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SOLUTION (4.

18)
Known: A steel propeller shaft with a given diameter transmits a known power at a
specified angular velocity.

Find:
(a) Determine the nominal shear stress at the surface.
(b) Determine the outside diameter required to give the same outer surface stress if a
hollow shaft of inside diameter 0.85 times the outside diameter is used.
(c) Compare the weights of the solid and hollow shafts.

Schematic and Given Data:

Rotation

3200 hp, n = 2000 rpm


2.5 in.

do di d

Assumptions:
1. Bending and axial loads are negligible.
2. The bar is straight and round.
3. The material is homogeneous, and perfectly elastic within the stress range
involved.
4. The effect of stress raisers is negligible.

Analysis:
1. From Eq. (1.3), T = 5252
n
W

5252(3200)
T= = 8403 lb ft = 100, 838 lb in.
2000
2. From Eq. (4.4), ! = 16 T
" d3
16 (100, 838)
!= = 32, 868 psi = 33 ksi
" (2. 5)3 ■
4-24
3. For a hollow shaft,
do3 - (0.85)4 do3 = 2.53
0.478 do3 = 15.625
do = 3.20 in. ■
2 2
4. Wt. hollow = Area hollow = 3. 20 - (0. 85 ! 3. 20) = 0. 46 ■
Wt. solid Area solid 2. 52

Comment: It is more economical to use a hollow shaft when pure shear stress is
involved.

SOLUTION (4.19)
Known: The maximum shear stress is given for a hollow shaft of known geometry
subjected to pure torsion.
Find: Determine the torque that produces the given maximum shear stress.
Schematic and Given Data:

d i = 20 mm

do = 25 mm
!
max = 570 MPa

Assumptions:
1. The shaft is straight.
2. The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.
3. There are no stress raisers.

Analysis:
16Tdo
1. From Eq. (4.3), ! = Tr =
J " d4o - d4i

!(570) 25 4 - 20 4 6
2. T= = 10.325 " 10 N•mm = 10,325 N•m ■
16(25)

4-25
SOLUTION (4.20)
Known: The same value of torque is applied to both a solid square shaft (b ✕ b) and a
solid round shaft of radius r.

Find:
(a) Determine the ratio b/r for both square and round shafts so as to produce equal
maximum shear values.
(b) Compare the weight of the two shafts for the square and round shafts.
(c) Compare the ratio of strength-to-weight for the square and round shafts.

Schematic and Given Data:

T
T

T T

2r
b

Assumptions:
1. The shafts are straight.
2. The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.
3. There are no stress raisers.
4. The shafts are made of the same material.

Analysis:
1. For equal stress, equate Eq. (4.4) with Eq. (4.5).

16 T = 4. 8 T
!(2r)3 b3

16 b3 = 4. 8
8!r3
b 3 = 7. 5398
r

b = 1. 96 ■
r
4-26
Wt. square per unit length b2 b2
2. = 2= 2
= 1. 22 ■
Wt. round per unit length !r ! b
1. 96
(Strength/wt. )square T/Ws
3. = = Wr = 1 = 0. 82 ■
(Strength/wt. )round T/Wr Ws 1. 22

Comment: The round bar is more economical (higher strength to weight ratio) than
the square bar for the same shear stress.

4-27
SOLUTION (4.21)
Known: The maximum shear stress produced in a shaft transmitting torque is given.

Find: Determine the torque:


(a) In a round shaft of 40 mm diameter.
(b) In a square shaft, 40 mm on a side.

Schematic and Given Data:

T T

dia. = 40 mm 40 mm

!
max = 400 MPa

Assumptions:
1. The shafts are straight.
2. The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.
3. There are no stress raisers.

Analysis:
1. From Eq. (4.4), ! = 16T3
"d
(400)(!)(40)3
T= = 5. 03 " 106 N•mm
16
= 5030 N•m ■

2. From Eq. (4.5), τ = 4. 8T


a3

400(40)3
T= = 5. 33 ! 106 N•mm = 5330 N•m
4. 8 ■

4-28
SOLUTION (4.22)
Known: The geometries of a solid round shaft and a solid square shaft of the same
size (circle diameter equal to side of square) are given.

Find: Compare the torque transmitting strength, the weight, and the ratio of strength
to weight of the two shafts.

Schematic and Given Data:

T
T

d
d

Assumptions:
1. The shafts are straight.
2. The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.
3. There are no stress raisers.
4. The shafts are made of the same material.

Analysis:
1. For equal stress, equate Eq. (4.14) with Eq. (4.5).

16 Tround 4. 8 Tsquare
=
!d3 d3

T square = Tround 16 = 1. 061 Tround


4. 8! ■

Wt. square per unit length 2


2. = d = 4 = 1. 273 ■
Wt. round per unit length ! d2 !
4
(Strength/wt. )square 1. 061
3. = = 0. 833 ■
(Strength/wt. )round 1. 273

Comment: The round bar is more economical (higher strength to weight ratio) than
the square bar for the same shear stress.

4-29
SOLUTION (4.33)
Known: A rectangular beam has an initial curvature, r, equal to twice the section
depth, h.

Find: Compare its extreme-fiber bending stresses with those of an otherwise identical
straight beam.

Schematic and Given Data:

M M

Assumption: The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
2
bh
1. For a straight beam, from Eq. (4.7) where Z = (From Appendix B-1).
6

!i = - 6M2 ; ! o = + 6M2
bh bh

2. For a curved beam, from Eq. (4.10)

e=r- A = 2h - bh = 2h - h = 2h - h
ro r
ln r o
ln 2. 5h
dA/! b d!/! i 1. 5h
ri

= 2h - h = . 042385 h
ln(5 3)

3. From Eq. (4.9),

4-43
Μ c i M(0. 5h - .042385h)
σi = = = 7. 1978M
2
eAr i (. 042385h)(bh)(1. 5h) bh

But for direction of "M" shown, σ i = -7. 20M


2
bh

M(0. 5h + . 042385h) - 5. 119M


!o = =
(. 042385h)(bh)(2. 5h) bh2

But for direction shown of M: !o = +5. 20M


bh2

4. From Eq. (4.11), with Z = bh2/6:

Ki = 7. 1978 = 1. 20 and Ko = 5. 119 = 0. 85


6 6

which is consistent with Fig. 4.11.

5. The inner and outer fiber bending stresses for the curved beam are 120% and
85% of the straight beam stresses. ■

4-44
SOLUTION (4.34)
Known: A known force is exerted on an S-hook.

Find: Determine the location and magnitude of the maximum tensile stress.

Schematic and Given Data:

200 lb

3 in.

1 in. dia. round rod

4 in.

200 lb

Assumption: Material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
1. At point A, the tensile stress due to bending is

! = 32M Kt [From Eq. (4.11)]


"d3

The tensile stress due to tension is

! = P = 4P2 [From Eq. (4.1)]


A "d

200 lb
r = 3 in.

600 in. lb A

200 lb

4-45
Thus, the combined tensile stress is

! = 32M3
Kt + 4P2
"d "d
r 3
2. From Fig. 4.11, for c = 0. 5 = 6, Kt = 1. 14.

32(600) 4(200)
3. ! = (1. 14) + = 6, 967 + 255
"(1)3 "(1)2
= 7, 222 psi
At point A, σ = 7.2 ksi.
4. At point B, from Fig. 4.11, for

r 4
c = 0. 5 = 8, Kt = 1. 10

32(800) 4(200)
! = (1. 10) +
"(1)3 "(1)2

= 8,964 + 255 = 9,219 psi.

200 lb

800 in. lb

r = 4 in.
200 lb

At point B, σ = 9.2 ksi. This point corresponds to the location of the maximum
tensile stress. ■

Comment: The inner fiber is stressed more than the outer fiber because the stresses
due to the direct tension and bending are of the same sign, and hence, add up to give a
large resultant stress.

4-46
SOLUTION (4.36)
Known: The critical section of a crane hook is considered to be trapezoidal with
dimensions as shown.

Find: Determine the resultant stress (bending plus direct tension) at points P and Q.

Schematic and Given Data:

40 80

120

A A 60
P Q

70,000 N

Assumption: Material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
1.
40

120 = +

c c
c

80 40 40

c (rectangle) = 60, c (triangle) = 40

4-49
Ac (rectangle) + Ac(triangle)
c (trapezoid) =
A(trapezoid)
4800(60) + 2400(40)
= = 53. 33
60(120)

2. I of trapezoid about its centroidal axis = I of rectangle + I of triangle, each about


the centroidal axis of trapezoid. Using the parallel axis theorem and equations
from Appendix B-1:
3
40(120) 2
I(trapezoid) = + 4800(60 - 53. 33)
12
40(120)3
+ + 2400(40 - 53. 33)2
36

= 5. 76 ! 106 + . 213 ! 106 + 1. 92 ! 106 + . 426 ! 106


= 8. 32 ! 106 mm4

3. r 60 + 53. 33 From Fig. 4.11, Ki = 1.52, Ko = 0.73.


c (trapezoid) = 53. 33 = 2. 13.

4. The tensile stress due to tension is

! = P [From Eq. 4.1)]


A
and tensile stress due to bending is

! = K Mc [From Eq. (4.11)].


I
5. At P, the resultant stress is

! = P - Ko Mc
A I
70, 000N [70, 000(60 + 53. 33)N•mm](66. 67 mm)
= - (0. 73)
7200 mm 2 8. 32 ! 106 mm4

= 9.72 MPa - 46.41 MPa = -36.69 MPa ■

6. At Q, the resultant stress is

! = P + Ki Mc
A I

4-50
[70, 000(113. 33)N•mm](53. 33 mm)
= 9. 72 MPa + (1. 52)
8. 32 ! 106 mm4

= 9.72 MPa + 77.29 MPa = 87.01 MPa ■

SOLUTION (4.37)
Known: The critical section of a crane hook is considered to be circular with areas as
shown.

Find: Determine the resultant stress (bending plus direct tension) at points P and Q.

Schematic and Given Data:

A = 7,200 mm 2

A A
60
P Q

70,000 N

Assumption: The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
1. c = d = 4A/! = A/! = 7200/! = 47. 87 = 48 mm
2 2
4 ! 96 4
2. I = !d = = 4. 17 " 106 mm4
64 64

3. r 60 + 48 From Fig. 4.11, Ki = 1.50, Ko = 0.75


c (circle) = 48 = 2. 25.

4-51
4. The tensile stress due to tension is

! = P [From Eq. 4.1)]


A
and tensile stress due to bending is

! = K Mc [From Eq. (4.11)].


I
5. At P, the resultant stress is

! = P - Ko Mc
A I
= 70, 000N [70, 000(60 + 48)N•mm](48 mm)
- (0. 75)
7200 mm 2
4. 17 ! 106 mm4

= 9.72 MPa - 65.27 MPa = -55.55 MPa ■

6. At Q, the resultant stress is

! = P + Ki Mc
A I
[70, 000(108)N•mm](48 mm)
= 9. 72 MPa + (1. 50)
4. 17 ! 106 mm4

= 9.72 MPa + 130.53 MPa = 140.25 MPa ■

Comment: By comparing the resultant stresses in Solutions 4.21 and 4.22, it is


evident that for the same area of cross section the trapezoidal section is stronger and
hence, more economical than a circular cross section crane hook. This is the reason,
for the use of trapezoidal shaped cross sections in crane hooks for practical
applications.

4-52
SOLUTION (4.44)
Known: An I-beam with given dimensions is simply supported at each end and
subjected to a know load at the center.

Find: Compute the maximum transverse shear stress. Compare the answer with the
approximation obtained by dividing the shear load by the area of the web, with the
web considered to extend for the full 8-in. depth.

Schematic and Given Data:

1000 lb 3 1 in. 1 in.


2 2

3 in.
8 8 in.

1 in.
3 1 in. 2
500 lb 500 lb 2

Assumption: The beam material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
1. τmax exists at the neutral bending axis,

!= V ydA [Eq. (4. 12)]


Ib
2.

3.5 3.5 3.125

8 = 8 - 7
2
1

4-60
From the above figure,
3 3
3. 5(8) 3. 125(7) 4
I = I1 - I2 = - = 60. 01 in.
12 12
3.5 4

3. !max = 500 y(0. 375dy) + y(3. 5dy)


(60. 01) (0. 375)
0 3.5

2 2 2
= 22. 22 0. 375 3. 5 + 3. 5 4 - 3. 5 = 197 psi ■
2 2 2

4. To check,

!max " 500 = 167 psi ■


( 3 )(8)
8

Comment: The rough check is 15% low in this case.

SOLUTION (4.45)
Known: A box section beam, where the top plate of the section is cemented in place,
is loaded with a specified force.

Find: Determine the shear stress acting on the cemented joint.

Schematic and Given Data:


12 kN
Cement
L L
2 2

5 5
50 mm

5 5

40 mm

4-61
5 50 40
5 50 mm
= 1 - 2
5
5

30
40
40 mm

Assumption: The beam material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
y = 25

1. From Eq. (4.12), ! = V ydA


Ib
y = 20
2. From the above figure, I = I1 - I2
3 3
(40)(50) (30)(40) 4
= - = 256, 667 mm
12 12
25 25
6000 6000(40) y2
3. != y(40dy) =
(256, 667)(10) 2, 566, 670 2 20
20
= 10.5 MPa ■

SOLUTION (4.46)
Known: A shaft between self-aligning bearings A and B is loaded through belt forces
applied to a central sheave.

Find:
(a) Determine and make a sketch showing the stresses acting on the top and side
elements, T and S.
(b) Represent the states of stress at T and S with three-dimensional Mohr circles.
(c) At location S, show the orientation and stresses acting on a principal element,
and on a maximum shear element.

4-62
Schematic and Given Data:

100 mm

2000 N
100 mm
B

Free
T end of
S shaft
20 mm dia.
shaft
A
120 mm dia.
sheave
400 N
Connected to
flexible coupling
and clutch

T
A B

1200 N 2400 N
1200 N 1200 N
V

-1200 N

M 120,000 N•mm

T 96,000 N•mm

Assumptions:
1. The weights of the shaft and sheave are negligible.
4-63
2. The shaft is straight.
3. The effect of stress concentrations is negligible.
4. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.
Analysis:
1. For torsion, Eq. (4.4),
16(1600)(60)
! = 16T3 = = 61. 12 MPa
"d "(20)3
2. For bending, Eq. (4.8),
32(1200)(100)
! = 32M 3
= = 152. 79 MPa
"d "(20)3
3. For transverse shear, Eq. (4.13),
4(1200)
!=4 V= = 5. 09 MPa
3 A 3(")(10)2

4. y y
T x S x 152.79 MPa

! = 66.21 MPa ! = 61.12 MPa

! max
5.
! x (0,66) !
x (153,61)
o
0 38.66
0
" "
"1 T 51.4˚ "1 S
y (0,-61)
y (0,-66)

o
6. " 2 = -21 25.7

y " = 77
S x
153 S S
"1 = +174
61.1 != 98
Original
Element o
19.3
Principal Max Shear

4-64
SOLUTION (4.49)
Known: A static vertical load is applied to the handle of a hand crank.

Find:
(a) Copy the drawing and mark on it the location at highest bending stress. Make a
three-dimensional Mohr-circle representation of the stresses at this point.
(b) Mark on the drawing the location at highest combined torsional and transverse
shear stress. Make a three-dimensional Mohr-circle representation of the stresses
at this point.

Schematic and Given Data:


200 mm
a

25-mm-dia.
round rod
250 mm bent into crank

100 mm
1000 N
a b

Assumptions:
1. The weight of the hand crank is negligible.
2. The effect of the stress concentration is negligible.
3. The crank material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
1. For bending, Eq. (4.8)
32(300 mm)(1000 N)
! = 32M = = 195. 6 MPa
"d3 "(25 mm)3
2. For torsion, Eq. (4.4)
16(250 mm)(1000 N)
! = 16T3 = = 81. 5 MPa
"d "(25 mm)3

4-70
3. For transverse shear, Eq. (4.13)
4(1000 N)
!tr = 4V = = 2. 7 MPa
3A 3"(12. 5 mm)2

4. From the Mohr circle for "a",

!max = 128 "Pa, #max = 225 "Pa.

From the Mohr circle for "b",

!max = 84.2 "Pa, #max = 84. 2 "Pa.

5.

"
y
a x
!tor
a
b

y
x
b
!tor + !tran.shr.

6.
y (0, 81.5) Highest
" = 128 shear stress +"
+"
y (0, 84.2)
Highest
! = 225 normal
0 stress +!
+!
40°
! = -30
x (195.6, -81.5) x (0, -84.2)

Mohr circle for "a" Mohr circle for "b"

4-71
SOLUTION (4.51)
Known: An electric motor is loaded by a belt drive.

Find: Copy the drawing and show on both views the location or locations on the shaft
of the highest stress. Make a complete Mohr-circle representation of the stress at this
location.

Schematic and Given Data:


1 in. dia. shaft

3000 lb
belt tension

Motor

6 in. dia.

1000 lb
belt tension
1 in.

Assumptions:
1. The weight of the structure is negligible.
2. The effect of stress concentration is negligible.
3. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
1. For torsion, Eq. (4.4)
16(2000 lb)(3 in. )
! = 16T3 = = 31 ksi
"d "(1 in. )3
2. For bending, Eq. (4.8)
32(4000 lb)(1 in. )
! = 32M3
= = 41 ksi
"d "(1 in. )3
3. The Mohr circle representation is given above.

4-74
4.
Answer to 1

3000 lb
tension of
top belt

1000 lb

5.
+" " max = 37
y (0, 31)
31 ksi
y
0 !1 = 58
+! x
!2 = -17 56.5° 41 ksi

x (41, -31)

Mohr circle representation Critical element

SOLUTION (4.52)
Known: An electric motor is loaded by a belt drive.

Find: Copy the drawing and show on both views the location or locations of the
highest stress on the shaft. Make a complete Mohr-circle representation of the stress
at this location.

Schematic and Given Data:


1 in. dia. shaft

3000 lb
belt tension

Motor

5 in. dia.

1000 lb
belt tension
1 in.

4-75
Assumptions:
1. The weight of the structure is negligible.
2. The effect of stress concentration is negligible.
3. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
1. For torsion, Eq. (4.4)
16(2000 lb)(2. 5 in. )
! = 16T3 = = 25 ksi
"d "(1 in. )3
2. For bending, Eq. (4.8)
32(4000 lb)(1 in. )
! = 32M3
= = 41 ksi
"d "(1 in. )3
3. The Mohr circle representation is given below.
4.
Answer to 1

3000 lb
tension of
top belt

1000 lb

5.
+" "max = 32
y (0, 25) 25 ksi
y
0 !1 = 53
+! x
!2 = -12 50.7° 41 ksi

x (41,-25)

Mohr circle representation Critical element

4-76
SOLUTION (4.53)
Known: A solid round shaft with a known diameter is supported by self-aligning
bearings at A and B. Two chain sprockets that are transmitting a load are attached to
the shaft.

Find: Identify the specific shaft location subjected to the most severe state of stress,
and make a Mohr-circle representation of this stress state.

Schematic and Given Data:


B
1 in. dia. shaft

2 in.

1000 lb
A
3 in.
4 in.
4 in.
500 lb

3 in.

Assumptions:
1. The loads are static.
2. Stress concentrations can be ignored.
3. The shaft is straight.
4. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

4-77
Analysis:
1.

3 in. 4 in. 3 in.

A B
650 lb 850 lb
500 lb 1000 lb

650 lb
V
150 lb

- 850 lb
Mmax = 850 lb(3 in.) = 2550 in.lb
M

!MA = 0

1000(7) + 500(3) = F B(10)

FB = 8500/10 = 850 lb

[!F v = 0]
FA = 500 + 1000 - 850

= 650 lb
2.
Bottom of shaft; just to left of gear B

4-78
The location subjected to the most severe state of stress is at the bottom of the
shaft, just to the left of the smaller gear.

3. For bending, Eq. (4.8)


32(2550)
! = 32M3
= = 26 ksi
"d "13
For torsion, Eq. (4.4)
16(2000)
! = 16T3 = = 10. 2 ksi
"d "13
4.
+" "max = 17
(26,10.2)

-3.5 38° 30 26 ksi


0
+!

(0,-10.2) 10.2 ksi

Mohr circle representation Critical element

SOLUTION (4.54)
Known: A solid round shaft with a known diameter is supported by self-aligning
bearings at A and B. Two chain sprockets that are transmitting a load are attached to
the shaft.

Find: Identify the specific shaft location subjected to the most severe state of stress,
and make a Mohr-circle representation of this stress state.

4-79
Schematic and Given Data:
B
1 in. dia. shaft

2 in.

1000 lb
A
3 in.
4 in.
3 in.
500 lb

3 in.

Assumptions:
1. The loads are static.
2. Stress concentrations can be ignored.
3. The shaft is straight.
4. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

4-80
Analysis:
1.

3 in. 3 in. 3 in.

A B
750 lb 750 lb
500 lb 1000 lb

750 lb
V
250 lb

- 750 lb
Mmax = 750 lb(3 in.) = 2250 in.lb
M

!MA = 0

1000(6) + 500(3) = FB(10)

FB = 7500/10 = 750 lb

[!F v = 0]
FA = 500 + 1000 - 750 = 750 lb
2.
Bottom of shaft; just to left of gear B

4-81
The location subjected to the most severe state of stress is at the bottom of the
shaft, just to the left of the smaller gear.

3. For bending, Eq. (4.8)

32(2250)
! = 32M3
= = 22. 92 = 23 ksi
"d "13

For torsion, Eq. (4.4)

16(2000)
! = 16T3 = = 10. 2 ksi
"d "13
4.
+" " max = 15.4
(23,10.2)

-3.87 41.6° 26.9 23 ksi


0
+!

(0,-10.2) 10.2 ksi

Mohr circle representation Critical element

SOLUTION (4.55)
Known: A solid round shaft with a known diameter is supported by self-aligning
bearings at A and B. Two chain sprockets that are transmitting a load are attached to
the shaft.

Find: Identify the specific shaft location subjected to the most severe state of stress,
and make a Mohr-circle representation of this stress state.

4-82
Schematic and Given Data:
B
F
100 mm dia.

50 mm dia.

A 30 mm
dia. 50 mm
4000 N
100 mm

50 mm

Assumptions:
1. The loads are static.
2. Stress concentration can be ignored.
3. The shaft is straight.
4. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
1.

Top Fg = 2000 N
1500 N D
view

B 1000 N
Front
view

500 N A C

4000 N
3000 N

4-83
2.
2000 N
1500 N
500 N

A B C D A B C D

1000 N
4000 N
3000 N
Front view Top view
3000 N
V V 1500 N

-1000 N -500 N
150 N•m
M M

-75 N•m
100 N•m 100 N•m
T T

3. The most severe state of stress is at B

2 2
M= [(3000)(50)] + [(500)(50)] = 152, 069 N•mm

T = 4000 (25) = 100,000 N•mm

4. For bending, Eq. (4.8)

32(152, 069)
! = 32M3
= = 57. 4 MPa
"d "(30)3

16(100, 000)
! = 16T3 = = 18. 9 MPa
"d "(30)3

4-84
5.
+"
"max = 34.3 MPa
(0,18.9)
!1 = 63 MPa 18.9
0
+!
! 2 = -5.7 33°
57.4
(57.4,-18.9)

Mohr circle representation of point B

SOLUTION (4.56)
Known: A small pressurized cylinder is attached at one end and loaded with a pipe
wrench at the other. The stresses due to the internal pressure and the pipe wrench are
known.

Find:
(a) Draw a Mohr-circle representation of the state of stress at point A.
(b) Determine the magnitude of the maximum shear stress at A.
(c) Sketch the orientation of a principal element, and show all stresses acting on it.

Schematic and Given Data:

400 MPa

300 MPa
A

200 MPa

4-85
Assumption: The "positive-clockwise" rule is used.

Analysis:
1.
+! !max = 278 MPa
"2 = 144 MPa
x
103° "1 = 556 MPa
0 "3 +"
300 400
y

2. The maximum shear stress at A is ! max = 278 MPa ■


3.
!1 = 556 MPa
!2 = 144 MPa

!3 = 0
A
!2

!1
51.5°

SOLUTION (4.57)
Known: A small pressurized cylinder is attached at one end and loaded with a pipe
wrench at the other. The stresses due to the internal pressure and the pipe wrench are
known.

Find:
(a) Draw a Mohr-circle representation of the state of stress at point A.
(b) Determine the magnitude of the maximum shear stress at A.
(c) Sketch the orientation of a principal element, and show all stresses acting on it.

4-86
Schematic and Given Data:

100 MPa

135 MPa
A

100 MPa

Assumption: The "positive-clockwise" rule is used.

Analysis:
1.
+!
!max = 110 MPa
"2
x
80° "1 = 219 MPa
"3 100
+"
0 135

2. The maximum shear stress at A is !max = 110 MPa ■

4-87
3.
!1 = 219 MPa
!2 = 16 MPa

!3 = 0
A
!2

!1
40°

Comment: At the outer surface of an internally pressurized cylinder, the tangential


stress is analytically twice the axial stress. That is, the axial stress for a thick walled
pr2 2p r 2
cylinder is !a = 2 i i 2 and the tangential stress is !t = 2 i i 2 . Therefore, !t = 2.
r o - ri r o - ri !a
We could speculate in this problem that a stress concentration existed which increased
the axial stress from 50 MPa to 60 MPa.

4-88
SOLUTION (4.77)
Known: A stepped shaft with known dimensions is supported by bearings and carries
a known load.

Find: Determine the maximum stress at the shaft fillet.

Schematic and Given Data:

1000 N
d = 40 mm
r = 5 mm

A B

70 mm
500 mm 250 mm
RA
RB

4-111
B
A

500 mm
250 mm 667 N
333 N
1000 N

70 mm
V
333 N

-667 N
C
168 N•m
M
G
47 N•m
D E F

Assumptions:
1. The shaft remains straight .
2. The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:
1. Σ MB = 0 : Hence RA = 333 N
Σ FY = 0 : RA + RB = 1000, Therefore RB = 667 N
2. From similar triangle, ΔCDF and ΔGEF,
GE = 47 N•m. The stress due to bending at the critical shaft fillet is equal to
32(47)
!nom = 32M 3
= = 7. 5 MPa.
"d "(0. 04)3
3. r/d for the critical shaft fillet = 5/40 = 0.125
D/d = 80/40 = 2
From Fig. (4.35a), Kt = 1.65
Therefore, σmax = σnom Kt = 7.5(1.65) = 12.4 MPa

4-112
SOLUTION (4.88)
Known: Three notched tensile bars (see Fig. 4.39) have stress-concentrations of 1,
1.5 and 2.5 respectively. Each is made of ductile steel and have Sy = 100 ksi, a
rectangular cross-section with a minimum area of 1 in.2, and is initially free of
residual stress.

Find: Draw the shape of the stress-distribution curve for each case when
(a) A tensile load of 50,000 lb is applied.
(b) The load is increased to 100,000 lb.
(c) The load is removed.

Schematic and Given Data:

P P

A = 1 in.2
Sy = 100 ksi

Analysis:

K=1 K = 1.5 K = 2.5 100

50 75

(a)

50 50
100 100 100

(b)

-50 -100
(c)

4-127
SOLUTION (4.89)
Known: Two rectangular steel beams having a known tensile yield strength are
loaded in bending and Z = I/c is known. The dimensions and a stress concentration
factor are given for both beams.

Find:
(a) For each beam, determine what moment, M, causes (1) initial yielding, and (2)
complete yielding.
(b) Beam A is loaded to cause yielding to a depth of 1/4 in. Determine and plot the
distribution of residual stresses which remain after the load is removed.

Schematic and Given Data:


0.5 in.
0.5 in.
1 in.
1.5 in. B
1 in. A
Z = (1/12) in.3 Z = (1/12) in.3 0.5 in.

Syt = 80 ksi S yt = 80 ksi


Kt = 3

Assumptions:
1. The idealized stress-strain curve is appropriate.
2. The beam is homogeneous.
3. There are no residual stresses initially.

Analysis:
1. For initial yielding, using Eqs. (4.7) and (4.21),

Beam A: ! = Syt = M
Z

M = Syt Z = 80, 000 1 = 6667 in•lb ■


12

Beam B: ! = Syt = M Kt
Z
1
Syt Z 80, 000 12
M= = = 2222 in•lb ■
Kt 3

4-128
2. For complete yielding,
0
F
h/2
F

Thus, for both beams,

2 2 2 [ 1 1 1
2 2 2 ]
M = F( h ) = (Syt)( h )(b) ( h ) = (80, 000)( )( ) ( ) = 10, 000 in. lb ■

3. For loading beam A to yield the beam to a depth of 1/4 in. and then releasing the
load we have:

0 80 110 -30 ksi 0


(1/4) in. +25 ksi

-25 ksi
(1/4) in.
+30 ksi
"Moment on" curve Residual stresses
and Elastic curve

4. The moment to yield the beam to a depth of 1/4 in. is given by


M = (stress)(area)(mom. arm) + (avg. stress)(area)(mom. arm)

80, 000 1 1 1
= 80, 000 1 1 3 + = 9167 in•lb
4 2 4 2 4 2 3

5. The elastic stress for M = 9167 in•lb is calculated as

!elastic = M = 9167 = 110 ksi


Z 1
12

6. The residual stresses are shown on the right side in the above figure.

Comment: An overload causing yielding produced residual stresses that are


favorable to future loads in the same direction and unfavorable to future loads in the
opposite direction.

4-129
SOLUTION (4.90)
Known: Two rectangular steel beams having a known tensile yield strength are loaded
in bending and Z = I/c is known. The dimensions and a stress concentration factor are
given for both beams.

Find:
(a) For each beam, determine what moment, M, causes (1) initial yielding and (2)
complete yielding.
(b) Beam A is loaded to cause yielding to a depth of 6.35 mm. Determine and plot the
distribution of residual stresses that remain after the load is removed.

Schematic and Given Data:


12.5 mm
12.5 mm
25 mm
25 mm 37.5 mm B
A
12.5 mm
Z = 1302 mm3 Z = 1302 mm3
Syt = 550 MPa S yt = 550 MPa
K t = 2.5

Assumptions:
1. The idealized stress-strain curve is appropriate.
2. The beam is homogenous.
3. There are no residual stresses initially.

Analysis:
1. For initial yielding, using Eqs. (4.7) and (4.21),

Beam A: ! = Syt = M
Z

M = Syt Z = (550 MPa)(1302 mm3) = 716.1 N·m

Beam B: ! = Syt = M Kt
Z
S ytZ 550 MPa (1302 mm 3) ■
M= = = 286.44 N·m
Kt 2.5

4-130
2. For complete yielding,
0
F
h/2
F

Thus, for both beams,

25 12.5 25 = 1074.22
M = F( h ) = (Syt)( h )(b) ( h ) = 550 MPa N·m ■
2 2 2 2 2

3. For loading beam A to yield the beam to a depth of 6.35 mm and then releasing
the load we have:

0 550 -208.5 MPa 0


6.35 mm 758.5 +176.3 MPa

6.35 mm -176.3 MPa


+208.5 MPa
"Moment on" curve Residual stresses
and Elastic curve

4. The moment to yield the beam to a depth of 6.35 mm is given by


M = (stress)(area)(mom. arm) + (avg. stress)(area)(mom. arm)
= 550 MPa 6.35 mm 12.5 mm 18.65 mm

+ 550 MPa 6.15 mm 12.5 mm 8.20 mm


2
M = 987.54 N·m

5. The elastic stress for M = 987.54 N·m is calculated as

! elastic = M = 987.54 N·m = 758.5 MPa


Z 1302 mm 3

6. The residual stresses are shown on the right side in the above figure.

Comment: An overload causing yielding produced residual stresses that are


favorable to future loads in the same direction and unfavorable to future loads in the
opposite direction.

4-131
SOLUTION (4.91)
Known: A 12 in. length of aluminum tubing with a cross-sectional area of 1.5 in.2
expands 0.008 in. from a stress-free condition at 60°F when the tube is heated to a
uniform 260°F.

Find: Determine the end loads on the aluminum tubing loads and the resultant
compressive stresses.

Schematic and Given Data:

12.000 in. 12.008 in.


T = 60 oF T = 260 oF

P = 0 lb P = 0 lb P=? P=?

Assumptions:
1. The tube material is homogenous and isotropic.
2. The material stresses remain within the elastic range.
3. No local or column bending occurs.

Analysis:
1. For the unrestrained tube
∈ = αΔΤ = (12!10 / F)(200 F ) = 2.4x10
-6 " " -3 in.
in.
ΔL = L∈ = 12 in. (2.4!10 ) = 0.0288 in.
-3

4-132
2. Since the measured expansion was only 0.008 in., the constraints must apply
forces sufficient to produce a deflection of 0.0208 in. From the relationship

! = PL
AE

which is from elementary elastic theory, where δ = 0.0208 in., L = 12.000 in.,
A = 1.5 in.2, and E = 10.4 × 106 ksi.
With substitution we have
P (12.000 in.)
0.0208 in. =
(1.5 in.2) 10.4×10 6 psi
( )
yielding P = 27,040 lb

3. The resultant stress is, ! = P = 27,040 lb = 18,027 psi


A 2
1.5 in. ■

Comment: Since these answers are based on elastic relationships, they are valid only if
the material has a yield strength of at least 18.03 ksi at 260°F.

SOLUTION (4.92)
Known: A 250 mm length of steel tubing with a cross-sectional area of 625 mm2
expands longitudinally 0.20 mm from a stress-free condition at 26°C when the tube is
heated to a uniform 249°C.

Find: Determine the end loads on the steel tubing and the resultant internal stresses.

Schematic and Given Data:

250 mm 250.2 mm
T = 26 oC T = 249 oC

P = 0 kN P = 0 kN P=? P=?

4-133
Assumptions:
1. The tube material is homogenous and isotropic.
2. The material stresses remain within the elastic range.

Analysis:
1. For the unrestrained tube
∈ = αΔΤ = (12!10 )(249-26) = 2.68!10
-6 -3

ΔL = L∈ = 250 mm (2.68!10 ) = 0.669 mm


-3

2. Since the measured expansion was only 0.20 mm, the constraints must apply
forces sufficient to produce a deflection of 0.469 mm. From the relationship

! = PL
AE

which is from elementary elastic theory, where δ = 0.469 mm, L = 250 mm, and
A = 625 mm2 = 625 mm × 1 m × 1 m = 0.000625 m
2
1000 mm 1000 mm

E = 207!10 Pa = 207!10 N2 = 207!10 N 2


9 9 3

m mm
P 250 mm
Therefore, 0.469 mm = 625 mm 2 207!10 3 N
mm 2
and P = 242,707 N
242,707 N
3. The resultant stress is, σ = = 388 MPa
625 mm 2 ■

Comment: Since these answers are based on elastic relationships, they are valid only if
the material has a yield strength of at least 388 MPa at 249°C.

4-134