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Guide to

4 Guide to Four Wheel Driving

How to use

This Guide was prepared in Collaboration with

the UNHCR e-center: the vehicle effectively,

for safe driving.

Four Wheel Driving



Copyright 2001 Toyota Motor Corporation. All rights reserved.

use the vehicle
for safe driving. 1 Basic Information for 4WD
In this manual you will find basic 4 How 4WD Works
5 Using 4WD Vehicles
information needed to operate a 8 Basic of Off-road Driving
4WD. Even if you are an experi- 2 Driving Techniques
enced 4WD user, you will probably 11 Hill-climbing
13 Down-hill Driving
find some information in here you 14 Ditch
didn’t know or be reminded of 16 Slope
something you may have forgot- 17 Muddy Soil
18 River
ten. In any event, please enjoy 19 Sandy Soil
reading through this manual and 20 Rocky Surface
learning or re-learning the benefits 21 Snowy Surface

of owning a Toyota 4WD. 3 Remarks

26 Escape
28 Winching Techniques
30 Inspection before Driving
32 Inspection after Driving
2 3
Basic Information for 4WD
How 4WD Works Using 4WD Vehicles
The mechanism and characteristics of Using 4WD vehicles
four-wheel drive (4WD) vehicles
Most cars on the road today move move the vehicle even if one of the
by using two wheels, either on the wheels doesn’t have traction. 4WD
rear (RWD) or on the front (FWD) gets more traction than RWD or 2WD 1 FWD: Front Wheel Drive
of the vehicle. 4WD, on the other FWD and ensures stable driving 2 RWD: Rear Wheel Drive
hand, uses all four wheels. By off-road—on sandy, muddy or
mobilizing all four wheels, it can slippery surfaces.

The Difference between 4WD and 2WD

4WD 1 Full Time 4WD: Permanent 4WD
The vehicle utilizes all The vehicle loses 2 Standby 4WD: Usually 2WD, becomes
four-wheels to propel it. momentum. 4WD automatically when it is necessary.
The fron 3 Part-time 4WD: Usually 2WD,
not clim wheels can- becomes 4WD by the driver’s choice.
RWD b the ga

The fron
(drive) sl heels
FWD ip

The re
(drive) g ar wheels
RWD et ca
the gapught in

4 5
1 Basic Information for 4WD

4WD mode Locking the front free-

wheel hub
With full-time 4WD, no action is necessary. With part-time 4WD, drivers Shifting the gearbox to 4WD mode in reverse motion to do this. So it is
must lock the front free-wheel hubs and shift into four wheel drive. is only half of the procedure to not possible to do this if the car is
actually engage all of the wheels. stuck. These vehicles require the
Sub-transmission The front drive shaft has to be con- driver to lock the front free-wheel
nected to the front wheels, too. hub in advance.
There are two types of 4WD regarding transfer. There are three types of connec- 3 Automatic: The locking of front
1 Transfer lever type: Shift the lever to “H4” or “L4”. tions here. free-wheel hub is done while the
2 Switch type: Push a switching button. 1 Manual: Rotate the dial of the diver shifts into 4WD mode.
front free-wheel hub into “lock”
2 Power Locking: Push the hub-
lock switch button. Some 4WD
vehicles with power-locking con-
nections require the vehicle to be Power Locking


As a general rule, shifting into 4WD is to be done while the car is parked.
Yet, there are types of 4WD that allow the shifting to be done while the
vehicle is in motion. Confirm the appropriate procedure (by consulting the
operation manual) so as not to damage the vehicle and to avoid accidents.
When the shift is made, usually an indicator lamp lights up to confirm the Hub Lock
shift. However, the lamp can fail and driving the car is a better way of con- & H4 button
firming that the shift into 4WD has taken place.

6 7
1 Basic Information for 4WD

Basic of Off-road Driving LSD & Differential lock or "L4" with the free-wheel hubs
system engaged to see if it works. If this has
LSD (Limited Slip Differential) no effect,also use the front and rear
2WD H2: Lever at "H2" Use this for normal driving on dry, hard-sur- Some vehicles are equipped with a differential lock system.
faced roads.This position provides better limited-slip differential. If one rear 2.Do not use the front and rear dif-
(High speed position, economy, a quieter ride and the least wear.
two wheel drive) wheel begins to spin, the limited ferential lock in conditions other
slip differential automatically than the above as it will make
transfers the drive the other rear steering and cornering very diffi-
4WD H4: Lever at "H4" Use this for normal driving on wet, icy or wheel. cult. This is especially true when
snow-covered roads.This position provides Differential lock system using the front differential lock in
(High speed position, greater traction than two-wheel drive.
four wheel drive) Some vehicles are equipped with a addition to the rear and may cause
front or rear differential lock system. the vehicle to spin suddenly during
1. This differential lock system is acceleration or engine braking.*
4WD L4 Use this for maximum power and traction. effective in case one or either right
Use "L4" for climbing or descending steep *Engine Brake: By backing off the
(Low speed position, hills, off-road driving, and hard pulling in or left pair of the wheels is spinning. accelerator, you can use the engine to
four wheel drive) sand, mud or deep snow. Before using the front and rear dif- help you brake. The resistance, of the
ferential lock system, first shift the slowing engine,slows the wheel speed
and effectively slows the vehicle.
four-wheel drive control into "H4"

Driving slowly Tight corner braking and rear wheels. While this is not a
when using L4. phenomenon malfunction,driving on a road with
When driving in 4WD, making a good traction could result in worn
sharp turn can feel like the vehicle tires and damage the mechanism .
is blocked. This is called tight cor- It should be avoided. Driving with-
ner braking phenomenon and is a out the center differential locked
result of the difference in the rota- helps avoid this problem.
tion speed required for the front
8 9
Driving Techniques
Hill-climbing run, an alternate route should be
used. However, an approach run
THE DRIVEABILITY should be restrained to gapless sur-
faces. When there is a gap on the
Hill Climb Angle, Length, Surface (hardness, Gear which requires If the slope is steep or has a slippery surface it is better to climb slowly
solidity, gap, slipperiness) Drop or no shift change surface, making an approach run and steadily to reduce the shock to
curve at the top of slope could reduce slip while climbing. If the under body.
Down Hill Angle, Length, Surface (hardness, Use a lower gear to there is no room for an approach
solidity, gap, slipperiness) get the maximum
engine brake Choose in advance the route
with the least gaps .
Ditch Width, Depth of ditch, Angle,
Surface (sand, stone, mud, solidity)
Slope Angle,Width, Distance, Surface
(hardness, solidity,gap,slipperiness)
Muddy Soil Angle,Width, Distance, Surface Use a lower gear
(solidity, existence of track or gap)
Keep the speed
River Depth,Width, Distance, Speed of L4 steady…
The vehicle can end up
the flow, Bottom making a big leap oth-
(Stability, solidity, gap slipperiness) erwise.

Sandy Soil Gradient, Distance Surface L4

(solidity, gap) 2 Long climb: When climbing a
Tips for driving
Rocky Surface Gradient, Distance Surface L4 long hill, keep the speed steady.
(solidity, gap, slipperiness) 1 Speed, distance and direc- 3 Clutch operation: It is best not
tion: Make an approach run at an to shift. However, if a change is
Snowy Surface Gradient, Distance Surface Use a higher gear adequate speed and from suffi- required on the way, do it quickly
(iced, gap, hidden object under when starting and a cient distance. Climb the hill and with little clutch use to avoid
snow) lower gear down hill
straight towards the top. losing momentum and traction.
10 11
2 Driving Techniques
4 Acceleration: Use a steady If the wheels lose traction because straight down the hill. If the tires
Down-hill lose traction, slightly accelerating
acceleration up the hill and back the surface is slippery , slightly Driving
off the acceleration towards the decelerate to bring the traction can help regain traction and steer-
top to avoid shooting over the top. back. Tips for driving ing control.
3 Long slope: Vehicles tend to
1 Gear selection and braking: gain momentum as they go down-
Recovery rear-view mirror to guide your Choose a low gear to take advan- hill. Regardless, try to maintain a
descent. It is best not to use the tage of engine braking and to be steady speed.
If you slip before reaching the top, foot brake to avoid tire-lock. How- able to avoid using the brake. On a 4 Clutch operation: When driv-
back up using the engine as a ever,brake gently to keep the vehi- steep or slippery slope, choosing ing down-hill, don’t clutch, as it
brake. This is your recovery. Keep cle under control* in cars with “L4” to get the maximum engine will nullify the engine brake. This
the steering wheel pointed toward automatic transmissions due to brake is appropriate. Of course the causes loss of traction and acceler-
the top of the slope and use the the lack of enough engine braking. conditions and type of vehicle ates the vehicle. It is one of the
(manual or automatic, etc.) may most dangerous things when driv-
necessitate foot braking. ing downhill.
Use the 2 Maintain the direction:
Make a careful
recovery when an engine to Down-hill driving should aim Avoid operation of the
attempt fails. brake. clutch or changing
Before driving a down-hill, speed.
Back up straight and check the surface condition and
avoid locking tires. choose a gear that is adequate
to the gradient.

*Vehicles with ABS** allow the **ABS: The ABS (Anti-lock Braking
application of even full-braking System) prevents wheel lock-up
though full-braking may require a allowing the driver to take evasive Make absolutely sure
longer distance to come to a full stop. action while braking. to keep the vehicle
speed constant.
12 13
2 Driving Techniques

Driving over a
Tips for driving
body. It is important at this time 2 Driving speed and accelera- 3 Mitigate depth or slope:
1 Approach angle and drive that at least three of the tires tion: Slowly enter one tire at a When the depth or the angle is too
path: Approach ditches/holes at maintain traction. Be sure to use time into the ditch/gap. Then, great, adjustments could be made
an angle for maximum control. full-time 4WD with center differ- accelerate a little until the tire by placing a rock or other object
Direct approaches could result in ential activated when driving in starts to pass the lip and decelerate where the tires hit.
hitting the bumper or underguard these conditions. right after the tire clears the ditch.
against edge of the ditch. The Caution: If your angle is wrong, two Repeat this process for all four
angled approach increases clear- tires may enter the ditch at the same tires. On a slippery surface,
ance. The angled approach also time, which could cause you to get increase or decrease speed as
forces tires into the ditch one by stuck. Drive carefully. needed.
one, reducing the impact to the
Apply the tire to the “wall” of a ditch/gap and then accel-
erate gently to bring the tire over the “wall”. Decelerate
right after the tire goes beyond the “wall.”

Approach a ditch 
slantwise and drop
the tires one by one.

14 15
2 Driving Techniques

Driving over a Slope Driving through Muddy Soil

Tips for driving Avoid frequent gear Tips for driving
1 Approach angle: 1 Driving path: 5 Adjustment of tire pressure:
Use different approaches should Only drive through shallow mud On a muddy surface, mud can stick
be applied depending on the cir- (the depth should not go above the in the tire tread which reduces
cumstance.Given a choice, howev- center of the differential); remain traction and the vehicle can easily
er, keep the driver’s seat closer to on as solid a surface as possible. get stuck. To prevent this , reduce
the mountain side gives the driver tire pressure to the level of 1.2
an increased sense of security. 2 Gear selection: kg/cm2 to 1.5 kg/cm2.This increas-
Choose the gear one lower than es traction. If the mud is very wet,
The driver’s seat should
the one capable for managing the increasing the tire pressure could
be mountain side to surface. If the vehicle is equipped increase the traction by making
help prevent panic and with a differential lock system, mud less likely to stick on the
feelings of vertigo. activate it. tires.

2 Driving speed and acceleration: 3 Clutch operation: Maintain a

Steady acceleration or a constant speed speed in which traction is not lost
is best. and do not change gears. Shifting
can result in sudden deceleration
Steering to the mountain side could Steer to the valley side to adjust the
cause a roll over. direction of the vehicle. and make the vehicle stick in place.

4 Steering operation: Utilizing tire chains

Rotating the steering on muddy
surface causes increased resist- On a muddy surface,consider using
ance. Keep the direction constant. tire chains.

16 17
2 Driving Techniques

Driving through Driving through

a River Sandy Soil When the vehicle is stuck, lower
the tire pressure to make the
Tips for driving Tips for driving restart easier but don’t forget to
add pressure afterward.
1 Approach angle and driving 1 Traction and tire pressure: In
path: Choose a downstream path. Avoid shifting to get sandy soil, the sand is soft and the
up and down.
Going against the flow could stop resistance is high.Similar to muddy
the vehicle. Also avoid anywhere soil, gaining traction in sand is dif-
deeper than the center of the tires. result in the vehicle getting caught ficult. In order to avoid getting
In shallow places where the in a gap at the bottom. To guard stuck, reduce the tire pressure.
stream is slow,you must be careful against such an incident, your However,too much reduction could
of mud and sand accumulations. thumbs should not be placed cause the tires to separate from the
Water is deeper than it appears, so inside the steering wheel. rims causing a whole new set of
If the vehicle stops, turn
add 20 to 30% to the depth as it 4 Selection of landing area: The problems. the steering straight
looks from the surface. landing area should be a point 2 Gear selection: Considering the before restarting.
2 Gear selection and speed: with a solid surface and a small strong resistance, “L4” is a good
“L4” is a good choice and constant vertical gap. (Many vehicles get choice. If the vehicle is equipped
acceleration prevents water from stuck at the landing point.) with a differential lock system, sion is thus preferable over manual
entering the muffler and the activate it. transmission as it doesn’t require
engine. Water entering the air 3 Steering and clutch opera- the driver to use a clutch.
intake or electrical system would tion: Don’t turn suddenly.Stepping 4 Stopping a vehicle: Applying
cause water-hammer* or a short- *Water-hammer: If a quantity of on the clutch could get the vehicle brakes will sink the vehicle. There-
circuit. water coming into the combustion stuck. Therefore, use a gear which fore,let the vehicle stop by itself or,
3 Steering operation: The bot- chamber exceeds its capacity, proper will take you through the entire even better, stop the vehicle on a
compression stops. This may cause a
tom may not be visible because of connecting rod to bend or even break trip without shifting. If you must solid surface or at a high position
mud or sunlight reflected on the and may also damage a piston. shift, do it quickly so as not to lose so that restarting on a downhill
river surface. Such situations could momentum. Automatic transmis- slope is possible.
18 19
2 Driving Techniques

Driving on a Rocky Surface Driving on a Snowy Surface

Tips for driving traction is required.However,high- Tips for driving traction. To start a vehicle, engage
er pressure is required most of the the clutch gently and gradually.
1 Gear selection and speed:“L4” time in order to minimize the pos- INSPECTION OF THE SURFACE Select a higher gear, too. With an
would be the right choice to drive sible damage by the rocks to the 1 As dangerous objects could be automatic transmission vehicle,
through steep and rocky surfaces. tire and wheel. underneath the snow, walk on the simply release the brake pedal to
Drive at a walking speed.Fast driv- 4 Steering operation: In prepa- surface to test it before driving start the vehicle in motion.
ing kicks up stones which can ration against the kickback from through snow.
damage the vehicle, while impact the rocky surface, place your 2 The maximum depth of snow DRIVING SPEED
from driving over a gap could thumbs on the steering wheel. A you should drive through is up to On a road with an icy or snowy sur-
damage the wheels or suspension. firm grip is necessary to avoid the differential. If the surface con- face,drive at less than half the reg-
2 Driving path: It is best to have straying from the chosen path. sists mostly of new, dry snow, the ular speed.
an assistant guide the driver for maximum height could be up to
safety. Look for sharp rocks which the bumper. Anything deeper STEERING OPERATION
can damage the wheel or burst a requires the vehicle to repeat the 1 Use studless tires* when driving
tire. When driving over rocks, process of pushing the snow and through snow. Over confidence of
make sure they can’t move. If a Ask an assistant
then backing up. driving a 4WD could lead to the
rock tilts when initially touched, it to guide the driv- 3 The quality of the snow would vehicle getting stuck or to an acci-
could lodge under the body of the er. change its resistance. Vehicles can dent. Once the vehicle loses trac-
vehicle or could give way causing a get more easily stuck in wet and
* Studless Tires: The specific tire for
roll-over. icy snow. driving on an icy or snowy road.The
3 Tire pressure: Lowering the 4 Some vehicles get more stability main benefit of this tire is its ability
pressure is an option when better by driving through a track left by to keep elastic in cold temperatures,
previous vehicles. which in turn improves its traction.
The tread of this type of tire is specif-
Driving at high ically designed for smooth driving
speeds is always
dangerous. Abrupt clutching results in loss of on icy or snowy roads.

20 21
2 Driving Techniques

tion, there is no difference mentum. Therefore, the vehicle Tire chains

between 4WD and 2WD. speed should be lowered before
2 Making a sharp turn is danger- cornering. 1 Tire chains: There are metal
ous. If the vehicle starts to spin, it 3 The areas before intersections chains and non-metal chains.
tends to spin towards the lower and corners tend to have slippery Non-metal chains are lighter, easi-
side of the road or towards the surfaces, as many vehicles have er to carry and attach. Conversely,
direction of the tire that slipped. applied brakes at those points metal chains are heavier and more
Slowly, step on the accelerator before. difficult to attach. Yet, they are but makes correction easier. If the
pedal (don’t release the pedal) and cheaper and easier to repair if bro- vehicle gets stuck, the chains can
counter-steer to regain control. UP-HILL SLOPE ken and thus more suitable for be removed and reattached to the
3 When the vehicle starts to lose Start the climb by observing the cross-country driving. front tires for traction. Where
traction during cornering, drivers vehicles ahead and try not to stop 2 Attaching chains: Chains chains should be attached (front or
tend to overcompensate.The driv- while climbing. If you are forced to should be attached as soon as the rear tires) is a case-by-case deci-
er should be aware of this tenden- stop and can not restart,back up to snow starts falling continuously. If sion, but generally it is recom-
cy, as sometimes the vehicle the bottom of the slope and oncoming vehicles are wearing mended to use the rear tires.
regains traction suddenly and restart there. them, attach chains. In the case of
starts a sharp turn. 4WD, attach chains to the tires
DOWN-HILL SLOPE with the heavier load. On deep Other tips for cold places
BRAKE Shifting or sudden deceleration snow or for driving downhill, use
1 Test the braking for tire lock-up while going downhill should be the front tires. In pressed snows SNOW ACCUMULATION ON THE
in a safe environment. Knowing avoided as the vehicle could lose and up-hill, use the rear tires. Gen- VEHICLE
this limit helps the driver make traction.Choose a low gear and let erally speaking, attaching to the While driving, snow that sticks to
delicate maneuver under pressure the engine control the speed. front tires risks damage to the the fenders could interfere with
situations. inside of wheel-housing, axle or steering and snow on the head-
2 Even vehicles with studless tires brake hose.Regarding vehicle con- lamps could affect the beam.
or those using tire chains have trol, attaching chains to the rear Check these potential problems by
lower grip against horizontal mo- tires can increase under-steering, inspecting it from time to time.
22 23
2 Driving Techniques
THE VEHICLE If you force the door to open after AND CONCENTRATION
Be careful not to bring the snow it becomes frozen,you might dam- Prevent freezing by adding LLC
inside the vehicle on shoes and age its rubber seal. Apply heat anti-freezing radiator fluid.
clothes as it could make the pedal with moderately warm water and
surface slippery or freeze the ped- wait for the door to defrost. WINDOW-WASHER FLUID
als when the vehicle is parked. cable. In an extremely cold place, Driving through snowy conditions
removing the entire battery to be SELECTION OF FUEL consumes a larger amount of win-
PARKING kept in a warmer place is another Gas oil freezes under minus 10 dow-washer liquid than normal.
1 Avoid parking in a windy or effective option. Changing the degrees and can choke the fuel Make sure you have plenty.
snowy place or where a large block direction of the vehicle when line. Leave some room in the fuel
of snow could fall. parking or putting a corrugated tank before arriving at your desti- STARTING THE VEHICLE
2 When parking for an extended paper or towels in or on the hood nation so that refueling locally When a vehicle has been parked
period of time,have space to brush doesn’t help very much. with non-freezing fuel is possible. for a long time, the radiator fluid
the snow before driving again. 4 So as not to let the parking could be frozen slightly, even if
3 One way to maintain battery brake freeze, park the vehicle BATTERY LIQUID anti-freeze is being used. If driving
power is by disconnecting the without activating the parking When there is not enough fluid in begins before the liquid melts, the
brake. Leave the vehicle in either the battery,the power supply goes little liquid left in the radiator
first gear or in reverse. down and restarting under cold could boil and burst the hose. Let
5 To prevent the wipers from conditions becomes difficult. the engine warm up before mov-
freezing in place, move them to ing the vehicle. Wait until hot air
the up position, not touching the comes out from the heater or until
windshield. the water temperature gage
6 To prevent keyhole freeze,insert starts showing some warmth.
an anti-corrosion lubricant into
the keyhole.

24 25
Escape from a Turned-over Vehicle burnout. If the vehicle is equipped 5 Escape from the vehicle:
with an idling timer, turn it off as Examine to determine if the route
The reasons vehicles are from the side, inadequate opera- well. of escape is a safe one and get out
turned on their sides
tion while driving a sloping road, 2 Prepare for escape: Prepare to from the vehicle. Avoid getting
An abrupt turn during high speed shock from a road gap or road col- extract yourself from the seat belt close to the tires because an
driving, sudden braking, a collision lapse can all cause a vehicle to flip. and to be able to protect yourself if engine or transmission tends to be
you fall. hot and the fuel tank could ignite.
Maximum angle before 3 Get rid of seat belt: If you can- Assess the surface condition and
road condition add to the instabil- not get rid of the belt, cut it with a stability of the vehicle before
turning on its side
ity.On rocky places with gaps,even seatbelt cutter. deciding which side of the vehicle
In addition to keeping appropriate a 5-degree tilt can cause the vehi- 4 Open the door or window: from which to escape.
speed and avoiding abrupt opera- cle to flip. It is desirable to “feel” Open the appropriate door/win- 6 Escape to a safe place: To
tion, stay away from a roadside these angles in a safe and stable dow for you to make the escape. If avoid secondary damage,get away
that might collapse; pay extra environment so as not to go the door/window is forced shut from the vehicle and call for help.
attention while driving steep beyond these limits in the actual because of deformation of the
slopes. The maximum tilt for a driving situations. Vehicles modi- body, use a hammer to smash the
vehicle before it turns over when it fied to increase height or with window and escape.
is not in motion is somewhere other additions change its center
between 30 degrees to left/right of gravity and extra caution is
and 40 degrees to front/rear.When required.
the vehicle is in motion, speed and
Escape to
the safe side!
Escaping from an upset
vehicle 1 Turn off the engine: By turn-
ing off the engine, you prevent oil
If the vehicle flips, do not panic or fuel from catching fire or other
and behave with caution. engine trouble such as an engine

26 27
3 Remarks

Escape tools that save anchors, but natural objects such 2. When anchoring the pulling
as trees,stumps and rocks are best. vehicle, engage the parking brake
Result could be fatal if the seat belt from one’s own vehicle and to save Select the anchor carefully and and put blocks in front of the
cannot be removed or if the win- other people from their vehicle as ensure it can withstand the load. wheels.You may find that pressing
dows or doors don’t open quickly. well. on the foot brakes adds further
To prepare for such an emergency, Tool choices should be made care- Winch operation stability.
there are several escape tools. fully because functions differ with
Most of them are a combination of types and sizes. The tools should
hammer to break the windows be fixed on a place within the 1. Depending on the weight of the
and a scissors/cutter to cut the reach of the driver even when the object to be moved, decide the
seat belt.They are useful to escape vehicle is turned upside down. number of pulleys, length of rope,
how to hook the cable (e.g. sin-
Winching Techniques gle/double/triple line) and the
direction of pulling.
Winching your way free people or to lift objects.
Winching requires an anchor: BLOCKS TO WHEEL
Use a winch not only to get other vehicles can be used as Within 15 degrees hori-
zontally and vertically
unstuck, but also to remove from the vehicle center.
objects and to climb or descend If necessary, use Stand clear of the
tree as an anchor U SHACKLE cable and load
extremely steep hills. LEATHER
during the winch-
A winch takes the work out of free- TOW ROPE GLOVES
ing operation.
ing a vehicle. Also a vehicle can
free itself with a winch. However, LEATHER 3. If needed, use an additional
never use the winch to lift or move BLANKET PAD anchor for stability or to prevent
flipping the vehicle.
4. Wrap the anchor with a leather
pad. Also place a blanket in the
middle of the cable when winching.
28 29
3 Remarks

5. If possible,start the engine of the straight to the pulling direction. stoplamps, tail lamps, turn signals spare fuses. They should cover all
stuck vehicle and shift to neutral. 7. Start the engine of the winch- and other lamps are all working. the amperage ratings designated
6. Keep the wheels pointing ing vehicle and begin to pull. Check the headlamp aim. on the fuse box lid.
Coolant level: Make sure the
coolant level is correct.
Rewinding Convoys: Battery and cables: All the bat-
When traveling in a convoy, you
are responsible for the vehicle tery cells should be filled to the
Always inspect and carefully behind you,keeping them in view proper level with distilled water.
rewind the cable after use. When ensures that you know about any Look for corroded or loose termi-
spooling the cable, be sure to dis- problems immediately. Never fol- nals or a cracked case. Check the
tribute it evenly and tightly on the low a car too closely. A vehicle cables for good condition and
drum.Replace the cable if any part stops quickly when it gets stuck, INSIDE THE VEHICLE connections.
flying rocks can damage your Jack and wheel nut wrench: Wiring: Look for damaged, loose
becomes damaged. For more vehicle, in dusty conditions, you
details regarding winching, please Make sure you have your jack and or disconnected wires.
may not be able to see clearly, so wheel nut wrench. Fuel lines: Check the lines for
refer to your operation manual. give the vehicle ahead room.
Seatbelts: Check that the buckles leaks or loose connections.
lock securely. Make sure the belts
Inspection before Driving Off-road are not worn or frayed. Entering a vehicle
Before starting Instrument and controls : Espe-
the engine not missing or loose. cially make sure the service 1 Adjust seat position, seatback
Fluid leaks: After the vehicle has reminder indicators, instrument angle, seat cushion angle, head
OUTSIDE THE VEHICLE been parked for a while, check light and defroster are working. restraint height and steering
Tires (spare included): Check the underneath for leaking fuel oil, Brakes: Make sure the pedal has wheel angle.
pressure with a gauge and look water or fluid. (water dripping enough clearance. 2 Adjust inside and outside rear-
carefully for cuts, damage or from air conditioning after use is view mirrors.
excessive wear. normal) IN THE ENGINE COMPARTMENT 3 Lock all doors.
Wheel nuts: Make sure nuts are Lights: Make sure the headlamps, Spare fuses: Make sure you have 4 Fasten seatbelts.
30 31
3 Remarks

Inspection after Driving Off-road interferes with the rotation of tires Damage to brake fluid hose or
or power train parts. brake-wire: Small stones can jump
Vehicle condition ● Damage to power train into these parts resulting in oil
tion of parts and material. Mud
parts: Damage to axle housing or leakage or damage to the wiring.
and sand that sticks to the vehicle
rod-arm could cause oil leakage or ● Tilt: Put the vehicle on level
The parts related to the engine and can accelerate corrosion. Parts of
unstable steering. ground to determine tilt.
powertrain are subject to intense the vehicle could also have been
heat and load. Driving through damaged by rocks or other objects
water exposes heated parts to on the road.
water and causes faster degrada- Easy Maintenance 3. The level of brake fluid, power-
steering oil and transmission oil,
After washing and inspection, the must be verified and inspected if
Basic maintenance parts that support transmission following maintenance procedures large amounts are missing.
can result in corrosion. could be applied. 4. Supply sufficient battery liquid.
1 Cleaning: Start with washing Sand can easily sneak into arms 1. Sand and dust on the air clean- 5. Add grease to all grease-up
the vehicle. Focus on the under that support axle and bushing er should be taken off by gently points.
body rather than the body with resulting in faster wear on those shaking the cleaner. If the dusts 6. Any damage caused to the drive
the following in mind: parts. persist, consider replacing the train should be treated at the
Mud stuck on the wheel can dis- Dust stuck on the front of radiator cleaner. garage to the extent necessary.
turb the wheel balance and result reduces the cooling capacity and 2. Check the engine oil. If water 7. Seriously damaged tires or
in vibrations at high speed. can result in corrosion. has entered, whitening of the oil wheels should be replaced.
Check for scratches on the tires and takes place. If carbon has found its
wheels. The wheel rims and the 2 Easy inspection: Look around way, blackening of the oil takes
sidewall of tires have to be tires and under the body for visible place. If the amount is not enough,
inspected carefully because driv- damage. add oil. If irregularly large
ing through rocky surfaces can ● Damage to the body: Dam- amounts of oil is missing, identifi-
damage these parts. age to the bumper or the body has cation and rectification of the
Mud caught by the cover and other to be treated immediately if it cause is called for.

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2,700cc Petrol/2,800 Diesel

Single Cab/Double Cab

Up 2,700cc Petrol/2,800 Diesel

4,500cc Petrol/4,200 Diesel


Pick Up/Hard Top
4,500cc Petrol/4,200 Diesel

Note:Vehicle body color and features may differ slightly from the images in this guide.Toyota Motor Corporation
reserves the right to alter any detail of features and equipment without notice.
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