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Semiconductor Devices

Chapter 3 : Bipolar Junction


Transistors (BJT)

Lecturer :
Fauziah Binti Aliman
Jabatan Kejuruteraan Elektrik
Politeknik Merlimau
Contents
Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors ......................................................................... 2
3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 2
3.2 The Basic of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) ............................................ 2
3.2.1 The Biasing Voltage .............................................................................................. 3
3.2.2 BJT Operation ...................................................................................................... 4
Exercise 3.1 ............................................................................................................................ 6
Exercise 3.2 ............................................................................................................................ 8
3.3 BJT Configuration and Characteristic ........................................................... 10
3.3.1 The Common Base (CB) configuration ......................................................... 10
3.3.1.1 Characteristic of Common Base (CB) configuration ................................. 13
3.3.2 Common Collector (CC) Configuration ......................................................... 14
3.3.2.1 Characteristic of Common Collector (CC) Configuration ......................... 15
3.3.3 Common Emitter (CE) Configuration ............................................................ 16
3.3.3.1 Characteristic of Common Emitter (CE) Configuration ............................ 20
Exercise 3.3 ........................................................................................................................... 21

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Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors

3.1 Introduction

After we discuss the concept of N and P type semiconductor and diode as one of the popular
electronic components made of semiconductor materials, now we are going to discuss another type
of electronic components name Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). Bipolar devices are semiconductor
devices in which both electrons and holes participate in the conduction process. In this chapter we
will learn about the operation, applications, and fabrication of this basic electronic device

3.2 The Basic of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

Similar to diode, a bipolar junction transistor (BJT or bipolar transistor) is a type of


semiconductor devices that relies on the contact of two types of semiconductor for its operation.
BJT is formed with pieces of N and P-type material that are joined together but contains three
layers. The layers were either NPN or PNP. Figure 3.1 shows the physical construction, two-diade
analogy and symbol for NPN and PNP bipolar transistors.

PNP NPN

Physical
Construction

Two-diode
Analogy

Circuit
Symbols

Figure 3.1 BJT Symbol and Structure

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The arrow in the circuit symbol is always showing the direction of "conventional current
flow" between the base terminal and its emitter terminal. The direction of the arrow always points
from the positive P-type region to the negative N-type region for both transistor types, exactly the
same as for the standard diode symbol.
For either NPN or PNP transistor, the Base (B) terminal is a very thin and lightly doped
central region (little recombination) with only a small majority current carriers. Emitter supplies
charge carriers (electrons or holes) depending on the majority carrier’s type. Collector collects
charges for operating circuits. Base serves as a junction that controls the current flow. A large
current flows from the collector through the base and into the emitter. The current in the emitter IE
is the sum of the base current IB and the collector current IC.

3.2.1 The Biasing Voltage

Biasing voltage must be applied to the transistor in order for the transistor to operate. The
biasing conditions are illustrated in Figure 3.2 below.
i E-B junction must be forward biased
ii C-B junction must be reverse biased

E C E C
N P N P N P

B B

Figure 3.2 Voltage biasing for BJT

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3.2.2 BJT Operation

N P N
E
- - - - - - - - C
+
- - - - + - - - -
- - - - + - - - -

B
V1 V2

Figure 3.3: Electron flow in transistor

Referring to Figure 3.3, since E-B junction is forward biased by V1, the junction will allow
current flow because electrons at the emitter (type N) are repels by the negative potential of V1.
These electrons are attracted towards the positive potential of V1 through the base (type P). Since
base is only a thin layer and have only a small majority carriers (holes), not all of these electrons are
able to move through it. Only a small electron current flows in the base known as the base current
(IB).
Excessive electrons at the base are attracted towards the positive terminal of V2 through the
collector terminal and thus producing collector current (IC).

IE IC

IB

Figure 3.4: Electron flow direction in BJT

The arrow in Figure 3.4 indicates the direction of electron flow through the transistor. As we
know, the direction of current is opposite to the electron. Take note that IC is the bigger portion of IE.

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A smaller portion of IE flows as IB. From this we can summarize that the current in the emitter IE is
the sum of the base current IB and the collector current IC.

I E = IC + IB

Example 3.1

10mA 9.8mA

Figure 3.5

Based on Figure 3.5, what is the value and direction of base current?
A. 0.2 mA flows into the base
B. 0.2 mA flows out of the base
C. 19.8 mA flows into the base
D. 29.8 mA flows out of the base

Solution
Given IE = 10 mA
IC = 9.8 mA
IE = IC + IB
10 mA = 9.8 mA + IB
IB = 10 mA - 9.8 mA
= 0.2 mA
Since IE flows out of the transistor, therefore, IC and IB flow into the transistor.
The answer is:
A. 0.2 mA flows into the base

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Exercise 3.1

1. The relation for currents in bipolar junction transistor are


A. IC = I E + IB
B. IB = I E + IC
C. IE = I C + IB
D. IC = I E - IB

2. Which figure illustrate the conventional current flow for NPN transistor?

IE IC IE IC IE IC IE IC

IB IB IB IB

(A) (B) (C) (D)

3. Which figure illustrate the conventional current flow for PNP transistor?

IE IC IE IC IE IC IE IC

IB IB IB IB

(A) (B) (C) (D)

4. The majority current carrier in NPN transistor is/are ______________


A. Electrons
B. Holes
C. Atom
D. Holes and electrons

5. Majority of electrons at base flows ______________


A. out of the base
B. into collector
C. into emitter
D. into the power supply

6. Majority of electrons at base flows ______________


A. out of the base
B. into collector
C. into emitter
D. into the power supply

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7.
10.2mA

0.2mA

Emitter current for above circuit is

A. 10 mA flows into the transistor


B. 10 mA flows out of the transistor
C. 10.4 mA flows into the transistor
D. 10.4 mA flows out of the transistor

Answer

1. C
2. C
3. A
4. A
5. B
6. A
7. D

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Exercise 3.2

1. Draw and label schematic structure and symbol for NPN and PNP transistor.

2. State two main conditions for transistor operation.

3. With the aid of a schematic structure of NPN transistor, describe the transistor operation.

Answer

1. Collector

P Base

Emitter

Schematic sructure Symbol

Collector

N Base

Emitter

Schematic Symbol

2. Two main conditions for transistor operation :


i. E - B junction is forward biased
ii. C - B junction is reverse biased.

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3. N P N
E
- - - - - - - - C
+
- - - - + - - - -
- - - - + - - - -

V1 V2

Referring to Figure 3.3, since E-B junction is forward biased by V1, the junction will allow
current flow because electrons at the emitter (type N) are repels by the negative potential of V1.
These electrons are attracted towards the positive potential of V1 through the base (type P). Since
base is only a thin layer and have only a small majority carriers (holes), not all of these electrons are
able to move through it. Only a small electron current flows in the base known as the base current
(IB).
Excessive electrons at the base are attracted towards the positive terminal of V2 through
the collector terminal and thus producing collector current (IC).

IE IC

IB

The arrow in Figure 3.4 indicates the direction of electron flow through the transistor. As
we know, the direction of current is opposite to the electron. Take note that IC is the bigger portion
of IE. A smaller portion of IE flows as IB. From this we can summarize that the current in the emitter IE
is the sum of the base current IB and the collector current IC.

I E = IC + IB

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3.3 BJT Configuration and Characteristic

As the Bipolar Transistor is a three terminal device, there are basically three possible ways
to connect it within an electronic circuit with one terminal being common to both the input and
output. Each method of connection responding differently to its input signal within a circuit as the
static characteristics of the transistor varies with each circuit arrangement.

(a) Common Emitter Configuration (CE)


(b) Common Base Configuration (CB)
(c) Common Collector Configuration (CC)

Do you still remember the biasing conditions for transistor to operates ? In this subchapter,
regardless of the circuit configuration, these conditions must be fulfill ; emitter-base (E-B) junction is
forward biased and collector-base (C-B) junction is reversed biased.

3.3.1 The Common Base (CB) configuration

For this configuration, the base is common (neutral) to the emitter and collector. This is the
reason the configuration is called Common Base Configuration. Figure 3.6 to 3.8 shows PNP
transistor connected in Common Base configuration.

Input Output

E C

Figure 3.6 : Basic Common Base Configuration

In Figure 3.6, input signal is being applied at emitter, output signal is taken at collector and
base is grounded.

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IE IC

VEE + VCC
IB

Figure 3.7: Biasing voltage for common base configuration

In Figure 3.7, the arrows show the current flow when the transistor is given a correct biasing
voltage. The value of IE (emmiter current) is correlated to the value of forward biasing voltage (VEE).
As VEE increases, IE also increases. At the same time, IC also increases but the value of IC is lower than
IE. The value of reverse biased voltage (VCC) does not influence any changes in any current value of
the circuit.
VEE -VCC

VRE RE RL VRL
IE IC

Vm VBE Vc Vk
IB

Figure 3.8: A standard schematic circuit of common base configuration

Referring to Figure 3.8, resistor RE is connected to emitter to limit the value of IE. High IE may
destroy E-B junction. Resistor RL is connected to collector. RL is also known as load resistance. It
functions to reduce collector voltage (Vc) when IC flow through RL. Figure 3.8 also gives a clear
illustration on the voltage drop for every level of the circuit.

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Using both Kirchoff law and Ohms law, below equations are derived:

Equation at Emitter: Equation at Collector:


(Input: Input signal is given to (Output: Ampified input signal is
this terminal when BJT taken from this terminal)
operating as Amplifier)

VRE = IE.RE VRL = IC.RL

Example 3.2

Referring to Figure 3.9, if the transistor is of silicon type and the value of IC = IE. Calculate the value
of Vk.

VEE = 22V VCC=27V

RE RL
9KΩ 4KΩ
IE IC

Vm VBE VCB Vk
IB

Figure 3.9

Solution
Input:
VEE = VRE + VBE
VEE = I E .R E + VBE ................givenVBE = 0.7V
22V = I E (9KΩ9 + 0.7V)
22V - 0.7V
IE =
9KΩ
= 2.37mA

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Output:
VRL = I C .R L ....................givenI C = I E
= (2.37mA)(4KΩ)
= 9.47V.

VC = VCC - VRL
= 27V - 9.47V
= 17.5V

TIPS:
In Figure 3.9, given Vcc=-27V; P P
The negative sign indicate reverse bias voltage at
collector-base (C-B) junction (for PNP transistor).
Therefore, we may ignore this negative sign in our
calculation.

3.3.1.1 Characteristic of Common Base (CB) configuration

The characteristic of Common Base (CB) configuration are describe in Table 3.1.

CHARACTERISTIC RELATED EQUATION

Input Impedance Low -


Input is given at Emitter-Base (E-
B) junction which is forward
biased

Output Impedance High


Output is taken at Colector-Base
(C-B) junction which is reverse
biased

Current Gain None Output Current, Iout


Current gain, A i =
Input Current , Iin

I
Αi = C
IE

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CHARACTERISTIC RELATED EQUATION

Voltage Gain High Voltage Gain, Av =


Output voltage, Vk
Input voltage, Vm

Power Gain High Gandaan Kuasa, A P =


Kuasa Keluaran, Pout
Kuasa Masukan, Pin
Iout 2 .Rout
=
Iin2 .Rin

Phase Shift In phase

Table 3.1 Common Base (CB) Configuration Characteristic

3.3.2 Common Collector (CC) Configuration

For this configuration, Collector is common or neutral to the Base and Emitter. Figure 3.10 -
6.12 shows NPN transitor in Common Collector configuration.

Input
B

Output
E

Figure 3.10 Basic Common Collector (CC) Configuration

In Figure 3.10, if a.c signal is applied to the circuit, the Base is the input terminal. Emitter is
the output terminal. Figure 3.11 shows the voltage biasing for the transistor in this configuration.
Observe that Base-Emitter junction is forward biased and Collector-Base junction is reverse biased.

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IC
IB

VBB
IE

Figure 3.11 Biasing voltage for Common Collector (CC) Configuration

Figure 3.12 illustrates a more practical method to connect a Common-Collector


configuration circuit. RB is connected to the Base. RB limits the value of base current (IB) . RL is
connected to the output curcuit. The output voltage is measured accross RL. As we know, in the
Common Collector configuration, the Collector is grounded. In Figure 3.12, Collector is grounded
through C3.

IC C3
C1 IB
C2
RB VCC
Vm RL Vk
VBB

Figure 3.12 A standard schematic circuit of Common Collector configuration

3.3.2.1 Characteristic of Common Collector (CC) Configuration

The characteristic of Common Collector (CC) configuration are describe in Table 3.2.

CHARACTERISTIC RELATED EQUATION

Input Impedance High -

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CHARACTERISTIC RELATED EQUATION

Output Impedance Low

Phase Shift In phase

Voltage Gain Low Voltage Gain, Av =


Output voltage, Vk
Input voltage, Vm
*samada satu atau kurang dari 1

Power Gain Low Gandaan Kuasa, A P =


Kuasa Keluaran, Pout
Kuasa Masukan, Pin
Iout 2 .Rout
=
Iin2 .Rin

Current Gain None Output Current, Iout


Current gain, A i =
Input Current , Iin

IE
ΑI =
IB
Table 3.2 Common Collector (CC) Configuration Characteristic

3.3.3 Common Emitter (CE) Configuration

For this configuration, Emitter is common or neutral to Base and Collector. Figure 3.13-3.17
illustrates NPN transistor in Common Emitter (CE) configuration. Input is given at Base terminal ,
output is taken from Collector and Emitter is grounded (shown in Figure 3.13).

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C

masukan keluaran
B
E

Figure 3.13 Basic Common Emitter (CE) Configuration

Figure 3.14 shows the voltage biasing for the transistor in this configuration. Observe that
Base-Emitter junction is forward biased by VBB and Collector-Base junction is reverse biased by VCC .

IC
IB +
VCC
VCE -
VBB +
-
VBE IE

Figure 3.14 Biasing voltage for Common Emitter (CE) Configuration

A more standard schematic circuit is illustrated in Figure 3.15. The circuit connected
to the Base is input circuit while the circuit connected to the Collector is output circuit. In this circuit
arrangement, we may clearly identify the voltage drop and current flow at each part of the circuit.
RB functions to limit the value of current at Base . A high base current may damaged the Emitter-
Base junction. RC fuctions as the load resistance with a volateg drop VRC.

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VBB VCC

RB RC VRC

VRB IC
IB

VCE
VBE IE

Figure 3.15 A standard schematic circuit of Common Emitter (CE) Configuration

Using both Kirchoff law and Ohms law, below equations are derived:

Equation at Base (Input) : Equation at Collector (Output) :

Rajah 6.11

VCC

Collector current ( IC) is much more higher than base current ( IB ). The value of collector current
depends on the Beta (β ) factor. VCE may have a high value as C-B junction which is reverse biased,
have a high resistance value. If the value VBB is equal to VCC , biasing voltage is taken from the same
voltage source. Therefore , VBB is replaced by VCC

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Example 3.3
Referring to Figure 3.16, if the Beta factor for the transistor is 120 and the transistor ois of silicon
type, calculate the value of IC and VC ..

VBB=+35V VCC +35V

RB RC VRC
VRB 2.2MΩ 12KΩ
IC
IB
β=120

VCE
VBE IE

Figure 3.16

Solution

Input :
VBB = VRB + VBE
VBB = I B .R B + VBE
35V = (I B )(2.2MΩ ) + 0.7V ........VBE = 0.7v for silicon
35V - 0.7V
IB =
2.2MΩ
= 15.6µA.

Output :
I C = β.I B
= (120)(15.6µ5 )
= 1.87mA.

VRL = I C .R L
= (1.87mA )(12KΩ )
= 22.45V.

VCE = VCC − VRL


= 35V − 22.45V
= 12.55V.

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3.3.3.1 Characteristic of Common Emitter (CE) Configuration

The characteristic of Common Emitter (CE) configuration are describe in Table 3.3.

CHARACTERISTIC RELATED EQUATION

Input Impedance Low -

Output Impedance High

Phase Shift 180o

Voltage Gain High Voltage Gain, Av =


Output voltage, Vk
Input voltage, Vm

Power Gain High Gandaan Kuasa, A P =


Kuasa Keluaran, Pout
Kuasa Masukan, Pin
Iout 2 .Rout
=
Iin2 .Rin

Current Gain High Output Current, Iout


Current gain, A i =
Input Current , Iin

IC
ΑI =
IB
Table 3.3 Common Emitter (CE) Configuration Characteristic

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Exercise 3.3

1. Transistor can be connected in several configurations, name THREE (3) configurations you had
learned.

2. Among the diagrams below , which one has the correct biasing voltage connection for the
common base configuration .

A IE IC IE IC
B
VEE VC VEE
+ + VC
- IB - IB

IE IC I IC
C D
VEE VC VEE VC
+ +
- IB - IB

3. Determine the correct biasing voltage connection for common collector configuration below.

A B
IC IC
IB IB
Vc Vc
VBB VBB
I I

C IC D IC
IB IB
Vc Vc
VBB VBB
I IE

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4. Draw a standard schematic diagram for the configuration in question 1.
5. The table below shows some of the characteristics specified for the transistor configurations .
Complete the following characteristics

Configuration Common Base Common Common Emitter


Configuration Collector Configuration
Characteristic Configuration
Input impedance High
Output impedance High
Current gain
Voltage gain
Power gain High
Phase shift

Answer
1. i. Tatarajah Tapak Sepunya
ii. Tatarajah Pemungut Sepunya
iii. Tatarajah Pengeluar Sepunya

2. ( b)
3. ( a )
4. (i.) (ii)
VEE -VCC
IC C3
C1 IB
VRE RE RL
IE IC C2
RB VCC
RL Vk
Vm VBE Vk Vm VB
IB
Vc

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(iii)
VBB VCC

RB RC VRC
VRB IC
IB

VCE
VBE IE

5.
Configuration Common Base Common Common Emitter
Configuration Collector Configuration
Characteristic Configuration
Input impedance Low High Low
Output impedance High Low High
Current gain Low High High
Voltage gain High Low High
Power gain High Low High
Phase shift None None 180°

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