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Feb 26, 2018

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Designing and Performance Analysis of PMSG

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Designing and Performance Analysis of PMSG

© All Rights Reserved

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3DSHU,G

for PMSG based Wind Energy Conversion System

Department of Electrical Engineering

Rajasthan Technical University

Kota

1, *

harsh.hs77@gmail.com, 2ajay.samaria@gmail.com, 3lata_gidwani@rediffmail.com

Abstract— Presented paper utilizes a reasonable boost conditions and power quality issues have to be taken into

converter setup and a PI controller for a Wind Turbine connected consideration.

to Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) for grid

coordinated operations. In view of inconstant flow of wind, wind In AC generation systems, featured on PMSG is one of most

turbine generator produces variable-voltage and variable favourable and reliable approaches of power generation for

frequency. A few unique strategies were utilized to change small and big wind turbines. To meet amplitude and frequency

variable-voltage, variable-frequency to reliable constant-voltage, requirements of regular loads, amplitude and frequency outputs

constant-frequency outputs. In variable speed operation, it is of PMSG demands additional conditioning [3]. Advantages of

important to utilize power electronics converter as an interface PMSGs are highest energy yield, better active/reactive power

between wind turbine and grid. Power converter comprises of an controllability, no need of brush/slip rings, high power density,

uncontrolled three-phase diode rectifier, a DC-DC boost converter there are no copper losses on rotor, smaller rotor inertia, low

and a three-phase inverter. In this work, PMSG which feeds an mechanical stress, robustness of rotor and less acoustic noise.

isolated load through a closed loop boost Converter maintaining produced ac power can be controlled by power electronic

constant output with reference value as error signal input to PI circuits according to load application, such circuits can be ac

controller using Cohen-Coon tuning method. In this PI controller, voltage controller, rectifiers and chopper for dc powered loads

DC link voltage is maintained at constant by varying duty ratio of are mostly utilized. In this model, generated power from PMSG

switch and continuously detecting output voltage. Together with

which is variable in nature is converted to constant dc by diode

controller and boost converter we can effectively enhance output

full bridge rectifier and fed to closed loop boost converter [4].

voltage and frequency of generator feeding isolated load. The

overall system is simulated using MATLAB/ Simulink and results This arrangement is a bidirectional power conversion unit,

are compared with theoretical results. in which first converter acts as rectifier and second one works

as inverter in whole process of power conversion in either

Keywords— Wind Turbine, Wind Energy conversion system direction of flow of power. A DC-link capacitor is connected in

(WECS), Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG),. PI parallel between two converters to achieve complete control

Controller, Three Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier, Closed Loop Boost

over current injected into isolated load, DC-link voltage across

Converter, Cohen-Coon Tuning Method.

capacitor is maintained at higher value than load side line-to-

I. INTRODUCTION line voltage. transfer function of boost converter is acquired

using state space averaging method, which is used in design of

Long ago, studies on wind energy have increased rapidly all PI controller using Cohen-Coon tuning method. To abolish

over world. There are plenty of reasons of interest in wind offset, integral action of PI controllers is utilized in closed loop.

energy. However, major need is of increasing energy demand, Therefore, PI controllers establish a balance between difficulty

different ecological issues and worries about reserves of and ability that acknowledge them as most widely used

conventional sources of energy, for example, oil, coal and gases algorithm in process control applications. This constant DC

[1]. Despite of other sustainable energy sources, wind energy output is converted to AC using a Sine PWM three phase

gets high consideration, especially most one. Subsequently, inverter and it is fed to load.

wind turbines and various energy storage systems have turned

out to be essential sources and mechanism. Clearly wind energy II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

is a broadly utilized sustainable energy source. Since electricity

is produced from variable wind speed, generated voltage and A. Block Diagram of Proposed System

frequency magnitudes are also variable in nature. However, at Permanent magnet synchronous generator is having wind

load busses, frequency and voltage should have constant turbine as its prime mover. Since wind speed is variable in

magnitude, because commercially available appliances and nature, PMSG output is also variable. Consequently, it can't be

loads are designed in such a way to function at standard interfaced with grid directly. Using a full bridge rectifier, yield

frequency and voltage [2]. That’s why in WECS operating of PMSG is changed over to DC and by a closed loop Boost

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converter variable DC is converted to constant DC. Using an 1 0 . 035 (4)

inverter this constant DC output is converted to AC. With Sine λi = −

λ + 0 . 08 β β 3

+1

PWM technique this inverter is operated and it is then fed to

load.

Mechanical torque developed by turbine

Wind

Turbine

Pm (5)

L Tm =

ωm

D

curve, which relates mechanical power of turbine to wind

PMSG

Three Phase Boost Grid Side

speed. International Energy Association (IEA) has spread

Rectifier Converter Converter guidance for definition of power curve. recommendation have

been continuously improved and appropriate by International

Electrotechnical commission.

Fig. 1. schematic Diagram of Wind Energy Conversion System

Wind turbine starts to capture power at cut-in wind speed.

B. Wind Turbine Modelling As wind speed increases after rated speed power control is

A wind turbine might just extricate and only those control needed to keep it at rated value and when speed is higher than

starting with those wind, which will be restricted Toward Betz cut-out wind speed wind turbine should stop generating power.

limit (maximum 59%). mechanical power of wind turbine A classic power curve is characterized by three wind speeds:

extracted from wind[5-7] is: cut-in, rated, cut-out wind speed is discuss in Fig. 2.

Pm

1

Pm = × C p × ρ × A × Vw3 (1)

2 Rated

Power Theoretical

Where A= area swept by turbine blades (in m2), ρ =air Practical Power

Curve

Power Curve

wind speed (in m/s). Mode Region Mode

generated by turbine to e power available in wind. It is a power

function of turbine tip-speed ratio ( λ ) and pitch angle ( β ). Cut-in Rated Cut-out VW(m/ s)

The theoretical maximum value of C p is 0.59 while practical Fig. 2. Qualitative wind turbine mechanical power versus wind speed curve

value lies between 0.4 and 0.45. A standard equation has use

here as follow C. Permanent Magnet Synchonous Generator Modelling

Basically, mass model of a PMSG is same as that of a

C5 permanent magnet synchronous motor [8]. Voltage and torque

ªC º (2)

C p = C1 « 2 − C 3 β − C 4 »e λi

+ C6λ equations of PMSG in d-q reference frames are given by

¬ λi ¼ following equations-

leading to power coefficient variation.

ud

The tip speed ratio is characterized by ratio between blade

tip speed and wind speed.

ω

L qω eiq

λ = m R (3)

Vw -

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iq L

+

Rs L d ω e id

D

Lq

S

uq AC C R

3

φ sf ω e

2

Fig. 3. Single-phase equivalent circuit of PMSG in the dq reference frame

rotating with rotor angular speed

First is when switch is closed, inductor stores energy and

capacitor discharges. Second, when switch is open, inductor

release energy and capacitor charges. It steps up source

V sd = R s i sd +

d φ sd

− ω dq φ sq (6) voltage, that's why it is also known to be step-up converter.

dt

boost converter having output voltage is given by

dφ sq (7)

V sq = R s i sq + +ω φ

dt

dq sd

Vo 1

= (12)

Vin (1 − d )

φ sd = L sd i sd + φ rd (8)

Vin = Input Voltage of Boost Converter, Vo = Output Voltage

φ sq = L sq i sq (9)

of Boost Converter, d = Duty cycle.

The mechanical equation of PMSG are expressed as: E. Closed Loop Boost Converter

Using a Voltage mode PWM Scheme closed system of

Te =

3

p ( φ sd i sq + φ rd i rq ) (10) boost converter is obtained. block representation of mentioned

2

converter shown in figure. In this method, output is kept

constant of boost converter by using duty ratio as control

J

dω

= T e − T L − fω (11) variable [13-14].

dt

The boost converter functions in Continuous conduction

Where i sd and i sq = d q components of stator current vector,

mode for ܮ൏ ܮ , where,

Vsd and Vsq = d q components of stator voltage vector, φ sd and

φ sq = d q components of stator flux linkage, φrd permanent (1 − d 2 ) dR

Lb = (13)

magnet flux linkage, ωdq = angular electrical rotor speed , ω = 2f

rotational speed, p number of pole pairs, L sd and Lsq = dq

The value of filter capacitor required is high to limit output

stator inductances, Te =electromagnetic torque applied to voltage ripple. minimum value of filter capacitor needed is

stated by

PMSG rotor. Rs = stator resistance, f = friction coefficient, J

=inertia coefficient.

dV0

Cmin = (14)

D. Boost Converter model Vr Rf

There are two benefits of utilizing dc-dc converter: First is

productivity. Practically, efficiency of dc-dc converter can Where d is duty ratio, f is switching frequency, R is load

exceed 90%, which is high for power conversion and other is

simplicity in control and combine [9-12]. voltage change in dc resistor, Vr is ripple voltage. Using above design equations,

to dc converter is accomplished by varying duty cycle of pulse boost converter is modelled for proposed application. With

input provided by controller, which is called PWM (pulse width values of L, C and d, transfer function of boost converter is

modulation). obtained using state space averaging scheme. Transfer function

gained is..

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Gate B (16)

Signal

τ =

Uo PWM S

+- PI Controller Relational Operation

Generator

Dead time = time elapsed until system responded.

Uref

=> t d = Dead time

Repeating Cohen-Coon tuning values for PI controller is given as

Sequence

1 τ ª t º

K p = . .« 0 . 9 + d »

Fig. 5. Colsed loop PI controller K td ¬ 12τ ¼

§ t · (17)

F. Cohen-Coon Tuning Method- ¨ 30 + 3 d ¸

KI = td ¨ τ ¸

The PI controller was designed with derived transfer ¨ td ¸

function using Cohen-Coon tuning approach [15]. Step ¨ 9 + 20 ¸

response of system transfer function is derive in this method, © τ ¹

which is S- shaped curve called as reaction curve. Cohen-Coon

III. SIMULATION RESULT AND ANALYSIS

tuning method requires three parameters which are obtained

from reaction curve in Fig. 6. Simulation results of proposed system having Wind turbine,

PMSG, three phase diode rectifiers attached to boost converter

are shown. Here in system we are using wind Turbine of power

B in which wind speed is set to 12 m/s with zero pitch and PMSG

connected via drive train having parameters displayed in

TABLE I.

yb Wind Turbine

Step change

Density of air 1 . 225 kg / m 3

A

Actual in response

response Area driven by blades 1 . 06 m 2

2

Optimum coefficient K opt

Base wind speed 12 m / sec 2

t PMSG parameters

tb τ

Number of pole pairs 10

This method is also abbreviated as Open loop transient Stator phase resistance 0.425 Ω

response method. In this, controller output is disconnected from

final control element by opening control loop. Final control Rated voltage(line-line) 400 V

element or transfer function is actuated by introducing step

d-axis synchronous inductances 8.4 mH

change of magnitude ‘A’ in variable ‘C’. By recording value of

output with respect to time curve is established called Process q-axis synchronous inductances 8.4 mH

Reaction Curve demonstrated in above figure. This curve is

sigmoidal shaped and process gain obtained is given by Rated speed 153 rad/sec

Rated current 12 A

Y ( s)

G PRC ( s ) = m (15) Rated Torque 40 N-m

C (s)

Rated power 6 KW

A input Connection of PMSG to wind turbine through a shaft having

rotor speed in p.u value taken base speed as 12 m/sec is

Time constant =slope of response at point of inflection. presented in Fig.8 with respect to time by which it becomes

constant at 1 p.u.

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Sinusoidal voltage and current in three phase having

waveforms from PMSG are established in Fig.9 and Fig.10 are

shown. Mechanical torque from drive train and electromagnetic

torque from PMSG is calculated to be 40 Nm from simulation

results as shown in Fig.11.

Vabc (volt)

variable voltage and variable frequency is provided by PMSG

as its output and output of PMSG is fed to Boost converter for

improvement in its performance in terms of smoothing or

constant outcome of 500 V. Boost converter employs PWM

controlling technique using Cohen-Coon tuning method which

provides Kp and Ki value for a PI controller using equation (17)

for providing three-phase balanced output voltage and

frequency with fixed dc.

Fig.14 gives outcome of closed loop boost converter when

load is synchronized to 70% of nominal value. Response shows Fig. 9. Three phase sinusoidal output Voltage of PMSG

that dc voltage as output of boost converter is maintained

constant at 500 V irrespective of changes in speed.

Turbine output power (pu of nominal mechanical power)

Iabc(amp)

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converter to maintain dc link voltage constant thereby

improving voltage profile given to isolated load.

References

[1] Ibrahim Dincer and Canan Acar, "A review on clean energy solutions for

better sustainability", International Journal of Energy Research, vol. 39,

no. 5, pp. 585-606, 2015.

[2] Omar Ellabban, Haitham Abu-Rub and Frede Blaabjerg, "Renewable

energy resources: Current status, future prospects and their enabling

technology", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 39, pp.

748-764, 2014.

[3] Ming-Shun Lu, Chung-Liang Chang, Wei-Jen Lee and Li Wang,

"Combining the wind power generation system with energy storage

equipments", IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, pp. 1-

6, 2008.

[4] M. Jannati, S. H. Hosseinian, B. Vahidi and Guo-Jie Li, "A survey on

energy storage resources configurations in order to propose an optimum

Fig. 12. Electromagnetic Torque configuration for smoothing fluctuations of future large wind power

plants", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 29, pp. 158-

172, 2014.

[5] Patil Ashwini and Archana Thosar, "Mathematical modeling of wind

energy system for designing fault tolerant control", World Academy of

Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Electrical,

Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering, vol.

10, no. 2, pp. 336-344, 2016.

[6] Ajay Samaria, Harsh Kumar Sharma and Lata Gidwani, "Modelling and

Tm/Te

research trends in engineering, applied science and management, pp. 420-

423, 2017.

[7] M. Nasiri, J. Milimonfared and S. H. Fathi, "Modeling, analysis and

comparison of TSR and OTC methods for MPPT and power smoothing

in permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind turbines",

Energy Conversion and Management (ELSEVIER), vol. 86, pp. 892-900,

2014.

[8] Phlearn Jansuya and Yuttana Kumsuwan, "Design of MATLAB/Simulink

modeling of fixed-pitch angle wind turbine simulator", Energy Procedia,

Fig. 13. Mechanical and Elecromagnetic torque vol. 34, pp. 362-370, 2013.

[9] Venkata Yaramasu and Bin Wu, "Three-level boost converter based

medium voltage megawatt PMSG wind energy conversion systems",

IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, pp. 561-567, 2011.

[10] Md Enamul Haque, Michael Negnevitsky and Kashem M. Muttaqi, "A

novel control strategy for a variable-speed wind turbine with a permanent-

magnet synchronous generator", IEEE transactions on industry

applications, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 331-339, 2010.

[11] Lata Gidwani and Harpal Tiwari, "Dynamic analysis of grid connected

wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator during fault

conditions", WSEAS transactions on power systems, vol. 5, pp. 287-296,

2010.

[12] Lata Gidwani, Harpal Tiwari and R. C. Bansal, "Improving power quality

of wind energy conversion system with unconventional power electronic

interface", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems,

vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 445-453, 2013.

[13] T. Tafticht, K. Agbossou and A. Cheriti, "DC bus control of variable

speed wind turbine using a buck-boost converter", IEEE Power

Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 5, 2006.

Fig. 14. Output Dc output voltage of closed loop Boost converter [14] S. Muyeen, M., R. Takahashi, T. Murata and J. Tamura, "Transient

stability enhancement of variable speed wind turbine driven PMSG with

rectifier-boost converter-inverter", IEEE International Conference on

IV. CONCLUSION Electrical Machines, pp. 1-6, 2008.

Design of a wind power generation system using a [15] Amlan Basu, Sumit Mohanty and Rohit Sharma, "Designing of the PID

permanent magnet synchronous generator connected to a boost and FOPID controllers using conventional tuning techniques", IEEE

International Conference Inventive Computation Technologies, vol. 2, pp.

converter through a three-phase bridge rectifier for dc output 1-6, 2016.

has been presented.in a feedback loop, PI controller using

Cohen-coon technique is presented which gives regulated

output which then used to vary duty ratio of switch of boost-

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