130 21.1 0.154 0.745 0.958 74.72 8.1
HASD 1007 174.2 345.6 5.134 0.337 4.193 1369.0 2381.0 0.4163 918.7 880.7 0.0130 21.1 0.154 0.745 0.958 74.72 8.1
HASD 1007 174.2 345.6 5.134 0.337 4.193 1369.0 2381.0 0.4163 918.7 880.7 0.0130 21.1 0.154 0.745 0.958 74.72 8.1
Clusters
Header/
Group
Separator 5501 174.2 346.1 3.851 0.208 14.727 3910.0 8403.0 0.4070 918.9 880.4 0.0129 21.2 0.154 0.730 0.958 74.72 8.1
Group
Separator 5505 174.2 336.6 4.585 0.250 12.429 0.0 0.0 0.5059 0.0 0.0 0.0138 0.0 0.000 0.896 0.958 74.81 8.1
Group
Separator 5506 61.1 324.9 4.582 0.251 12.552 0.0 0.0 0.1749 0.0 0.0 0.0134 0.0 0.0000 1.0786 0.9849 75.17 8.1
Group
Separator 5507 56.0 140.0 14.508 0.786 3.939 632.5 1099.0 0.1855 797.7 980.6 0.0129 12.0 0.4631 0.9887 0.9921 77.27 8.1
Group
Separator 5508.1 56.0 140.0 14.508 0.786 3.939 0.0 0.0 0.1855 0.0 0.0 0.0129 0.0 0.0000 0.9887 0.9921 77.27 8.1
Group
Separator 5508 51.0 139.7 14.508 0.786 3.939 0.0 0.0 0.1687 0.0 0.0 0.0129 0.0 0.0000 1.0253 0.9928 77.30 8.1

1: Data from Simulation process

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Table 6 Input data of stream properties considered in the evaluation1. Continuation


pH
Poper Toper Qgas Qcrudo Qagua dgas dcrudo dagua µgas µcrudo µagua σagua
Process Stream o % CO2 %H2S 3 3 3 Sgas Zgas measured
[psia] [ F] [MMSCFD] [bbls/d] [bbls/d] [Lb/ft ] [Kg/m ] [Kg/m ] [cP] [cP] [cP] [dina/cm]

Group
Separator 5509.1 56.0 140.0 14.508 0.786 0.000 632.5 1099.0 0.1855 797.7 980.6 0.0129 12.0 0.4631 0.9887 0.9921 77.27 8.1
Group
Separator 5509 174.2 140.2 0.00 0.00 0.000 632.5 1099.0 0.000 798.4 980.8 0.00 12.0 0.462 0.00 0.00 76.82 8.1
Group
Separator 5509 174.2 140.2 0.00 0.00 0.000 632.5 1099.0 0.000 798.4 980.8 0.00 12.0 0.462 0.00 0.00 76.82 8.1
Group
Separator 5502 174.2 344.8 0.00 0.00 0.000 3988.0 9879.0 0.000 916.6 881.1 0.00 20.3 0.154 0.00 0.00 74.73 8.1
Group
Separator 5502.2 174.2 344.8 4.5 0.250 0.000 3988.0 9879.0 0.0000 916.6 881.1 0.00 20.3 0.1549 0.00 0.00 74.73 8.1
Group
Separator 5503 159.7 284.0 0.00 0.00 0.000 3984.0 9883.0 0.0000 936.9 913.4 0.00 46.6 0.1950 0.00 0.00 75.39 8.1
Group
Separator 5503 159.7 284.0 0.00 0.00 0.000 3984.0 9883.0 0.0000 936.9 913.4 0.00 46.6 0.1950 0.00 0.00 75.39 8.1
Group
Separator /
Emulsion
Stripper 5504 65.5 283.8 5.564 0.405 0.0633 3980.0 9875.0 0.1697 935.9 913.1 0.0115 47.6 0.1951 0.8999 0.9777 75.62 8.1
Group
Separator /
Emulsion
Stripper 5504 65.5 283.8 5.564 0.405 0.0633 3980.0 9875.0 0.1697 935.9 913.1 0.0115 47.6 0.1951 0.8999 0.9777 75.62 8.1
Emulsion
61.1 282.6 4.335 0.336 0.1239 0.0 0.0 0.1553 880.1 0.0 0.0115 13.9 0.0000 0.9012 0.9796 75.64
Stripper 5513 8.1
Emulsion
65.5 283.3 4.335 0.336 0.0000 3979.0 9868.0 0.1665 936.0 913.4 0.0115 48.0 0.1956 0.8828 0.9782 75.62
Stripper 5510 8.1
Emulsion
65.5 283.3 4.335 0.336 0.0000 3979.0 9868.0 0.1665 936.0 913.4 0.0115 48.0 0.1956 0.8828 0.9782 75.62
Stripper 5510 8.1
Emulsion
54.6 122.0 0.000 0.00 0.0000 3975.0 9872.0 0.0000 990.5 988.4 0.0000 8271.0 0.5442 0000 0.00 77.48
Stripper 5511 8.1
Emulsion
54.6 122.0 0.000 0.00 0.0000 3975.0 9872.0 0.0000 990.5 988.4 0.0000 8271.0 0.5442 0.00 0.00 77.48
Stripper 5511 8.1
Emulsion
54.6 119.3 0.000 0.00 0.0000 5463.0 9872.0 0.0000 951.4 989.5 0.0000 72.5 0.5581 0000 0.00
Stripper 5512.1 8.1
Emulsion
49.5 119.4 0.000 0.00 0.0000 5463.0 9872.0 0.0000 951.4 989.5 0.0000 72.5 0.5580 0.00 0.00
Stripper 5512 8.1
Emulsion
565.8 119.9 0.000 0.00 0.0000 5463.0 9872.0 0.0000 955.2 990.4 0.0000 71.9 0.5551 0.00
Stripper 5514 8.1

1: Data from Simulation process

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Table 6 Input data of stream properties considered in the evaluation1. Continuation


pH
Poper Toper Qgas Qcrudo Qagua dgas dcrudo dagua µgas µcrudo µagua σagua
Process Stream o % CO2 %H2S 3 3 3 Sgas Zgas measured
[psia] [ F] [MMSCFD] [bbls/d] [bbls/d] [Lb/ft ] [Kg/m ] [Kg/m ] [cP] [cP] [cP] [dina/cm]

Test Separador
HASD 101/
1006 217.8 363.7 9.69 0.850 2.352 458.1 577.7 0.5215 913.8 870.6 0.0132 17.1 0.1457 0.7407 0.9457 74.47 8.1
Test Separador
0.7407
HASD 102 217.8 363.7 9.69 0.850 2.352 0.0 0.0 0.5215 913.8 870.6 0.0132 17.1 0.1457 0.9457 74.47 8.1
Test Separador
0.7407
HASD 103 217.8 363.7 9.69 0.850 0.000 458.1 577.7 0.5215 913.8 870.6 0.0132 17.1 0.1457 0.9457 74.47 8.1
Test Separator
0.7408
HASD 104 207.6 362.3 9.69 0.850 2.352 0.0 0.0 0.4950 863.6 0.0 0.0132 6.8 0.0000 0.9483 74.50 8.1
Test Separator
1.0609
HASD 105 197.4 140.0 48.6 4.100 0.461 8.9 102.2 0.9033 828.0 981.2 0.0148 13.0 0.4941 0.9663 74.47 8.1
Test Separator
1.0609
HASD 106 197.4 140.0 48.6 4.100 0.461 0.0 0.0 0.9033 828.0 981.2 0.0148 13.0 0.4941 0.9663 74.47 8.1
Test Separator
1.0608
HASD 107 187.3 139.2 48.6 4.100 0.461 0.0 0.0 0.8528 0.0 0.0 0.0147 0.0 0.0000 0.9680 74.47 8.1
Test Separator
1.0609
HASD 108 197.4 140.0 48.6 4.100 0.000 8.9 102.2 0.9033 828.0 981.2 0.0148 13.0 0.4941 0.9663 74.50 8.1

1: Data from Simulation process

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Table 7 Input data required to estimate the erosion rates.


2
Material Type Pipe ID [in] Pipe Particle Particle Particle Particle
Process Description Description Stream Roughness Diameter Density Sharpness Rate
3
µm µm Kg/m ppm
6-P-DD-001- 1001
Reservoir (SAGD) /
SAGD DA6Q-HC / 6-P- Carbon Steel,
5501
02-001-DA6Q-HC BH = 200 5,761 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production
mixture of SAGD 1002
SAGD
Production well #2. #4 Carbon Steel,
and #6 / 5501 6" BH = 200 5,761 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production
mixture of SAGD 1002
SAGD
Production well #2. #4 Carbon Steel,
and #6 / 5501 8" BH = 200 7,625 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production
mixture of SAGD 1002
SAGD
Production well #2. #4 Carbon Steel,
and #6 / 5501 10" BH = 200 9,562 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production
mixture of SAGD 1002
SAGD
Production well #2. #4 Carbon Steel,
and #6 / 5501 12" BH = 200 11,374 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
6-P-DD-001-
SD Reservoir (SD) / 5501 DA6Q-HC / 6-P- 1003 Carbon Steel,
10-001-DA6Q-HC BH = 200 5,761 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production
mixture of SD 1004
SD
Production well #10 Carbon Steel,
and #11 / 5501 6" BH = 200 5,761 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production
mixture of SD 1004
SD
Production well #10 Carbon Steel,
and #11 / 5501 8" BH = 200 7,625 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production
mixture of SD 1004
SD
Production well #10 Carbon Steel,
and #11 / 5501 10" BH = 200 9,562 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production
mixture of SD 1004
SD
Production well #10 Carbon Steel,
and #11 / 5501 12" BH = 200 11,374 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400

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Table 7 Input data required to estimate the erosion rates. Continuation


2
Material Type Pipe ID [in] Pipe Particle Particle Particle
Description Description Particle
Process Stream Roughness Diameter Density Sharpness
3 Rate
µm µm Kg/m
ppm

Reservoir (Alternating 6-P-DD-001- 1005


HASD DA6Q-HC / 6-P- Carbon Steel,
HASD) / 5501
07-001-DA6Q-HC BH = 200 5,761 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400

Reservoir (Permanent 6-P-DD-001- 1006


HASD DA6Q-HC / 6-P- Carbon Steel,
HASD) / 5501
08-001-DA6Q-HC BH = 200 5,761 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production 1007
HASD mixture of HASD wells Carbon Steel,
#7. #8 and #9 / 5501 6" BH = 200 5,761 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production 1007
HASD mixture of HASD wells Carbon Steel,
#7. #8 and #9 / 5501 8" BH = 200 7,625 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production 1007
HASD mixture of HASD wells Carbon Steel,
#7. #8 and #9 / 5501 10" BH = 200 9,562 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Multiphase production 1007
HASD mixture of HASD wells Carbon Steel,
#7. #8 and #9 / 5501 BH = 201
12" 11,374 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400
Clusters Multiphase production
Header to Header (SAGD. HASD 12-P-00-001- 5501 Carbon Steel,
Group and SD) / Group DA6Q-HC / 12-P- BH = 200
Separator Separator D-5503 55-001-DA6Q-HC 11,374 1,80E-03 200 1900 sharp 400

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7. RESULTS TABLES AND DISCUSSION

7. 1 Piping connectivity and equipment identification

The Annex B shows the Piping connectivity and equipment identification based on P&ID’s. The annex
indicates the process area where the piping/equipment is located, description of the piping/equipment
and line number.

7.2 Corrosion rate and flow pattern results

The calculated corrosion/erosion rates results, piping and equipment materials validation are shown in
Tables 8 and 9 respectively.

The results indicate the following:

• For Clusters, Gathering and Distribution Network

o At the measured pH (8.1) and the model’s calculated pH (7) by the predicted corrosion rates
are <1 mpy. These values are smaller than the allowed corrosion rate considered in project
design of 15 mpy, Therefore the projected service life is over 10 years.

These very low corrosion rates are associated to a synergistic effect of the following parameters: high
pH that reduce CO2 and H2S solubility, high operation temperature that favor carbonate films, low
partial pressure of CO2 and H2S, brine content that provide sufficient solution buffering, oil film on the
metal surface. So the final result is an effective reduction in environment corrosivity.

o For almost all horizontal piping, the mixture velocity is dominated by the gas surface-speed;
this happens due to a higher volume of handled gas in all streams compared with the liquid
phase. Under this flow conditions, flow pattern is slug type, so no corrosion/ erosion rates
enhanced for this effect is expected. Exception occurs for multiphase production mixture of
SD Production stream 5501 which showed a stratified flow pattern, recommendations to
minimize corrosion and erosion in this piping are given later on in this study.

• For Multiphase Production header/Group Separator D-5503, Bottom of Group Separator/


Emulsion-BWF Exchanger E-5502.

o At the measured pH (8.1) and the model’s calculated pH (7) by the predicted corrosion rates
are <2 mpy. These values are smaller than the allowed corrosion rate considered in project
design of 5 mpy, Therefore the projected service life is over 30 years.

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The reasons for these very low corrosion rates are the same as was explained for Clusters, Gathering
and Distribution Network (cluster well production main) case.

o For almost all horizontal piping, the overall mixture flow speed is dominated by the liquid´s
surface-speed component, so a bubble flow pattern occurs, thus no increment of the corrosion/
erosion rates due to this effect is expected.

• For the Top of Group Separator D-5503 and Associated Piping.

o The predicted corrosion rate is 0 mpy. This case is a gas dominated systems whose operating
temperature (337 °F) is well above the water in gas dew point temperature (-160 °F), so no
water condensation and any associated corrosion is possible.

• For outlet Produced Gas Condenser A-5502 associated piping and Produced Gas Separator
D-5504, P-5501-A/B to D-5503 piping.

o This case is also a gas dominated systems as above, but according to model, the operating
temperature (140 °F) is much lower than water in gas dew point temperature (343 °F),
therefore liquid water condensation at a rate of 271 bbls//MMSCF of liquid water occurs (0.97
water fraction).

In this condition the calculated pH by the model is 4 at equilibrium conditions and predicted corrosion
rate varies between 23- 57 mpy. Therefore the projected service life is only 6-3 years <<30 years life
service considered in the EOR design project.

These high corrosion rates and highly aggressive environment are due to an interactive effect of the
following parameters: acidic or low pH, low operation temperature (140°F) that increases film solubility
and CO2 and H2S solubility in condense liquid water.

In this case the system is dominated for H2S corrosion, and the tendency of environmental cracking
(SSC or HIC) is increased. Recommendations to minimize this effect will be given later on in this study

• For outlet piping of Produced Gas Separator D-5504 to D-8101.

o In this case, the environment is a gas saturated dominated system, and the model estimate
that if the content of water vapor condenses, the pH would be 4 at equilibrium conditions, and
predicted corrosion rate would be 6 mpy. The projected service life is 25 years <30 years life

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service considered in the EOR design project. Recommendations to minimize this effect will be
given later on in this study

The causes of this high corrosion rate and highly aggressive environment are the same as was
explained for outlet Produced Gas Condenser A-5502 associated piping, Produced Gas Separator
D-5504, P-5501-A/B to D-5503 piping. In this case the system is also dominated for H2S effect, and
the tendency for environmental cracking (SSC or HIC) is increased.

• For the piping Top Emulsion Stripper D-5505

o The predicted corrosion rate is 0 mpy. This case is a gas dominated systems, whose
operating temperature (283 °F) is much higher than the water in gas dew point temperature
(-68 °F), so no water condensation is possible and therefore no corrosion will occur.

• Test Separator Piping and Equipment.

o Corrosion rate estimation for the test separator and its associated piping and equipment
(estimated for the permanent producing well HASD), varies between 81 @ pH 4.2 and
415 mpy@ pH 3.6. The predictive model shows a warning and uncertainty of the results.
Recommendations to minimize this effect will be given later in this study.

• Fuel gas piping to OTSGS

o The composition of the combustible gas to the boilers (Mixed Gas Separator downstream) is
variable and it depends on the proportion Natural Gas / Produced Gas. For the design base
case, the composition of gas is: 0.72% molar H2S and 13.7% molar CO2 at temperature of
operation: 57 C and Pressure of 2.5 Barg. Under these conditions, la predicted corrosion rate
is 0 mpy, and the operating temperature is higher than the water vapor dew point in gas
(-115 °F, so no water condensation and no corrosion is possible.

7.3 Risk of Other Mechanism of Degradation

• Stratified flow pattern

As depicted in Table 8, some piping will show a slug and elongated bubble flow pattern, so no
problems associated to stratified patterns are expected. Exception occurs for piping identified as
Multiphase production mixture of SD Production stream 5501, where the stratified pattern flow
increases the risk of this piping to fail due to deposit corrosion and /or abrasion mechanisms at the

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bottom of the pipes (at 6 o’clock). Also it is important to remark, that for line’s construction profile, the
flow patterns may promote water stagnation, which may generate corrosion at hour 6 of the pipe.
Recommendations to minimize this effect will be given later in this study.

• Erosion by solids in equipment

As can be observed in Table 9, the internals of group separator D-5503 and the internals of the test
separator are prone to fail due to erosion by solids, because the flow is an emulsion mixture of oil brine
rich water and sand. Recommendations to minimize this effect will be given later in this study.

7.4 Erosion Rate Results

- Erosion under “homogeneous” flow

The results are shown in Table 8. As can observed for all straight piping and elbows the estimated
results for penetration/erosion rates are very low, < 5 mpy and < 6 mpy respectively, so fails or
problems due to this phenomenon will not be expected. The immunity to erosion damage is caused by
the high viscosity of the oil phase, which markedly reduces erosion rate by damping the metal wall and
minimizing solid particles impingement against the metal wall.

For multiphase production mixture piping of SAGD Production Well 2, 4, and 6 (stream 1001) erosion
rate is approximately 33 mpy. This high erosion rate is caused by the high velocity (232fts/s) of
multiphase flow, due to small nominal diameter (6”) of the piping. Therefore the projected service life,
for this piping, is only 4-5 years <10 years life service considered. Recommendations to monitor this
effect will be given later in this study

- Channeling under “stationary bed”

As stated before, channeling is practically impossible to predict. Therefore, eventual failures might be
prevented by systematic and frequent inspections by implementing a Risk Based Inspection Plan
(RBI), to those piping where solid deposition is expected i.e Multiphase production mixture of SD
Production stream 5501.

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Table 8 Corrosion/Erosion Results, Piping Material validation and Corrosion Conclusions/Recommendations

Straight Pipe´s Elbows´ Calculated


Calculated and Allowed Corrosion Rate Calculated and Allowed and Allowed Piping Material Validation
Erosion Rate Erosion Rate
Vcorr max V max
Process Description Stream ID Line ID Other V max 2 Material Material
Corrosion Vcorr calc. Service Erosion Erosion ND
possible Erosion rate Erosion according to recommended by Corrosion Corrosion control
rate [mpy] Life Flow Pattern rate calc. rate [in]
degradation Allowanded rate calc. Vepica ST3I Conclusions Recommendations
Allowed @ pH years [mpy] [mpy] Allowed
mechanism [mpy] (CA mm) (CA mm)
[mpy] [mpy]
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC / 0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10
SAGD Reservoir (SAGD) / 5501 1001 15.00 Slug-Horizontal N/A 0.126 15.00 0.865 15.00 6 SCH XS SCH XS
6-P-02-001-DA6Q-HC 0.17 @ 7.0 years
3.8 3.2
Multiphase production Note 1:
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
mixture of SAGD 0 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 The predicted
SAGD 1002 6" 15.00 Slug-Horizontal N/A 6.713 15.00 32.859 15.00 6 SCH XS SCH XS
Production well #2. #4 and 0.09 @ 7.0 years corrosion rates are <1
3.8 3.2
#6 / 5501 mpy. These values are
Note 2:
Multiphase production smaller than the
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B To Maintain
mixture of SAGD 0 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 allowed corrosion rate
SAGD 1002 8" 15.00 Slug-Horizontal N/A 1.539 15.00 6.700 15.00 8 SCH XS SCH XS VEPICA’s preliminary
Production well #2. #4 and 0. 14 @ 7.0 years considered in project
3.8 3.2 materials and
#6 / 5501 design of 15 mpy.
metallurgy selection
Multiphase production with slight changes in
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B These low corrosion
mixture of SAGD 0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Slug-Horizontal corrosion allowance
SAGD 1002 10" 15.00 N/A 0.467 15.00 2.000 15.00 10 SCH 80 SCH 80 rates are associated to
Production well #2. #4 and 0.17 @ 7.0 years (from 3.8mm to
3.8 3.2 an effective reduction
#6 / 5501 3.2mm).
in environment
Multiphase production
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B corrosivity due to a
mixture of SAGD 0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Slug-Horizontal This recommendation
SAGD 1002 12" 15.00 N/A 0.187 15.00 0.764 15.00 12 SCH 80 SCH 80 synergistic effect of
Production well #2. #4 and 0.18 @ 7.0 years is based on a
3.8 3.2 high pH, high
#6 / 5501 reasonable design
operation temperature,
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B safety factor,
6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC / 0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Wave- low partial pressure of
SD Reservoir (SD) / 5501 1003 15.00 N/A 0.017 15.00 0.128 15.00 6 SCH XS SCH XS assuming that
6-P-10-001-DA6Q-HC 0.21 @ 7.0 years Horizontal CO2 and H2S, brine
3.8 3.2 operation and
content that provide
environment
Multiphase production ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B sufficient solution
0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Slug-Horizontal conditions may
SD mixture of SD Production 1004 6" 15.00 N/A 0.121 15.00 0.897 15.00 6 SCH XS SCH XS buffering and oil film
0.21 @ 7.0 years change during the
well #10 and #11 / 5501 3.8 3.2 on the metal surface.
expecting life of 30
Multiphase production ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B years, and also to
0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Slug-Horizontal meet Pdvsa Manual
SD mixture of SD Production 1004 8" 15.00 N/A 0.027 15.00 0.184 15.00 8 SCH XS SCH XS A service life time
0.19 @ 7.0 years de Diseño de
well #10 and #11 / 5501 3.8 3.2 over 10 years will
Ingenieria. Vol 1-Vol
depends on
Multiphase production ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B 22.
0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Wave- environmental and
SD mixture of SD Production 1004 10" 15.00 N/A 0.008 15.00 0.0502 15.00 10 SCH 80 SCH 80
0.22 @ 7.0 years Horizontal operational changes
well #10 and #11 / 5501 3.8 3.2
that may occur during
Corrosion the service
Multiphase production ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Stratified- under
SD mixture of SD Production 1004 12" 15.00 0.003 15.00 0.0181 15.00 12 SCH 80 SCH 80
0.22 @ 7.0 years Horizontal deposits.
well #10 and #11 / 5501 3.8 3.2
abrasion

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Table 8 Corrosion/Erosion Results, Piping Material validation and Corrosion Conclusions/Recommendations (Continuation)

Straight Pipe´s
Elbows´ Calculated
Calculated and Allowed Corrosion Rate Calculated Erosion Piping Material Validation
Erosion Rate
Rate
Stream Vcorr max
Process Description Line ID Other V max V max 2 Material Material
ID Corrosion Vcorr calc. Service Erosion ND
possible Erosion rate Erosion Erosion rate according to recommended by Corrosion Corrosion control
rate [mpy] Life Flow Pattern rate [in]
degradation Allowed rate [mpy] Allowed Vepica ST3I Conclusions Recommendations
Allowed @ pH years [mpy]
mechanism [mpy] [mpy] (CA mm) (CA mm)
[mpy]
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Reservoir (Alternating 6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC / 0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10
HASD 1005 15.00 Slug-Horizontal N/A 0.414 15.00 2.420 15.00 6 SCH 80 SCH 80
HASD) / 5501 6-P-07-001-DA6Q-HC 0.16 @ 7.0 years
3.8 3.2
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Reservoir (Permanent 6-P-DD-001-DA6Q-HC / 0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Wave-
HASD 1006 15.00 N/A 0.018 15.00 0.118 15.00 6 SCH XS SCH XS
HASD) / 5501 6-P-08-001-DA6Q-HC 0.20 @ 7.0 years Horizontal
3.8 3.2

Multiphase production ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B


0 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Slug-Horizontal
HASD mixture of HASD wells #7. #8 1007 6" 15.00 N/A 0.913 15.00 5.424 15.00 6 SCH XS SCH XS
0.14 @ 7.0 years
and #9 / 5501 3.8 3.2
Multiphase production ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B Note 1 Note2
0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Slug-Horizontal
HASD mixture of HASD wells #7. #8 1007 8" 15.00 N/A 0.208 15.00 1.140 15.00 8 SCH XS SCH XS
0.17 @ 7.0 years
and #9 / 5501 3.8 3.2
Multiphase production ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Slug-Horizontal
HASD mixture of HASD wells #7. #8 1007 10" 15.00 N/A 0.062 15.00 0.321 15.00 10 SCH 80 SCH 80
0.19 @ 7.0 years
and #9 / 5501 3.8 3.2
Multiphase production ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Wave-
HASD mixture of HASD wells #7. #8 1007 12" 15.00 N/A 0.0250 15.00 0.120 15.00 12 SCH 80 SCH 80
0.19 @ 7.0 years Horizontal
and #9 / 5501 3.8 3.2
Clusters Multiphase production
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Header to Header (SAGD. HASD and 12-P-00-001-DA6Q-HC / 0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 10 Slug-Horizontal N/A
5501 15.00 0.855 15.00 3.808 15.00 12 SCH 80 SCH 80
Group SD) / Group Separator D- 12-P-55-001-DA6Q-HC 0.15 @ 7.0 years
3.8 3.2
Separator 5503
N/A N/A N/A N/A Note 3:
Group Separator D-5503 / ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group ≥ 30 Only gas ( no ( no ( no ( no The predicted
Produced Gas Condenser A- 5505 12-PG-55-012-BA6H-HC 5.00 N/A 12 SCH 40 SCH 40
Separator 0 years Turbulent multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase corrosion rate is
5502 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid) 0 mpy.
In this case the
environment is a gas
dominated systems,
Note2
and the operating
N/A N/A N/A N/A
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B temperature is higher
Group 5505 + 5513 / Produced Gas ≥ 30 Only gas ( no ( no ( no ( no
5506 12-PG-55-012-BA6H-HC 5.00 0 N/A 12 SCH 40 SCH 40 than the water vapor
Separator Condenser A-5502 years Turbulent multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase
3.8 3.2 dew point in gas, so
fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid)
no water
condensation and no
corrosion is possible.

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Table 8 Corrosion/Erosion Results, Piping Material validation and Corrosion Conclusions/Recommendations (Continuation)

Straight Pipe´s Estimated Elbows´ Estimated


Estimated Corrosion Rate Piping Material Validation
Erosion Rate Erosion Rate
Stream V max Vmax
Process Description Line ID Vcorr max Other 2 Material Material
ID Service Erosion Erosion ND
Corrosion Vcorr calc. [mpy] possible Erosion rate Erosion according to recommended by
Life Flow Pattern rate rate [in] Conclusions Recommendations
rate Allowed @ pH degradation [mpy] rate [mpy] Vepica ST3I
years Allowed Allowed
[mpy] mechanism (CA mm) (CA mm)
[mpy] [mpy]

Note 4:
The environment is a
gas dominated
systems, but the Note 5:
operating temperature
(140 °F) is much Additionally to
lower than the water material
vapor dew point requirements, we
(343°F), therefore recommend to
condensation of liquid prepare a
N/A N/A N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B
Wave- N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B water and corrosion Based Risk
Group A-5502 / Produced Gas < 30 ( no ( no ( no SCH 40.
5507 12-PG-55-019-BA6H-PP 5.00 Horizontal N/A ( no multiphase 12 SCH 40 occurs. Inspection plan
Separator Separator D-5504 57.30 @ 4.23 years multiphase multiphase multiphase KILLED/PWHT
Churn-Vertical fluid) 3.8 including an
fluid) fluid) fluid) 3.8
High corrosion rate is ultrasonic
57.30 mpy, and the inspection of piping
tendency of SSC or and separator and
HIC is increased. chemical analysis
of condensed
Therefore the water to detect Mn
projected service life and iron content
is only 6-3 years <<30
years life service
considered in the
EOR design project.
Elongated
Bottom of Produced Gas 3-PW-55-004-BA6Q-PP N/A N/A N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B
Bubble- N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group Separator D-5504 / / 3-PW-55-005-BA6Q- < 30 ( no ( no ( no SCH XS Note 4 Note 5
5509.1 5.00 Horizontal. N/A ( no multiphase 3 SCH XS
Separator Condensate Pumps P- PP / 3-PW-55-006- 23.01 @ 4.23 years multiphase multiphase multiphase KILLED/PWHT
Vertical - Bubble fluid) 3.8
5501-A/B Header BA6Q-PP fluid) fluid) fluid) 3.8
Flow
Note 6:
Is a saturated gas
Note 7:
environment and the
Additionally to
Turbulent. pH is 4 at equilibrium
material
Saturated gas. if conditions, according
requirements, we
the content of N/A N/A N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B to the model
N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B recommend to
Group Top of D-5504 / Mixed < 30 water vapor ( no ( no ( no SCH STD. calculation. Corrosion
5508.1 8-PG-55-001-BA6H-PP 5.00 5.95 @ 4.23 N/A ( no multiphase 8 SCH STD prepare a
Separator Gas Separator D-8101 years condenses: multiphase multiphase multiphase KILLED/PWHT rate is
fluid) 3.8 Based Risk
Stratified- fluid) fluid) fluid) 3.8 6 mpy and the
Inspection plan
Horizontal tendency for SSC or
including an
Churn-Vertical HIC is increased. The
ultrasonic
projected service life
inspection of piping
is 25 years <30 years
life service

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Table 8 Corrosion/Erosion Results, Piping Material validation and Conclusions/Recommendations (Continuation)

Straight Pipe´s
Elbows´ Calculated
Calculated and Allowed Corrosion Rate Calculated Erosion Piping Material Validation
Erosion Rate
Rate
Stream V max
Process Description Line ID Vcorr max Other V max 2 Material Material
ID Vcorr calc. Service Erosion Erosion ND
Corrosion possible Erosion rate Erosion according to recommended by Corrosion Corrosion control
[mpy] Life Flow Pattern rate rate [in]
rate Allowed degradation Allowed rate [mpy] Vepica ST3I Conclusions Recommendations
@ pH years [mpy] Allowed
[mpy] mechanism [mpy] (CA mm) (CA mm)
[mpy]
Turbulent.
Saturated gas.
if the content N/A N/A N/A N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B
ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group Top of D-5504 / Mixed 8-PG-55-001-BA6H- of water vapor ( no ( no ( no ( no SCH STD.
5508 5.00 < 30 years N/A 8 SCH STD Note 6 Note 7
Separator Gas Separator D-8101 PP 5.57 @ 4.25 condenses: multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase KILLED/PWHT
3.8
Stratified- fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid) 3.8
Horizontal
Churn-Vertical
2-PW-55-007-BA6Q- N/A N/A N/A N/A
Elongated ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group PP / 2-PW-55-008- ( no ( no ( no ( no
From P-5501-A/B 5509 5.00 ≥ 30 years Bubble- N/A 2 SCH XS SCH XS
Separator BA6Q-PP / 2-PW-55- 0.02 @ 7.0 multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase
Horizontal 3.8 3.8
002-BA6Q-PP fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid)
N/A N/A N/A N/A
Elongated ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group 3-PW-55-011-BA6Q- ( no ( no ( no ( no
5509 Header / D-5503 5509 5.00 ≥ 30 years Bubble- N/A 3 SCH XS SCH XS
Separator PP 0.02 @ 7.0 multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase
Horizontal 3.8 3.8
fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid)
Elongated Note 1 Note 2
N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bottom of Separator D- Bubble- ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group 6-P-55-005-BA6Q- 0.02 @ 8.1 ( no ( no ( no ( no
5503 / Emulsion-BWF 5502 5.00 ≥ 30 years Horizontal N/A 6 SCH XS SCH XS
Separator HC 0.66 @ 7.0 multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase
Exchangers E-5502-A/B Bubble- 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid)
Vertical
Dispersed /
N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bottom of Separator D- 3-P-55-017-BA6Q- Bubble- ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group 0.05 @ 8.1 ( no ( no ( no ( no
5503 / Emulsion-BWF 5502 HC / 3-P-55-005- 5.00 ≥ 30 years Horizontal N/A 3 SCH XS SCH XS
Separator BA6Q-HC 1.43 @ 7.0 multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase
Exchangers E-5502-A/B Bubble- 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid)
Vertical
N/A N/A N/A N/A
3-P-55-006-BA6Q- Elongated ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group E-5502-A/B / Emulsion 0.02 @ 8.1 ( no ( no ( no ( no
5503 HC / 3-P-55-019- 5.00 ≥ 30 years Bubble- N/A 3 SCH XS SCH XS
Separator Stripper D-5505 0.70 @ 7.0 multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase
BA6Q-HC Horizontal 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid)
N/A N/A N/A N/A
Elongated ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Group E-5502-A/B / Emulsion 5503 6-P-55-006-BA6Q- 0.01 @ 8.1 ( no ( no ( no ( no
5.00 ≥ 30 years Bubble- N/A 6 SCH XS SCH XS Note 3 Note2
Separator Stripper D-5505 HC 0.32 @ 7.0 multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase
Horizontal 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid)
N/A N/A N/A N/A
2-PG-55-016-BA6H- Only gas ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Emulsion Top of D-5505 / stream ≥ 30 years ( no ( no ( no ( no
5513 PP 5.00 0 Turbulent. N/A 2 SCH XS SCH XS
Stripper 5505 multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase
3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid)
Elongated N/A N/A N/A N/A
ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Emulsion Bottom of D-5505 / 10-P- 10-P-55-007-BA6Q- 0.01 @ 8.1 Bubble- ( no ( no ( no ( no
5510 5.00 ≥ 30 years N/A 10 SCH XS SCH XS Note 1 Note 2
Stripper 55-007-BA6Q-HC HC 0.39 @ 7.0 Horizontal multiphase multiphase multiphase multiphase
3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid) fluid)

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Table 8 Corrosion/Erosion Results, Piping Material validation and Corrosion Conclusions/Recommendations (Continuation)

Straight Pipe´s
Elbows´ Calculated
Calculated and Allowed Corrosion Rate Calculated Erosion Piping Material Validation
Erosion Rate
Rate
Stream Vcorr max V max
Process Description Line ID Other V max 2 Material Material
ID Corrosion Vcorr calc. Service Erosion ND
possible Erosion Erosion Erosion rate according to recommended by Corrosion Corrosion control
rate [mpy] Life Flow Pattern rate [in]
degradation rate [mpy] rate mpy Allowed Vepica ST3I Conclusions Recommendations
Allowed @ pH years Allowed
mechanism [mpy] (CA mm) (CA mm)
[mpy] [mpy]
Elongated N/A N/A N/A
10-P-55-007-BA6Q-HC / 6-P-55-007-BA6Q-HC N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Emulsion 0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 30 Bubble- ( no ( no ( no
Emulsion Coolers E-5503- 5510 / 6-P-55-019-BA6Q- 5.00 N/A no multiphase 6 SCH XS SCH XS
Stripper 0.32 @ 7..0 years Horizontal multiphase multiphase multiphase
A/B HC fluid) 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid)
Elongated N/A N/A N/A
6-P-55-018-BA6Q-HC N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Emulsion E-5503-A/B / 10-P-55-018- 0.00 @ 8.1 ≥ 30 Bubble- ( no ( no ( no
5511 / 6-P-55-021-BA6Q- 5.00 N/A no multiphase 6 SCH XS SCH XS
Stripper BA6Q-HC 0.01 @ 7.0 years Horizontal multiphase multiphase multiphase
HC fluid) 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid)
N/A N/A N/A
Elongated N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Emulsion E-5503-A/B / Emulsion Trim 10-P-55-018-BA6Q- 0.0 @ 8.1 ≥ 30 ( no ( no ( no
5511 5.00 Bubble- N/A no multiphase 10 SCH XS SCH XS
Stripper Cooler A-5503 HC 0.02 @7.00 years multiphase multiphase multiphase
Horizontal fluid) 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid) Note 1 Note 2
N/A N/A N/A
Elongated N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Emulsion E-5503-A/B / Emulsion Trim 10-P-55-018-BA6Q- 0.00 @ 8.1 ≥ 30 ( no ( no ( no
5512.1 5.00 Bubble- N/A no multiphase 10 SCH XS SCH XS
Stripper Cooler A-5503 HC 0.01 @ 7.0 years multiphase multiphase multiphase
Horizontal fluid) 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid)
10-P-55-013-BA6Q- N/A N/A N/A
Elongated N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Emulsion From A-5503 / Emulsion PP / 10-P-55-012- 0.00 @ 8.1 ≥ 30 ( no ( no ( no
5512 5.00 Bubble- N/A no multiphase 10 SCH XS SCH XS
Stripper Transfer Pumps P5502-A/B BA6Q-HC / 10-P-55- 0.01 @ 7.0 years multiphase multiphase multiphase
Horizontal fluid) 3.8 3.2
015-BA6Q-HC fluid) fluid) fluid)
8-P-55-014-BA6Q-HC N/A N/A N/A
Elongated N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Emulsion / 8-P-55-016-BA6Q- 0.00 @ 8.1 ≥ 30 ( no ( no ( no
From P5502-A/B 5514 5.00 Bubble- N/A no multiphase 8 SCH 60 SCH 60
Stripper HC / 8-P-55-003- 0.01 @ 7.0 years multiphase multiphase multiphase
Horizontal fluid) 3.8 3.2
BA6Q-HC fluid) fluid) fluid)
N/A N/A N/A
Test N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
1006 / Test Separator D- Test- 0.01 @ 8.1 ≥ 30 Wave- ( no ( no ( no
Separator 6-P-DD-002-DA6Q-HC 5.00 N/A no multiphase 6 SCH XS SCH XS Note 1 Note 2
5501 1006/101 0.22 @ 7.00 years Horizontal multiphase multiphase multiphase
HASD fluid) 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid)
N/A N/A N/A
Test Top of D-5501 / Test N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
6-PG-55-003-BA6H- ≥ 30 Only gas ( no ( no ( no
Separator Separator Condenser A- 102 5.00 0.00 N/A no multiphase 6 SCH STD SCH STD
HC years Turbulent multiphase multiphase multiphase
HASD 5501 fluid) 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid)
Note 3 Note 2
N/A N/A N/A
Test Top of D-5501 / Test N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
6-PG-55-008-BA6H- 0.00 ≥ 30 Only gas ( no ( no ( no
Separator Separator Condenser A- 104 5.00 N/A no multiphase 6 SCH STD SCH STD
PP 0.00 years Turbulent multiphase multiphase multiphase
HASD 5501 fluid) 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid)
Elongated N/A N/A N/A
Test N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Bottom of D-5501 / Group 0.05 @ 8.1 ≥ 30 Bubble- ( no ( no ( no
Separator 103 4-P-55-004-BA6Q-HC 5.00 N/A no multiphase 4 SCH XS SCH XS Note 1 Note 2
Separator D-5503 1.59 @ 7.0 years Horizontal multiphase multiphase multiphase
HASD fluid) 3.8 3.2
Bubble-Vertical fluid) fluid) fluid)

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Table 8 Corrosion/Erosion Results, Piping Material validation and Corrosion Conclusions/Recommendations (Continuation)

Straight Pipe´s
Elbows´ Calculated
Calculated and Allowed Corrosion Rate Calculated Erosion Piping Material Validation
Erosion Rate
Rate
Current Vcorr max V max V max
Process Description Line ID Other 2 Material Material
ID Corrosion Vcorr calc. Service Erosion Erosion ND
possible Erosion Erosion according to recommended by Corrosion Corrosion control
rate [mpy] Life Flow Pattern rate rate [in]
degradation rate [mpy] rate mpy Vepica ST3I Conclusions Recommendations
Allowed @ pH years Allowed Allowed
mechanism (CA mm) (CA mm)
[mpy] [mpy] [mpy]
Note 8:
415.18 @ The predicted
3.59 N/A N/A N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B corrosion rate Note 9:
Test Stratified- N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B
A-5501 / Test Gas Separator PpH2S < 30 ( no ( no ( no SCH STD. (estimated for the Additionally to
Separator 105 6-PG-55-008-BA6H-PP 5.00 Horizontal N/A no multiphase 6 SCH STD
D-5502 exceed years multiphase multiphase multiphase KILLED/PWHT permanent material
HASD Churn-Vertical fluid) 3.8
100psia. fluid) fluid) fluid) 3.8 producing well requirements and
Vapor phase HASD), varies Heat Treatment,
contaminants between 81- 415 we recommend
mpy. It is important using batch
to mention that for inhibitor injection
these severe to control
N/A N/A N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B
Test Stratified- N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B environment corrosion any
A-5501 / Test Gas Separator 81.24 @ 4.12 < 30 ( no ( no ( no SCH STD.
Separator 105 6-PG-55-008-BA6H-PP 5.00 Horizontal N/A no multiphase 6 SCH STD conditions, the time permanent
D-5502 Liquid phase years multiphase multiphase multiphase KILLED/PWHT
HASD Churn-Vertical fluid) 3.8 predictive model well HASD is
contaminants fluid) fluid) fluid) 3.8
shows a warning produced.
and uncertainty of
the results.
Turbulent.
Saturated gas.
if the content of N/A N/A N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B
Test N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B
Top of D-5502 /Mixed Gas < 30 water vapor ( no ( no ( no SCH STD.
Separator 106 4-PG-55-002-BA6H-PP 5.00 30 mpy @ N/A no multiphase 4 SCH STD Note 6 Note 7
Separator D-8101 years condenses: multiphase multiphase multiphase KILLED/PWHT
HASD 3.60 fluid) 3.8
Stratified- fluid) fluid) fluid) 3.8
Horizontal
Churn-Vertical
Turbulent.
Saturated gas.
if the content of N/A N/A N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B
Test N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B
Top of D-5502 /Mixed Gas < 30 water vapor ( no ( no ( no SCH STD.
Separator 107 4-PG-55-002-BA6H-PP 5.00 30 mpy @ N/A no multiphase 4 SCH STD Note 6 Note 7
Separator D-8101 years condenses: multiphase multiphase multiphase KILLED/PWHT
HASD 3.60 fluid) 3.8
Stratified- fluid) fluid) fluid) 3.8
Horizontal
Churn-Vertical
N/A N/A N/A
Test Stratified- N/A ASTM A106 Gr. B ASTM A106 Gr. B
Bottom of D-5502 / Group ≥ 30 ( no ( no ( no
Separator 108 2-PW-55-001-BA6Q-PP 5.00 Horizontal N/A no multiphase 2 SCH XS SCH XS Note 1 Note 2
Separator D-5503 0.04 @ 7.0 years multiphase multiphase multiphase
HASD Churn-Vertical fluid) 3.8 3.2
fluid) fluid) fluid)

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Table 9 Corrosion/Erosion Results and Equipment Material Validation. 1

Vcorr max
Equipment Associated Other possible Material and C.A
Type Corrosion rate Vcorr calc. mpy Material and C.A (Recommended by ST3I)
Identification Stream ID degradation mechanism (according to VEPICA)
Allowed[mpy]
Normalized SA516 Gr70. complete with PWHT
2,3,4
Additional requirements:
Normalized SA516 Gr70. Composition chemical steel
Top: 0 mpy C < 0.20% S < 0.008%
Test Separador 1006. 1.59 @ 7.0 Bottom and internals: complete with PWHT and
Vertical V 5 5 P < 0.020% CE < 0.43
D-5501 101.103 Erosion by solids corrosion allowance
(3.8mm) Inclusion control: (Ca/S = 1-4)
Hardness : < 22 HRC (248 HV10)
Normalized
C.A: 3.8mm

Outlet: 412 mpy @


Killed CS:
Test Separator 102. 3.50 CS with corrosion
Cooler 4.1 N/A Box: CS SA516 Gr70+ 3mm CA
Condenser A-5501 104.105 81 mpy @ 4.71 allowance. (3.2 mm)
Tubes: A179 10BWG

Normalized SA516 Gr70. complete with PWHT


2,3,4
Additional requirements:
Inlet : 412 mpy @ Normalized SA516 Gr70. Composition chemical steel
Test Gas 3.50 C < 0.20% S < 0.008%
complete with PWHT and
Separador Horizontal V 105.106.108 5 N/A P < 0.020% CE < 0.43
81 mpy @ 4.71 corrosion allowance.
D-5502 Inclusion control: (Ca/S = 1-4)
(3.8mm)
Outlet: 30 mpy a 3.6 Hardness : < 22 HRC (248 HV10)
Normalized
C.A: 3.8mm

Normalized SA516 Gr70. complete with PWHT


2,3,4
Additional requirements:
Normalized SA516 Gr70. Composition chemical steel
Top: 0 mpy Bottom and internals: complete with PWHT and C < 0.20% S < 0.008%
Group Separador 5501. 5505.
Vertical V 5 Bottom: 0.66 mpy 5 corrosion allowance. P < 0.020% CE < 0.43
D-5503 5502 Erosion by solids
@ 7.0 (3.8mm) Inclusion control: (Ca/S = 1-4)
Hardness : < 22 HRC (248 HV10)
Normalized
C.A: 3.8mm

Produced Inlet : 57.30 mpy @ Killed CS:


4.71 CS with corrosion allowance
Separator Cooler 5506. 5507 4.1 N/A Box: CS SA516 Gr70+ 3mm CA
Top: 5.57 mpy @ (3.2 mm)
Condenser A-5502 Tubes: A179 10BWG
4.25

Normalized SA516 Gr70. complete with PWHT


2,3,4
Inlet : 57.30 mpy @ Additional requirements:
4.71 Normalized SA516 Gr70. Composition chemical steel
Produced Gas C < 0.20% S < 0.008%
5507. 5508. Top: 5.57 mpy @ complete with PWHT and
Separador Horizontal V 5 N/A P < 0.020% CE < 0.43
5509.1 4.25 corrosion allowance.
D-5504 Inclusion control: (Ca/S = 1-4)
(3.8mm)
Bottom: 23.01 mpy Hardness : < 22 HRC (248 HV10)
@ 4.23 Normalized
C.A: 3.8mm

1: Calculated corrosion rate for each equipment is based on the highest corrosion value obtained for the associated piping
2: NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2:2003(E)
3:Reference: G.Malasi. Criterios para la selección y especificación de requisitos adicionales de materiales para “Sour Service”. Asociación Argentina de Materiales. Septiembre 2007. Volumen 4 N 2.
4. In case of the client decided to maintain the previous material selection ( SA516 Gr70), laboratory testing to evaluate resistance to HIC should be required, NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2:2003(E), Annex B.
5. According to experience in similar environmental conditions

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Table 9 Corrosion/Erosion Results and Equipment Material Validation. 1 (Continuation)

Vcorr max
Equipment Associated Other possible degradation Material and C.A Material and C.A
Type Corrosion rate Vcorr calc. mpy
Identification Current ID mechanism (according to VEPICA) (Recommended by ST3I)
Allowed [mpy]
Cast steel and fabricated with
The model minimum welding. Any D1 according to API 610
Condensate pumps does not apply Inlet : 23.01 mpy @ 4.23
Pumps 5509.1. 5509 N/A welding to be subjected to Casing: Duplex
P-5501A/B for rotating Outlet: 0.02mpy @ 7.0 5
PWHT. 12% Chrome SS Internals: Duplex
equipmet Internals

Inlet : 0.05 mpy@ 8.1 ;


Shell: 516 Gr. 70 + 3mm CA
Emulsion /BFW 1.43 mpy @ 7.0 Carbon steel with corrosion
Exchanger 5502. 5503 4.1 shell N/A Channel: A285 + 3mm CA
Exchanger E-5502 A/B Outlet: 0.02mpy @ 8.1 ; allowance. (3.2mm)
Tubes: A179 12BWG
0.70 mpy @ 7.0

Top: 44.46 mpy @ 4.50 Normalized SA516 Gr70. Normalized SA516 Gr70.
Emulsion Stripper 5504. 5510.
Vertical V 5 Bottom: 0.01mpy @ 8.1; N/A complete with PWHT and complete with PWHT
D-5505 5513
0.32mpy @ 7.0 corrosion allowance. (3.8mm) C.A: 3.8mm

Inlet : 0.01mpy @ 8.1 ;


Emulsion Cooler 0.32mpy @ 7.0 Carbon steel with i corrosion Shell: 516 Gr. 70 + 3mm CA
E-5503 A/B Exchanger 5510. 5511 4.1 shell Outlet: 0.mpy @ 8.1 ; N/A allowance. (3.2mm) Channel: A285 + 3mm CA
0.02 mpy @7.0 Tubes: A179 12BWG

Inlet : 0.mpy @ 8.1 ;


Emulsion Trim Cooler
0.02 mpy @7.0 Intermittent. CS with corrosion Box: CS SA516 Gr70+ 3mm CA
A-5503 Cooler 5511. 5512 4.1 shell N/A
Outlet 0.00 @ 8.1 ; allowance (3.2 mm) Tubes: A179 10BWG
A-5503 0.01 @ 7.0
Cast steel and fabricated with
Emulsion Transfer The model minimum welding. Any D2 according to API 610
does not apply Inlet: 0.00 mpy @ 8.1
Pump Pumps 5512 Erosion by solids welding to be subjected to Casing: Super Duplex
P-5502A/B for rotating 0.01 mpy @ 7.0 PWHT. 12% Chrome SS Internals: Super Duplex
5

equipmet Internals

1: Calculated corrosion rate for each equipment is based on the highest corrosion value obtained for the associated piping
2: NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2:2003(E)
3:Reference: G.Malasi. Criterios para la selección y especificación de requisitos adicionales de materiales para “Sour Service”. Asociación Argentina de Materiales. Septiembre 2007. Volumen 4 N 2.
4. In case of the client decided to maintain the previous material selection ( SA516 Gr70), laboratory testing to evaluate resistance to HIC should be required, NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2:2003(E), Annex B.
5. According to experience in similar environmental conditions

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8. OTHER CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

• Some piping presents a slug and elongated bubble flow pattern, so no problems for stratified
pattern is expected. Exception occurs for piping identified as Multiphase production mixture of SD
Production stream 5501, where the stratified pattern flow increases the risk of under deposit
corrosion and /or abrasion mechanism (channeling) at the piping bottom (at 6 o’clock). Therefore,
the recommendation is addressed to avoid water/ solids stagnation by considering piping
rearrangement in order to obtain 5 % piping slope.

• The internals of group separator D-5503 and the test separator D-5502 are prone to fail due to
erosion by solids, because the flow is an emulsion mixture of oil and brine rich water and sand. It is
necessary that those internals being heat treated to obtain a metallurgical microstructure (ie.
annealed martensite ) resistant to erosion process.

• Fuel gas piping to OTSGS, the predicted corrosion rate is 0 mpy, and the operating temperature is
higher than the water vapor dew point (-115 °F) in gas, so no liquid water condensation and no
corrosion is going to be possible. Therefore, the recommendation is maintain VEPICA’s preliminary
material and metallurgy selection with slight changes in corrosion allowance (from 3.8mm to
3.2mm). This recommendation is based on a reasonable design safety factor, assuming that
operation and environment conditions may change during the expecting life of 30 years, and also to
meet Pdvsa Manual de Diseño de Ingenieria. Vol 1-Vol 22.

• The estimated results for penetration / erosion rates are very low < 5 mpy in almost all piping, so no
fails or problems due to this phenomenon are expected, except for piping identified as multiphase
production mixture of SAGD Production well #2, #4 and #6 / 1001, where the predicted erosion rate
is 33 mpy, at elbows. The high erosion rate ocurrs because of the high flow rate present in this
piping. It is recommended to monitor the erosion effect by including this piping in the Risk Based
Inspection Plan.

• The risk analysis reported herein considers erosion and corrosion as independent damage
mechanisms, i.e. the corrosive flow is not supposed to contain solid particles while erosive flow is
not corrosive. Based on this analysis, the system was found almost immune to corrosive and
erosive attack. However, corrosion and erosion does not act independently and this can lead to a
synergistic increase of the damage rate, mainly for stratified flow pattern, i.e. erosion might be
increased when the mechanical properties of the metal are diminished by corrosion.
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REFERENCES
A. Ikeda et al., “Influence of environmental factors on corrosion in CO2 wells”, Advances in CO2
Corrosion, Vol. 2, pp. 1-22, NACE 1985.

F. W. Hewes. Review of gas composition as related to corrosion probability in gas transmission lines.
Caproco Corrosion Prevention LTD.

W.D. Berry. Effect of CO2 on corrosion of pipeline. AGA Transmission Conference. Chicago. IL. May
1982.pp.1-14.

Simon Thomas M. J.. Loyless J.C.. "CO2 corrosion in gas lifted oil production correlation of predictions
and field experience" . Corrosion 93. paper 79.

Uhlig H. Corrosion and Corrosion Control 3ra edition pag 13. cap 2.

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ANNEX A
EVALUATION OF SLOTTED LINERS SAMPLES RECOVERED FROM
WELL JA-11.ST3I-INF-00184. 2006.

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ANNEX B
CONECTIVIDAD LINES AND EQUIPMENT

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