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Designing and Performance Analysis of Controller


for PMSG based Wind Energy Conversion System

Harsh Kumar Sharma1,*, Ajay Samaria2, Lata Gidwani3


Department of Electrical Engineering
Rajasthan Technical University
Kota
1, *
harsh.hs77@gmail.com, 2ajay.samaria@gmail.com, 3lata_gidwani@rediffmail.com

Abstract— Presented paper utilizes a reasonable boost conditions and power quality issues have to be taken into
converter setup and a PI controller for a Wind Turbine connected consideration.
to Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) for grid
coordinated operations. In view of inconstant flow of wind, wind In AC generation systems, featured on PMSG is one of most
turbine generator produces variable-voltage and variable favourable and reliable approaches of power generation for
frequency. A few unique strategies were utilized to change small and big wind turbines. To meet amplitude and frequency
variable-voltage, variable-frequency to reliable constant-voltage, requirements of regular loads, amplitude and frequency outputs
constant-frequency outputs. In variable speed operation, it is of PMSG demands additional conditioning [3]. Advantages of
important to utilize power electronics converter as an interface PMSGs are highest energy yield, better active/reactive power
between wind turbine and grid. Power converter comprises of an controllability, no need of brush/slip rings, high power density,
uncontrolled three-phase diode rectifier, a DC-DC boost converter there are no copper losses on rotor, smaller rotor inertia, low
and a three-phase inverter. In this work, PMSG which feeds an mechanical stress, robustness of rotor and less acoustic noise.
isolated load through a closed loop boost Converter maintaining produced ac power can be controlled by power electronic
constant output with reference value as error signal input to PI circuits according to load application, such circuits can be ac
controller using Cohen-Coon tuning method. In this PI controller, voltage controller, rectifiers and chopper for dc powered loads
DC link voltage is maintained at constant by varying duty ratio of are mostly utilized. In this model, generated power from PMSG
switch and continuously detecting output voltage. Together with
which is variable in nature is converted to constant dc by diode
controller and boost converter we can effectively enhance output
full bridge rectifier and fed to closed loop boost converter [4].
voltage and frequency of generator feeding isolated load. The
overall system is simulated using MATLAB/ Simulink and results This arrangement is a bidirectional power conversion unit,
are compared with theoretical results. in which first converter acts as rectifier and second one works
as inverter in whole process of power conversion in either
Keywords— Wind Turbine, Wind Energy conversion system direction of flow of power. A DC-link capacitor is connected in
(WECS), Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG),. PI parallel between two converters to achieve complete control
Controller, Three Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier, Closed Loop Boost
over current injected into isolated load, DC-link voltage across
Converter, Cohen-Coon Tuning Method.
capacitor is maintained at higher value than load side line-to-
I. INTRODUCTION line voltage. transfer function of boost converter is acquired
using state space averaging method, which is used in design of
Long ago, studies on wind energy have increased rapidly all PI controller using Cohen-Coon tuning method. To abolish
over world. There are plenty of reasons of interest in wind offset, integral action of PI controllers is utilized in closed loop.
energy. However, major need is of increasing energy demand, Therefore, PI controllers establish a balance between difficulty
different ecological issues and worries about reserves of and ability that acknowledge them as most widely used
conventional sources of energy, for example, oil, coal and gases algorithm in process control applications. This constant DC
[1]. Despite of other sustainable energy sources, wind energy output is converted to AC using a Sine PWM three phase
gets high consideration, especially most one. Subsequently, inverter and it is fed to load.
wind turbines and various energy storage systems have turned
out to be essential sources and mechanism. Clearly wind energy II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
is a broadly utilized sustainable energy source. Since electricity
is produced from variable wind speed, generated voltage and A. Block Diagram of Proposed System
frequency magnitudes are also variable in nature. However, at Permanent magnet synchronous generator is having wind
load busses, frequency and voltage should have constant turbine as its prime mover. Since wind speed is variable in
magnitude, because commercially available appliances and nature, PMSG output is also variable. Consequently, it can't be
loads are designed in such a way to function at standard interfaced with grid directly. Using a full bridge rectifier, yield
frequency and voltage [2]. That’s why in WECS operating of PMSG is changed over to DC and by a closed loop Boost
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converter variable DC is converted to constant DC. Using an 1 0 . 035 (4)
inverter this constant DC output is converted to AC. With Sine λi = −
λ + 0 . 08 β β 3
+1
PWM technique this inverter is operated and it is then fed to
load.
Mechanical torque developed by turbine
Wind
Turbine
Pm (5)
L Tm =
ωm
D

C S C Grid Power characteristic of a wind turbine is clarified by power


curve, which relates mechanical power of turbine to wind
PMSG
Three Phase Boost Grid Side
speed. International Energy Association (IEA) has spread
Rectifier Converter Converter guidance for definition of power curve. recommendation have
been continuously improved and appropriate by International
Electrotechnical commission.
Fig. 1. schematic Diagram of Wind Energy Conversion System
Wind turbine starts to capture power at cut-in wind speed.
B. Wind Turbine Modelling As wind speed increases after rated speed power control is
A wind turbine might just extricate and only those control needed to keep it at rated value and when speed is higher than
starting with those wind, which will be restricted Toward Betz cut-out wind speed wind turbine should stop generating power.
limit (maximum 59%). mechanical power of wind turbine A classic power curve is characterized by three wind speeds:
extracted from wind[5-7] is: cut-in, rated, cut-out wind speed is discuss in Fig. 2.
Pm
1
Pm = × C p × ρ × A × Vw3 (1)
2 Rated
Power Theoretical
Where A= area swept by turbine blades (in m2), ρ =air Practical Power
Curve
Power Curve

density (1.225 kg/m3 at normal temperature), Vw = upstream Parking Operating Parking


wind speed (in m/s). Mode Region Mode

Power coefficient ( C p ) = ratio of mechanical power Min.


generated by turbine to e power available in wind. It is a power
function of turbine tip-speed ratio ( λ ) and pitch angle ( β ). Cut-in Rated Cut-out VW(m/ s)
The theoretical maximum value of C p is 0.59 while practical Fig. 2. Qualitative wind turbine mechanical power versus wind speed curve
value lies between 0.4 and 0.45. A standard equation has use
here as follow C. Permanent Magnet Synchonous Generator Modelling
Basically, mass model of a PMSG is same as that of a
C5 permanent magnet synchronous motor [8]. Voltage and torque
ªC º (2)
C p = C1 « 2 − C 3 β − C 4 »e λi
+ C6λ equations of PMSG in d-q reference frames are given by
¬ λi ¼ following equations-

Where coefficients are C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 and C 6 . β = iq

blade pitch angle and λ i = initial TSR. Thus, any change in Rs +

rotor speed or wind speed induces a change in tip speed ratio Ld


leading to power coefficient variation.
ud
The tip speed ratio is characterized by ratio between blade
tip speed and wind speed.

ω
L qω eiq
λ = m R (3)
Vw -

ωm = blade tip speed and R is radius of turbine rotor.


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iq L
+
Rs L d ω e id
D
Lq
S
uq AC C R

3
φ sf ω e
2

- Fig. 4. Basic circuit of Boost Converter

There are two modes in which boost converter operates.


Fig. 3. Single-phase equivalent circuit of PMSG in the dq reference frame
rotating with rotor angular speed
First is when switch is closed, inductor stores energy and
capacitor discharges. Second, when switch is open, inductor
release energy and capacitor charges. It steps up source
V sd = R s i sd +
d φ sd
− ω dq φ sq (6) voltage, that's why it is also known to be step-up converter.
dt
boost converter having output voltage is given by
dφ sq (7)
V sq = R s i sq + +ω φ
dt
dq sd
Vo 1
= (12)
Vin (1 − d )
φ sd = L sd i sd + φ rd (8)
Vin = Input Voltage of Boost Converter, Vo = Output Voltage
φ sq = L sq i sq (9)
of Boost Converter, d = Duty cycle.
The mechanical equation of PMSG are expressed as: E. Closed Loop Boost Converter
Using a Voltage mode PWM Scheme closed system of
Te =
3
p ( φ sd i sq + φ rd i rq ) (10) boost converter is obtained. block representation of mentioned
2
converter shown in figure. In this method, output is kept
constant of boost converter by using duty ratio as control
J

= T e − T L − fω (11) variable [13-14].
dt
The boost converter functions in Continuous conduction
Where i sd and i sq = d q components of stator current vector,
mode for ‫ ܮ‬൏ ‫ܮ‬௕ , where,
Vsd and Vsq = d q components of stator voltage vector, φ sd and
φ sq = d q components of stator flux linkage, φrd permanent (1 − d 2 ) dR
Lb = (13)
magnet flux linkage, ωdq = angular electrical rotor speed , ω = 2f
rotational speed, p number of pole pairs, L sd and Lsq = dq
The value of filter capacitor required is high to limit output
stator inductances, Te =electromagnetic torque applied to voltage ripple. minimum value of filter capacitor needed is
stated by
PMSG rotor. Rs = stator resistance, f = friction coefficient, J
=inertia coefficient.
dV0
Cmin = (14)
D. Boost Converter model Vr Rf
There are two benefits of utilizing dc-dc converter: First is
productivity. Practically, efficiency of dc-dc converter can Where d is duty ratio, f is switching frequency, R is load
exceed 90%, which is high for power conversion and other is
simplicity in control and combine [9-12]. voltage change in dc resistor, Vr is ripple voltage. Using above design equations,
to dc converter is accomplished by varying duty cycle of pulse boost converter is modelled for proposed application. With
input provided by controller, which is called PWM (pulse width values of L, C and d, transfer function of boost converter is
modulation). obtained using state space averaging scheme. Transfer function
gained is..
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Gate B (16)
Signal
τ =
Uo PWM S
+- PI Controller Relational Operation
Generator
Dead time = time elapsed until system responded.
Uref
=> t d = Dead time
Repeating Cohen-Coon tuning values for PI controller is given as
Sequence

1 τ ª t º
K p = . .« 0 . 9 + d »
Fig. 5. Colsed loop PI controller K td ¬ 12τ ¼
§ t · (17)
F. Cohen-Coon Tuning Method- ¨ 30 + 3 d ¸
KI = td ¨ τ ¸
The PI controller was designed with derived transfer ¨ td ¸
function using Cohen-Coon tuning approach [15]. Step ¨ 9 + 20 ¸
response of system transfer function is derive in this method, © τ ¹
which is S- shaped curve called as reaction curve. Cohen-Coon
III. SIMULATION RESULT AND ANALYSIS
tuning method requires three parameters which are obtained
from reaction curve in Fig. 6. Simulation results of proposed system having Wind turbine,
PMSG, three phase diode rectifiers attached to boost converter
are shown. Here in system we are using wind Turbine of power
B in which wind speed is set to 12 m/s with zero pitch and PMSG
connected via drive train having parameters displayed in
TABLE I.

Approximate response TABLE I. PARAMETER OF WIND TURBINE AND PMSG

yb Wind Turbine

Step change
Density of air 1 . 225 kg / m 3
A
Actual in response
response Area driven by blades 1 . 06 m 2

1.67 × 10−3 Nm / (rad / sec)


2
Optimum coefficient K opt
Base wind speed 12 m / sec 2

t PMSG parameters
tb τ
Number of pole pairs 10

Fig. 6. Process reaction curve Rated flux linkage 0.433 Wb


This method is also abbreviated as Open loop transient Stator phase resistance 0.425 Ω
response method. In this, controller output is disconnected from
final control element by opening control loop. Final control Rated voltage(line-line) 400 V
element or transfer function is actuated by introducing step
d-axis synchronous inductances 8.4 mH
change of magnitude ‘A’ in variable ‘C’. By recording value of
output with respect to time curve is established called Process q-axis synchronous inductances 8.4 mH
Reaction Curve demonstrated in above figure. This curve is
sigmoidal shaped and process gain obtained is given by Rated speed 153 rad/sec

Rated current 12 A
Y ( s)
G PRC ( s ) = m (15) Rated Torque 40 N-m
C (s)
Rated power 6 KW

Static gain K = B = output


A input Connection of PMSG to wind turbine through a shaft having
rotor speed in p.u value taken base speed as 12 m/sec is
Time constant =slope of response at point of inflection. presented in Fig.8 with respect to time by which it becomes
constant at 1 p.u.
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Sinusoidal voltage and current in three phase having
waveforms from PMSG are established in Fig.9 and Fig.10 are
shown. Mechanical torque from drive train and electromagnetic
torque from PMSG is calculated to be 40 Nm from simulation
results as shown in Fig.11.

Vabc (volt)
variable voltage and variable frequency is provided by PMSG
as its output and output of PMSG is fed to Boost converter for
improvement in its performance in terms of smoothing or
constant outcome of 500 V. Boost converter employs PWM
controlling technique using Cohen-Coon tuning method which
provides Kp and Ki value for a PI controller using equation (17)
for providing three-phase balanced output voltage and
frequency with fixed dc.
Fig.14 gives outcome of closed loop boost converter when
load is synchronized to 70% of nominal value. Response shows Fig. 9. Three phase sinusoidal output Voltage of PMSG
that dc voltage as output of boost converter is maintained
constant at 500 V irrespective of changes in speed.
Turbine output power (pu of nominal mechanical power)

Iabc(amp)

Fig. 10. Three phase sinusoidal output Current of PMSG

Fig. 7. Power-speed characteristics of the wind turbine at different Speeds

Fig. 11. Mechanical Torque

Fig. 8. Rotor Speed


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converter to maintain dc link voltage constant thereby
improving voltage profile given to isolated load.

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