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l^i.^ Sc^Aitfr-6'
THE
NATURAL HISTORY
OF

BRITISH BIRDS^
O R, A

SELECTION OJF the MOST RARE, BEAUTIFUL, and INTERESTING

BIRDS
WHICH INHABIT THIS COUNTRY:
THE DESCRIPTIONS FROM THE

SrSTEMANJTURM
OF

L I N N iE U Sj

WITH

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS,
EITHER ORIGINAL, OR COLLECTED FROM THE LATEST
AND MOST ESTEEMED

ENGLISH ORNITHOLOGISTS',
AND EMBELLISHED WITH

F I G U R E S3

DRAWN, ENGRAVED, AND COLOURED FROM THE ORIGINAL SPECIMENS.

By £• DONOVAN,
LONDON:
PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR ; AND FOR F. AND C. RIVINGTON,
No. 62, ST. PAUL'S CHURCH-YARD, 1794-
ADVERTISEMENT,

This Work being now completed, we conceive

our engagement with the Subfcribers, is, in every refpedl

fulfilled, and that it only remains to embrace this opportunity,

to repeat our thanks for their favours ; and in particular, for

the candour with which the Supplementary Part has been

received.

But, in fubmitting the work to the Public in general, as

an illuftration of an important branch of Britifh Zoology, it

is incumbent on us, to ftate briefly, the nature, and extent of


the undertaking, the information it contains, and its peculiar

advantages. In this retrofpedlive furvey of the work, we


muft advert to our former obfervations ; fome fimilar re-

marks appeared at the conclufion of the fourth volume, and


we retrace thofe, as they immediately relate to the outline of

our defign.

A Ornithology,
;

ADVERTISEMENT.
Ornithology, as a fcience, has undergone various altera-

tions and improvements : different authors have fubmitted


their fyflems to the world, and each has found its admirers

and opponents ; nor has the unrivalled genius of Linnasus

devifed an arrangement in which thofe oppofite opinions

may be reconciled. On the importance of Ornithology, in

the great fcale of animated nature, no difference of opinion

can prevail. The beauty and elegance of the feathered race :

their pleafing and various melody -, their fagacity, and trac-

table manners, has been admired in every age and country

and their unerring ceconomy and inflin6l, has ever engaged

the attention of the moral philofopher. The Birds of this

country are of plainer colours than thofe of warmer climates,

but they are not lefs interefting to the Englifh naturalifl.

If, in fome inflances, their beauty has little claim to our no-

tice i in others it excites our admiration ; and to the intelli-

gent mind, their beauty, their fingularities, peculiar manners,

and ceconomy are equally engaging. They are the fource

of information and improvement to the pradicalOrnithologifl,

and of rational and agreeable amufement to every common


obferver of nature.

At the commencement of this work, it was^ our intention

to form a complete Hiftory of Britifli Ornithology, and to

include figures of all the known Birds, amounting to more


than two hundred and fifty fpecies ; but we have fince con-

ceived it would be advifablc to feled: only the more beau-


tiful
ADVERTISEMENl^.
tiful Birds, in addition to thofc which are intereHing to the
naturalift : for a confide rable number of the BritiOj ipecies

are fo well known, that their hiftorj would be tedious, and

the figures unneceiTary, in a work profefledly defigned to

treat of the mofl remarkable ipecies only. Not that we


have entirely overlooked the common Birds ; m fcvcrsd in-

fiances ibme of thefe are introduced alio, to point out their

lingular habits of life, and other intereiling peculiarities;


but^ in general, wc have endeavoured to form an injflrudlivc

as well as amufmg illuilration of this department of Natural

Hiftory.

It will perhaps be contended, that a complete collection

of figures and defcriptions of all the Britifh Birds, would

be more acceptable than any partial feleiftion, however com-


prehenfivc. We admit the propriety of this objecflion ;

but mud obferve, that fuch addition would conliderably


increafc the expenfe to the purchaser, and fcarccly contri-

bute to his information. On the other hand, this work, in

its prefent limits, may aflifl the refearches of the uninformed

naturaliil, and tend to. promote a deeper and more extenfive


enquiry into this branch of fcience. It embraces in one
view the whole of thofe Britilh Birds that are fcarcely known,
and of which the inquifitive reader, under many circum-
flances, may be defirous of information. We have omitted
many of thofe Birds which conflantly inhabit this country j

but have included all local fpecies, and in particular, thole,

^ 2 whofe
ADVERTISEMENT.
whofe haunts arid breeding places are difficult of accefs^ and

the Birds in confequence, little known. The extenfive

marfhes and lowlands in fome parts of the kingdom, are

the retreats and breeding places of certayi fpecies, Thofe


folicary kinds, which retire to the depths, and gloomy re-

celTes of foreils, are rarely obferved , and many of thofe


which feek the open plain for fecurity, elude our vigilance,

and are not better known. But the rarefl of the local kinds,

are of the rapacious and gallinaceous tribes, which never

kc^ve their dreary foiitudes : their wilds and barren moun-

tains in the norths to vifit the fouthern parts of Great Bri-


tain. The migratory Birds are numerous, and include many
well known fpecles, with others that are uncommonly fcarce.

Wc have taken an extenfive variety of the beautiful Land


Birds, that refort to this country occafionally from the fouth
of Europe ; and of the aquatic or web-footed tribe, that

are driven by the fe verity of the winter in the Ardlic

regions to feek fhclter on our fhores. Hiilory and tradition

inform us of other Birds that formerly inhabited thefe king-

doms, but are now extirpated ; and thefe form an interefting


fequel to this feledion. We cannot vindicate the pro-
priety of introducing naturalized exotic fpecies amohgil
zhtky though they are arranged by our Naturalills in the

Britifh Ornithology; and in fome inftances we have fol-

lowed their authority, for the fake of embellifliment and

variety. 6

In
ADVERTISEMENT.
In the courfe of publication, we have been fortunate in

procuring fpccimens of many uncommon Birds. Among


the moft remarkable, are The Rofe- coloured Ouzel^ Roller^

Little BitterUy Waxen Chatterer^ Black Woodpecker^ and in

particular that rare and almofl unknown fpecies, the Wood


Chat,~The Red-necked Grebe, 'DartfordV/arbler, Dujky Larky

Long-legged Plover^ Egret and Cock of the Wood. We


could enumerate many other fpecies highly important to

the uninformed naturalift ; but, we refer our readers for the

general detail, to the complete Syllematic Arrangement an-

nexed to this Advertifement.

In this Syfliematic Arrangement we have followed the

Syftema Nature of Linnasus, though we totally diflent from

the opinion of that celebrated naturalift in his primary


divifions of Ornithology. In every fyftem, the Birds which
inhabit the land only, are feparated from fuch as frequent

the water. This appears to be a natural method of forming

two principal divifions of Ornithology ; it was adopted by


Ray, and approved by Pennant and Latham. In the Linnsan
fyftem, thofe which inhabit the water are feparated from

the reft ; but the Land Birds are divided into two parts, and

the Water Birds are placed between them. To avoid con-

fufion we have adhered to this arrangement ; but we have


alfo placed an Index, in the manner of Pennant and Latham,

at the conclufion of each volume.

A 3 Having
ADVERTISEMENT.
Havli'ig enckavoured to explain the nature aad extent of

this undertaking, v./e fubmit the whole to the candour of

the Public J andj though not inuifFercnt to the flattering

tcftimony of appro baticiip it has received in the courie of ifive

years publication^ we entreat indulgeace for whatever may be


thought exceptionable, either in the outline of our under-

taking, the fcle<ftion of fpecies, or the manner in which


cliey are illiiilrated. To our Subfcribers, we Ihali not

pre fume to addrefs any apology, as their opinion mufl: be


already decided. The progreflive manner in which the
work has appeared, has afforded every opportunity for cri-

tical examination^ for deteding error, or difcovering merit j

and, we trufl, their continued patronage is fome criterion

of their approbation, and of the general utility of our

defign.

SYSTEMATIC
SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT

OF

SELECT BRITISH BIRDS

ORDER I.

ACCIPITRES

Includes the Falcon, Ovvlj and Shrike or Butcher Bird,

Falcon.

Fako OJfifragus, Sea Eagle.

Haliatus. Ofprey.

Apivorus, Honey Buzzard.


Mihus. Kite.

* Peregrlnus. Peregrine Falcon.

Cyaneiis. Hen Harrier.

Timunculus, Keftril.

Suhbuteo. Hobby.
* ^falon. Merlin.

* Thofe marked with a ftar are not defcribcd by Linnjeug.

A 4. Owls
CONTENTS.
Owl,
S/nx Brachyotos. Short-eared Owl.
Flammea, White Owl.
Stridula, Tawny Owl.
PaJJerina. Little Owl.

Shrike. .

Lanius Excuhitor, Great cinereous Shrike.

Collurio. Red-backed Shrike.


* Rufus, Wood Chat,

ORDER IL

Crow, Roller, Oriole, Cuckow, Wryneck, Woodpecker,


King's-fi flier. Nuthatch, Hoopoe, Creeper.

Crow.
Corvus Comix. Hooded CroW.
Glandarius. Jay.

var, white.

Pica. Magpie.
Caryocata^es, Nutcracker.

Roller.
Coradai Garrula. Garrulous Roller.

Oriole.
CONTENTS.
Oriole.

Orklus GaJhuJa. Golden Oriole.

CUCKOW.
Cuculus Cmsrus. Common Cuckow.

Wryneck.
runx Torqiiilla. Common Wrynecko

Woodpecker*
Picus Marttus, Great Black Woodpeckero
Minor, Lefler fpotted Woodpecker,
Viridis^ Green Woodpecker.

King's-fishkr.

Akedo Ifptda. Common Kingsfilher.

Nuthatch.
Sitta Europaa. European Nuthatch«

Hoopoe.

Upupu Epops^ Common Hoopoe,

ORDER III

Anseres
Duck, Merganfer, Auk, Petrel, Pelican, Diver, Gull
and Tern,

Dt7CK$,
CONTENTS.
Duck.
Amis ^Egyptatica, Egyptian Goofe.
* Alhifrons, White-fronted Goofe,
Tardona, Shieldrake.

Hyemalls, Long- tailed Duck,


^lerquedula* Garganey.
Bojchas. Mallard.

Merganser.
Alergus Merganjer, Goofander.

Serrator. Red Breafted Goofander.

Albellus, Smew.
Minutus, Red-headed Smew.

Auk.
Alca Ar^tca, Puffin.

Torda. Razor- billed Auk.

Divers.

CoJymhus Troile, Foolifli Guillemot,


GlaclaVis* Northern Diver.
Immer, Imber Diver.
SeptentrionaVis, Red-throated Diver,

Crijiatus, Crefted Grebe.

Auritus, Eared Grebe.

Urinator. Tippet Grebe.


* Nigricans, Duflcy Grebe.

RuficoUis, Red-necked Grebe.

Minutus, Little Grebe.

Gull.
CON TEN T, S.

Gull.
JLarus Canus, Common GulL
Hyhernus. Winter Gull*

Tjern,

Sterna Sandvkenfts, Sandwich Tern.


Hirundo. Common Tern,
Minufa. LelTer Terno

Fujhu, Black Te-rn,

ORDER IV

Grall^
Heroo, Ibis, Snipe, Sandpiper, Plover, Avofet, Oyfter-catcfecr,

Coot, Rail, Buftard-

Heron.
Ardt-a Cinerea, Common Heron,.

Garzetta, Egret.

Minuta, Little Bittern.

Ibis.

* Tantalus Igmus. GlofTy Ibis.

Snipe,
Numemus Ph^opus, Wimbrel.
Scohpax JEgocephala. Common Godwit.
Calidrh, Redfhank.

Sand.
CONTENTS.
SaNDPIPERc

Triri^a Piignax, RufF.

Vanellus, Lapwing.
Clnclus. Purre.

Plover.

Charadrlus Pluvialis. Golden Plover.


H'miantopus. Long-legged Plover

Hiaticuh, Ringed Plover.

Morinellus, Dottrel.

AVOSET.

Recurv'irojlra Avofetta, Scooping AVofet.

Oyster-catcher.
Hamatopus OJlralegus, Pied Oyfter-catcher.

Coot.
FuVica Atra, Common Coot.

Chloropus. Water Hen.

Rail.

Rallm Crex, Land Rail.

Aquaticus, Water Rail.

Porzana, Small fpotted Water Hen.

ORDER
CONTENTS.

ORDER V;

Gallin-«.

Pheafant, Grous, Peacock.

Pheasant.
Phofianus Cokhicus, Common Pheafant,

Grous.

Tetrao Urogallus. Cock of the Wood.


Tetrix, Black Game.
Logopus. White Game or Ptarmigan.

Peacock,
Pavo Crijiatus, Common Peacock, [varleiy.)

ORDER VI.

Passeres.

Pigeon, Lark, Stare, Thrufti, Chatterer, Grofbeak, Bunting

Finch, Fly-catcher, Warbler, Wagtail, Titmoufe, Swallow,

Goat Sucker.

Pigeon.

Columha Gems. Stock Pigeon.

Lark.
Alatida Ofcura, Dufky Lark.
Stare
CONTENTS.
Stare.

Siurnus Chiclus. Water Ouzel,

Thrush.

Tardus Torquatuu Ring Ouzel,


Rofeus, Rofe-coloured Ouze!»

Chatterer.
Ampelis Garrulus. Waxen Chatterer.

Grosbe^ak.

Loxia Curviroflra, Common CrofsbriL

Coccofhraufles^ Hawfinch.
Enucleator, Pine Grofbeak.

Pyrrhula. Bulfinch*

Bunting.

Emheriza Frtgida, Tawny Bunting.

Citrinella» Yellow Bunting.


Miliaria. Common Bunting*

Finch.

Frtngilla Montana, Tree Sparrow.


Montifringilla, Brambling.
Carduelis. Goldfinch.

Linaria, LeiTer Redpole,

Fly-catcher.
Mujcicapa Atricapilla, Pied Fly-catcher.

Wagtail,
CONTENTS.
Wagtail, Warbler,

Moiacilla Alba, White Wagtail.


Flava, Yellow Wagtail.
Boarula, Grey Wagtail.
Lujcinia. Nightingale.

Phcenicurus, Redftart.

Saltcaria, Sedge Warbler.


* Dartfordienjis^ Dart ford Warbler.

Ruhicola. Stone Chat.

Ruhetra, Whin Chat.

Regulus, Gold-crefted Wren»


Trochilus. Yellow Wren.
* Syhiella. Lefler White Tliroat.

Ruhecula. Redbieaft.

Titmouse.

Parus Major, Great Titmoufc.

4ter, Colemoufe.

Cceruleus, Blue Titmoufe.

Caudatus, Long-tailed Titmoufc.

Biarmicus. Bearded Titmoufe.

Criflatus, Crefted Titmoufe.

Goat Sucker.
CaprimuJgus Europaus, European Goat Sucker.
T II E

L I NN iE A N ARRANGEMENT
OF THE

ORDERS INCLUDED IN THE CLA S,S

A V -E S.

O R D E R I,

Acciptres.

R APACIOUS Birds; having the upper mandible of the beak fur-

aifhed on each fide with an angular procefs \ claws arched, llronp-.

ORDER 11,

Pies ; having the beak a little curved^ and rather comprelTed on the

fides.

ORDER III.

AnfereSt

Web-footed ; thefe have a beak fomev/hat obtufcj and covered with a

thin Ikin ; at the bafe underneath gibbous, and wide at the end ; the faux^

or edges of the bafe, denticulated \ the feet palmated^ or webbed, and


formed for fwimming.
;

C 4 ]

O R D E R IV.

Gralla.

Waders. Thefe have the beak fubcyllndrical, and fomewhat obtufe

the tongue entire, and flefhyj the thighs naked for feme fpace above the

knees ; legs very long.

ORDER V.

Gallifiie,

Gallinaceous. Birds having the upper mandible convex, or arched, and

receiving the edges of the lower noftrils, half covered by means of a con-

vex membrane, rather cartilaginous; the redirices, or tail-feathers, more


than twelve ; the feet cloven, but conneded by a m.embrane as far as the

g,rll: joint.

ORDER VI,

Pajferes,

i'afTerine. Thefe have a conical acuminatcdj or pointed, beak ; noftrils

oval, open, naked.

PLATTE
^1
^

C 5 J
I

PLATE I.

PARUS BIARMICUS.
Bearded Titmouse,
Passeres.
Bill conic, pointed. Noftrils oval, broad, naked*

GENERIC CHARACTER,
Bill fhort, flrong, entire, brifdes at the bafe. Tongue, blunt,
with briftles at the end.

SPECIFIC CkARACTERj
AND
SYNONYMS.
Bill fhort, flrong, convex, yellov^. Head grey. A black tuft,

or beard, beneath each Eye. Plumage red yellow. Tail long. Legs
black.
Lin» SyJI, Nat, 342. edit, 12 — 1766.
Scop, ann, i. A^° 241.

7. Z. Fr'ifch, t. 8.

Parus Barbatus. La Mefange barbue, ou le Mquftache.—


Br if Orn, III, p, ^6j, N 12,

Buf. Oif.pl 18. V, p. 418.

PI enl, 618. t, I. 2»

Penduks. Kram, el. p. 373.

Beardmanica, Alh'in. i. pi. 48.

Lanius Minimus, Leajl Butcher Bird, Edw. pi, 55,

Bearded Titmoufe. Br. Zool. i, N 167.

Arci. ZooL—Br. Muf^Lev, Muf


A 3 The
6 P L A T E I.

The Great Titmoufe, Colemoufe, and Marfh Titmoufe; with the

Blue, Long-tailed, and Bearded, Titmice, are the only fpecies of

the tribe which inhabit this country : they are all very frequent ex-

cepting the latter ; which however is not uncommon in certain fitua-

tions, though formerly efteemed as rare.

It w^as defcribed by JIdrovandus in his Ornithology publifhed in the

jrears 1610 — 16 13 ; and appears to be well known at that time in fe-

veral parts of Europe, though unknown in Britain: more than a cen-

tury after Aldrovandus^ (1734)5 ^^ was included in a Hiftory of the

Birds of Germany by J. L, Frifch ; but even at that time, was fo

rare with us, that it was fcarcely afcertained to be a native of Britain ;

and Albin, who feems to have poiTefled fome knowledge of Birds, de-

termines it as a native, only on the authority of the information he


received from others; his Hiftory of Birds was publifhed in 1738;
therein he gives a figure of the Male Bird, and fays in the Defcriptions

annexed, " Thefe rwo birds (male and female) I bought of Mr. Bland

on Tower-hiil^ who told me he had them from Jutland : I have been

fmce informed by Sir Robert Ahdy^ that they are found in the Salt--

ynarftjes in E[fex^ and by others that they are likevvife in the fens in

Lincolnfb'irey

Ke alfo obferves that it receives the name Beardmanica from the


black tuft refembllng a picked beard.

Edwards * refers it to the tribe of Butcher-birds, under the title of

Lanius Minimus^ Leaft Butcher-Bird ; but Linnaeus, \n\\\% Syjlema

Naturce^ reduced it to the Parus genus; and late writers have alfo

determined it to the fame family. ^

* G. Edwards's Nat. Hift. of Birds, Vol. 7, 410. London, 1743, &c.

Its
P L A T E I. 7

Its length, from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail, is fix

inches and a quarter : the bill is thick, and of a bright yellow colour,

but fades immediately when the bird dies ; in the female it is rather

dufky; and the head, which is of a fine grey in the male, is of a

brownifh ruft colour, fpotted with black, in the female : indeed, the

female is immediately diflinguifhed by the plainnefs of her plumage,

it neither pofiefling the beautiful purple colour on the breaft, or the

black tufts on the throat, which characterizes the male: the vent-
feathers of the male are pale black 5 of the female light brown ; as

are the other parts of the belly.

Pennant, in the Britifh Zoology, fays, " This fpecies is found in

'the marfhes near London : we have feen it near Gloucefler : it is alfo

frequent among the great trails of reeds near Cowbit in Lincolnjh'ire^

where I fufped they breed.

Latham, in his General Synopfis, —" Thefe birds arc found in

England, but have hitherto been obferved only in marfhy fituations

where reeds grow, on the feeds of which it feeds, as well as fmall in-

fers; both of which have been found in their ilomachs. They are

pretty frequent, and in not inconfiderable quantities, in the marfhes

among the reeds between Erith and London^ and are again met with
in fuch-like places near Gloucejlcr^ as well as among the great tracts

of reeds near Cowhlt^ in Lincolnjhire, In all thefe places I make no


doubt of their breeding, as I know that they ftay in the firfl-named

parts the whole year. The neft is not known for certain ; but I have

feen one, which was compofed of very foft downy materials, fufpended

between three reeds dravm together, thought to be the work of that

bird."

*' They are alfo common in Denmark ; and Buffon fuppofes that a

pair of thefe, having efcaped from the cage of the Comitefs of Albe^

A 4 rnarUy
"'•
\

g P L A T E I.

marlcy have founded this colony in England. This may have beea
the cafe in refpect to thofe of Erithy being on the borders^ of this

Thames but J
will not fo vi^ell account for their being elfewhere ; and

I am inclined to think that they are indigenous to us, and have

been fo ab origine ; and that it is merely ovi?ing to their frequenting

fuch places only where the reeds grow, that they have been fo little

knov/n ; for as thofe birds never go farther than a fev^r yards from the

heds *, they have ftood a greater chance, which has really happened,

ci not being earlier obferved."

Kramer fays the nefl is built among the willows^ and is of the

fcape of a purfe, made of foft downy materials, fuch as the down of


the Greater Cafs-Tall f, or that of the Jfp |, hanging the nefl: on a

branch.

What new light Mr. Latham could throv/ on this fubjedl, is given

in the Siippk?nent publiflied in the year 1787*

" I have never yet been able myfelf to afcertain the nefl: and eggs.

In Sepfs II
plate the nefl: is placed on i:ae ground among the /edges.
It is of a very loofe texture, compofed of the tops of dry grafs, mixed
with the feed-heads of ruj7jes and reedsy with narrow leaves inter-

mixed. The eggs four in number, of a reddifli white, marked with


Ymall brown fpots."

* ** The reed- beds frequently cover many acres of ground; thefe grow

in the water, fo as to be overflowed at every tide ; and few perfons ever go

near them, except in the time of cutting, which they do in boats, as, except

at very low tides, one can fcarce fet a footllep within their boundaries."

i Typha latifolia, Lin, % Popidus tremnla. Lin, [| Sepf^

Vog. pi. in p. 83.

« This
P L A T E I.
9
*' This fpecies is found in Schonen^ in Sweden; but rarely. Is

very common about the Cafpian Sea and Palus Mo^otls^ and among
the ruihes of the rivers which fall into them ; but in no high latitudes

in Afta, None in Siberia *."

The male fliews much tendernefs and care for its young, and its

mate partakes alfo of its afFedion : it is faid to be ever conftant in its

attachments ; and at night, v/hen at rooft, the male prote6ls the fe-

male, under the concave of his wing.

,
* Ar^, ZoqL

PLATE
PLATE II.

CORVUS GLANDARIUS.
Jay.
P I C -ffi.

Bill comprcfled, convex, or a little curved.

GENERIC CHARACTER,
Bill ftrong, conic, v^ith briftles at its bafe refle£led dovi^nwards.

Tongue bifid,

SPECIFIC CHARACTER,
AND
STNONTMS.
Head covered v^^ith long feathers. Forehead white with black

ftrokes. From the angles of the mouth a broad ftreak of black under

each eye. The head, fides, neck, breaft, back and fcapulars, vina-

ceous bufF-colour. Coverts of the wings fine blue, barred with black.

Rump white. Tail black-brown.

CoRVUS glandarius. Lin. Syji. i. p. 156. N<^ 7,

Scop, ann, 1. />. 36. N° 39.

MulL p. 12.

Pica glanduria. Gefn. av, 700.

Jay. Aldr» Ornith. I. 12. e. 14,

Will. Orn* p. 130. pL 19.

RaiL av, 41. ^. 2. '

Alb, av, I. />. 16. /. 16.


Le
12 P L A T E II. .

Le Geay, Garrulus. Brif, Orn, il. p. 47. N^ i.

Buf, ois, IIL p, 107. pL d.--Fl. enl, 481.


ReneL 481.

Holtz-fchreyer (Wood Cryer), Eichen-heher (Oak Jay), Nus-


heher, Frifch, if.
55.

Nus-heher, Kramer EL p. 335,

Ghiandaia, Zinan, 67.

Skoia, Schoga. ScopoU^ N^ 39. . . •

Screch y Coed. {Ant lent Britijh.) BriL ZooL

The Jay, though vtij frequent in every part of the Country, evi-

-dent'y deferves, for the fingular beauty of its plumage, the firft place

in a collef^ion of intercfting Brltifii Birds : it is a fpec^es, however,

not merely confined to this kingdom; but generally diffufed over the

greater part of the continent of Europe.

Among the foreign birds v/hich are referred to this genus, are fe-

veral fpecies eminently diftioguifned for their rich and elegant colour-

ing ; but the European Jay is certainly fuperior in this particular to

many exotics of the fame family.

Its habits are knov/n, in a great degree, to refemble thofe of the

Magpie, which alfo belongs to the fame genus. It vi^ill devour with

avidity cherries, goofeberries, rafpberries, or other fruits; but in au-

tumn and winter it feeds on acorns ; whence it long fmce derived

the name Pica Glandaria, It is not deftitute of a carnivorous ap-

petite, as it frequently combats, and devours, fmall birds : it alfo feeds

en worms and infects,

Ablin,
P L A T E II. 13

Ablin, in Plate i6. Vol. i. very accurately defcribes the Jay he

took his figure from, which nearly correfponds with our fpecimen.

" Its length, from the point of the bill to the end of the tail, was
fourteen inches ; its breadth, when the wings were extended, twenty-

one inches and an half; its weight feven ounces ; the bill dark afh co-^

lour inclining to black, Urong, near an inch and an half long ; the

tongue black, thin, pellucid, and cloven at the tip ; the irides of the

eyes white. Near on the lower chap of the bill are two black fpots,

on each fide one. The chin and lower part of the belly whitiili, elfe

the breaft and belly are of a mixt cinereous and red ; the rump above
is white, the back red, with a mixture of blue ; the feathers on the
crown of the head variegated with black and white.

" The fails of the v/ings are in number twenty, of which the iirft is

fhorter by half than the fecond, the fourth the longeft (being by mea-
fure fix inches and a quarter) ; the firil or outermoft is black, the

bottom or lov/er part white, which is proper to It alone ; the fix

next following have their exterior vanes of an afh colour, the three

next likewife, but more obfcure, and mingled v/ith blue, being alfo

marked toward their bottom with tranfverf^ black and white flrokts -,

the five fucceeding have their exterior vanes half white, half black,

viz. the lower half white, the upper black, but fo that each extremity

of the white is terminated with blue i


the iixteenth, in place of the

white of the four precedent, bath tranfverfe blue, black, and white

fpots ; the feventeenth is black, having one or two blue fpots ; the

eighteenth is black with fome little red ; the nineteenth red with the

tip black ; the under fides of all the feathers of the wing are of a dark

or dufky colour ; the covert-feathers of the fifteen exterior fails are

very beautiful, being variegated or chequered with black, white, and

lovely Ihijiing blue lines, the reft of the covert -feathers being black.

'' The
9
;

i4 P L A T E IL
" The tail is fix inches and a quarter long, confiftlng of twelve

feathers, wholly black except toward their roots : under the rump

there is fomething of a blue mingled with cinereous.

'^ The feet and toes are of a ferruginous dufky colour, the

middle toe is the longeft ; the outmoft is equal to the back toe , the

lower joint of the outmoft toe is joined to the middlemoft y the back

claw is the greateft.

" The guts are twenty-four inches long ; the blind guts but half

an inch ; it hath a gall and a long fpleen : the ftomach or gizzard

not very flefliy, and having its echinus, wherein were found

acorns, Sec."

He adds, " The female differs little or nothing from the male,

either in bignefs or colour, fo that it is very difficult to know them


afunder :" but after the publication of his iirft Volume of Birds, he

rectifies this error, in a fupplement which is prefixed to the work.

*' The following obfervations," (fays he) "I received from Dr. Der-

ham, after the defcriptions were printed. He hath obferved the Cock
Jay (Plate 1 6. Vol.i.) to be fomewhat bigger than the Hen, the

feathers on the head to be blacker, the ftripes longer, and the black

and blue colours more elegant in the Cock than in the Hen."

Jays generally build in woods, preferring a fituatian near the fkirts

the neft is compofed of fibrous roots, and young twigs, eredted on a

bafe of feveral large fticks, and is placed on the top of a thorn-bufli,

or other under-wood, or between the firft branches of low decayed

trees : the female lays five or fix eggs, of the fize of a pigeon's, of

a cinereous olive colour, marked with very pale brown fpots : the

Voung Jays remain with their parents till the next fpring; and at

the pairing time they each choofe his mate, to propagate their future

progeny.
^ ^^
P L A T E 11. IS

It is a reillefs and very quarrelfome bird: makes a harfh, chattering

and fcreaming noife ; and is ever at variance not only with its own
fpeciesg but with every other inhabitant of the foreft : when deprived

of liberty^ it may be taught to imitate the human voice ; but the ori-

ginal appe?.rance of its plumage is fo altered by confinement, as

fcarcely to retain any of the beautiful colours, which are fo emi-

nently confpicuous in the wild ftate.

It is a native of Denmark^ and of Rujfia\ of Scotland-^ and of

England \ but does not frequent the iflands adjacent.

Latham (ays, " The Jay, I believe, is not fpread io far as many
others of the genus, as we do not hear of its inhabiting further fouth

than Italy and Greece,

" This fpecies is common in the woods both of Rujfia and Siberiaj

but none b* vond the Lena * ; Georgi mentions it as frequenting the

Lake BaikaL^ and Rujfel records it as an Jleppo fpecies f. I have

z (ufpicion alio that it extends to China^ as i|: is to be feen in the

drawings of birds from that country.

** It is caileo: It? the name of Jay^ about Arragon in Spain, as in

England. In the \A it is not efteemed as food ; but in the firft it

is expofed to iale along with other birds %r It is alio eaten in Swe^


den I!.
Suppo Gen. SyiK p. 79. N° 19.

* Ara, ZooL f EificAlepp. p, 69. J Faun, Arag,


fj
Mr, Sijuederus,

LE
:

E re ]

LE GEAY BLANC.
White Jay.

Brtf orn. IL p^ ^i, J,

Latham defcribes this Jay, as only a variety of the common forf,

and fays he had one which was taken in a neft with four other Jays of

the ufual colour ; the fpecimen he mentions, is at prefent in my col-

le6lion ; it is lefs than the common fize, is wholly white, inclining

to a cream colour in the (hades j the legs and bill are white alfo

the irides red.

PLATE
PLATE IIL

^
TURRDUSROSEUS,
Rose-coloured Thrush
OR Ousel. "1.

PA s s E R E s;

X Bill conic, pointed. Noftrils oval, broad, nakedc

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill firalt, fubulate, and fomewhat angular*!

SPECIFIC CHARACTER^
AND
SYNONYMS,
Bill at the bafe reddidi, at the point black. A long pendent Crefl*,

Head, Crefl, Neck, Wings, and Tail, black, tinged with green-purple.
Breaft, Belly, and Back, pale rofe -colour with dark fpots 3 Legs dirty

orange,
'

Lin, Syjl. I. p, 294. iV^ 15,

Faun. Suec, 219.

Nov, Com. Ac, Petrop, XV. p. 478. t, 23. /^


Sturnus RofeuSy Scop, a?in. i. />. 130. N 191.

TuRDUS Seleucis. Faun, Arab, p. 6. a,—p, 5. iV^ 16,

Le Merle couleur de Rofe. Br If. orn, ii. p, €50. N^ 20,

Buf, Oif, iii. /. 34.8. /. pi, ll.-^pL enl, 251*


Merula Rofea, Rail. Syn. p. 67. 9,

Aldr, av, IL 283.


Rofe, or Carnation-coloured Ouzel. WilL orn. p, 194,

Edw. pi. 20.

Br. ZooL App. N^ 5. pi 5,

Ar, Zooh^Lev, Muf.


:

PLATE III.

This fpecies Is v^ry rare in every part of Europe ; and efpecially In this
'
country : v/e have a figure of it in the Britifh Zoology ; but unfor-
tunately, notwithftanding Mr. Pennanfs very laudable intentions, he

had no opportunity of conful ting the original fpecimen; he depended

on a drawing done by his friend-Mr. G. Edivards ; and the copy is only

a diftant imitation of the bird; it is defe6live about the body, and ex-

ceedingly incorredl as to the circumference of the neck; the account

fciys, ^^ Mr. Edwards difcovered this beautiful bird twice in our ifland,

near London^ ?it No nvood^ ?nd another time in Norfolk -^ the figure of

this was copied by permiiKon from his beautiful and accurate defign,

Vvhich we gratefully acknovt'lcdge, as wt-1! as every other afTiftancs

from our worthy friend ; whofe pencil has done fo much honour to his

country.

This bird is the fize of a flarling ; eight Inches in length : bill

three quarters of an Inch, of a flefh-colour, with the bafe reddifli:

iriJes pale : the feathers on the head long, they form a crefl which

impends on the neck: the head, neck, wings, and tail, are black; the

two latter are ftrongly glofTed with green ; and in fome parts with an

inclination to blue and purple : the back, rump, bread, belly, and

lefTer wing coverts, pale rofe colour, with a few irregular dark fpots

legs pale red, or grange.

RufTell In his Hlrcory of Aleppo, calls our rsfe 2i Jle/h-coXonr -,


and

in the Peterfburgh Tranfadlons the name given to it \s fanguineous \

we may then concliide that the bird varies much in its rofe, or pink

colour; the female alfo is paler than the male.

Mr. Latham has added a farther proof of its being found In this

country, one was fliot at GrantJ)ain^ in Lhicohijlnre^ and is now in

the pofTeflion of Sir Jofeph Banks, Eart. ; and he fays that he is alTured of

one, or morcj being ihgt almofl Q'^^x^ feafon about Ormjklrk in Lan^
fdfmre^ It
. I

PLATE in.

It IS more frequent in France ; and is met with in Burgundy^ in

its paflage to other parts : Aldrovandus mentions it as not uncommon


in Italy, where it is called the fea ftare, and fays its ufual haunts are

among heaps of dung * : it is alfo found in Swit%erla7id and Lapland^

but it never pafies the limits of that frozen region f

In fome parts of Afia it is common :


" It comes in great numbers
about AleppOy in July and Augiift^ in purfuit of the fvvarms of locuJisXy

whence it is held facred by the Turks, as great quantities are deilroyed

by this nieans : it is alfo feen in vail flocks, every year in the fouth

of Ruffia ; about the river Don ; and in Siberia^ about the Irtifch
;

finding abundance of locuJIs for food, and convenience for breeding

between the rocks : it is alfo common on the borders of the Cafpian

Sea-y about Aflrachan i and from thence all along the Volga" Latham
Gen, Syn. 3. 50. 52.

It extends to India 5 Sir Jofeph Banks, has one in his colle£i:joiv

which was received from Bombay.

^- '" '

II .1 II
„_i ^

* Aldr, Aoj, II. 283.* + Z/V/.Vd?z^^.— Mr. Ehmarch

% Hence called the locuH bird. RuJfdU Hiji, AlU^.

Cl PLATE
n
PLATE IV,

J^OTACILLA REGULUS,
[;'' Golden- CRESTED Week* '3

Passeres.
gill conic, pointed, Noftrils oval, broad, nak€<y

GENERIC CHARACTER,
'
Bill ftrait, flender. Tongue jagged, ^
SPECIFIC CHARACTER^
I AND
dTNONTMS,
Crown of the head bright yellow, with a longitudinal black margin

pn each fide, which pafles immediately above the eyes. Back


greenifh. Breaft white with a dirty green tinge. Legs yellow-
ferown.

MoTACiLLA Regulus Linn. Eyji, r. p, 338. iV*' 48,

Muller^ p» 33, N^ 280,

Georgl Reife^ p, 175,


'
Frifch, t. 24.

CfoLDEN-CROWNED Wren Rail, Syn, p. 79, A. g^

TFilh Orn, p. 227. pL 42.

Jlbin. I. pL 53. A,
Edw, pL 2$/\., I, -}

Catefi, Car, Jpp, 36. 37,

Ar5l. ZooL-^Br. Muf.-^Lev, Muf.

Latham* Gen, Syn, IV. 508,

- u
PLATE IV.

Le Poul, ou SoucI, ou Roltelet hupe. Calendula, Brlfon^ av, lit

p. 579. iV° 17, PL enl 651. fig, 3.

Le Roitelet. Buff, o'lf, V. />. 363. ^/, 16. /. ^


Fior ranclo. Olina, pL in />. 6.

La Soulcie, Belon av, 345.

Kongs fogel. Faun, Suec.fp, 262.

Kratlich. Scopoli^ A^^ 240.

Sommer Zaunkoenig (Summer Wren.) Frlfchy i. 24*

Goldhannel. Kram. 378.


Fugle-Konge. jBr^^;/. 285.

The golden crcfled Wren is the fmallefl bird yet difcovered, in

either of the Britifli ifles ; is common to France^ Atijir'ia^ Italy^ and

moft other parts of Europe ; and in thofe countries, as with us, it

appears to be the leaft native fpecies.

But difc ovaries in the interior parts o^ fouth Amprica^ have verified,

that it is not the leaft kind exifting ; \i\ that country where the Con-

dor is found, the moft diminutive fpecies of the feathered tribe are alfo

taken j and to thofe the leafl European bird bears a gigantic difpropor-

tion^ for inftance, the length of the golden-cr«fled Wren is three

inches and an half, its weight feventy-fix grains: but the total

length of the leaft South-American Humming bird * is not more than

an inch and a quarter, and its weight when frefh killed twenty

grains f j the female is yet fmaller J.

* Trochilus minimus Lin, Syji, i, p. igj, iV 22.

T Sir Hans Sloane, Jam, ii. /. 307» J Brown. Jam, p, 475',

Th^
. ;

PLATE IV,

The appellations Regulus^ and Tyrannus, Little King, or Tyrant,

have been given to the golden-crefted Wren by fome authors : it has

ability to conceal the orange band on the head s by corrugating the

forehead, and drawing together the feathers^ which form the black

longitudinal band on each fide.

The colour of the plumage of the female is paler, than of the male

the crell or feathers on the crown ©f the head are yellow, but

without the bright orange colour, which foftens into the creft of the

male. ^

It remains with us through the winter*; frequents woods; and

builds its neft, either in oak, fir, or yew trees, the neft is of a roundifli

form, with an opening on one fide ; it is compofed of mofs ; and lined

within with fome downy fubftance, (perhaps cobwebs,) intermixed with

fmall filaments.

It lays fix or feven eggs, v/hich are no bigger than large peas f

Although the fpecies is found In Europe, it is fcattered throughout

the other three quarters of the globe, with only fome little variations

which mark the influence of climate ; Latham mentions a fpecimea


received from Cayenne with black legs.

It is a native of RujJlaX-i Sweden^ and Noriuay\ and is found as

far north as the Shetland ifles ; but difappears before winter j it bears

cold extremely well, and therefore it may be rather the Scarcity of

infecSls, on which it feeds ; than merely t!i\Q approaching feafon, which

induces it to take fuch vafl flights.

^ Latham, IV. t Alhm Orn,


509. 145, i. 51. 5:5» f GeorgL

.Is
.

PLATE IV,

It IS alfo found in the northern parts of America^ Penfylvania % and


New-York f

« We have obferved this bird fufpended in the air for a confiderable


time over a bufli in flower, whilft it fung very melodioufly. The
note does not much differ from that of the common Wren, but is very

weak." Brit. Zooh 379. 153.

Edivardfm f Cohnd Dmk^ii

PLATE
— —

P L A T E V.

MOTACILLA ALBA,
WhiteWagtail.
Passeres.
Bill conic, pointed. Noftrils oval, broad, naked,

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill ftralt, flender. Tongue jagged.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.
AND
STNONTMS.
Bill dark brown. Head, Tail, and Legs, black. Breafl, Belly, and

fides of the Tail, white. Upper parts of the Body, and Wing coverts

cinereous, Tail and back claw long.

Motacilla Alba. Linn, Syfi, i. />. 331. N"" 2,

Gefner^ av. 61^.

Sepp, Vog. pL in p.^ iig. — Faun. Arag. p. SS,

Lath. Gen, Syn. IV. p. 395. N« i.— y/r^. Zocl. ii. p. 396. E.
White Water-Wagtail, Rail, Syn. 75. A. L^-Alhhi. h
pi. 49. Will. Qnup. 237^ Brit. ZogL i,

N° 1^2. pL 55. Br. Muf.-^Lev. Miif,

La Lavandiere, Br If. Orn. iii. 461. N° 38.

Buff. Olf. V. p, 251. pi. 14./. I. pL enl, 625./^ i.-^


Variety, 2.
f.
Ballarina, Cutrettola. Ollna^ 43.
*
Monachina. Zlnan, 51.
Plifka, Paftaritra. ScopoU^ N° 224.
Aria. Sadefarla. Faun. Suec.fp. 252^
Danls Vip-Stiert, Havre Saser.

Norvegls Erie, Lin-Erie.


Weifs und fchwartze Bachfteltze. Frl^ch, I, 23,
Graue Bachflelze. Kram 374,

C Thi4
P L A T E V.

This bird is very frequent in England, and is fpread throughout

l;he whole of the old Continent; Latham fays he has more than once
rnet with a reprefentation of it in Ch'mefe drawings : it extends as far

as Icehmd^ the Feroe IJIes^ and Dronthehn \ it is common in RuJJia^

Siberia^ and Kamptfchatka ; but is not found in the more northern

regions.

It alfo inhabits India^ a drawing which was done on the fpot being

in the colledtion of Lady Impey *,

It frequents the fides of pools and fmall rivulets; and feeds on

infects : it is often ken running on the ground with much celerity, or

leaping up after flies : the tail is frequently in motion. Birds of this

genus fel Jom perch ; fly in an undulating manner, and have a twitter-

h\z noife in flight.

JFillughhy obferves, that this fpecies fnifts its quarters in the win-

ter ; moving from the north to the fouth of England during tha£

feafon.

Latham fufpecls that part of them migrate^ as he does not recollect

feeing fo many in winter, as in the fummer feafon, and fays, in Scot^

land^ and in the north of England, it is fcarce ever feen in hard weather.

This, and others of this clafs, are called, both by the French and
Englifli, Wafber-Womeny or Difo-Wajlicrs,

It is particularly ferviceable to the farmer in Spring and Autumn,

by attending the plough to devour the larvae of infedls, worms, he


which are turned up ; hence it is the intereft of the farmer to dif-

courage any attempt to defiroy thofe birds, and to this circumflance

they may ov/e much for their prefervation.

* Latham SupJ), Gen, Syn, i-S»


PLATE V-

The marks and colours vary very confiderably in different fpecimens.

Some have only a crefcent of black on the breaft, the chin and throat

being quite white, in others all the white parts are flrongly tincSlured

with yellow ; in fome the chin, fore part of the neck, and breaft, are

black ; and in the Leverlan Mufemn is a fine variety ; white, except

the hind parts, which are yellowifh.

In XhQ females J the top of the head generally inclines to brown. The
ufual length of this fpecies is feven inches from the bill to the extre-

mity of the tail.

The nefl is built on the ground, is compofed of dry grafs, fine fibres,

and mofs ; lined with hair^ feathers, or foft dry grafs ; the eggs are five

in number ; white, fpotted with brown : for the moft part they have

only one brood in a year^

C 2 PLATE

P .L A T E VL
PODICEPS RUFICOLLIS,
Red-necked Grebe.
Anseres.
Bill obtufe, covered with a thin membrane, broad, gibbous below

the bafe, fwelled at the apex. Tongue ^erny. Legs naked. Feet

webbed, or finned.

GENERIC CHARACTER,
Bill ftraight, llender, pointed. Noftrils linear at the bafe of the

Bill. Legs placed near the tail. Feet flat, thin, and ferrated behijid

with a double row of notches.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER^
AND
STNONTMS.
Bill black, with the bafe of each mandible fine yellov/. Irides

bright orange-yellpw, Crown^ and fides of the Head above the Eyes

black-brown, with the feathers a little elongated. The hind part of

the Neck, Back, and Wings, dark brown ; fix of the middle fecon-

daries white, a little mottled with duiky at the tips : the two or three

next outward, are more or lefs white near the tips and inner webs.

The Chin, fides under the Eyes, and fore part of the Neck, for above

an inch, pale a(h-colour ; the reft of the Neck ferruginous chefnut,

mottled on the Breaft with duiky; thence to, the Vent, white, like

fattin, mottled on the fides with dufky irregular fpots. Legs black.

COX^YMEUS SUBCRISTATUS, Jacq. Vog.p, yj pL > l8.

CoLYMBUS PAROTis, Sparrm. Muf Carls. pL 9.

PoDiCEPS RuFicoLLis. Lath, Gen. Syn, 5. 288»7. Supp. 260. 7.

Red-Necked (jreee. Lath. — Ard, ZooL p. 499.. C.

Le Grebe a joues grifes, ou le Jougris, Buf. Olf, viii. p. 241. RL


Enl, 93 lo
Suppofed
:

PLATE VL
Suppofed to inhabit fome parts o{ Deninark and Norway % has been

dlfcovered, though very rarely, near the Cafpian Sea ; and was once

received by Mr, Pennant^ from Copenhagen,

It is probably a fcarcc bird in every part; in this country it has been

only dlfcovered by a fev/ individuals, and that very lately; we believe

the mofl perfect yet taken, to be that fpecimen of which Mr. Latham
has given a figure in the fupplement to his General Synopfis ; our figure

is alfo copied from the fame bird.

It is on the authority of this author, that we include it as a BritifK

bird ; in his defcription he fays, " I received a perfect fpecimen of the

Male of this bird from Major Hammond'^ who informed me, that

the end of April, the year 1786, two of them alighted in a farm-yard^

near his houfe, in Eajl Ketity and were taken alive.'*

" I have alfo met with two other fpecimens; the firft fent to mo-

January 28, 1786, by Mr. Martin^ of Te'ignmouth^ a gentleman to

whom I owe many other obligations : his fpecimen had not come to j

perfe61ion, as the colours on the head and neck were much blended,

and the ferruginous on the neck only juH: breaking forth. Mr. BoySy

of Sandvj'ichy alfo obliged me with a third, the beginning of laft

OSJober^ (^7^7) • ^^^s ^^^^5 h^ informed me, weighed nineteen ounces

and a half; the length twenty-one inches and a half; breadth eight.

The bill yellow at the bafe, duflcy olive tov/ards the tip : lore dufky

irides pale brown : head quite fmooth. The defcription differed not

much ; but the ferruginous colour of the neck was much blended with

dufky ; the white on the under parts greatly mottled with the fame ::

Legs duficy 5 within, grcenifh yellow. The middle toe united to the

innei
PLATE VI.

inner as far as the firffc joint; and to the outer, to the middle of the

fecond *."

" The two iaft mentioned are, no doubt, birds not In full plumage^

That defcribed by Dr, Sparrman is clearly under the fame predica-

ment; perhaps a ftill younger bird than either of the others, as the

cinereous parts on the throat appear white, with three or four lines of

black, and acrofs the lower part of the neck is a band of white. The
bird figured in Jacquln feems an adult."

That mentioned by Buffon was feventeen inches in length ; had


the breaft mottled with ferruginous ; and a white f[)ot on the quills.

* This fpecies was unknown to LInnceus, but according to his definition^,

evidently belongs to the genus Col ym bus; Latham obferves, that


Linnseus has erroneoufly included the Grehes, Diojers, and GuilUrnots into
that genus without even a divifion, though they very materially differ from
one another ; efpecially in the legs : thofe of the Grebes are not webbed ; the
Guillemots, though web-footed, have only three toes, all placed forwards;
and the Divers have three toes before, and one behind.

He therefore thinks that tliey fhould be feparated i and as the form of


the feet of this fpecies appears to prevail throughout the genus, recommends
its being included with the other parts of its effential charader ; he has
named his new genus Fodiceps.
Pennant has alfo fubmitted to a divifion of the LInnsan genus. " The
Grebes and Divers are placed in the fame genus, /. e, of Colymhiy by Mr, Ray
^nd. Linnaus ',
but the difference of the feet forbade our judicious friend,
M* Brijfon +, from continuing them together ; whofe example we have fol-

lowed/* Brit, Zool. 2.496.

i See Brif. Oru, vol, vi. p. 53. 70. 104,

^'
L A T E
— —

PLATE VIL

ORIOLUS GALBULA.
Golden Oriole,
>
P I C iE.

Bill comprelled) convex*

GENERIC CUARACrEk.
Bill ftrait, conic, fharp pointed ; edges cultrated, inclining Inwards %

tnandibles of equal length. Noftrils fmall ; at the bafe of the bill, and

partly covered. Tongue divided at the end. Toes three forward,

One backward j the middle joined near the bafe to the outmoft one*

SPECIFIC CHARACTER,
AND
STNONYMS.
Bill brownifli-red. Irides red. General colour of the plumage

fine golden yellow j between the bill and eye a ftreak of black.

Wings black, with a patch of yellow on the middle* Tail yellow

except the two middle feathers 5 all the reft black, from the bafe to
the middle blacky and thence to their tips yellow. -Legs black in«

€lining to a lead colour : claws blacko

Oriolus Galb¥La. Li72n, Syjl, i. />. 160. N° I.

Faurii Suec^ N® 95.


*
Georgi Reife, p, 165.

Seppi Vog. pL in. p* 19.


Lath, Gen. Syn. ii. 44.9. 43, Supple Zq,

Pennant Brit. Zool. ii. 626. 4.

CoitACIAS Oriolus. Scop. Ann. i./).4i. N^45, Faun.arab.pi'J*


ORIOLUSa Gefner, av. ^ii^.-^Aldr. av, L 4180
D Golden
— —

PLATE VII.

Golden Oriole. Latham. — Pennant. — Brit. Muf.— Lev. MuJ.


Golden'Thrush. Eclw. pL 185.

Yellow Bird from Bengal. Albin m. pi 19.

Wit wall. Will. om. p. 198.

Le Loriot. Brif. om. ii. p. 320. N^ 58.

Buf. Oif. iii. p. 254. pi. 17. PL enl. 26. the male.

Widewal, Pyrold, Frtfcb, pL 31. the male and female. Kram. eh

p. 360.

Gaibula, feu Picus nidum fufpendens, Rail. Syn. p. 68. N° 5.

Size of a Blackbird. The body of the female is of a dull greeniCh

colour ; the wings are dufky inclining to green alfo i and the tail is

nearly of the fame obfcure colour, except the two middle feathers

7/hich are of a pale yellow,

But the male is evidently one of the moft beautiful birds that has

ever been difcovered in this ifland : the whole of the body which is a

dull green in the female, is a lovely golden yellow, inclining to an

orange colour in the male; the wings are black and foi"m a mofl

ftriking contraft: ; and the black ftripe from the beak to the eye is no
Inconfiderable addition to its biauty.

It is rarely, met with in England : Pennant obfl^rves in the Britijh

Zoology "^5 that he only knew one iiiftance of its being fliot in Great

Britain^ and that in South IVahs : Latham fays " it is now and then

met with in England f j'" and adds, in his Supplement, " Since the

publication of my Synopf.s %^ this bird has been twice fiiot in England.

One of the fpecimens is now in my colledlion."

#1-76. Lift of the Birds of Gre:^ Britain^ F.v;^p.


f X K"^-'

It
:

P LA T E* VII.

It* IS common in feveral parts of Europe, but fuppofed to be moll

frequent in France^ where it fpends the fummer, and propagates its

fpecies. It is fcarcely ever k^n fo far north as Sweden \ and confe- -

quently is rare in England-, is mentioned as a bird oi Rujfta^ though

perhaps it only inhabits the warmer parts -, comes twice in a year into

Switzerland^znd is found alfo in Carnlola ; obferved in Malta in Septem^

her on its paflage fouthv/ard, and returns in fpring to the north through

the fame track J comes into Conjlantlnople in fpring^ and leaves it in

September y but ftays in Alexandria till the beginning of November^'

when it takes its leave; from this we muft fuppofe that it winters in

Africa and Jfa^ efpecially as this very bird has been brought from

China and Bengal ^^ as well as the Cape of Good Hope,

A variety of this fpecies, with the head and throat of a full black.

colour, is common in Indla^ where it is called the Mango-bird^ as it

appears firft at the ripening of that fruit, and is at that feafon in great

plenty |.

<^ The nefl is of a curious conflrucSlion, but perhaps not quite (o

as fome of the Orioles^ though built after the fime fafliion. It is of

the fhape of a purfe, fa-ftened to the extreme divarications of the out-

moft twigs of tall trees, and compofed of fibres of hemp or ftraw,

mixed with fine dry dalks of grafs lined within with mofs and liver-

wort. The female lays four or five egg?, of a dirty white, marked
with fmall dark-brown fpots, v/hich are thickeft about the largefl: end

fhe fits three weeks, and is obferved to be very tender of her young.

* Latham. Gen. Syn.

'\ This bird muil have been very little known in England at the time Albin pub-
lilhed his Hiflory of Birds (1740) for he fays in the defcription annexed to his figure
*' a drawing from the life of this curious bird was brought from Bengal to Mr. Dandria'ge^

who 'was pleafed to kt me have a drawing from it."

"^ Lacly Imjiey,

D 2 fearing
PLATE VIL
fearing nothing for their defence ; not unfrequently will fufFer herfelf

to be taken with the eggs and neft, and continue to fit upon them till

fhe dies/'

*' The food which this bird is mpft fond of Is grapes and fgs^ in

the feafon, alfo cherries, kc. but at other times is contented with infedls,

and what elk it can get."

*' It h3S a loud cry that may be heard far off; but I do not hear it

remarked by any one for the leaft fong, though Gefner fays it whittles

before rain." Latham, Gen, Syn.

" Its note is loud and refembles its name." Brit, ZooL

Willughby faw thofe birds expofed for fale in the poulterers fhops

in Naples, where the flefh is efteemed as delicate food.

It is fufpecTted that the yelloiv and huff Jay * of Ray are the male

and female of the Golden Oriole.

* Rati Syn, av, p, 194. N« 7, 8^

PLATE
PLATE VIIL

ALCAARCTICA.
Puffin Auk.
Anseres.
Bill obtufe ', covered with a thin membrane, broad, gibbous below

,the bafe. Swelled at the apex. Tongue flefhy. Legs naked. Feet

Jwebbed, or finned.
i

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill ftrong, thick, convex, comprefled on the fides. Noftrils

Jinear, placed parallel to the edge of the bill. Tongue almoft as long

as the bill. Toes three in number, all placed forward.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.
Bill comprefled, triangular, fharp-pointed, red, bafe grey, furrows

four, oblique. Noftrils long and narrow. Eyelids callous; edges

crimfon ; on the upper eyelid is a protuberance of a triangular form

which projedls over the eye. Irides grey. Above black. Cheeks,

jchin, belly, white. Collar black. Legs orange and near the tail.

Alga Arctica. Linn. Syfl, i. p, 21 1. 4.

Faun. Suec. N° 141.

Brun. N*=^ 103.

Mullen N° 140.

Frifch^ t. 192.

Latham. Gen. Syn, 5- 3I4» 3*

PupHlNUS Anglicus. Gefner av. 725.

Pica Marina. Aldr. av. IIL 92.

Anas Arctica, Clufii Exot, 104, -

^ Puffin,
— — ;

PLATE VIIL
Puffin, Ccultern'eb. Rali. Syn. p. 120. A <^,^Will Orn,
P. 325. pi. 65.— ////?. GroenL ii. pL i,^Min. \u

pi. 78, 79. Edw. pi ZS^.fig. I. Brit. Zool. 11.

N^ 222.— Jr^. ZooL N'' ^2j.~-rour in JVales^

pi 2 a. Brit. Muf.—Lev. Muf


Fratercuk, le Macareux. BriJ. av. VI. 81. Tab. 6. iig. 2.

Buf. Glf. IX. p. 358. pi. 2b.--Pl Enl 275.


Ipatka, Hijl-. Kamts, p. 153.

See Pa-pagey, or See Taucher. Frifch, II. 192.

Length from the point of the bill to the end of the feet twelve inches

breadth twenty-one. Weight twelve ounces. The bill is an inch

and a quarter long, and of a very fingular (hape, much comprefled on

the fides, and near an inch and an half deep at the bafe ; from whence

both mandibles tend to a point, which is a little curved ; acrofs the

upper are four oblique furrows ; on the under three : half next the

point is red; that next the bafe blue grey; and at the bafe is a cere

full of minute holes : the noftrils are a long and narrow flit on each

fide, near the edge of the upper mandible, and parallel to it : the top

of the head, the neck, and upper parts of the body black ; beneath

white : legs orange.

The bill, which gives fuch an appearance of novelty to this bird,

varies confiderably according to, its age; in the firft year it is fmall,

weak, deftitute of any furrow, and dufky ; in the fecond year it is larger,

ftronger, of a paler colour, -and difcovers a faint veflige of a furrow

near the bafe; but thofe of the third or more advanced years, have a

bill of great ftrength and vivid colours as before defcribed. Thofe


birds are fuppofed to be imperfecl until the third year; or at leaft not

to
3
PLATE VIIL

to breed before that period : not a fingle one has ever been difcovered

which had not the bill of an uniform fize *.


at Prieflholm

The male very nearly refembles th^ female : m the former the v^hite
cheeks are fometimes obfcured with a mixture of dark feathers, 2xA

in others a patch of the fame colour has been c^ferved on each iide of

the under jaw.

This fpecies is very common in feveral parts on the coafts of Eng-

land', they are feen in flocks innumerable at Priejiholm IJls off the

coaft of Anglefea ; in great numbers about the Needles^ in the IJIes 0/

Wight^ Man, Bardfey^ Caldey^ Parn^ Godrev^^ and other fmail, and

defert iflands near the ftiore. A few about the rocks of Dover.

They are frequent in Ireland', on the ifland of Sherriss^ three

leagues N-N.W. of Holyhead; and in the S. Stacks near Holyhead

they breed in abundance. Inhabit Iceland and Greenland^ and breed

in the extreme part of the iflands, efpecially on the weft part of Difco^

and the ifland Orplkfauk f.

In the different parts it frequents, it has received a variety of appel-

lations, but generally expreflive of the Angular fhape of the beak^

as Coulter-neb in the Farn ijles ; Guidenhead^ Bottle-nofe^ and Hekgug


in Wales; at Scarborough^ Mullet; at Cornwall^ Pope Xy and in the

Per roe ijlesy Ltinda,

To what part thofe birds emigrate on the approach of winter is verj

imperfectly known ; it is probable when they retire from thofe northern

regions, their. flight is directed to fome more temperate climate; ^^i-^

. haps they live at fea, and form thofe multitudes of birds that navigators

* See I'ourin PFalcs, p. z$2 } and figures of the different growth of the bill In pi, so.

t Laihana V. p. 316. | f^ilL ern»

have
,

PLATE Vlir.

have obferved in many parts of the ocean ; they are always found there

at certain feafons, but retire at the breeding time to the northern lati-

tudes, and during that time are found as near the P&le as navigators

have ever penetrated *.

In America^ they are faid to frequent Carolina ; and have been met
with in Sandwich Sounds by our late voyagers : the natives ornament

the fore parts and collars of their y^^/-J^/« jackets with the beaks of

them; and in Aoonalafoka^ they make gowns of their fkins, alonj;

with thofe of other birds.

On the coafl of Kamtjchatka and the Kiiriljchl iflands they are very

common, even on the Penfchinjki Bay^ almoft as far as Ochotka : the

nations of the two firft wear the bills about their necks faftened to

ftraps ; thefe are put on by their Sha?nan or PrieJ}^ for the people are

perfuaded that by putting them on with a proper ceremony, they will

procure good fortune to all their undertakings f

" About the fifth or tenth of April, they arrive in vaft quantities at

Prlejtholm ijle ; but quit the place again, and return twice or thrice

before they fettle to burrow, which they do the firft week in May^
when many of them diflodge the rahh'tts from their holes, by which
they fave themfelves the trouble cf forming one of their own: in the

!aft cafe, they are fo intent on what they are about,- as to fufFer them-

felves to be taken by the hand. It has been obferved that this tafk falls

chiefly to the fhare of the maks^ and that thefe laft afTift alfo in Incuba-

tion : this has been proved on diffedliion. The female lays one white
egg %, The young are hatched the beginning of July : and about the

eleventh

* Pen. Brit. ZooL Kamijch.


f Hift.

X Albin oWerves « they build no neft, but lay their eges on the bare ground"—
« They lay but on? c^g apiece (v/hiGh is efpecially remaikabk)" «' The eggs are very

larg«
P L A T E VIII.

eleventh of Auguji they all go ofF, to a Tingle bird *, and fo zom^.


pletely as to deiert the young ones that are late hatched ; leaving therrij

a prey to the Peregrine Falcon^ who watches at the mouth of thel

holes for them, as they through hunger, are compelled to come out-.?

Notwithflanding the negle(fl: of their voung at this time, no bird is mbrq


attentive to them in general, as they will fuffer themfelves to be taken

by the hand, and ufe every means of defence in their power to fave

them ; and, if laid hold of by the wings, will give themfelves mo({:_

cruel bites on any part of the body they can reach, as if actuated by
defpair ; and when releafed, inftead of flying away, will often hurry

away into the burrow to their young." Lat. Gen. Syn, 5. 316.-—'

JrSl, ZooL

Their flefh is exceilively rank, as they feed on fifli, particularly

fprats^ or on fmall crabs^ fea-weeds^ Szc. yet that of the young birds

is often pickled and preferved with fpices, and is much admired by


fome for its peculiar flavor f. Dr. Cains writes, that in his days the

church allowed them in Lent, inftead of fiili ; and alfo that they were

taken by means oi ferrets^ as now they are by rabbits : at prefent they

large for the blgnefs of the bird, even bigger than hens or ducks^ of a vcddyh or Umdv
colour^ much Oiarper at one end than hell's eggs, and blunter at tlie other.'* w/. 2^

/.. 78, 79.


But it appears very probable that AlbJn was miflaken as to the colour of the eggs, if

we may judge by the concurrence of the bed informed naturalifts of the prefent time j

" I muft add," fays Pennant, " that they lay only one eg^, which differs much in form j

fome have one end very acute j others have both extremely obtufe 3 ail are ivhite^

Bnt, ZooL
* " The Reverend Mr. Huglo Davks^ o^ B'eaumans^ informed me, that on the 2,3d of

Auguft (1776) fo entire was the migration, that neither Pufnn, Pvazor-Bill, Guillemot
or I'ern was to be fecn there."'' Brit. ZooL 2. 515.

•j- " They are potted at St. Kilda and elfewherc, and fent to London ^s rarities. The
bones are taken out, and the fiefn wrapped in ths fidn 3 ar^ e^iten with vinegar, and

tail? like baJi.-d hjn-i^igs. Lat. Gen. ^'f.

are
:

P L A T E VIIL
are either dug out, or drawn from their burrows by a hooked ftick

they bite extremly hard, and keep fuch fall hold on whatever they

faften,. that it is with difficulty they can be difengaged j when they are

taken, their noife is very difagreeable, being like the efforts of a dumb
perfon to fpeak.

It flies with great flrength and fwiftnefs when it gets on the wing,
but meets with many falls before that can be effe6led : the legs arc

placed fo far behind, that it cannot ftand except quite eredl ; and at

that time it refts not only on the feet, but on the whole length of the

legs alfo.

PLATE
PLATE IX.

: U P U P A E P O P S»

Common HoopoEi

P I C -ffi.

Bill comprelTed, convex.

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill long, flender and bending. Noftrils fmall, placed near the bafe.

Tongue ihort, fagittal. Toes three before, and one behind j the

middle one connedted at the bafe to the outmoft.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER,
AND
ST NO NT MS, >•

Bill black, Hender. Tongue triangular ; placed low in the tliouth.

Creft compofed of a double row of feathers ; of a pale reddifh brown.

Breaft and belly white. Back fcapulars and wings, barred with black

and white. Tail of ten feathers; black marked with white, in the

form of a crefcent, with the horns pointing towards the end of the

feathers. Legs fhort and black.

. Upupa Epops. Lin. Syfr. Nat. i. p, 183. N® I.

Scop, Ann, I. p, 53. N*^ 62.

Muller, p, 13. 103.

Brun. N^ 43.
Georg'i, Retfe, p, 165.

Sepp. Vog, pL in. p. 129.

Faun Arag. p. 74.

Kolb. Cap. ii. p, 157.

XJpuPA. i^fl//. 5y;z.^. 48. A. 6.

Gefner. ^-y. 776,


Kramer, ekn, p. 337.
F "

Upupa I
— —

PLATE IX,
Upupa; arquata flercoraria j gallus lutofus. Khln Stem av. 24.
tob. 25.

Hoop or Common Hoopoe. Will, orn, p. 145.

J/bin. 2. pi. 42. 43.

£div. 7. pi. 345.


Br. Zooi. N'^ 90.

Aril. Zooi, il. p. 283. /^.

Z(r7/-/;. Gen. Syn, ii. />. 687. Sipp. 122.

Br. MiiJ.—Lcv. Muf.

Dung Bird. Cioariton ex. 98. tab. 99.

La Hupe, ou Puput. Bnf. orn. ii. p. 455. N* i. />/. 43. f, i, -

Buff, oi^ VI. p. 439. P/, ad. 52.

La Huppe. Be ion. Av. 293.


Bubbola. 0//w. uccei. />. 36.

Wied-hopf. FrlfcJj. t. 43.

Harfogd, Pop. /"^s/^;;/. Suec.


fp. 105.,

Jler-fugl, Brunnich. 43.

Smerda kaura. Scopoii. N*^ 62.

fer-chaous, or Meflen^cr Bird. Pocoik/s Truv. 1, p. 209.

Linnseus in the Fauna Succica * obfcrvcs that this elegant bird

feceives its name from the found of its notes but by other naturahils

it has been fufpe^ted that its name was originally derived from the

French hupp} or crefled j as the creft is of a very carious flruifture,

and alone is fufucient to diilinguifti it from t\'\:Ty odier European bird.

Il is the only f[^^ccics of the Hoopoe genus that is peculiar to the conti-

nent of Europe.

* 2d edit. --.

It
T -:. A T E IT:

.\ inhabits J/Ia and Jfnca, and is faid to be met with in the lar^

forefts of Swidt^n*^ and In Jujlrla\', and has been found as far north

as tlie Orknies and Lapland, as well as in many of the intermediate

places between them ; at the Cape of Good Hope on one hand, and quite

to Ceylon % and Java on the other. In Europe it is confidered as a

bird of paiTage, and is faid not to winter even In Greece §. In England^

it is far from common, being feldom feen, and at uncertain times :


it

has been obferved in Kent, Surrey, Northumherlayid, and Moyfton in

FUntJhire, as well as in feveral other counties. A gentleman of vera-

city in EJfex informs us that one was difcovered laft year in a hole in

his garden wall, but being frightened away did not return again to

that place. Among other proofs of its migrating into, and even

breeding in England, Mr. Latham has mentioned feveral. " The


year 1783 feems to have been more abundant in thefe birds than any

I have yet heard of; one being fhot near Oxford, on the coaft o^

Suffolk, in May, and another feen near the fame place the 24th of'

June following: thefe no doubt had bred thereabouts. The place

where thefe were k^n. was a remarkable barren fpot. In the month

of September of the fame year two were (hot at Holdernefs, and many
were feen in various parts of Torkjhlre, and as far north as ^ Scotland.

One was {hot the 10th of September at Ca?n in Gloucejlerjhire, another

on Epptng Forejl, and a third in Surrey, A few years fince a pair had

begun to make a neft in Ha?npjhire -, but being too much difturbed,

forfook it, and went elfewhere**. The laft year (1786) a young
bird was fent to me, the lOth of May, full-fledged, (hot near South'

* Fauna Suec'ica^ P* 37* "f"


Scopoll. "^ Edivardst

§ The Hoopoe and Roller are faid to come into Conjiantlnople in Auguji^ from the north,
to return in fpring. Faun, Arab. p. 7. « The Hoopoe and Bee-eater come in the
fpring, and remain all the fammer and autumn." Rt^JJU. Alep. p. 70.

H
Latham, Gin, Syn. 6S8. I. |{[ Mr. "Xurnjlall. •• Dittd.

F 2 fed
,

PLATE IX.
Jled^ in Kenf^-, but the old birds had not been obferved.'*— It vas

well knov/n, as a vifitor in England^ at the time Min publiflied his

Hiilory of Birds i his obfervations deferve notice. " The hen of


this bird was fliot in the garden of Mr. Starkey Mayos^ at Woodford
on Epping ForeJ}^ where they had obferved it fome time, and ufed all

the means to take it they could j but it was fo fhy, that it avoided all

their traps which were laid for it; v/hich the gentleman obferving,
ordered it to be fiiot : it was fent to me to be preferved for him. -

" The cock of this kind I drew from a pidure done in Germany^

by a great mailer there, now in the pofTeffion of Mr. Nijbct^ a gcntle-

manj who had it drav/n from the bird when alive.

*^ There is fome difFerence w the colours of the hen, and this bird

v;hich was a cock, I was credibly informed by Robert Brijiozv^ Efq;

who faw both the drawings of the cock and hen, and told me his fon

fhot t\\Q cock, v/hich was like the drawing at his feat at Michdcr^ near

Wlnchcfler in HampjlArer Alhhi^ Vol. il. 42, 43.

Latham obferves, " it is a folitary bird, and feldom more than

two are itf^Vi together ; though it is faid that in Egypt it afTembles in

fmall troops. It is very common in Cairo^ where it builds in the

Hreets, on the terraces of houfes, &;c. It is alfo common in the deferts

oi Mi^Jfia and Tartary^ though fcarce beyond the river OZ*; hov/ever

fome are found beyond the Lake Baikal. Dr. Pallas confirms the

account of the filthy manners of this bird, as he met with an inftance

of a pair breeding in the privy of an uninhabited houfe in the fuburbs

of Tzariizn f

*' I am informed by colonel Davie s^ that they every year are fcen

in Gibraltar in March ^ in fmall ilocks of ten or twelve; hence are

* By Mr, Codden of that place* -^ Ar£I, Z<joI*

6 called
:

P L A T E XL
called there March Cocks, They are fuppofed to come from Africa^

and to be on their pafTage north to fome other place, as they only ftay

a few hours to reft themfelves: and it is not uncommon to fee five or

fix flocks in a week, during the time of their pafTage. He did not ob-

ferve them to have any note j but that they had a dipping kind of Hight

not unlike a Woodpecker, I have obferved this Bird to be among


paintings both from China and India \ it is therefore no doubt com-?
mon to both thofe parts." Lath, Gen. Syit,

In Sweden the appearance of this Bird is regarded as a prefao-e of

war ; and in England its vifits were formerly confidered as ominous by


the vulgar.

In Turkey it is called Tir Chaous^ or the MelTenger Bird from the

refemblance its crcft has to the plumes worn by the Chaous^ or Turkijb

couriers.

Latham fays, ^q female is like the male-^ and lays, from two to {qv^vl

eggs \ but for the moil part four or five. Thefe are fomewhat lefs

than thofe of a Partridge, but longer and aih-coloured. This Bird is

faid to have two or three broods in a year, and to lay the eggs in the

holes of trees, like the V/oodpecker^ but in general to make no neft

notwithftanding which, Buffon obferved, that two out of fix nefts,

which v/ere brought to him for infpecPcion, had a foft lining of mofs>

wool, leaves, feathers, and the like 5 and he is of opinion, that v/hen

this is the cafe, the bird has made ufe of the old nefl: of fome other

bird. It will alfo lay, and hatch the young in holes of v/alls, and even

on the ground. The food of this bird is infeds ; and it is the exuviae

of the large beetles, and fuch like, with v/hich the neft is crouded, that

caufe the neil to ftink fo horribly ' ; infomuch that former writers

alTerted the nefl to be made of excrement.

In
PLATE IX*

In $rpp'> platff the ncd is placed in the hollow of a tree; it is

compofed of ibft bents, and fmooth within. The eggs, four irt

number, of a blueifli white, marked with pale brown fpots.

Buffofi mentions one of this fpecies which lived with a lady for three

snonth?, fubfilKng only on bread and cheefe; and, contrary to the

common opinion, drank frequently, and that by gulps. Another was

iept for eighteen months on raw meat, and would not eat any thing

elfe.

Olina fays, that this bird lives three years.

In fome countries it is efteemed as good eating. It fel^om perches

on trees, unlefs they are very low. It does not erecl its crefl, except

when agitated by furprize : in a natural ftate the creft falling behind

the neck*; but whenever it alights on the ground, it is faid to fpread

its creft beautifully.

Some authors mention a variety of this fpecie?. Kolhen f mentions

one at the Cape of Good Hopc^ which is fmaller ; the bill ihorter in

proportion ; and the legs longer : the creft is not fo long, and has no
trace of white in it throughout : and in general the plumage is lefs

variegated. Another fpecimen from the fame place, had the upper

part of the beak of a deep brown, and the belly varied with brown
and white; but as this was lefs in every refpeCl, it was probably a

young bird.

Gerinl mentions one which he faw at Florence^ and again on the

AlpSy which had the creft bordered with flcy-blue. Qrn, ItaL HiJ}. des
§is, VI. p. 462.

* Fuc^kt^ K'Jk;i. du Cap. L


f lliji. p. 153.

PLATE
PLATE X.

SYLVIA DARTFORDIENSIg.
Dartford Warbler.
pa s s e r e s.

Bill conic, pointed. Nollrlls oval, broad, naked.

GENERIC CHARACTER,
Bill weak, Hender *. Noftrils finall, a little deprelled. Tongue
cloven. The exterior toe joined at the under part to the bafe of the

middle one.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER,
Bill black, with a white bafe; the upper mandible a little curved at
the tip. Irides red; eyelids deep crimfon. The upper parts of the

head, neck, and body, dufky reddifh brown. Breaft and belly deep

ferruginous; middle of the belly white. Quills dufky edged wi^h

white. Baftard wnng white. Exterior web of the outer tail feather

v/hite ; the reft dulky. Legs yellow.

Sylvia Dartfordiensis, Lath» Gin. Syn, iv. />. 435. N^27,


Dartford Warbler. SuppL />. i8i.

Pennant. Brit. Zool. i. N° 161. pi 56.


Ar£t. Zool. — Lev, Muf, — Berhn, g^. Nat»
H'lft. Vol. i. 52. 14.

JLe Pitchou de Provence. Buf. o'ls. v. />. 158. PI. enU 655. i.

* The Linnsan genus Motacillu has been ftparated by Pennant, and his method

Adopted by Latham j by this reparation the V/agtails conftitute one genus, and the
Warblers another: the latter are djftinguifhed from the former in feveral refpedsj they

jgerch ©n trees, proceed by leaps, not running, and feldora emit any noife in flight.

This
PLATE X.

This bird meafures five Inches from the tip of the bill to the end of

the tall : it is of a lively appearance, though not very beautiful in the

colours of its plumage; and deferves our immediate attention as one of

the leaft knovi^n fpecies we have in this country.

It is a native of France as well as of England. In Provence It is

commonly found among cabbages : it feeds on the infe<Sl:s that harbour

among thofe vegetables, and not unfrequently conceals itfelf under the

(helter of the leaves durino; the nlcrht.

A friend of Mr. Latham's fiiot a pair of thofe birds on Bexley Heathy

near Dartfcrd'm Ke-nt^ Jpril the 1 0th, 1773, as they were fitting on
a furze bum : they kd on flies ; fpringing from the bufn every time

one approached near, and returning to the fame place repeatedly;

thereby imitating, as he obferves, the manners of our Cinereous

Flycatcher^

This fpecies refides with us in the winter. Several fpecimens,

which are now preferved in the Leverian Mufeum, were ihot on a

common near JVandfworth in Surrey^ 1782.

Mr. Latham appears to entertain fome doubt, whether this fpecies

ever breeds in France *. He fays an Intelligent obferver of Englijh

Birds t has informed him, that he never met with this fpecies in the

neighbourhood of London^ except in vjinter; and that it difappears be-

fore the end of April. Should this be the general fa6l, he can by no

means reconcile the circumflance of its breeding in France^ as all mi-


gratory birds retire northward to breed, not to a warmer climate ; and

fhould rather fuppofe, that if it does not quit England in fummer, it

will hereafter be found in the northern parts of it.

' -' - — i»

* Kin. des Ois. v. p. 158, •\ Mr, Green,

FLATE
PLATE XL
AMPELIS GARRULUS.
WaxenChatterer.
Passeres.

Bill conic, pointed. Noftrils oval, broad, naked.

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill ftrait, convex, bending tov/ards the point; near the end of the

upper mandible a fmall notch. Noftrils hid in the briftles. Tongue


cartilaginous, bifid.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.
Length eight inches. Bill black, irides reddifh : the feathers on the

crown of the head elongated into a creft : the head and upper parts

reddifh afh colour. Rump fine cinereous. From the noftrils over

each eye, pafles a ftreak of black. Forehead chefnut. Chin black.

Breaft pale purplifti chefnut ; belly paler, inclining to vi^hite near the

vent. Lefter v^^ing coverts brown; the greater, fartheft from the

body, black with white tips, forming a bar : quills black, the third

and fourth tipped on the outer edges with white, the five following with

yellow : fecondaries aih-colour, tipped on the outer edge with white 5

feven of the fecondary feathers have the ends of their (hafts continued

into a flat horny appendage, of the colour of fine red fealing-wax.

Tail black, tipped with yellow. Legs black.

Ampelis Garrulus, Linn. Syji. i. p, 299. i.


Faun. Suec.'^'' S2.

Kram. el. p. 363. I.

Frifch. pi. 32.

G Lanius
;

PLATE XL
Lanius Garrulus. Scop. Ann, i. p. 20.
Garrulus Bohemicus. Albln. 2. pi. ib.

Gcfm av. 703.


Bohemian Chatterer. PFUL or?:, p, 132. pi. lo.—Alhin,
Waxen Chatterer. Latham. Syn. iil. 91. 1.

Pennant. Brit. xooL I. 3 1 4.

Er. Zool. N° 112. pi. 48. Ara. ZooL—Br.


Mu/.—Lev. Muf.
Silk Tail. Ran. Syn. av. 85. A.

Phil. Tranf, Vol xv. p. 1165. pi. l.f. 9.

Ray's letters 1 98. 200.

Le Jafeur de Boheme.

Bombycilla Bohemica. Bris. orn. 11. p. 333. 63.

Bi^ff. ois III. p. 429. pL 26.--P/. enl. 261.

Siden-fuantz, Snotuppa. Faun. Suec.fp. 82.


Sieden vel Sieben Suands. Brnnnich. 25.

Zuferl, Geidenfchweiffl. Kramer. 363.

Seiden-fchwantz. Frifch. i. 32.

This bird is fuppofed to breed in Bohemia and other parts of Ger-

many but
.^ its fummer refidence is perhaps more northward^ it is feen,

in plenty both at St. Peterjhurgh and Mofcow^ in the winter; but

comes from the north and departs again to the Ar^lc circle in fpring

never known to breed in RnJJia., is fcarce in Siberia^ and has not been

obferved beyond the river Lena *.

All the birds of this genus are natives of America \ this fpecics ex-

cepted; they wander from their native place all over Europe^ and at un-

certain times vifit the Southern parts of Britain, They are obferved

in the Northern parts ; about Edinburgh in February they come an*

* Pennant.
nually
PLATE XL
nually and-feed on the berries of the mountain afh : they aifo appear as

far fouth as Northumberland and Torkjhire frequently, and like the

fieldfare make the berries of the white-thorn their food*. They have
alfo been met with feveral times near London f. They difappear in

fpring J. In France and Italy they are not unfrequent.

The nefts of thofe birds are faid to be conftru6ted in the holes of

rocks §, but as we can fcarcely determine even their native country,

we need not expe6l any fatisfa6lory information relative to its eggs

and neft, until fome future traveller (hall be fo fortunate as to difcover

them.

The general food is berries of all kinds, efpecially grapes-, in

countries v/here they are plenty they are efleemed good food.

It is faid that the females want the red appendages at the end of the

kcoiid quills H, as well as the yellow marks on the back**.

A variety of this bird is alfo found in America from Carolina to

Mexico^ it is the Ampelis Garrulus o( Llnnaus^ Lejafeurde la

Caroline, of Brijfon and Buffon-, Caquautototl, Raii-, and Chatterer

of Carolina^ of Edwardsy Catefiy^ he.

This bird is lefs than the European kind, is much like it, except

that the belly is of a pale yellow indead of reddidi ; both fexes have

* Pennant Br. Zool. ii. 314.

\ One was iliot at Eitham, in the v/inter 178 1, and was In the colledllon of Mt,
T. Latham, of Dartford.
X Br. Zool.—FIor. Scot. §. In Tartdry. Frlfch.

y This ife probable, fmce it is certainly fo in the American fpecies. But thefe birds
vary much in tlus^charafteriftic 5 for I have obferved fo few as five in fome fpecimens
j

and BuffM mentions having (ctn a bird vi^ith feven on one wing, and five on the other,
as well as others with three only." Latham,
** " This is not clear to me. The American fpecies has no yellow on the wings in
either fex, I have never met with one of thefe without." Latham,

G 2 / the
P L A T E XL
the wings of a plain colour without the marks of yellow : the female

has no appendages at the ends of the fecond quills, and the plumage

is lefs lively than in the male.

This variety is called the RecolleCl at ^ebec 5 our late voyagers

met with this bird at Aoonaljhka *.

* Ellis's voyage II, p. 150

PLATE
'A''*,
PLATE XIL
TETRAO LAGOPUS.
Ptarmigan Grous.
OR
WhiteGame.
GALLINiE.

Bill convex: the upper mandible arched. Toes conne£^ed by a


membrane at the bottom* Tail feathers more than twelve,

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill convex, flrong, and fhort, a naked fcarlet (kin above each

eye *. Noftrils fmall, hid in the feathers. Tongue pointed at the

end. Legs flrong, feathered to the toes, and fometimes to the nails«

Toes of fome fpecies pectinated on the fides.

* With four toes,

SPECIFIC CHARACTER,
Length fifteen inches. Bill black. Plumage pale brown or aili-

colour, crofTed or mottled with fmall dufky fpots, and minute bars 5

the head and neck with broad bars of black, ruft colour, and white*

Wings white: Shafts of the greater quills black. Belly white. Win-
ter drefs pure white, except a black line between the bill and eye, and

fhafts of the firft feven quills black, in the male. Tail of fixteen

feathers, the tv/o middle ones afh-coloured in fummer, white in win-

ter, two next flightly marked with white near the ends ; the reft en-

tirely black. The upper tail coverts almoft cover the tail.

* Three or four fpecies excepted,

Tetrao
— —— — — —

PLATE XII.

Tetrad Lagofuf, Lin. Syji. i. p, 274. 4.


'
Suec, 203. Scop. Jnn. i. N^ 170.
Rait. Syn. p, 55. 5. Baun. p. 59.

Phil. Tranf. vol. Ixii. p, y)0.-—Frifc!>.

pi, 1 10. III. Kram. el p. 356.

Faun. Groenl, N^ 80. Georgi. Reife. p. 172.

LagOPUS. Gefner. av. 576.

Pliftii. lib. X. c. 48,

Perdrix alba feu Lagopus, Perdice alpeftre.

Aldro. av. 11. 66.

White Game *. IVill. om. p. 176. pL 32.

Ptarmigan. Br. Zocl. \. N^ c^^.—Gent. Mag, 1772.


pi. in p. 74. Sib. Scot. 16.

Pen. ZQol—Ara.'--Br. Muf.^Lev. Muf.-^lath.

Gen. Syn. IV. 741. jo.

La Geliiicte blanche. Brif. om. i. p. 216. 12.^ PL enl. 129.


[Winter drefs). — PL enL 494. (Summer drefs).

La Perdrix blanche. Belon. av. 259,

Le Lagopede. Buff. ois. ii. p. 264. />/. 9,

Snorlpa. Faun. Suec.fp. 203.

Schnee'iuhn. Frifch. i. 11O-,

Schneehun. Kram. 359.

This fpecies meafures fourteen or fifteen inches from the tip of the

bill to the extremity of the tail : extent twenty three, weight nineteen

ounces. Its fummer drefs varies exceedingly from that which it af-

fumes in winter ; in the former the general colour is pale brown, or

afli-colour, not inelegantly marked, or mottled with dufky bars, fpots,

* Erroneoufly called the White Partridge

ruft
PLATE XIL
ruft colour, &c. in both fexes, but in the latter, the female is entirely

of a very beautiful white ; the male of the lame colour, but is diftin-

guifhed by a dark dafh, or line which pafTes from the bill to the eye,

and by the (hafts of the firft feven quill feathers being black ; the

twelve extreme feathers of the tail are of the fame black colour.

Our figure is copied from a male bird which has not wholly afTumed

its winter appearance, but is in the laft ftage of changing its fummer
drefs, as appears from the Ilight intermixture of dark featheis on i&
breaft and back.

It inhabits moft of the northern parts of Europe^ even as far as

Greenland^ in RuJJla and Siberia it is very frequent s it is feen in

plenty on the Alpine mountains of Savoy ^ on the Alps^ and mount Cenis^

In Great Britain it is met with on the fummits of the highefl: hills

in the Highlands of Scotland, Hebrides^ and OrknieSy and a few yet

inhabit the lofty hills near Kefwick in Cumberland^ as well as fVales *o

They live amidft the rocks, and perch on the grey flones, the general

colour of the flrata in thofe fituations.

Willughby has defcribed the Ptarmigan under the name of the White

Game. M. Brijfon f joins it with the White Partridge of Edwards^

but Pennant has given as his decifive opinion that they are two dif-

tin£t fpecies. " I have received both fpecies at the fame time from

Norway^ and am convinced that they are not the fame." Penn.

The female lays eight or ten eggs, fpotted with red-brown, the

fize of thofe of a Pigeon, on the earth, in a ftony fituation, about the

middle of June J.

* Latham'-'^Fenvant, f Tarn, x, p.2i6, J Latham.

Authors
PLATE XII.

Authors agree that they are ftupid filly birds, and are fo tame as to
be drawn into any fnare j or fufFer themfclves to be taken by the hand;
if the hen is killed the male will not forfake her. The Groenlanders

take them with noofes tied to a long line, which being carried by two

men is drawn over their heads.

* Their food confifts of the buds of trees, young (boots of pine^


heathy fruits^ and berries which grow on the mountains ; on the con-
tinent they feed on the Dwarf Birch and Black-berriid Heathy or

fometimes on the various kinds of Liver ^wort,

" They tafle fo like a Grous as to befcarcely diflinguifhed j like

the Grous they keep in fmall packs 5 but never like thofe birds take

fhelter in the heath; but beneath loofe ftones."

In winter they lie in heaps, in lodges which they form under the

fnow.

Pennant.

PLATE
PLATE XIIL

PICUS MARTIUS.
Great Black Woqdpecicer.

PiCJE.

Bill comprefled, convex.

GENERIC CHARJCTER.
Bill ftraitj flrong, angular, and connected at the end. Noilrils

covered with briftles refle6t:ed down. Tongue very long, ilender,

cylindrlc, bony,, hard and jagged at the end. Toes tv/o forward, two
backward. Tail of ten hard, ilifF, fharp-pointed feathers.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.
Bill afh colour, blending to black, whitifh on the fides. Irides yellow.

Whole bird black except the crown on the head, which is vermilion.

Legs lead colour ; covered with feathers on the fore part half their

length.

Picus Martius. Linn. Syjl. i, p. 173. N° I.

Scop. Ann. I. p. 46. N° 51,

Brun. W 38.

Pitus niger maximus. Rati. Syn. p. 42. i.

Great Black Woodpecker. IVill. Orn. 135. pi. 21.

Albin. 2. pi. 27.

Afner. Zoo/,

Loth, Gen. Syn. 11. p. 552. I.

Jr^. Zool. II. p. 2'j6. A.

H Lc
PLATE XIIL
Le Pic Noir. Brlf. Onu IV. p. 21. N" 6.

Buf. Oif. VII. p, 41. pi 2.-~Male, PL enl

596.

Orn, de Salem, pi. 10./. 2.

Schwartz Specht. Frifch. t. 34.

This fpecies is near feventeen inches in length ; the plumage is en-

tirely black, except the crown of the head, which is of a vermihon

colour, rather inclining to crimfon ; the bill, and claws, are of con-

fiderable ftrength, particularly the latter, which are curved in a more


formidable manner than thofe even of many rapacious birds of equal

magnitude.

The female differs from the male in the general colour of the plu-

mage ; that of the female^ having a ftrong caft of brown on the back,

and the vermilion coloured feathers, with which the whole croWn of the

male is invefted, being only fparingly diffufed on the crown of the fe-

male, though they terminate in a rich tuft on the hind part of the

head.

Both male and female are very liable to variations in the red on the

crov/n; fome are adorned vv^ith a profufion of thofe feathers, while

others have fcarcely any ; and fpecimens have been met with entirely

black, without even a trace of the vermilion colour on their heads.

As an EngUJh Woodpecker it is the largefl: we have ; it even con-

fiderably exceeds the fize of the Green Woodpecker, Picus VtrU

d'ls. It is very rare in this country, and generally believed to havq

been only obferved in the fouthern parts, and in Devonjhire *.

* Mr. Latham writes, " Mr. Tu-nfxall tells me, that he has been Informed by a fkilful

Ornitholcgift, of its being fometimes feen in Dtvovpire,'''' Ccn. Syfi.

5 It
;

PLATE XIII.

It is found in almoft every part of Europe^ but is plenty only In

Germany ; it is rarely feen in France ; never in Italy'y and only during

the fummer in Sweden^ Switzerland^ and Denmark, Extends to

Ruffia^ v^^here it is common in the woods from St. Peterjhurgh^ to

Ochotjk on the eajiern Ocean, and to Lapnark on the weji *.

*' This fpecies is fo very deftru^bive to Bees, that the Bafchirians

in the neighbourhood of the river Ufa^ as wd\ as the inhabitants of

other parts, (who form holes in the trees tvi^enty-five or thirty feet

from the ground, wherein the Bees may depofit their ftore), take every

precaution to hinder the accefs of this bird ; and in particular are cau-

tious to guard the mouth of the hive with fliarp thorns j notwithftand-

ing which, the Woodpecker finds means to prove a very deftru6live

enemy : and it is obferved to be in moil plenty where the Bees are in

the greateft numbers f ." Latha?n,

Its food does not confift entirely of Bees-, Alhin writes of the bird

he has figured, " The guts are feventeen inches long, great and lax

the ftomach alfo lax and membraneous, full of Hexapods and Ants, It

wants the appendices or blind guts as the reft of this tribe."

Its neft is capacious and deep, and is faid to be ufually built in

old JJh or Poplar trees ; Frifch obferves, that they often fo excavate

a tree, that it is foon after blown down with the wind ; and that under

the hole of this bird may often be found a bufhel of duft and bits of

wood.

The female lays two or three white eggs j which colour, according
to Willughby f, is peculiar to the whole genus, or at leaft to all thofe

which have come under his infpe^lion.

* Ar^. ZqoU Dtc, Rujf. IV. p. 9. 17. Zool. Dank,


f %

H 2 PLATE

PLATE XIV.

MOTACILLA TROCHILUS.
Willow Wren.

pa s s e r e s.

Bin conic, pointed. Noftrils oval, broad, naked.

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill flender, weak. Noftrils fmall, a little deprefled : Tongue
cloven. The exterior toe joined at the under part to the bafe of the

middle one,

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.
Upper parts pale olive green j under parts pale yellow. A ftreak

of yellov/ over the eyes. Wings and tail brown, edged with yellowilh

green. Legs yellov/ifh.

MoTACiLLA Trochilus. Linn. Syft. I. p. 338. N^ 49.


Faun. Siiec. N° 264.— 6'^^/. Ann. I. N'-^ 238.

Krarn. el. p. 378. N° 22.—Brtin. N'' 286.—


Muller 281. -Frlfch. t. 24. f* 2.

MoTAClLLA HisPANlCA. HaJfeJq. Foy. 287. 52,

Trochilus. Gefner av, 7260

AsiLUS. Aldrov, av. IL 293.


Small Yellow Bird. Rail Syn, p. %o. A. 10,

Little Yellowish Bird, IVilL Orn. p, 228.

Green Wren.
Regulus non criRatus. Alhin, IL 59,
Yellow
;

PLATE XIV.
Yellow Wren. Latham Gen. Syn. IV. 512.

Penn. Brit. Zool. N° 15 1.

Jra. Zool.—Br. Muf.--Lev. Muf.


Le Pouillot, ou Chantre. Br if. Orn. ili. p. 479. N« 45.

Buff. Oh. V. p. 344.— P/. enl. 651./. I*

Chofti, ou Chanteur. Belon av. 344.

Schnee Rienig (Snow King). Frifch., I. 24.

Schmittl. Kramer. 378.

The Yellow Wren ranks among the leaft of the Britifli Birds; it

meafures only four inches and three quarters from the tip of the bill

to the extremity of the tail. The colours of its plumage are not at-

tra6live, neither do we introduce it as a rare bird, being one of our

mofl frequent fpecies ; but it is a very delicately formed creature, ex-

ceedingly a6live, and by concealing itfelf immediately among the

thickeft of the foliage when any noife approaches, it may not be {q

generally known as fome lefs timid birds.

It chiefly frequents large woods, v/hich abound with willows

and builds its nefl: at the roots of trees, or in the hollows of dry

banks; it is conftructed in the form of an egg, with a hole at the top

for its entrance, the outfide is compofed of mofsandhay, or ilrav/; and


the infide is lined v/ith foft feathers, wool, or hair. It lays feven white

eggs*, or, according to Latham and Alhin.^ only five; they are freckled

all over with reddifii fpots. Its note is low and plaintive, fcarcely

more than /w/V, timt\.^ which it utters when it is running up and


down the branches of trees in fearch of infeas on Vv'iiich it feeds. It

is faid that the male has a fong during incubation, far from unplea-
fmg, and is fofr, though weak. It is migratory, but vifits us early.

*-
Fer.mr.tBr. Zod. 2. 15 1. Ljthaf*!.
f
Albln
PLATE XIV.

Alb'in fays it fings like a grafliopper, and frequents woods and foli-

tary places, fitting on the tops of oaks.

Pennant obferves, that the breaft, belly, and thighs, vary in colour

in different birds ; in fome thofe parts are of a bright yellow, in others

they fade almoft into white. The legs alfo appear to admit of varia-

tion, thofe of our fpecimens are yellowifh in both fexes, Jlbin de-

fcribes thofe of his male fpecimen to be pale amber colour, and thofe

of the hen to be black.

Latham^ m his Gen, Syn. has given a defcription of four other

birds, which he confiders only as varieties of the Motacilla


Trochilus. Among thofe are included the Greater kon-crested
Regulus of lFiIlnghb)\ and the Motacilla Acredula of Z/«-

naus. This latter bird appears in the Briti/h Zoology of Pennant as

a new fpecies, (the Scotch Wren;) it has been alfo confidered as a

diftinii: kind in the writings of fome, and the fynonymas of others,

as Brijfon^ Buffon^ ^^y-i Sloane^ Catejhy^ and Edwards^ but as it dif-

fered from our fpecies only in the colour of the upper parts, inclining

more to brown than to green, and the lower parts more to yellow,

Mr. Latham concluded it was only a variety. It is a native of Ja^


ma'ica^ Carolina^ and America \ but one was communicated to Mr.
Latham by E. S. Frafer^ Efq. who informed him that it Vv^as ihot in

the Highlands of Scotland,

PLATE
"^
PLATE XV.

MOTACILLA FLAVAr
Yellow Wagtail,
Passeres.

Bill conic, pointed. Noftrils oval, broad, naked,

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill weak and flender ; illghtly notched at the tip. Tongue lace-

rated at the end. Legs flender. Tail frequently in motion, feldoni

perch ; have a twittering noife in flight *.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER,
Bill black : head and upper parts of the body olive green, rump
palefl:: under parts from the throat bright yellow; on the throat a

few black fpots; above the eye a fl:reak of yellow, through the eyes

another of dufky colour : beneath the eye alfo a flreak of dufky.

LeflTer wing coverts as the back ; the others dufky, edged with pale

yellow : quills dufky. Tail black except two of the outer featherSj

which are partly white. Legs dark brown ; hind claw very long,

M0TACILJ.A Flava. Linn, Syjl. I, p. 331. N° 12.

Faun, Suec, 253.

Scop, ann, i. •N'' 226c

Brun, N'' 273. 274.

* Vide Lathaiu's divifion of the Motacilla genus.

I MulUr.

PLATE XV.
Muller. N° 273.

Kram, el. p. 374. 2.

Frifch. pi. 23.

Georgi Reijfe. p, 174.

Sepp, Fog. pi. in. p. 103.

Faun. Arag. />. 88.

Gefner. av. 168.

Yellow Water Wagtail. Raii. Syn, 75. A. 2.

^r///. Or;7. /). 238. pi. 68.

Ediu. pi, i^S. (the female). — 258 (the male).

Br. Zool. I. N^ 143.

Jr^. ZooL-^Br. Muf.^Lev. Muf,


Latham Gen, Syft. IV. 400. 6. Suppl. 179.

la Bergeronette de Printemps. Brif. Orn, iii. p. 468. N^ 40.

Buff. O'lf. V. 265. pi 14. /. I.— P/. enl. 674.

N° 2.

Sufurada. Belon. obf. 11.

Codatremola. Zinan. 51.

Gelb-briiftige. Bachfteltze. i^rz/^-^. i. 23.

Gulfpnik. Brmtnich. 273.

Gelbe Bachftelze. Kram. 374,

The Yellow Wagtail is not equal in fize to the Common, or

White Wagtail, it meafures only fix inches and a quarter in length.

It is a bird of diftinguiihed beauty, particularly the male, whofe


plumage is for the moft part of a very lovely yellow, by no means

inferior to that of the male Golden Oriole the yellow colour on the
j

I breaft
PLATE XV.
breaft of the female is paler, the flreak over the eye whiter, and it

wants the black markings on the throat.

It is ufually obferved in moift meadows, and corn-fields in this

country in the fummer-time ; but migrates, or ihifts its fituation in

the winter : Pennant fays it continues in Hamp/hire the whole year.

It makes its nefl in the corn-fields on the ground, the outfide is

compofed of bents and fibres of the roots, the infide is lined with hair.

They are commonly found with five eggs in them, of a whitifli colour,

varied with red brown fpots.

Is feen in France at all times of the year, except the winter is un-
commonly fevere. Is faid to inhabit Sweden^ Rujfta^ Siberia-^ and

Kamtfchatka,

Latham defcribes the legs, black : thofe of our fpecimens are brown.

l2 PLATE
PLATE XVL
PARUS CAUDATUS.
Long-tailed Titmouse.

PA 9 S E R E s.

Bill ^onic, pointed. Noftrils oval, broad, naked,

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill ftrait, a little comprefTed, ftrong, fharp-pointed, briftles reflected

over the noftrils. Tongue terminated by three or four briftlcs. Toes


divided at their origin ; back toe very large and ftrong.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER,
Bill fhort, thick, and black. Top of the head v/hlte, furrounded by
a broad ftreak of black, like a crown, it pafTes down the hind part of

the neck, and back to the rump. Side of the head white. Sides of

the back, the rump, belly, fides, and vent, dull rofe colour. Wing
black. Tail very long, feather of unequal lengths, fome black, others

black with white tips.

Parus Caudatus. Linn. Syji. i. p, 342. N^ 11.

Scop, Ann, I. p, 164, N"' 247.

Kram. el. p, 379. N° 6,

Sepp. Fog. pi in. p, 49.


Frifch, t. 14.

Raii. Syn, p. 74.

Long-

PLATE XVI.

Long-tailed Titmouse. JFilL Orn. p. 242. pi. 43.

JIbin 1 1. pL 57. /. I.

RaiL Syn, p, 74,

.'
Br, ZooL I. N° 166.—yfr^. ZoaL^Br. Muf.
^Lev, Muf,
Latham. Gen, Syn, IV. 550. 18. Suppl, 190,

La Mefange a longue queue. Brif. Orn, III. 570. N* 13.

Buff, Oif, V. p, 437. pi, i(),—pL enl, 502. /. 3.

Montlcola. Jldro. av,ll. t^k^,

Pendolinoj Paronzino. Zinan. 77.

Alhtita. Faun. Suec, fp, 83.

Gaugartza. Scop, N" 247.

Belzmeife Pfannenftiel. Kra?n. 379,

Langfchwaentzige Meife. Frifch. i. I4»

This bird is very common in England \ is faid to inhabit Sweden^

and thence to extend even to Italy ; the fulnefs of its plumage enables

it to bear the inclemencies of the northern regions in winter, but it

admits of fome furprize that fuch as are found in warmer countries are

not clothed with a plumage more adapted to the climate.

The length is five inches and a quarter, the breadth feven inches,

the tail is remarkably long in proportion to the fize of the body; in

form it is like that of a magpie, confifts of twelve feathers of unequal

lengths ; thofe in the middle are the longeft, thofe on each fide grow
gradually fhorter. The legs are generally black, but of fome

fpecimens are brown.

The
PLATE XIV.
The form of the neft is almoft peculiar to this fpecies only, it is

of an oval fiiape, with a fmall hole or entrance in the fide ; the mate-

rials of the external part are mofs, liverwort, and wool, curioufly in-

terwoven, the infide is lined with a thick bed of the fofteft feathers.

The neft is not fufpended from a bough as is ufual with fome of the

tribe, but is built between the forked branches of low wood, about

three feet from the ground : they generally contain from ten to (qvcii-

teen or even twenty eggs of greyifh colour, fpeckled with pale red-

brown.

Thofe birds are moft frequent in gardens and orchards, to which

they do much injury by devouring the tender (hoots; they are

very active, and fly to and fro with great facility, or run up

and down the branches in every direction. The parents and their

olFspring remain together the whole winter, but feparate in the

fpring *.

The male has more of the rofe colour than the female; in the

former however it is fubjedt to much variation.

* " The young follow the parents the whole winter ; and from the ilimnefs of their
bodies, and great length of tail, appear, while flying, like fo many darts cutting the air,"

PLATE
PLATE XVIL

LOXIA ENUCLEATOR,
Pine Grosbeak.

Passeres.

Bill conic, pointed. Noflrils oval, broad, naked.

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill ftrong, convex above and below, very thick at the bafe.

Koftrils fmall and round. Tongue as if cut ofF at the end. Toes
placed three before and one behind.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER,
Bill ftout at the bafe, the upper mandible hooked at the tip ; Noftrils

covered vi^ith recumbent feathers. Head, neck, breaft, and rump,

rofe-coloured crimfon. Back and leffer vising coverts black, edged

with reddifh ; greater wing coverts black, tipt with white 5 quills

black ; fecondaries have the outer borders white, primaries have grey.

Belly and vent afh-coloured. Tail rather forked. Legs brov/n.

LoxiA Enucleator. Linn, Syft. i. p. 299. N° 3.

Faun, Suec, 223.

Brun. N"* 239.


Mulkr^ N° 246.
Greatest Bulfinch, Edw, pi. 123, 124. M. ^ F.
Pine Grosbeak, Jra, ZooL 2. N°209. Br, Muf-^Lev, Mif
Latham^ s Gen, Syn. iii. p. m, N^ 5.
Fennanfs Brit, ZqqL i. N'^ 114. />/. 49. fig^ 2,

K Gros^
PLATE XVII.

Gros-bec de Canada, Brif. Orn. iii. p. 250. N^ 15. pi 12. f. 3'—


PL enl. 135. i.

Le Dur-bec, Buf, Ois. iii. p. 457.


Tallbit. Natt-waka. Faun. Suec,

Coccothraufles Canadenfis. Brif,

The male Pine Grofbeak is certainly one of the moft beautiful of

the feathered tribe that inhabit either of the fifter countries of Great

Britain, It meafures nine inches from the tip of the bill to the end

of the tail, its weight two ounces; the general colour of its plu-

mage is rofe-coloured crimfon, and black, elegantly marked with v/hite

on the edges of the feathers : the bill, which is remarkably flout, an4

curved at the tip, is well adapted for the purpofe of dividing the

cones of the pines to obtain the feeds. ^

The female has not the beautiful appearance of the male ; the

principal colour of her plumage is dirty green, inclining to brownj


the crown of the head varied only with a few reddilh or yellowifh

teints, and fome feathers of the fame colour flightly difperfed over

the back, breaft, and belly.

In England this fpccies is found only in the mofl northern parts, or is

probably entirely confined to Scotland; like the Crofsbiil it inhabits the

pine forefts in the Highlands ; Pennant fufpe6ls that they breed there,

as he has obferved them flying above the great pine forefts of Inver-'

^auld-i Ahevdemjhire-^ in the month of Auguft.

3 jt
PLATE XVII.

It is found in the pine forefts alfo of Sweden, the northern parts of

Ruffia*, of Siberia, and Lapland-, they are alfo common in the

northern parts of America : from April to September they are frequent

at Hudfon's Bay ; the fouthern fettlements are inhabited by themi

throughout the year. It has been met with at Aoonalajhka f, and \a

Norton Sound,

Latham obferves, that at Hudfon's Bay it frequents the groves of

pines and junipers in May ; and makes a neft in the trees with flicks

lined with feathers, at a fmall height from the ground. The eggs

^re four in number, and white ; the young are hatched the middle of

June : he adds, " though this bird, when adult, is beautiful in colour,

the young brood for fome time remain of a plain dull blue." The
natives of the Bay call it Wufcunithow%,

* " Common about St. Peterjbwgh In autumn, and is caught in great plenty at that

time for the ufe of the table, returning north in fpring." Pennant.

f ElUs's Narr. vol, il, p. 15. | Mr. Hutchins.,

K 2 PLATE
PLATE XVIIL

CHARx\DRIUS HIATICULA,
Sea Lark, or Ringed Plover*

G R A L L ^,

Bill roundifti. Tongue entire, flefliy. Thighs naked. Toes^

divided.

GENERIC CHARACTER,
Bill ftrait, roundifh, obtufe, Noftrils linear. Toes three in nutn-

})erj all placed forwards..

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.
Length kvtn inches. Bill orange, black at the tip. From the

bafe of the upper mandible to the eyes, a black line : another from

pne eye to the other. Crown of the head brown. Chin and throat
white, palling round the neck in a broad collar : beneath this, on the
lower part of the neck, is a fecond iine of black, encircling the neck
behind, but becoming narrower as it palTes backward. Breaft and

under parts white. Back and wing coverts pale brown. Two mid-
dle feathers of the tail greyifh brown, grov/ing almoil black towards
the ends j the three next on each fide the fame, with v/hite tips ; the

laft but one is white, with a brown band: the outer one white.

Legs orange ; claws black.

Pharadrius Hiaticula. Lin. Syft. I. p, 253. I.

Faun. Suec, 187.


Scop, Ann, i. N'' 147.

Brun.
PLATE XVIIL
Brun, N° 184.

Georgi Reife. p. 1^2.

Fatin, GroenL N^ 78.

Sea Lark. Rail Syn. p, 112. A. 6. 190, 13.

Sloan. Jam. p. 319. 13. pL 269. fig.


2,

Jlbhu I. /;/. 80.

JfllL Orn, p. 310. pL 57.


Br, Zool. II. 383.

Ringed Plover. Pennant's Br. Zoo!. N' 2ii»


Ar^. ZooL N"" 401.
-Sr. Muf.—Lev. Muf.
Lath. Qcn~ Syn. V. 201. 8.,

Le petit Pluvler-a Collier, Brlf, Orn, V. p, 63, 8. ^/. 5, fig. 2.-«*

P/. ^;z/. 921.

Le Pluvier a Collier, Buff. Oif. viii. p. go, pL 6,

Griefs hennl. Kram, 354.


Strandpipare, Grylle, Trulls, Lappis Pago. Faun. Suec. fp, 187.

Bornholmis Prsefte-krave, Sand-Vrifter. Brun. 284. Frifch, 11. 2I4»

Thofe Birds migrate to our fhores in the fpring, but are never very

numerous ; they remain with us during the fummer, and depart in

autumn. They run lightly, and v/ith much fvviftnefs, and when dif-

turbed take fhort flights , at the fame time they make a loud twitter-

ing noife.

The female makes no neft, but depofits four eggs on the ground,

under fome convenient fhelter ; the eggs are about one inch and an

half in length, of a dull whitifli colour, fpotted and blotched with

black.
The
PLATE XVIII.

The fame fpecies is found in feveral parts of the Continent ; in

Greenland^ and in America, Latham obferves that it vifits HudforCs

Bay the middle of June, and departs in September. He adds, " it is

a folitary bird ; and obferved, on any one's approaching near the eggs,

to ufe many ftratagems to decoy the perfon from it, by drawing off
its attention. Called at Hudfon^s Bay^ Kifqua^ the napi Shift)"—-*

Gen, Syn,

The fame writer alfo mentions a variety which inhabits Cayenne 'y

the length of this variety is fix inches and an half. Bill black : fore-

head, and before as far as the breaft, white, pafling round the lower

part of the neck as a collar : the reft of the plumage pale dufky afti-

colour : the end half of the tail dufky black, the tip fringed with ru^

fous : legs pale.

PLATE
PLATE XIX.

TRINGA PUGNAX.
R u F ?.

G R A L L ^.

Bill roundifli. Tongue entire, flefliy. Thighs naked. ToeS


<Iivided.

GENERIC CHARJCTER.
Bill roundifiij flrait, about the length of the hdad« Nollrils narrow*

Toes four,

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.
Feathers of the neck remarkably long. General colour brown,
commonly marked with fpots, or concentric circles of black. Legs
dull yellow. Female has no rulE

Tringa Pugnax. Liun. SyJ}. i. p, 147, i.

Faun. Siiec, 175.

Scop. Ann. I, N" T^G..

Brun. 168. 169.

Kram. p, 352.

Frifch. t, 232. 235.


Georgt RefJ'c. p. 1^2,

Avi? PuGXAX. Aidr.a'iKHL 167..


PLATE XIX.

Ruff and Reeve. Albitu i. pi 72. 73-.

Penn, Br it, Zcol. N*" 192. pi 69.

Jrd, ZgoL p. 479. A.


'Lath. Gen. Syn. V, 159. I.

Br. Mvj'.-^Lev. Muf,

Ruffe. Raii Syn. p. 107. A. 3.

IFilL Orn, p. 302. //. 56.

Le Combattant, ou
Paon de Mer, Brif. Orn. V, p, 24.0. i?. pi. 22./^. I. 2-

Buff. Oif. vii. /). 521. pL 29. 30.

P/. ^«/. 305. 306.


Krofler. Kya?n. 352.

Brufliane. Faun. Suec. fp. 175.

Eruufhane. Brunnick^ 168.

Streitfchnepfe^ Raniphsthnlein. Frifih, il. 232. 235.

The length of the male is twelve Inches, of the female ten inches ;

the bill of the former is yellow in fome, in others black, or dark

brown ; the face is covered with yellow pear-fhaf ed pimples ; the

back part of the head and neck are furnifhed with long feathers,

which expand in avery fmgular manner on each fide of the neck,

and impend loofely over the breafl, like the ruff anciently worn m
this country. A portion or tuft of thofe feathers projed alfo juft

beyond each eye-, and have the appearance of long ears.

As the moil remarkable peculiarity of thofe Birds are that no


tvv^o fpeclmens are ever found to agree in the colours of the plumage,

it is impoifible to give any defcription, except of its form, that may


afiifl the unfkilful ornithologiil to determine the ipecies, when it

1 ]l2S
::

PLATE XIX.
has attained the rufF; It cannot, however, be miftaken, as no Bird

of this country refembles it in the frnalieft degree. The ground

colour is generally brown, but it varies in different Birds to every

hue between the lighteft teint that can deferve that name, and the

deepeft chocolate colour \ fometlmes we find the ruff of a fine tender

buff colour, without the flighted appearance of fpots, except on ths

breaft and back, which may be of a deep black, intermingled with a


few white feathers, and glofled with (hining purple 5 others we find

that have the ruffs of a deep brown, barred with black -, fome with
white rufPs fpotted with brown, or brown fpotted with white j and
indeed with every variation that it is poflible to defcribe,

Thefemalesy or Reeves^ Pennant aiferts, neyer change their colours^

which he fays are pale brown j the back fpotted with black, flightly

^dged with white ; the tail brown ; the middle feathers fpotted with

black ; the breafl and belly white i the legs of a pale dull yellow

but I have tv/o fpecimens that do not v/ell agree with his defcription,

or correfpond with each other ; and in the Leverian mufeum a variety


of that fex is preferved that is wholly white, except the wino;s, on

which the ufual markings are vifible in a very pale <^olour.

The female has no rulF, and the male does not attain that appendao-e

until the fecond feafon ; at the time of incubation the plumage of the

latter is in the full perfcaion, and the pimples break out on his face

but after that time they (lirink beneath the fb'n, the long
feathers of
the ruff fail off, and he again affumes the plain appearance of the

female.

Thcfe Birds inhabit the North of Europe in fummer, as f^ir as Ice-


land, as well as the northern marfhes
of Rujfta and Siberia, In this
country they are found in LnuolnjJnre, the lile of Ely, and in the eaft

^ ^'
riding

PLATE XIX.
riding of Torkjhlre * ; they arrive at thofe places early in the fprlng^,

and difappear about Michaelmas,

The Reeve lays four eggs in a tuft of grafs the beginning oi May >
they are vi^hite, marked v/ith large rufty fpots.

Soon after their arrival, the males begin to hill-y that is, to collect

on fome dry bank near a fplafh of vi^ater, in expeciiation of the females.

Each male keeps poffeillon of a fmall piece of ground, round which

it runs fo often as to form a bare circular path ; the inflsnt a female

alights among them, the males are in motion ; a general battle enfues,

and the fov/lers, who have been waiting for the advantage of fuch au

event, catch them in their nets in great numbers f.

In the fens each male remains within his circle, and defends himfelf

againft every invader with much refolution ; the leafb infringement on

his pofTeffiOn by another male is refented vv^ith the greatcft violence ;

and if any farther attack is made, a battle is the confequence: In

fighcing they have the fame adtion as a cock, fpread their ruffs, and

place their bills to the ground.

'^ It is ufual to fat thefe birds for table by means of bread and mil-k

mixed with hemp-Jeed^ and fometimes boiled vjheat ; to thefe by many

fiigar is added -, which lafl; in a fortnight's time vv^ill caufe them to be

one lump of fat, when they will fetch from two {hillings to half a

crown each." Lath. Gen. Syn.

* Erlt. Zool.

•\ They v'fit a place called Martin-mere in LancaJIo've^ the latter end of March, or

fjeginniAg of April, but do not continue there above three weeks.— 5r/^ Zool.

PLATE

I
^
PLATE XX.

M E R G U S A L B E L L U S.

Smew.
A N s E R E s.

Bill obtufe, covered wi|:h a thin membrane, broad, gibbous below

the bafe, fwelled at the apex. Tongue fleftiy. Legs naked, feet

"\vebbed, or finned.

GENERIC CHARACTER,
Bill (lender, a little deprefled, furniibed with a crooked nail ; edges

of the mandibles very fbarply ferrated. Noftrils near the middle of

the mandible, fmall and fubovated. Feet furniilied vv^ith four toes ;

three forv/ards, and one behind ; the outer toe before longer than the'

middle one.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.
Bill lead colour. General colour of the plumage white. Head
crefted at the back part; on each fide of the head an oval black fpot>

beginning at the bill, and encircling the eye. On the lower part of

the neck, on each fide, are two curved black ftreaks, pointing for-

ward. Inner fcapulars, back, coverts on the fide of the wing and the

greater quill feathers, black. Tail cinereous. Legs grey.

Mergus Albellus. Lin. S-y/I, i. p. 209. 5.

Faun, Suec. N° 137.

Brun. N'^ 97.

Kram. EL p, 344. 3.

Frifch, t. l]2.

Mergus
P L A T E XX,
Mergus Albulus. Scop, Ann, i. N*^ gi,

Mergus Rheni. Rail Syn, p, 135. 5.

JVUL Orn, />. 337.

Mergus Rhenanus. Gefner, av, 131.

Smew. Albin, i. pL 89.


Penn, Brit, ZooL ii. N° 263,
Lath, Gen, Syn, 6. 421. 5.

Jr^, ZooL N^ 468.

White Nun. Will, Orn, 337. pL 64.


i?^// 5;';7, p, 135. A. 3*

Weesel Coot. Min, 1, pi 88.

Red-headed Smew. jBr. ZW. 11.263.

Br. MuJ.^Lev. Muf.

Jjo petit Harlehuppe, ou la Piette, Brif, Orn. v'l. p. 243. 3. pL %^^

fg' I-

Buf, Ois, viii. p, fij$, pi, 24,—a^


PL enL 449.

L*Harle etoile, Brif. Orn, vi. p, 252. 6.


,

Brun. N° 98.

Kreutz-Ente, (Crofs-Duck) Frifch. 11. 172,

The Smew is about fixteen inches in length, and twenty-four inches

in breadth 5 its weight thirty-four ounces ; our figure is copied from

a fpecimen of the male. The colours of the female do not exa£lly

correfpond with thofe of the male s the head of the former is fer-

ruginous, and flightly crefted ; cheeks, chin, and throat, white ; be-

tween the bill and the eye the fame oval fpot as in the male ; breafl

clouded with grey \ belly white j legs pale aih. It is generally called

the Lough Diver,


It
PLATE XX..

It vifits this country only in the winter ; on the Continent it is

found as far fouth as Carniola j is alfo found in Iceland, and is fup-

pofed to breed and remain there during the winter, or that it pailes

to fome other ar6lic reo^ion. It has been obferved with the Merg-an-

fers, Ducks, and other Water Birds in their migratory courfe up the

Wolga in February *.

It alfo inhabits America^ having been fent from New-York j.

Latham^ in his fupplement, fays that he once difcovered a fev?'

Hirimps in the belly of one of thofe birds, and fuppofes them to be its

chief food.

=* Dec. Ruff. ii. p. 145.

f Ard, Zool.

PLATE
21
PLATE XXL

ANAS QJJ E R Q^U E D U L A,

G A R G A N E Y.

A N S E R E S.

Bill obtufe, covered with a thin membrane, broad, gibbous below


the bafe, fwelled at the apex. Tongue ilelhy. Legs naked, JFeet

webbed or finned.

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill convex abovej Hat beneath^ hooked at the apex with mena'T

branous teeth.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.
Bill lead colour. Head duiky with oblong ilreaks. From the cor*

tier of each eye a white line paffes to the back of the neck. Cheeks
and upper part of the neck, brown-purple, marked with minute ob-
long white lines, pointing downwards, Breafl: light brown, v/ith femi-

circular bars of black. Belly white. Wing coverts grey; firft quills

afii coloured, exterior webs of the middle quills green. Legs lead

colour.

3\d Anas
PLATE XXL
Anas Querqiiedula. inacula alarum viridi, linea alba fupra oculoS.

Ffi. Sv, — Lrrai, S^/i. i. p, 203.

Scop, Jfi'fj. I. N° 75.

Mi filer, N<= 125.

Kra?i7, El, />, 343. 18,

Frifch. pi. 176.

QuERQjTEDULA Varla. Gefner. av, i®;,

Querqiiedula Prima. Tf^ilL Om. 291. t. 74.


^aj. av. 148. 8.

Garganey. Ditto,

Br, Zool. W 289. pi iOf.

Jrc^f. Zool, p. 576. O,


Lath, Gen, Syn. 5. 550, 87^

j5r. Muf.—Lev. Muf,


La Sarcelle- ^r//: Or;z. VI. 427. tab, 39. r. 2.

i?///: a/,/: 9. />. 260,— P/. ^^2/. 946. (maie)


Be Ion. av, 1 75.

Scavolo, Cervolo, Garganello. Jldr, av. 3. F9. 90.

Krickantl. Kramer. 343.


Kriech-Ente. Frlfch. 2. 176.

Norvegis Krek-And. ^iibufd, Saur-And. Brunmchy Si.

This fpecies is found in England in the Winter ; at that time alfo

it is feen in France. In April it departs, and migrates to the North


as the Summer advances, to breeds

Itt
PLATE XXL
In Europe it is found as far as Szveden ; it is very common
throughout Ru^ia and Siberia.^ and as far as Kamtfchatka,

Our figure is of the male bird ; the female has an obfcure white

mark over the eye, the reft of the plumage is of a brownifli afh co-

lour.

M 2 PLATE
22
PLATE XXIL

MUSCICAPA ATRICAPILLA.
Pied Flycatcher.

Passeres.
Bill conic, pointed. Noftrils oval, broad, naked,

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill flatted at the bafe ; almoft triangular ; notched at the end of

the upper mandible, and befet with briflles. Toes divided as far as

their origin.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.
Bill black. Upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, black-

Forehead and under part white. Several white feathers in the Wing*
Upper tail coverts black and white mixed. Legs black.

MuscicapaAtricapilla. Lin. Syfl. I. p, 236.9.


Frifch. pL 24.
Kram. EL p. 377. 16.

Atricapilla five iicedula. Aldr, av. IL 331.


Goldfinch. Rail Syn. p, 77. A. 5.

IFilL Orn. /). 236.

Edw, pi. 30.

Br.ZooL — Lond» IJ^O*


PLATE XXII.

Pied Flycatcher. Penn. Brit. Zool. i. N° 135. Lond, 1776.


Ar^, ZdoL
Lath, Gen, Syn. III. 324. 2.

Le Traquet d'Angleterre. Brif. Orn. iii. p. 436. 27,

jl'jbetra Anglicana. Buff. Ois. V. p. 222.

Meerfch'vVartz puiiie. Kram, Juji, 377.

The Coldfmch, or according to Latham and Pennant, the Pied Fly*

catcher, is found in TorkJInre^ Lancajhirc^ and Derhyjhire ; in thofe

parts of the kingdom it is not very frequent, in every other it is tx,-*

tremely rare.

It is unneceflary for us to defcrlbe the many varieties that are known


of this fpecies ; in England the colours of its plumage varies confi-

derably at different feafons of the year j but fuch as are natives of fo-

reign countries, are again fo dilTimilar to ours, that different author*

have alternately defcribed them as varieties, or new fpecies.

The bird that Latham defcribes, was white on the outer web of

the exterior tail feather ; the two exterior tail feathers of Willoiighhf%

bird was marked with white ; and on the contrary, we have a fpeci-

men which does not exhibit the leaft trace of white on either. The
upper tail coverts are black and white mixec|, in fome fpecimens; in

others they are wholly black ; and Le Gobe-mouche noir of Brijfon

which is only another variety, differs in having a mixture of grey on


F L ATE XXII.

the upper parts, the thighs brown and white, and three of the exte-

rior tail feathers white on the margir^s.

A more plcafing variety than either, is found in Lorraine and

Brie ; it correfponds in fize v/ith thofe found in England ; but the

white of the bread which terminates under the cheeks in the latter,

paiTes quite round the neck Hke a collar in the former *.

The plumage of the female is brown in thofe parts where the male
is black ; it has no white on the forehead; the white fpot on the wing

is more obfcure ; and the under parts of the body is of a dufky white.

The male poffefTes only the full black during the fummer ; as that

feafon declines, its plumage alters, and it gradually afiumes fo per-

fe6lly the appearance of the female, that he cannot be diflinguiflied

from her.

The neft Is ufually built in the hole of a tree, not very near the

ground ; it is compofed of fibres, mixed with mofs, and contains fix

€ggs. It feeds on Infe<Sts»

* This variety Is calisil bv Bw.0bn Ls Gdemucle noir a Cdlia. HHi. dcs OX 4»

^. 520, p'. 35. t I.

tL ATE
•Lo
PLATE XXIIL

STERNA HIRUNDOi
Common Tern.
A N s E R E s.

Bill obtufe, covered with a thin membrane, broad gibbous beloW


the bafe, fwelled at the apex. Tongue B-Qrajy legs naked. Feet

IVebbed or iinned.

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill ftrait, flender, pointed, Noftrils linear. Tongue {lender and
iharp. Wings very long. Tail forked, back toe fmall.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. ^
Bill and feet red. Crown and tip of the bill black. Neck, anc|

underfide white. Back and wings fine grey.

Sterna Hirundo. Linn, Syji, Nat, i. p, 227. 2,

Faun, Suec, N*' 158.

Hajelq, p, 272. N"* 40,

Scop, Ann, i. N** iii.

Brun, N** 151. 152.


MulL p, 21.

Faun, Groenl, N** 69.


Kram, EL p, 345. {Larus}^

Frifch, 2. 2ig.

N The
PLATE XXIII.

The Sea-Swallow. RaiL Syn. p. 131. A i. 191. 7*

WilL Orm ^, 352. /)/. 68.

Common Tern. Lath. Gen, Syn. 6. 361. 14. '

Great Tern. Br, ZooL N"^ 254. pi. 90.

Lev, Miif, Br. Muf.

The Kermew. Marten* s Sphzhsrg, 92.

Le Grande Hiroiidelk-de-Men Brif. Orn, VI, p. 203. i. pL ig-fg. I.

Btff. OIL 8. p. 331. pi i^.—Pl. Enl, 987.

Tarna. Faun. Suec,

Sterna (Stirn, Spyrer,, Schnlrriiig). Gefn. av, 586.

Grauer fifcher. Kram, 345.


IJIandis Kiia. Norvegis Tenne, Tende, Tende-lobe, Sand-Tolle,

Sand-Taernie. Danh Taerne. Bornholmis Kirre, Krop-Kirre»

Brunnich, 151. Makauka. Scop. N^ 3. ...

Schwartz plattige Schwalben Moewe. Frijch. 11. 219.

The length of this fpecies is fourteen inches; its breadth thirty;

and its weight four ounces and a quarter. It is v^ry common on the

fea-coafts, banks of lakes and rivers in this country during fummer;


it quits the breeding places at the approach of v/inter, and returns ia

fpring.

It is found in various parts of Europe and Afia\ in the fummer as


far as Greenland and Spitzhsrgen. It is alfo found in A?nerica\

arrives at Nevj England in May, and difappears in Autumn. At


Hiidjurii Bay it is known by the name of Black-head *.

« Lath. Ciiu Syn,


PLATE XXIIL
Dr. Forfter mentions a variety at Hudfons Bay^ having the Legs

black; Tail fhorter and lefs forked; and the outer feathers wholly

white * : The Bird Albin has figured in his plate 88, vol. 2. appears

^Ifo to be a variety; the legs are black, and the bill is of the fame

colour^ except the tip, which is x^^»

Thefe Birds breed among tufts of ruflies, grafs, or mofs near the

water fide; they lay three or four eggs, about an inch and three

quarters In length, of a dull olive colour, marked with irregular black

fpots, and fprinkled with fpecks of an obfcure brown in June ; the

young birds are hatched in July, and quit the neft foon after.

They fee4 on fmall fiOi and water mktks ; are very clamorous and

daring ; and during the time of incubation, will dart on any perfon
who may pafs by their neil^ though they fhould neither provoke nor

difturb them.

It appears to have all the adions over the water which the Swallow
has on land, fkimming and defcribiiig vaft circuits over the furface of

the waves when feeking its prey, diving with intrepidity the inflant it

difcovers it, and inflantly appearing again on the wing with the fifli

in its mouth. Notwithftanding the affinity of its actions with thofe of

the Swallow, Pennant^ in the Britifh Zoology, has altered the name to

Tern^ " a name," he obferves in a note, " thefe birds are known by
in the Noj'th of England; and which we fubftitute imlead of the old

compound one of Sea-Swalloiv ; which was given them on account of


their forked tails,"

* FblLTranf. 'vol. Ixil. /)«42i.

N 2 PLATE
I*
PLATE XXIV.

STURNUS CINCLUS,

Water-Ouzez,*

Pa§«eres«

Pni conic, pointed. Noftrils oval, broad, nakec!*

GENERIC CHARACTER.
Bill flrait, fubulate, and fomewhat angular.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER,
Bill comprefled on the fide, black. A white fpot above and another
beneath the eye. Upper part of the head and neck deep brown.
Back, Wings, Tail, black; feathers with brownifh edges. Chin,
fore part of the breaft pure white. Belly rufous brown ; next the tail

black. Legs black.


Sturnus Cinclus, niger, pe£lore albo. Linn» Syfi. Nat,2* i68.

4. editio Decima.

MoTACiLLA pe^tore albo, corpore nigro. Fn, Suec, 2l6.

MoTACiLLA Cinclus. Scop. Ann, i. iV* 223.

Kram, eL p, 374. 3,

Meruia
PLATE XXIY.
Merula Aquatica. Gefn, av» 608.

Water-Ouzel, or

Water-Crake. Will Orn. 149.


RalL Syn, p. 66. A 7,
Jlhln. 2. pL 39.
Br, Tool I. iV^ III.
Ara, ZooL
Lath. Gen, Syn. 3. 48. 50.

5r. Muf-^Lev, Muf.


Water-Craw. Turner,

Le Merle d'Eau. Brif. Orn. V. p. 252. 19.

jBz//: <?//: 8. j). 134. />/. II.— p/. g;^/.


940,
Watnftare, F^kw'. «S«^f .
fp, 2 14,

Merlo Aquatico. Zinan, 109.

Frovidni Kofs. iSrcj). N^ 223.


Norvegls FofTe Fald, FofTe Kald, Qusern Kald, Stroem-Stsr| B^kk^
Eugl. Brun, 203.

Wafl^r-amfel, Bach-amfel. Kra. 374,

Lerlichirollo. ^/^^r. a-v, 3. i86«

The Water-Ouzel is a very fliy and folitary bird, and though well

known as a Britifh fpecies, is generally confined to fuch parts as

abound with fmall rivulets, or with waters that courfe between the

craggy fragments of mountains ; it is therefore that we find it

plenty only in Waksy Cu?nherland^ Torkjhire^ and Wejimoreland*

It
PLATE XXIV.
It feeds on fmall fifh and infedls : its neft Is built among the fiones

on the ground near the water fide ; beneath the fmall fhelving rocks

that over-hang the ftreams it frequents ; or in holes contrived in Heep

and peipendicular banks ; it is compofed of hay and fibres of roots, is

lined with dead oak leaves, has a covering of green mofs, and contains

five eggs of a white colour with a blufh of red. In young birds

the belly is wholly white.

Mofl authors have noticed the very fmgular manner in which it

fearches for its prey, it not only dives under the water, but will Hy

and run after them at the bottom in the fame manner as on land * :

Kramer fays, that one of them had been caught under water by means

of a line and hook, which had been baited to catch fiih |o

Thefe birds are fmaller than the Ring-Ouzel, their length is feven,

and breadth eleven inches, weight two ounces and an half; they are

found in Europe as high as Feroe and Finmark } ; as far as Kamtf*


chatka in the Ruffian dominions ; in ChriJlianjGe and Norway^

* H'lfi. def. Oif.—'Dacouv. Ruf, 'voI. I, p. 307. 314,

f Albin fays, " it feeds on filh, yet refufeth not Infers ; fitting on the banks of
livers it now and then flirts up its tail} although it be not web -footed, j'ff tt wili
jomet'mes dive cr dart quite under -water. It is a folitary bird, accompanying only
with its mate in coupling and breeding time,''*

X Ara. Zooh

P L AT JE

Index to vol. i,

ARRANGEMENT
ACCORDING TO THE

SYSTEM OF LINN^US,

ORDER II.

P I C .E.
Plate
CoRvus Glandarius - « - • 2
Oriolus Galbula « » , „ *
^
Picus Martius » „ - - - 12
Upupa Epops
?

ORDER III.

A N S E Fv E S.
Anas Querquedula - - - - 21
Mergus Albellus - - - - 20
Alca Arctica - - - - - - 8
podiceps ruficolis - - - - 6*
Sterna Hirundo - - - - '
- 33
^ ,
^ .
,
"-

* Not defcrJbed by Linnasus,

O ORDER
INDEX.
ORDER IV.

GR ALL^.
Tringa Pugn^ax -----
Charadrius Hiaticula - - - -
Plate

19
18

O R D E R y.

G A L L I N .E.
Tetrao Lagopus - - -. - 12

O R D E R VL
PASSERES.
Sturnus Cinclus - - « -t: « 24
TURDUS ROSEUS « « - - -
3
AmPELIS GaRRULUS - - - - II
LoxiA Enucleator - - - - 17
Muscicapa Atricapilla - • - - 22
Motacilla S'/lvia - - - - 14
.
AlBA - - - - -. 5
.
Flava - - - - 15
<
DaRTFORDIENSIS - - - 10
.
Regulus - - - - 4
Parus Eiarmicus
Cavdatus
-

---.--
- - - - I
16

VOL.
INDEX.-
V O L. I.

ARRANGEMENT
ACCORDING TO

IvATHAM's SYNOPSIS of BIRDS,

DIVISION L Land Birds,

ORDER 11. Pies.

GENUS IV.
Plat9
Jay ^ - . , ^ ^ 2

GENUS XIV.
~
Golden Oriole - « * - ^

GENUS XX^
Great Black Woodpecker 13

GENUS XXVII.
Common Hoopoe - - «

ORDER IM. Passerine.

GENUS XXXI.
Water Ouzel -

Rose-colovr£D Thrush
O
_

^
_

-
»

-. ^3
^

GENUS
24
INDEX.
GENUS XXXII.
Plate
Waxen Chatterer - - « - ii

GENUS XXXIV.
Pine Grosbeak _ _ _
17

GENUS XXXVIII.
PfED Flycatcher 22

G E N U S XL.
White V'/agtail - - - - _
^
Yellc yv Wa g ta I l 15

GENUS XLL
Sedge V^ren, or Warbler - - - ^ 14
Dartford Warbler > « . . 10
Gold-crestld Wren ^ ^ ^ .
4
"*
• GENUS XLIIL
LoKG-TATL"fD Titmouse - .. - . j5
Beardld Titmouse - - „ « i

.
O R D E R IV. Gallinaceous.

G E N U S LIIL
Ptarmigan - » - -12

D I V I-
INDEX.
DIVISION II, Water Birds.

ORDER With cloven Feet,


VII.

GENUS LXIX,
Plate
Ruff * - - - ^ 19

GENUS LXX.
Ringed Plover - - - 1 18

ORDER VIII. With Pinnated Feet.


GENUS LXXIX.
Red-necked Grebe

ORDER IX. Web-footed.

GENUS LXXXIV.
Puffin

GENUS LXXXVIIL
CoMMo:^ Tern - _ « _
23

Smew ---... GENUS

GENUS
XCI.

XCII.
20

Garganey - - • - 21

VOL.
INDEX.
VOL. I.

ARRANGEMENT
ACCORDING TO

PENNANT'S BRITISH ZOOLOGY.

G E NU S I.

Plate

Jay . . - . •.
»

GENUS VIII.

Great Black Woodpecker « 13*

G E N U S X.
Hoopoe • - - ^ i^

GENUS XII.

PtARMIGAM - - . «r 21

GENUS XVI.
Water Ouzel - - - - 24.

GENUS XVII.
Waxen Chatterer - - - 11

GENUS XVIIL
Pine Grosbeak - • - -»
17

GENUS XXI.
Pied Flycatcher - - - 42
_ I
- - - -
.
,
,
^- - —

* Not mentioned by Pennant as Britifh Birds.

GENUS
INDEX.
GENUS XXIIL
Plate
White Wagtail - - - « _
5
Yellow Wagtail - - - *•
15

GENUS XXIV.
Golden Crested Warbler - - . 4
Sedge Warbler - ». - - - 14
Dartford Warbler « - - - 10

GENUS XXV.
Long-tailed Titmouse - - - - 16
Bearded Titmouse - - » « « j

GENUS XXXL
Ruff ^ - - - *• 19

GENUS XXXII.
RiNGiD Plover - * . ^ ig

GENUS XXXVIII.
Red-necked Grebe - - - ^*

GENUS XL. '


'

Puffin - - - - « * $

GENUS XLIV.
Great Tern • - - ^
23;

GENUS XLVL
Smew - - - -^ - 20

GENUS XLVn.
Garganey -. - - 22

APPENDIX.
Oriole -

Rose-coloured Owzel
----., • - - -
7
3
INDEX.
V O L. i, '

ALPHABETICAL ARRANGEMENT.
Plate
Chatterer, Waxen, » - - - - ii

Flycatcher, Pied, ^ « ^ « . 22

Garganey, - - » - . - 21
Grebe, Red-necked, * * ^ - - 6
Grofbeak, Pine,

Hoopoe,

Jay, .
-»<*-.«
^
»

.
-

«
.

.
^

.
«

.
jj

Oriole,
Ouzel, Water,
---«.».-. * - - t -
2

J
24
Rofe-coloured, - - » „ -?

Plover, Ringed,
Ptarmigan,
Puffin,
-----_
-----.
- - . ^ ^ jg
12
g

Smew,
Tern, Greater,
-----. - _ ^
19

20

Titmoufe, bearded, - - - . „ I

, long-tailed, .. _ , _ j5
Wagtail^ Yellow, - - ^ . .
15
-, W^hite,
5
Warbler, fedge,
14
'
, Dartford,
10

, Golden-crefted,
4
Wood pecker, Great black.
13