Problem from Chapter 4 for Static Body Stresses

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Problem from Chapter 4 for Static Body Stresses

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Anda di halaman 1dari 46

18)

Known: A steel propeller shaft with a given diameter transmits a known power at a

specified angular velocity.

Find:

(a) Determine the nominal shear stress at the surface.

(b) Determine the outside diameter required to give the same outer surface stress if a

hollow shaft of inside diameter 0.85 times the outside diameter is used.

(c) Compare the weights of the solid and hollow shafts.

Rotation

2.5 in.

do di d

Assumptions:

1. Bending and axial loads are negligible.

2. The bar is straight and round.

3. The material is homogeneous, and perfectly elastic within the stress range

involved.

4. The effect of stress raisers is negligible.

Analysis:

1. From Eq. (1.3), T = 5252

n

W

5252(3200)

T= = 8403 lb ft = 100, 838 lb in.

2000

2. From Eq. (4.4), ! = 16 T

" d3

16 (100, 838)

!= = 32, 868 psi = 33 ksi

" (2. 5)3 ■

4-24

3. For a hollow shaft,

do3 - (0.85)4 do3 = 2.53

0.478 do3 = 15.625

do = 3.20 in. ■

2 2

4. Wt. hollow = Area hollow = 3. 20 - (0. 85 ! 3. 20) = 0. 46 ■

Wt. solid Area solid 2. 52

Comment: It is more economical to use a hollow shaft when pure shear stress is

involved.

SOLUTION (4.19)

Known: The maximum shear stress is given for a hollow shaft of known geometry

subjected to pure torsion.

Find: Determine the torque that produces the given maximum shear stress.

Schematic and Given Data:

d i = 20 mm

do = 25 mm

!

max = 570 MPa

Assumptions:

1. The shaft is straight.

2. The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

3. There are no stress raisers.

Analysis:

16Tdo

1. From Eq. (4.3), ! = Tr =

J " d4o - d4i

!(570) 25 4 - 20 4 6

2. T= = 10.325 " 10 N•mm = 10,325 N•m ■

16(25)

4-25

SOLUTION (4.20)

Known: The same value of torque is applied to both a solid square shaft (b ✕ b) and a

solid round shaft of radius r.

Find:

(a) Determine the ratio b/r for both square and round shafts so as to produce equal

maximum shear values.

(b) Compare the weight of the two shafts for the square and round shafts.

(c) Compare the ratio of strength-to-weight for the square and round shafts.

T

T

T T

2r

b

Assumptions:

1. The shafts are straight.

2. The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

3. There are no stress raisers.

4. The shafts are made of the same material.

Analysis:

1. For equal stress, equate Eq. (4.4) with Eq. (4.5).

16 T = 4. 8 T

!(2r)3 b3

16 b3 = 4. 8

8!r3

b 3 = 7. 5398

r

b = 1. 96 ■

r

4-26

Wt. square per unit length b2 b2

2. = 2= 2

= 1. 22 ■

Wt. round per unit length !r ! b

1. 96

(Strength/wt. )square T/Ws

3. = = Wr = 1 = 0. 82 ■

(Strength/wt. )round T/Wr Ws 1. 22

Comment: The round bar is more economical (higher strength to weight ratio) than

the square bar for the same shear stress.

4-27

SOLUTION (4.21)

Known: The maximum shear stress produced in a shaft transmitting torque is given.

(a) In a round shaft of 40 mm diameter.

(b) In a square shaft, 40 mm on a side.

T T

dia. = 40 mm 40 mm

!

max = 400 MPa

Assumptions:

1. The shafts are straight.

2. The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

3. There are no stress raisers.

Analysis:

1. From Eq. (4.4), ! = 16T3

"d

(400)(!)(40)3

T= = 5. 03 " 106 N•mm

16

= 5030 N•m ■

a3

400(40)3

T= = 5. 33 ! 106 N•mm = 5330 N•m

4. 8 ■

4-28

SOLUTION (4.22)

Known: The geometries of a solid round shaft and a solid square shaft of the same

size (circle diameter equal to side of square) are given.

Find: Compare the torque transmitting strength, the weight, and the ratio of strength

to weight of the two shafts.

T

T

d

d

Assumptions:

1. The shafts are straight.

2. The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

3. There are no stress raisers.

4. The shafts are made of the same material.

Analysis:

1. For equal stress, equate Eq. (4.14) with Eq. (4.5).

16 Tround 4. 8 Tsquare

=

!d3 d3

4. 8! ■

2. = d = 4 = 1. 273 ■

Wt. round per unit length ! d2 !

4

(Strength/wt. )square 1. 061

3. = = 0. 833 ■

(Strength/wt. )round 1. 273

Comment: The round bar is more economical (higher strength to weight ratio) than

the square bar for the same shear stress.

4-29

SOLUTION (4.33)

Known: A rectangular beam has an initial curvature, r, equal to twice the section

depth, h.

Find: Compare its extreme-fiber bending stresses with those of an otherwise identical

straight beam.

M M

Analysis:

2

bh

1. For a straight beam, from Eq. (4.7) where Z = (From Appendix B-1).

6

!i = - 6M2 ; ! o = + 6M2

bh bh

e=r- A = 2h - bh = 2h - h = 2h - h

ro r

ln r o

ln 2. 5h

dA/! b d!/! i 1. 5h

ri

= 2h - h = . 042385 h

ln(5 3)

4-43

Μ c i M(0. 5h - .042385h)

σi = = = 7. 1978M

2

eAr i (. 042385h)(bh)(1. 5h) bh

2

bh

!o = =

(. 042385h)(bh)(2. 5h) bh2

bh2

6 6

5. The inner and outer fiber bending stresses for the curved beam are 120% and

85% of the straight beam stresses. ■

4-44

SOLUTION (4.34)

Known: A known force is exerted on an S-hook.

Find: Determine the location and magnitude of the maximum tensile stress.

200 lb

3 in.

4 in.

200 lb

Analysis:

1. At point A, the tensile stress due to bending is

"d3

A "d

200 lb

r = 3 in.

600 in. lb A

200 lb

4-45

Thus, the combined tensile stress is

! = 32M3

Kt + 4P2

"d "d

r 3

2. From Fig. 4.11, for c = 0. 5 = 6, Kt = 1. 14.

32(600) 4(200)

3. ! = (1. 14) + = 6, 967 + 255

"(1)3 "(1)2

= 7, 222 psi

At point A, σ = 7.2 ksi.

4. At point B, from Fig. 4.11, for

r 4

c = 0. 5 = 8, Kt = 1. 10

32(800) 4(200)

! = (1. 10) +

"(1)3 "(1)2

200 lb

800 in. lb

r = 4 in.

200 lb

At point B, σ = 9.2 ksi. This point corresponds to the location of the maximum

tensile stress. ■

Comment: The inner fiber is stressed more than the outer fiber because the stresses

due to the direct tension and bending are of the same sign, and hence, add up to give a

large resultant stress.

4-46

SOLUTION (4.36)

Known: The critical section of a crane hook is considered to be trapezoidal with

dimensions as shown.

Find: Determine the resultant stress (bending plus direct tension) at points P and Q.

40 80

120

A A 60

P Q

70,000 N

Analysis:

1.

40

120 = +

c c

c

80 40 40

4-49

Ac (rectangle) + Ac(triangle)

c (trapezoid) =

A(trapezoid)

4800(60) + 2400(40)

= = 53. 33

60(120)

the centroidal axis of trapezoid. Using the parallel axis theorem and equations

from Appendix B-1:

3

40(120) 2

I(trapezoid) = + 4800(60 - 53. 33)

12

40(120)3

+ + 2400(40 - 53. 33)2

36

= 8. 32 ! 106 mm4

c (trapezoid) = 53. 33 = 2. 13.

A

and tensile stress due to bending is

I

5. At P, the resultant stress is

! = P - Ko Mc

A I

70, 000N [70, 000(60 + 53. 33)N•mm](66. 67 mm)

= - (0. 73)

7200 mm 2 8. 32 ! 106 mm4

! = P + Ki Mc

A I

4-50

[70, 000(113. 33)N•mm](53. 33 mm)

= 9. 72 MPa + (1. 52)

8. 32 ! 106 mm4

SOLUTION (4.37)

Known: The critical section of a crane hook is considered to be circular with areas as

shown.

Find: Determine the resultant stress (bending plus direct tension) at points P and Q.

A = 7,200 mm 2

A A

60

P Q

70,000 N

Analysis:

1. c = d = 4A/! = A/! = 7200/! = 47. 87 = 48 mm

2 2

4 ! 96 4

2. I = !d = = 4. 17 " 106 mm4

64 64

c (circle) = 48 = 2. 25.

4-51

4. The tensile stress due to tension is

A

and tensile stress due to bending is

I

5. At P, the resultant stress is

! = P - Ko Mc

A I

= 70, 000N [70, 000(60 + 48)N•mm](48 mm)

- (0. 75)

7200 mm 2

4. 17 ! 106 mm4

! = P + Ki Mc

A I

[70, 000(108)N•mm](48 mm)

= 9. 72 MPa + (1. 50)

4. 17 ! 106 mm4

evident that for the same area of cross section the trapezoidal section is stronger and

hence, more economical than a circular cross section crane hook. This is the reason,

for the use of trapezoidal shaped cross sections in crane hooks for practical

applications.

4-52

SOLUTION (4.44)

Known: An I-beam with given dimensions is simply supported at each end and

subjected to a know load at the center.

Find: Compute the maximum transverse shear stress. Compare the answer with the

approximation obtained by dividing the shear load by the area of the web, with the

web considered to extend for the full 8-in. depth.

2 2

3 in.

8 8 in.

1 in.

3 1 in. 2

500 lb 500 lb 2

Analysis:

1. τmax exists at the neutral bending axis,

Ib

2.

8 = 8 - 7

2

1

4-60

From the above figure,

3 3

3. 5(8) 3. 125(7) 4

I = I1 - I2 = - = 60. 01 in.

12 12

3.5 4

(60. 01) (0. 375)

0 3.5

2 2 2

= 22. 22 0. 375 3. 5 + 3. 5 4 - 3. 5 = 197 psi ■

2 2 2

4. To check,

( 3 )(8)

8

SOLUTION (4.45)

Known: A box section beam, where the top plate of the section is cemented in place,

is loaded with a specified force.

12 kN

Cement

L L

2 2

5 5

50 mm

5 5

40 mm

4-61

5 50 40

5 50 mm

= 1 - 2

5

5

30

40

40 mm

Analysis:

y = 25

Ib

y = 20

2. From the above figure, I = I1 - I2

3 3

(40)(50) (30)(40) 4

= - = 256, 667 mm

12 12

25 25

6000 6000(40) y2

3. != y(40dy) =

(256, 667)(10) 2, 566, 670 2 20

20

= 10.5 MPa ■

SOLUTION (4.46)

Known: A shaft between self-aligning bearings A and B is loaded through belt forces

applied to a central sheave.

Find:

(a) Determine and make a sketch showing the stresses acting on the top and side

elements, T and S.

(b) Represent the states of stress at T and S with three-dimensional Mohr circles.

(c) At location S, show the orientation and stresses acting on a principal element,

and on a maximum shear element.

4-62

Schematic and Given Data:

100 mm

2000 N

100 mm

B

Free

T end of

S shaft

20 mm dia.

shaft

A

120 mm dia.

sheave

400 N

Connected to

flexible coupling

and clutch

T

A B

1200 N 2400 N

1200 N 1200 N

V

-1200 N

M 120,000 N•mm

T 96,000 N•mm

Assumptions:

1. The weights of the shaft and sheave are negligible.

4-63

2. The shaft is straight.

3. The effect of stress concentrations is negligible.

4. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:

1. For torsion, Eq. (4.4),

16(1600)(60)

! = 16T3 = = 61. 12 MPa

"d "(20)3

2. For bending, Eq. (4.8),

32(1200)(100)

! = 32M 3

= = 152. 79 MPa

"d "(20)3

3. For transverse shear, Eq. (4.13),

4(1200)

!=4 V= = 5. 09 MPa

3 A 3(")(10)2

4. y y

T x S x 152.79 MPa

! max

5.

! x (0,66) !

x (153,61)

o

0 38.66

0

" "

"1 T 51.4˚ "1 S

y (0,-61)

y (0,-66)

o

6. " 2 = -21 25.7

y " = 77

S x

153 S S

"1 = +174

61.1 != 98

Original

Element o

19.3

Principal Max Shear

4-64

SOLUTION (4.49)

Known: A static vertical load is applied to the handle of a hand crank.

Find:

(a) Copy the drawing and mark on it the location at highest bending stress. Make a

three-dimensional Mohr-circle representation of the stresses at this point.

(b) Mark on the drawing the location at highest combined torsional and transverse

shear stress. Make a three-dimensional Mohr-circle representation of the stresses

at this point.

200 mm

a

25-mm-dia.

round rod

250 mm bent into crank

100 mm

1000 N

a b

Assumptions:

1. The weight of the hand crank is negligible.

2. The effect of the stress concentration is negligible.

3. The crank material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:

1. For bending, Eq. (4.8)

32(300 mm)(1000 N)

! = 32M = = 195. 6 MPa

"d3 "(25 mm)3

2. For torsion, Eq. (4.4)

16(250 mm)(1000 N)

! = 16T3 = = 81. 5 MPa

"d "(25 mm)3

4-70

3. For transverse shear, Eq. (4.13)

4(1000 N)

!tr = 4V = = 2. 7 MPa

3A 3"(12. 5 mm)2

5.

"

y

a x

!tor

a

b

y

x

b

!tor + !tran.shr.

6.

y (0, 81.5) Highest

" = 128 shear stress +"

+"

y (0, 84.2)

Highest

! = 225 normal

0 stress +!

+!

40°

! = -30

x (195.6, -81.5) x (0, -84.2)

4-71

SOLUTION (4.51)

Known: An electric motor is loaded by a belt drive.

Find: Copy the drawing and show on both views the location or locations on the shaft

of the highest stress. Make a complete Mohr-circle representation of the stress at this

location.

1 in. dia. shaft

3000 lb

belt tension

Motor

6 in. dia.

1000 lb

belt tension

1 in.

Assumptions:

1. The weight of the structure is negligible.

2. The effect of stress concentration is negligible.

3. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:

1. For torsion, Eq. (4.4)

16(2000 lb)(3 in. )

! = 16T3 = = 31 ksi

"d "(1 in. )3

2. For bending, Eq. (4.8)

32(4000 lb)(1 in. )

! = 32M3

= = 41 ksi

"d "(1 in. )3

3. The Mohr circle representation is given above.

4-74

4.

Answer to 1

3000 lb

tension of

top belt

1000 lb

5.

+" " max = 37

y (0, 31)

31 ksi

y

0 !1 = 58

+! x

!2 = -17 56.5° 41 ksi

x (41, -31)

SOLUTION (4.52)

Known: An electric motor is loaded by a belt drive.

Find: Copy the drawing and show on both views the location or locations of the

highest stress on the shaft. Make a complete Mohr-circle representation of the stress

at this location.

1 in. dia. shaft

3000 lb

belt tension

Motor

5 in. dia.

1000 lb

belt tension

1 in.

4-75

Assumptions:

1. The weight of the structure is negligible.

2. The effect of stress concentration is negligible.

3. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:

1. For torsion, Eq. (4.4)

16(2000 lb)(2. 5 in. )

! = 16T3 = = 25 ksi

"d "(1 in. )3

2. For bending, Eq. (4.8)

32(4000 lb)(1 in. )

! = 32M3

= = 41 ksi

"d "(1 in. )3

3. The Mohr circle representation is given below.

4.

Answer to 1

3000 lb

tension of

top belt

1000 lb

5.

+" "max = 32

y (0, 25) 25 ksi

y

0 !1 = 53

+! x

!2 = -12 50.7° 41 ksi

x (41,-25)

4-76

SOLUTION (4.53)

Known: A solid round shaft with a known diameter is supported by self-aligning

bearings at A and B. Two chain sprockets that are transmitting a load are attached to

the shaft.

Find: Identify the specific shaft location subjected to the most severe state of stress,

and make a Mohr-circle representation of this stress state.

B

1 in. dia. shaft

2 in.

1000 lb

A

3 in.

4 in.

4 in.

500 lb

3 in.

Assumptions:

1. The loads are static.

2. Stress concentrations can be ignored.

3. The shaft is straight.

4. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

4-77

Analysis:

1.

A B

650 lb 850 lb

500 lb 1000 lb

650 lb

V

150 lb

- 850 lb

Mmax = 850 lb(3 in.) = 2550 in.lb

M

!MA = 0

FB = 8500/10 = 850 lb

[!F v = 0]

FA = 500 + 1000 - 850

= 650 lb

2.

Bottom of shaft; just to left of gear B

4-78

The location subjected to the most severe state of stress is at the bottom of the

shaft, just to the left of the smaller gear.

32(2550)

! = 32M3

= = 26 ksi

"d "13

For torsion, Eq. (4.4)

16(2000)

! = 16T3 = = 10. 2 ksi

"d "13

4.

+" "max = 17

(26,10.2)

0

+!

SOLUTION (4.54)

Known: A solid round shaft with a known diameter is supported by self-aligning

bearings at A and B. Two chain sprockets that are transmitting a load are attached to

the shaft.

Find: Identify the specific shaft location subjected to the most severe state of stress,

and make a Mohr-circle representation of this stress state.

4-79

Schematic and Given Data:

B

1 in. dia. shaft

2 in.

1000 lb

A

3 in.

4 in.

3 in.

500 lb

3 in.

Assumptions:

1. The loads are static.

2. Stress concentrations can be ignored.

3. The shaft is straight.

4. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

4-80

Analysis:

1.

A B

750 lb 750 lb

500 lb 1000 lb

750 lb

V

250 lb

- 750 lb

Mmax = 750 lb(3 in.) = 2250 in.lb

M

!MA = 0

FB = 7500/10 = 750 lb

[!F v = 0]

FA = 500 + 1000 - 750 = 750 lb

2.

Bottom of shaft; just to left of gear B

4-81

The location subjected to the most severe state of stress is at the bottom of the

shaft, just to the left of the smaller gear.

32(2250)

! = 32M3

= = 22. 92 = 23 ksi

"d "13

16(2000)

! = 16T3 = = 10. 2 ksi

"d "13

4.

+" " max = 15.4

(23,10.2)

0

+!

SOLUTION (4.55)

Known: A solid round shaft with a known diameter is supported by self-aligning

bearings at A and B. Two chain sprockets that are transmitting a load are attached to

the shaft.

Find: Identify the specific shaft location subjected to the most severe state of stress,

and make a Mohr-circle representation of this stress state.

4-82

Schematic and Given Data:

B

F

100 mm dia.

50 mm dia.

A 30 mm

dia. 50 mm

4000 N

100 mm

50 mm

Assumptions:

1. The loads are static.

2. Stress concentration can be ignored.

3. The shaft is straight.

4. The shaft material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:

1.

Top Fg = 2000 N

1500 N D

view

B 1000 N

Front

view

500 N A C

4000 N

3000 N

4-83

2.

2000 N

1500 N

500 N

A B C D A B C D

1000 N

4000 N

3000 N

Front view Top view

3000 N

V V 1500 N

-1000 N -500 N

150 N•m

M M

-75 N•m

100 N•m 100 N•m

T T

2 2

M= [(3000)(50)] + [(500)(50)] = 152, 069 N•mm

32(152, 069)

! = 32M3

= = 57. 4 MPa

"d "(30)3

16(100, 000)

! = 16T3 = = 18. 9 MPa

"d "(30)3

4-84

5.

+"

"max = 34.3 MPa

(0,18.9)

!1 = 63 MPa 18.9

0

+!

! 2 = -5.7 33°

57.4

(57.4,-18.9)

SOLUTION (4.56)

Known: A small pressurized cylinder is attached at one end and loaded with a pipe

wrench at the other. The stresses due to the internal pressure and the pipe wrench are

known.

Find:

(a) Draw a Mohr-circle representation of the state of stress at point A.

(b) Determine the magnitude of the maximum shear stress at A.

(c) Sketch the orientation of a principal element, and show all stresses acting on it.

400 MPa

300 MPa

A

200 MPa

4-85

Assumption: The "positive-clockwise" rule is used.

Analysis:

1.

+! !max = 278 MPa

"2 = 144 MPa

x

103° "1 = 556 MPa

0 "3 +"

300 400

y

3.

!1 = 556 MPa

!2 = 144 MPa

!3 = 0

A

!2

!1

51.5°

SOLUTION (4.57)

Known: A small pressurized cylinder is attached at one end and loaded with a pipe

wrench at the other. The stresses due to the internal pressure and the pipe wrench are

known.

Find:

(a) Draw a Mohr-circle representation of the state of stress at point A.

(b) Determine the magnitude of the maximum shear stress at A.

(c) Sketch the orientation of a principal element, and show all stresses acting on it.

4-86

Schematic and Given Data:

100 MPa

135 MPa

A

100 MPa

Analysis:

1.

+!

!max = 110 MPa

"2

x

80° "1 = 219 MPa

"3 100

+"

0 135

4-87

3.

!1 = 219 MPa

!2 = 16 MPa

!3 = 0

A

!2

!1

40°

stress is analytically twice the axial stress. That is, the axial stress for a thick walled

pr2 2p r 2

cylinder is !a = 2 i i 2 and the tangential stress is !t = 2 i i 2 . Therefore, !t = 2.

r o - ri r o - ri !a

We could speculate in this problem that a stress concentration existed which increased

the axial stress from 50 MPa to 60 MPa.

4-88

SOLUTION (4.77)

Known: A stepped shaft with known dimensions is supported by bearings and carries

a known load.

1000 N

d = 40 mm

r = 5 mm

A B

70 mm

500 mm 250 mm

RA

RB

4-111

B

A

500 mm

250 mm 667 N

333 N

1000 N

70 mm

V

333 N

-667 N

C

168 N•m

M

G

47 N•m

D E F

Assumptions:

1. The shaft remains straight .

2. The material is homogeneous and perfectly elastic.

Analysis:

1. Σ MB = 0 : Hence RA = 333 N

Σ FY = 0 : RA + RB = 1000, Therefore RB = 667 N

2. From similar triangle, ΔCDF and ΔGEF,

GE = 47 N•m. The stress due to bending at the critical shaft fillet is equal to

32(47)

!nom = 32M 3

= = 7. 5 MPa.

"d "(0. 04)3

3. r/d for the critical shaft fillet = 5/40 = 0.125

D/d = 80/40 = 2

From Fig. (4.35a), Kt = 1.65

Therefore, σmax = σnom Kt = 7.5(1.65) = 12.4 MPa

4-112

SOLUTION (4.88)

Known: Three notched tensile bars (see Fig. 4.39) have stress-concentrations of 1,

1.5 and 2.5 respectively. Each is made of ductile steel and have Sy = 100 ksi, a

rectangular cross-section with a minimum area of 1 in.2, and is initially free of

residual stress.

Find: Draw the shape of the stress-distribution curve for each case when

(a) A tensile load of 50,000 lb is applied.

(b) The load is increased to 100,000 lb.

(c) The load is removed.

P P

A = 1 in.2

Sy = 100 ksi

Analysis:

50 75

(a)

50 50

100 100 100

(b)

-50 -100

(c)

4-127

SOLUTION (4.89)

Known: Two rectangular steel beams having a known tensile yield strength are

loaded in bending and Z = I/c is known. The dimensions and a stress concentration

factor are given for both beams.

Find:

(a) For each beam, determine what moment, M, causes (1) initial yielding, and (2)

complete yielding.

(b) Beam A is loaded to cause yielding to a depth of 1/4 in. Determine and plot the

distribution of residual stresses which remain after the load is removed.

0.5 in.

0.5 in.

1 in.

1.5 in. B

1 in. A

Z = (1/12) in.3 Z = (1/12) in.3 0.5 in.

Kt = 3

Assumptions:

1. The idealized stress-strain curve is appropriate.

2. The beam is homogeneous.

3. There are no residual stresses initially.

Analysis:

1. For initial yielding, using Eqs. (4.7) and (4.21),

Beam A: ! = Syt = M

Z

12

Beam B: ! = Syt = M Kt

Z

1

Syt Z 80, 000 12

M= = = 2222 in•lb ■

Kt 3

4-128

2. For complete yielding,

0

F

h/2

F

2 2 2 [ 1 1 1

2 2 2 ]

M = F( h ) = (Syt)( h )(b) ( h ) = (80, 000)( )( ) ( ) = 10, 000 in. lb ■

3. For loading beam A to yield the beam to a depth of 1/4 in. and then releasing the

load we have:

(1/4) in. +25 ksi

-25 ksi

(1/4) in.

+30 ksi

"Moment on" curve Residual stresses

and Elastic curve

M = (stress)(area)(mom. arm) + (avg. stress)(area)(mom. arm)

80, 000 1 1 1

= 80, 000 1 1 3 + = 9167 in•lb

4 2 4 2 4 2 3

Z 1

12

6. The residual stresses are shown on the right side in the above figure.

favorable to future loads in the same direction and unfavorable to future loads in the

opposite direction.

4-129

SOLUTION (4.90)

Known: Two rectangular steel beams having a known tensile yield strength are loaded

in bending and Z = I/c is known. The dimensions and a stress concentration factor are

given for both beams.

Find:

(a) For each beam, determine what moment, M, causes (1) initial yielding and (2)

complete yielding.

(b) Beam A is loaded to cause yielding to a depth of 6.35 mm. Determine and plot the

distribution of residual stresses that remain after the load is removed.

12.5 mm

12.5 mm

25 mm

25 mm 37.5 mm B

A

12.5 mm

Z = 1302 mm3 Z = 1302 mm3

Syt = 550 MPa S yt = 550 MPa

K t = 2.5

Assumptions:

1. The idealized stress-strain curve is appropriate.

2. The beam is homogenous.

3. There are no residual stresses initially.

Analysis:

1. For initial yielding, using Eqs. (4.7) and (4.21),

Beam A: ! = Syt = M

Z

■

M = Syt Z = (550 MPa)(1302 mm3) = 716.1 N·m

Beam B: ! = Syt = M Kt

Z

S ytZ 550 MPa (1302 mm 3) ■

M= = = 286.44 N·m

Kt 2.5

4-130

2. For complete yielding,

0

F

h/2

F

25 12.5 25 = 1074.22

M = F( h ) = (Syt)( h )(b) ( h ) = 550 MPa N·m ■

2 2 2 2 2

3. For loading beam A to yield the beam to a depth of 6.35 mm and then releasing

the load we have:

6.35 mm 758.5 +176.3 MPa

+208.5 MPa

"Moment on" curve Residual stresses

and Elastic curve

M = (stress)(area)(mom. arm) + (avg. stress)(area)(mom. arm)

= 550 MPa 6.35 mm 12.5 mm 18.65 mm

2

M = 987.54 N·m

Z 1302 mm 3

6. The residual stresses are shown on the right side in the above figure.

favorable to future loads in the same direction and unfavorable to future loads in the

opposite direction.

4-131

SOLUTION (4.91)

Known: A 12 in. length of aluminum tubing with a cross-sectional area of 1.5 in.2

expands 0.008 in. from a stress-free condition at 60°F when the tube is heated to a

uniform 260°F.

Find: Determine the end loads on the aluminum tubing loads and the resultant

compressive stresses.

T = 60 oF T = 260 oF

P = 0 lb P = 0 lb P=? P=?

Assumptions:

1. The tube material is homogenous and isotropic.

2. The material stresses remain within the elastic range.

3. No local or column bending occurs.

Analysis:

1. For the unrestrained tube

∈ = αΔΤ = (12!10 / F)(200 F ) = 2.4x10

-6 " " -3 in.

in.

ΔL = L∈ = 12 in. (2.4!10 ) = 0.0288 in.

-3

4-132

2. Since the measured expansion was only 0.008 in., the constraints must apply

forces sufficient to produce a deflection of 0.0208 in. From the relationship

! = PL

AE

which is from elementary elastic theory, where δ = 0.0208 in., L = 12.000 in.,

A = 1.5 in.2, and E = 10.4 × 106 ksi.

With substitution we have

P (12.000 in.)

0.0208 in. =

(1.5 in.2) 10.4×10 6 psi

( )

yielding P = 27,040 lb

A 2

1.5 in. ■

Comment: Since these answers are based on elastic relationships, they are valid only if

the material has a yield strength of at least 18.03 ksi at 260°F.

SOLUTION (4.92)

Known: A 250 mm length of steel tubing with a cross-sectional area of 625 mm2

expands longitudinally 0.20 mm from a stress-free condition at 26°C when the tube is

heated to a uniform 249°C.

Find: Determine the end loads on the steel tubing and the resultant internal stresses.

250 mm 250.2 mm

T = 26 oC T = 249 oC

P = 0 kN P = 0 kN P=? P=?

4-133

Assumptions:

1. The tube material is homogenous and isotropic.

2. The material stresses remain within the elastic range.

Analysis:

1. For the unrestrained tube

∈ = αΔΤ = (12!10 )(249-26) = 2.68!10

-6 -3

-3

2. Since the measured expansion was only 0.20 mm, the constraints must apply

forces sufficient to produce a deflection of 0.469 mm. From the relationship

! = PL

AE

which is from elementary elastic theory, where δ = 0.469 mm, L = 250 mm, and

A = 625 mm2 = 625 mm × 1 m × 1 m = 0.000625 m

2

1000 mm 1000 mm

9 9 3

m mm

P 250 mm

Therefore, 0.469 mm = 625 mm 2 207!10 3 N

mm 2

and P = 242,707 N

242,707 N

3. The resultant stress is, σ = = 388 MPa

625 mm 2 ■

Comment: Since these answers are based on elastic relationships, they are valid only if

the material has a yield strength of at least 388 MPa at 249°C.

4-134

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