Anda di halaman 1dari 74

Kolom Distilasi 2

Fungsi : Memisahkan Bioetanol dan air


Bahan Konstruksi : Carbon steel (SA-285, Cr C)

Tf= 90.87 C 364.02 K


Td= 81.25 C 354.40 K
Tb= 98.34 C 371.49 K
Trata-rata= 89.79809026 C 362.9480902594 K

F= 895.3986 kg/jam 0.2487218347 kg/s


D= 478.8362011 kg/jam 0.1330100559 kg/s
B= 416.562404 kg/jam 0.1157117789 kg/s
BM etanol= 46
BM air= 18
Xf= 54% berat etanol 46% berat air
T feed= 90.87 C 195.5626849874 F
Xd= 90% berat etanol
T dis= 98.34 C 209.0190806689 F
xB= 10% berat etanol
Tbottom= 98.34 C 209.0190806689 F
F= 895.3986 x 0.5435 +
46
= 37.6132 kmol/jam
Bm campuran= 895.3986 = 23.8055 kg/kmol
37.6132

Xf= 54%/46 =
54%/46 + 46%/18

XD= 90%/46
90%/46 + 0,1%/18 =

xB= 10%/46 =
10%/46 + 90%/18
BM campuran distilat= 1 =
90%/46 + 0,1%/18

BM campuran bottom= 1 =
10%/46 + 90%/18

qf line
feed masuk berupa liquid jenuh dngan kadar xF=0,5. dari neraca massa diperoleh temperatur feed masuk=91,68
Tb= 78.4 C (dari grafik T-xy)

q= Cp f (T b  T f )
q 1
 campuran
= 1.0000

Refluks Minimum
Menentukan garis operasi rectifying
Dari kurva kesetimbangan etanol-air diperoleh :
ymin= 0.41
0.41 = 0.78
xD Rmin+1
ymin 
Rmin  1 Rmin+1 = 1.9
Rmin = 0.9
R op = 1.5 x
= 1.5 x
R op = 1.3494
y op = 0.7788
2.3494
= 0.3315
xD Plate ideal = 10.2
y op  Jumlah plate= 12.5
R op  1
Viskositas
μbioetanol= 1.2 cP 1.18 cP
μair= 1 cP 1.02 cP

1 fraksi1 fraksi2
 
 mix 1 2

μ uap= 90%*1,2 + 10%*1


= 1.18 cP = 0.00118

μ liquid= 10%*1,2 + 90%*1


1.02 cP = 0.00102

μ campuran= μ uap + μ liquid


= 2.20 cP = 0.0022

Relative Volatility
αfeed= 2.25
αDistilat= 2.28

Relative volatility komponen kunci = αfeed + αDistilat


= 2.25 x 2.28
= 2.27

Relative Volatility x μcampuran = 4.99


Setelah diplotkan ke gambar 4.9, Harker hal. 126, maka diperoleh :
efisiensi plate = 35%
Sehingga, plate aktual adalah jumlah plate = 12.5
efisiensi plate 0.35
Stripping = 2.5 = 2.50
0.35
Rectifying = 9.2 = 9.20
0.35
feed plate = 10.2 = 10.20
35%
F24
Komponen BM
% kmol/jam kg/jam
Bioetanol 46.00 0.54 10.58 486.62
Air 18.00 0.46 22.71 408.78
1.00 895.40
Total
895.40

Komponen BM m (kg/jam) kmol/jam %


Bioetanol 46 486.62 10.5787049065 0.54
Air 18 408.78 22.709898851 0.4565320708
Total 0 895.40 33.2886037575 100

massa, m = 895.40 kg/jam


Volumetrik = 2.0356248884 m3/jam 71.8860573093
Densitas, ρ = 883.30373963 kg/m3
viskositas campuran, μ = 1.1086935858 cP
BM campuran Feed = 23.8055 kg/kmol
BM campuran distilat = 39.807692308 kg/kmol
BM campuran bottom = 19.574468085 kg/kmol
R= 0.08206

R = 1.3494
Ln = RxD
= 646.1594 kg/jam
= 0.1795 kg/s
Lm = Ln + F
= 1541.5580 kg/jam
= 0.4282 kg/s

W= F-D
= 416.5624 kg/jam

Vm = Lm - W
= 1124.9956 kg/jam
= 0.3125 kg/s
3. Diameter Asumsi
Asumsi diameter kolom distilasi 2, setelah diplotkan laju alir gas dan densitas gas ke backhurst, fig 4.1 hal. 103, m
Diameter, D = 0.6 m 23.622
Laju Alir uap (V)
V = 0.3125 kg/dtk 2,480.1652
Densitas Alir Uap, ρv= Pv=nRT
P x BM Distilat
P = 1 atm 
n = 11.7918 RT
R = 0.082
T = 354.40 K
densitas, ρ = 0.1330 = 0.0004
342.68
Laj alir volumetrik = 805.1099 m3/detik
Viskositas uap, μV = 1.18 cP 0.00118

Liquid
Laju alir liquid (L)
Laju Alir Massa, L = 0.1795 kg/detik
Densitas = 883.3037 kg/m3 55.1446524653
Laju Alir Volumetrik = 0.0002 m3/detik
Viskositas liquid, μL = 1.02 cP 0.0022

F = 37.6132 kmol/jam
D = 12.028735486 kmol/jam
W = 21.2809 kmol/jam

Intalox saddle = 23.6220 1=


15

Liquid rectifying, Ln = 16.23202251 kmol/jam ................


Vapour rectifying, Vn = 28.260757996 kmol/jam ................
Liquid stripping, Lm = 53.8452 kmol/jam ................
Vapour stripping, Vm = 32.5643 kmol/jam ................
Rectifying
Kondisi distilat kolom distilasi
Laju alir liquid, L = 646.1594 kg/jam 1424.5229
Laju alir uap, V = 1124.9956 kg/jam 2480.1652
Densitas alir liquid, ρL = 883.3037 kg/m3 55.1447
Densitas alir uap, ρV = 1.3688 kg/m3 0.0855
1. menentukan diameter kolom
Kecepatan flooding, Vt
Viskositas = 1.1087 cP
L/V = 0.5744
ρL/ρV = 645.3139
Dari grafik 5-7 hal. 143 Harker didapatkan Vt = 6 ft/s
1.8293 m/s
Asumsi saat operasi terjadi flooding 60%
V = 3.6 ft/s
1.0976 m/s
Cross section area kolom, A

A = 7.0213 ft2
0.4383 m2
Diameter Kolom, D

D = 2.9907 ft
0.9118 m

Diameter rata-rata
Lv = L / ρL dengan diameter rata2, maka A
Lm = L / A Jenis packing yang digunakan adalah intalox saddle
Gm = V/A Untuk intalox saddle, ukurang packing tidak boleh melebihi 1/15 dari d
λ = Gm/Lm maka, ukurang packing yang digunakan=
jadi dipilih ukuran packing
A=(𝐿𝑎𝑗𝑢 𝐴𝑙𝑖𝑟 𝑔𝑎𝑠)/(ρ𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑥 𝑉𝑡)
Rectifying
Lv = 0.7315256674 m3/jam 25.8324761538
D = 1.0014171738 m 3.6786427817
Dp = 2 in 50
Dari fig 5-12 didapatkan nilai : derajat kebasahan dalam kolom
n = >1
Lp = 7.7 ft3/ft hr 0.0019866
Tinggi liquid
Dari fig 4-14 didapatkan nilai :
HL = 2.1 ft 0.6402439024
Tinggi Gas
Fig. 4.13 dengan T rata2= 89.798 C
HG = 1 ft 0.3048780488
Menentukan Faktor Pelucutan (λ)
Slope of operating line (Ln)
Ln = L/A
= 16.23202251
7.0213220392
= 2.3118185464 kmol/ft2.jam 17.8021256484
Gn = V/A
= 28.260757996
7.0213220392
= 4.0249909972 kmol/ft2.jam 64.4720646673
λ = Gn/Ln
= 4.0249909972 kmol/ft2.jam
2.3118185464 kmol/ft2.jam
= 1.7410497046

y1 = 0.78
y2 = 0.32
y1/y2 = 2.4375
Figure. 4.12 Backhurst
NOGr = 3.2

Tinggi Packed

HG  HL
H  NOG
0,70 n

Rectifying
HR = 19.914077164 ft 6.0713649889

Tinggi Kolom Distilasi= HR+HS


31.9087896604
Pressure Drop
Rectifying
Laju Alir Liquid, Lr
LR=L/A = 0.3957008111 lb/s
7.0213220392 ft2
= 0.0563570235 lb/ft2.s
Laju A:ir Uap, Vr
Vr=V/A = 0.6889347802 lb/s
7.0213220392 ft2
= 0.0981203791 lb/ft2.s

ceramix intalox saddle (Tabel 5.1 Backhurst)


a = 0.12
b = 0.10

a (10 bxL ) xV 2
P 

a (10 bxL ) xV 2
P 

∆P = 0.0011704029
0.0854539924
= 0.0136962926 in/ft

 Ptotal  (  PR
∆P Total

Jumlah Intalox saddles


Volume = A x
= 7.0213220392 x
= 224.041888086 ft3
= 0.4383411349 x
= 4.2643094735 m3

Tebal Dinding Kolom Distilasi


Bahan Konstruksi : Carbon Steel

P x R
t  C
SE  0 . 6 P
P= 14.6960 Psi
D= 1.0014 m 39.4257941337
R= 0.5007 m 19.7128970669
E= 0.8500
S= 13700.0000 Psi
C= 0.0175 in untuk 10 tahun
= 0.1750

t = 289.70073529 + 0.1750
11636.1824
= 0.0248965447 + 0.1750
= 0.1999 in 0.0609440685
6.0944068507
5.0773722355
Diameter Luar
OD = D +
= 1.00 +
= 1.12 m

KESIMPULAN
1 Diameter asumsi yang diperoleh adalah 0,6 m, maka digunakan packed coloumn karena D<1
2 Jenis packing yng digunakan adalah intalox saddle
Untuk Intalox Saddle ukuran packing tidak boleh melebihi 1/15 dari diameter kolom
maka,ukuran packing yang digunakan = 0,0667
jadi di pilih ukuran packing= 2 in
3 Diperoleh diameter rata-rata kolom yaitu 1,001417174 m
4 Tinggi liquid (HL) yang didapatkan adalah 2,1 ft dan tinggi gas (HG) adalah 1 ft
5 Diperoleh tinggi kolom distilasi 31,9087 ft
37.6132 kmol/jam
12.0287355 kmol/jam
21.2809054 kmol/jam

1 btu/lb= 0.5559 kkal/kg

895.3986 x 0.5435
18

0.0118145202 = 0.32 kmol/jam


0.01181452 + 0.0253628928

0.0195652174 = 0.78 kmol/jam


0.01956522 + 0.0055555556

0.002173913 = 0.04 kmol/jam


0.00108696 + 0.05
1 = 39.807692308 kg/kmol
0.02 + 0.0055555556

1 = 19.574468085 kg/kmol
0.00108696 + 0.05

emperatur feed masuk=91,68 C


ket: Tb= Titik didih
Tf= T feed

Rmin
0.9

Ns/m2

Ns/m2
Ns/m2

^0,5

= 35.7

= 7.1428571429

= 26.285714286

= 29.142857143

F28(distilat) F31 (Bottom)


% kmol/jam kg/jam % kmol/jam kg/jam
0.91 9.52 437.96 12 1.06 48.66
0.09 2.27 40.88 88 20.44 367.90
1.00000 11.79 478.8362 100.00 21.50 416.5624
895.40

ρ (kg/m3) ρ x fraksi V (m3/jam) μ (Cp)


785 426.78536482 1.1401994206 1.2
999.97 456.51837481 0.8954254678 1
0 883.30373963 2.0356248884 1.108693586

ft3/jam

Tf= 90.87 C 364.02 K


Td= 81.25 C 354.40 K
Tb= 98.34 C 371.49 K
Tavg= 89.798090259 C 362.9480903 K

(Harker, pers. 5-7)


(Harker, pers. 5-6)
(Harker, pers. 5.4)
pm
nRT
(Harker, pers. 5-7)

e backhurst, fig 4.1 hal. 103, maka diperoleh :


in

lb/hr

kg/m3 0.0000 lb/ft3

Ns/m2

lb/ft3

1.5748 in 39.99992 mm

Ln = D x R
Vn = Ln + D
Lm = Ln + F
Vm = Lm - W
Stripping
Kondisi bottom kolom distilasi
lb/jam Laju alir liquid, L = 1053.9911 kg/jam
lb/jam Laju alir uap, V = 637.4287 kg/jam
lb/ft3 Densitas alir liquid, ρL = 883.3037 kg/m3
lb/ft3 Densitas alir uap, ρV = 0.6421 kg/m3
1. menentukan diameter kolom
Kecepatan flooding, Vt
Viskositas = 1.1087 cP
L/V = 1.6535
ρL/ρV = 1375.6354
Dari grafik 5-7 hal. 143 Harker didapatkan Vt =

Asumsi saat operasi terjadi flooding 60%


V = 3.6 ft/s
1.0976 m/s
Cross section area kolom, A

A = 14.9676 ft2
= 0.9344 m2
Diameter Kolom, D

D = 4.3666 ft
1.0910 m

= 1.0014171738 m 3.678642782 ft
= 10.622943981 ft2 0.787226539 m2

ak boleh melebihi 1/15 dari diameter kolom


0.06676114 m 2.6283862756 in
2 in
A=(𝐿
Stripping 𝑎𝑗𝑢 𝐴𝑙𝑖𝑟 𝑔𝑎𝑠)/(ρ𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑥 𝑉𝑡)
ft3/jam Lv = 1.1932374038 m3/jam
ft D = 1.0014171738 m
mm Dp = 2 in
Dari fig 5-12 didapatkan nilai : derajat kebasahan dalam kolom

m3/m.s Lp = 6.9 ft3/ft hr


Tinggi liquid
Dari fig 4-14 didapatkan nilai :
m HL = 2 ft
Tinggi Gas
Fig. 4.13 dengan T rata 89.798 C
m HG = 1 ft
Menentukan Faktor Pelucutan (λ)
Slope of operating line (Ln)
Lm = L/A
= 53.8452
14.967566109
kmol/m2.jam = 3.5975 kmol/ft2.ja
Gm = V/A
= 32.5643
14.967566109
kmol/m2.jam = 2.1757 kmol/ft2.ja
λ = Gm/Lm
= 2.1757 kmol/ft2.jam
3.5975 kmol/ft2.jam
= 0.60478

y1 = 0.32
y2 = 0.04
y1/y2 = 8
Figure. 4.12 Backhurst
NOGs = 3.8

HG  HL
OG
0,70 n

Stripping
m HS = 11.994712497 ft

Kolom Distilasi= HR+HS


ft 9.7282895306 m

Stripping
Laju Alir Liquid, Ls
Ls=L/A = 0.6455 lb/jam
14.967566109 ft2
= 0.0431 lb/ft2.jam
Laju Alir Uap, VS
VS=V/A = 0.3904 lb/jam
14.967566109 ft2
= 0.0261 lb/ft2.jam

ceramix intalox saddle (Tabel 5.1 Backhurst)


a = 0.12
b = 0.10

a (10 bxL ) xV 2
P 

a (10 bxL ) xV 2
P 

∆P = 0.0001
55.1447
= 0.0000015 in/ft

 Ptotal  (  PR xH R )  (  PS xH S )
= 0.2727490278 + 0.0000179
= 0.2727670 in H2O
= 6.9282807448 mm H2O

H
31.9087897

9.72828953

in
in

Tabel 23-2 [153] Perry's

m
cm
mm

2t
0.121888
F= 895.3986 kg/jam
D= 478.8362 kg/jam
B= 416.5624 kg/jam

qf line

10,2
10,2

ymin
y op

12,5

xB xF xD
Konversi satuan
1 kg/m3 0.06243 lb/ft3 1 kgf/m2 0.0014 psi
3.61E-05 lb/in3 9.7E-06 atm

1m 3.28 ft 1 atm 14.7 psi


39.37 in
1 in 25.4 mm
1 atm 14.6959 psi
10332.27 kg/m2 1 hp 550 ft.lbf/s
1.013 bar
1 kkal = 3.968 btu
1 m3 35.314 ft3
61023.74 in3 1 W/m2˚C 0.176 Btu/hr.ft2.˚F
264.172 gal 1 ft2 0.0929 m2

1 kg 2.2046 lb 1 ft3/ft hr 0.000258 m3/m.s

1 cP 0.000672 lb/ft.s
Rectifying
Kondisi bottom kolom distilasi L = Ln x BM top
2323.6287 lb/jam V = Vn x BM Top
1405.2752 lb/jam ρV = (P x BM top) / RT L / V =
ρLD / ρV =
55.1447 lb/ft3
A = (V)/(Ρv X Vf)
0.0401 lb/ft3 D = ((4xA)/π)^0,5

6 ft/s
1.8293 m/s

Rectifying

A=(𝐿
𝑎𝑗𝑢 𝐴𝑙𝑖𝑟 𝑔𝑎𝑠)/(ρ𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑥 𝑉𝑡)
42.1370 ft3/jam
3.6786427817 ft
50 mm
han dalam kolom

0.0017802 m3/m.s

6.56 m

0.3048780488 m
Stripping
Stripping
57.6239 kmol/m2.jam

34.8495 kmol/m2.jam

kmol/ft2.jam
kmol/ft2.jam

3.6569245417 m
0.248722 kg/s 37.6132 kmol/jam
0.13301 kg/s 12.0287354856 kmol/jam
0.115712 kg/s 21.2809054195 kmol/jam

vapour in operation vapour in equilibrium


y ye ye-y
0.95 0.985 0.035
0.93 0.98 0.05
0.9 0.97 0.07
0.8 0.9 0.1
0.7 0.815 0.115
0.6 0.735 0.135
0.5 0.66 0.16
0.4 0.575 0.175
0.3 0.47 0.17
0.2 0.36 0.16
0.1 0.21 0.11
0.05 0.125 0.075
Btu/hr.ft2.˚F
Stripping
stripping

3
4 3
5 4
6 5
7 6
8 7
8
Rectifying
Stripping
Rectifying
Stripping
80
100

Rectifying
Stripping
equilibrium
1/(ye-y) 30
28
28.57143
26
20 24
14.28571 22
10 20
18
8.695652
16
7.407407 14
12
10
8
6
4
22
20
18
16
14
6.25 12
5.714286 10
8
5.882353
6
6.25 4
9.090909 2
13.33333 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
SPESIFIKASI FRACTIONATOR I (FC-5011)

Fungsi : Tempat memisahkan bensin, minyak tanah, dan solar


Tipe : Double Pipe
Bahan Konstruksi : High Alloy Steels SA-240, Grade 304, 18 Cr-8 Ni
Jumlah : 1 unit
Suhu : 450 oC
Tekanan : 1 atm
Waktu operasi : 1 jam

Gambar :

Penggambarannya untuk perhitungan dapat dilihat pada gambar berikut :

T = 100 oC, P = 1 atm fasa umpan : liquid


F5 =
C8H16
C16H32
C28H56

(Bensin)
(Minyak tanah)
(Solar)

KOLOM DITILASI 1

Komposisi umpan (F) yang masuk kolom distilasi 1 :


T = 100 oC
P = 760.00 mmHg
komponen BM Masuk (kg/jam) kmol/jam
C8H16 112 11032.1 98.5008928571
C16H32 224 22064.2 98.5008928571
C28H56 392 38612.3 98.5007653061
TOTAL 728 71708.6 295.50255102

Chemical Engineering Design 4th, coulson, hal 320 (337)


Komposisi distilat (D) yang masuk kolom distilasi 1 :
Kondisi TOP Dew Point
T trial= 396.31 K 123.31
P= 760.00 mmHg 1.00
Komponen BM Kg/jam kmol
C8H16 112 10,480.50 93.58
C16H32 224 1,103.21 4.93
C28H56 392 0.00 0.00
Total 11,583.71 98.50

Komposisi bottom (B) yang masuk kolom distilasi 1 :


T trial= 555.48 K 282.48
P= 760.00 mmHg 1.00
Komponen BM Kg/jam kmol
C8H16 112 551.61 4.93
C16H32 224 20,960.99 93.58
C28H56 392 38,612.30 98.50
Total 60,124.90 197.00

Laju Alir
F = 71708.60 kg/jam
D = 11,583.71 kg/jam
B = 60,124.90 kg/jam

Bm camp feed = 242.67 kg/kmol


Bm camp top = 117.60 kg/kmol
Bm camp bottom = 305.20 kg/kmol

F = F =
Bm camp feed

D = D =
Bm camp top

Dari persamaan (5-4) sampai (5-8) Harker


Diket : R = 1.38
Ln = R
D
Ln = RxD
= 1.38 x
= 135.93 kmol/jam

Vn = Ln + D
= 135.93 +
= 234.43 kmol/jam

Lm = Ln + F
= 135.93 +
= 431.43 kmol/jam

F = D+B
B = F-D
= 295.50 -
= 197.00 kmol/jam

Vm = Lm - B
= 431.43 -
= 234.43 kmol/jam

Rectifying section
Kondisi Top FC-5011

Laju alir liquid (L)


L = Ln x
= 135.93 x
= 15985.5198 kg/jam

Laju alir uap (V)


V = Vn x
= 234.43 x
= 27569.2298 kg/jam

Densitas alir uap (ρv)


ρv = P x BM camp top
RxT
Diket :
P = 1 atm
R = 0.082 M^3 atm/kmol K
ρv = 3.6187888796 kg/m3

Perkiraan awal diameter colom


Process Plant Design, Harker, Fig 4-1, hal 103

1. Effisiensi Plate
T rata-rata colom = T distilat + T bottom
2
= 123.31 +
2
= 202.8944868312 oC

α avg = 1.7926545023
μ campuran = 0.0473186115 Cp
α avg x μ campuran = 0.084825922

Process Plant Design, Harker, Fig 4-9, hal 126


2. Plate Actual, Nact
S = 15
Nact = S
Eo
= 15
88%
= 17.0454545455

Penentuan feed plate


Sr = 8

Sv = Sr
Eo
= 8
88%
= 9.0909090909

Feed plate = 9

Jadi feed plate terletak pada plate ke 9 dari puncak kolom distilasi

3. Menentukan Flow Rate pada Kolom Retectifiying


R = 1.38
L = 15985.5198 kg/jam
V = 27569.2298 kg/jam

Desain Sieve Tray berdasarkan leteratur Harker.


a. Vapor (V)
Laju alir massa, V = 7.6581193889 kg/s
Densitas, ρv = 717.2857142857 kg/m3
Laju alir Volum, Qv = V
ρv
= 7.6581193889
717.2857142857
Qv = 0.0106765257 m3/s

b. Liquid (L)
Laju alir massa, L = 4.4404221667 kg/s
Densitas, ρL = 720.2952380952 kg/m3
Laju alir Volum, QL = L
ρL
= 4.4404221667
720.2952380952
QL = 0.0061647251 m3/s

c. Parameter aliran (FLV)


FLV = L ρv ^0.5
V ρL
= 4.4404221667 717.28571429
7.6581193889 720.2952381
= 0.5786193435

d. Kapasitas uap (Csb)


Asumsi plate spacing (jarak antar plate) 18 in = 0.46
Pada FLV = 0.58, maka Csb=…
Process Plant Design, Harker, Fig 6-3, hal 166
e. Pemilihan tray
Digunakan single cross flow tray dengan segmental Downcomer.
single cross flow tray digunakan untuk laju alir liquid 50-500 g.p.m
(0.003-0.03 m/s)

Untuk jenis tray ini mempunyai konfigurasi : Process Plant Design, Harker, hal 180
Area downcomer (Ad) = 0.12 At
Weir length (Lw) = 0.77 Dt
Net area (An) = 0.88 At
Weir height (hw) = 50 mm
Hole diameter = 0.1875 in
Tray thickness = 0.074 in

f. Diameter tower, Dt
Dipilih desain floading, (F*) = 50% (asumsi)
Un* = F* x Um (Pers 6-25, Harker hal 175)
= 50% x
= 0.0016193578 m/s

Area menara, At
At = Qv
0.88 x Un*
= 0.0106765257 m3/s
0.0014250348 m/s
= 7.4921155939 m2

Diameter Menara, Dt
Dt = 4.At ^0.5
π
= 3.0893520838 m
= 10.133074835 ft

Luas Penampang menara, At


At = 1 πDt^2
4
= 7.4921155939 m2

g. Tabulasi area menara


Tower area, At = 7.4921155939 m2
Downcomer area, Ad = 0.12 At =
Net area, An(Aa+Ad) = 0.88 At =
Active area, Aa = 0.76 At =
Hole area. Ah = 0.1 At =

h. Flooding check, F
Un = Qv (Pers 6-28, Harker hal 176)
An
= 0.0106765257 m3/s
6.5930617226 m2
= 0.0016193578 m/s

F = F*(Un/Un*)
= 50%

i. Perhitungan entrainment
Untuk Flv = 0.5786193435
F = 50%
j. Perhitungan pressure drop tray
Hole velocity, Vh
Vh = Qv
Ah
= 0.0106765257 m3/s
0.7492115594 m2
= 0.0142503484 m/s

Tebal Tray = 0.074 =


Diameter Hole 0.1875

Hole area = Ah
Active Area Aa
= 0.7492115594
5.6940078514
= 0.1315789474

Gross % free area (Ah/At) = Ah


At
= 0.7492115594
7.4921155939
= 10%

Maka didapatkan harga (1/Cvo)^2 = 1.7

Process Plant Design, Harker, Fig 6-8, hal 172


Areated liquid drop, ha
 Qv 
Fva    V  (Pers 6-32, Harker hal 176)
0, 5

 Aa 

Fva = 0.0106765257 26.782190244


5.6940078514
Fva = 0.0502178344 m

Aeration factor, Φp = 0.65 Process Plant Design, Harker, Fig 6-9, hal 173

Process Plant Design, Harker, Fig 6-9, hal 173

k. Down comer
L residence time, Vd
Vd 
Ad   L (Pers 6-35, Harker hal 177)
L
Vd 
Ad   L

Vd = 4.4404221667 kg/s
0.8990538713 720.2952381
= 0.006856903 m/s

Vd (kecepatan aliran di downcomer area)

Residence time = Tray spacing


Vd
= 0.46 m
0.006856903 m/s
= 67.0856803838 sekon

I. Liquid gradience,
1/. Tinggi froth pada tray, hf
ha
hf  (Pers 6-37, Harker hal 177)
2  Q P  1

hf = 1.1257000009 cm
0.7
= 1.6081428585 cm

2/. Hodraulic radius, Rh


Lw  Dt
Df 
2 (Pers 6-40, Harker hal 177)

Df = 2.3788011046 +
2
= 2.7340765942 m
hf  Df
Rh 
2 hf  100 Df (Pers 6-39, Harker hal 177)

Rh = 0.0160814286 +
0.0321628572 +
= 0.0100576354 m

3/. Velocity of aerated mass, Uf


Φ = froth100
density
 QL = 0.65 Process Plant Design, Harker, Fig 6-9, hal 173
Vf 
hf    Df
100  QL
Vf 
hf    Df
(Pers 6-41, Harker hal 178)

Uf = 100 0.0061647251
1.6081428585 0.65
Uf = 0.215707407 m/s

4/. Renold
Rhmodulus,
 Uf   Reh
Reh  L
(Pers 6-43, Harker hal 178)
L

Reh = 0.0100576354 0.215707407


4.731861E-05
= 33024.75

5/. Faktor friksi, f


f = 0.022
Process Plant Design, Harker, Fig 6-10, hal 174
6/. Perhitungan liquid gradience, Δ
Lf = 0.77 Dt
= 0.77 3.0893520838
= 2.3788011046 m
104  f Uf 2  Lf
 (Pers 6-41, Harker hal 178)
Rh 981

Δ = 100 0.022
0.0100576354
= 0.02468005 cm

Asumsi clearance,
C' = 38
Ada = C' x Lw
= 0.038
= 0.090394442

hda = 16,5 (QL/Ada)2


= 16.5

= 16.5
= 0.0767410832

hde = PT + hw + how + Δ + hda


= 1.127446407
= 2.9607136955

tinggi areal liquid = hde / φP


= 2.9607136955
0.65

m Tinggi Kolom, H
H = ( N act x Plate Spacing) + (N act x tebal plate)
= 17.0454545455
= 7.8409090909
= 7.8729545455

n Tebal dinding kolom, t


Bahan konstruksi : Stenlis steel
PR
t c
SE  0,6 P (Peters, hal 537)
P = 14.696
D = 3.0893520838
R = 60.8138957705
c = 0.002
S = 12379.5625202
E = 85%

t = 14.696
10522.6281422
= 893.721012243
10513.8105422
= 0.1050044814

OD tangki = ID + 2 t
= 3.0893520838
= 3.0946863222

KESIMPULAN
1 Diameter asumsi yang diperoleh adalah 1,8 m, maka digunakan sieve tray karena D>1
2 Digunakan single cross flow tray dengan segmental Downcomer.
single cross flow tray digunakan untuk laju alir liquid 50-500 g.p.m
(0.003-0.03 m/s)
3 Diameter menara yang diperoleh 3.0893520838
4 Luas penampang menara diperoleh 7.4921155939
5 Total tray pressure drop, Pt 1.127446407
6 Tinggi Kolom, H 7.8729545455
7 Tebal dinding kolom, t 0.0026671192
8 OD tangki 3.0946863222
T = 130 oC
P = 1 atm

F7 = …….?
C8H16
LK C16H32
HK C28H56

= 373 K
= 1.00 atm yaws hal 482 (474)
% berat % mol Densitas (kg/m3) Densitas (kg/m ) Viskositas (Cp)
3

0.15 0.33 713.6 109.7846919337 0.041


0.31 0.33 783.9 241.2001681807 0.038
0.54 0.33 804.6 433.2458949136 0.058
1.00 1.00 2302.10 784.23 0.14
C
atm
% berat % mol Densitas (kg/m3) Densitas (kg/m3) Viskositas (Cp)
0.90 0.95 713.6 645.6381245732 0.041
0.10 0.05 783.9 74.6571106321 0.038
0.00 - 804.6 0 0.058
1.00 1.00 2302.10 720.30 0.14

C
atm
% berat % mol Densitas (kg/m3) Densitas (kg/m3) Viskositas (Cp)
0.01 0.03 713.6 6.5468532339 0.041
0.35 0.48 783.9 273.286443071 0.038
0.64 0.50 804.6 516.7153139548 0.058
1.00 1.00 2302.10 796.55 0.14

71708.60 = 295.50 kmol/jam


242.67

11,583.71 = 98.50 kmol/jam


117.60

Dari perhitungan neraca massa Lampiran A


(Pers 5-4, Harker hal 152)

98.50

(Pers 5-5, Harker hal 152)


98.50

(Pers 5-6, Harker hal 153)


295.50

(Pers 5-8, Harker hal 153)

98.50

(Pers 5-7, Harker hal 153)


197.00

Stripping section
Kondisi Bottom FC-5011

Laju alir liquid (L)


Bm camp top L = Lm
117.60 = 431.43
= 131673.5662887

Laju alir uap (V)


Bm camp top V = Vm
117.60 = 234.43
= 71548.69353873

Densitas alir uap (ρv)


ρv = P x BM camp bottom
RxT
Diket :
P = 1
atm/kmol K R = 0.082
ρv = 6.7003806045

1 kg jam =

V = 27569.2298 kg/jam 7.6581193889


ρ = 3.6187888796 kg/m3

Dari pembacaan grafik Fig. 4-1 diperoleh :


D = 1.8 m

Sehingga jika D > 1 m, maka digunakan sieve tray.

Untuk diameter asumsi < 1 meter


digunakan packed column sedangkan untuk
diameter > 1 meter maka digunakan yaitu
tray column

282.48

Dari Fig. 4-9 diperoleh Effesiensi Plate :


η = Eo = 88%
(Dari Lampiran A Neraca Massa)

(Dari Lampiran A Neraca Massa)

(Dari Lampiran A Neraca Massa)


= 4.4404221667 kg/s
= 7.6581193889 kg/s
(Pers 6-21, Harker hal 175)

^0.5

kolom yang besar berjarak 0,6 - 0,9 untuk percepatan uap tinggi dan ruangan besar untuk berbaga
m untuk kolom yang kecil atau kurang dari 4 ft diameter jarak plate dikurangi untuk masalah kolom

Dari Fig 6-3 diperoleh :


Csb = 0.05 m/s
Maka, kecepatan aliran uap (Um) yaitu,
Um = Csb x ρL - ρv ^0.5 (Pers 6-21, Harker hal 175)
ρv

Um = 0.05 0.0647743108
Um = 0.0032387155 m/s

18.1102
Process Plant Design, Harker, hal 169

ess Plant Design, Harker, hal 180

= 4.6725 mm (Diameter lubang)


= 1.88 mm

s 6-25, Harker hal 175)


0.0032387155 m/s

Ad = 0.12 At
Ad = 0.12 7.4921155939
Ad = 0.8990538713 m2

1m 3.28 ft
harker hal 103
0.8990538713 m2
6.5930617226 m2
5.6940078514 m2
0.7492115594 m2 (Pers 6-27, Harker hal 175)

s 6-28, Harker hal 176)

Process Plant Design, Harker, Fig 6-4, hal 167


Dari Fig 6-4 diperoleh fractional entrainment :
ψ = 0.0016

Maka, Total entrainment (e) yaitu :


e = ψL
1-ψ
e = 0.0016 4.4404221667
0.9984
e = 0.0071160612 kg/s
0.3946666667

Process Plant Design, Harker, Fig 6-8, hal 172

  2 1 
2 (Pers 6-9, Harker hal 176)
ΔP dry = Pdry  5,08 V Vh  
 L   Cvo 

ΔP dry = 5.08 717.2857142857 0.0002030724 1.7


720.2952380952
ΔP dry = 0.0017464061 cm
rker, Fig 6-9, hal 173

Weir length, Lw = 0.77 Dt


= 0.77 3.0893520838 m
= 2.3788011046 m

Tinggi liquid menguap diatas weir, how


0 , 67
 QL 
how  66,6 
L
 w

how = 66.6 0.0061647251 m3/s


2.3788011046 m
= 1.2318461553 cm

Weir height, hw
hw = 50 mm (Harker hal 180)
= 5 cm

Aerated liquid drop, ha (Pers 6-12, Harker hal 176)


ha = Φp (0,1 hw + how)
= 0.65 1.7318461553
= 1.1257000009 cm

Total tray pressure drop, Pt


PT = P dry + ha
= 0.0017464061 + 1.1257000009
= 1.127446407 cm
(Pers 6-36, Harker hal 177)

Memenuhi syarat karena besar dari 3 detik


( Harker hal 182)

0.0160814286 m 16.0814285847 mm

3.0893520838

2.7340765942 m
273.4076594203

rker, Fig 6-9, hal 173


2.7340765942

720.2952380952
0.0465296854 2.3788011046
981

mm

2.3788011046
m2

(Pers. 6-19 hal 174. Backhurst


0.0061647251
0.090394442
0.0046509747
cm

hw + how + Δ + hda
0.5 1.2318461553 0.02468005 0.0767410832
cm

= 4.5549441469 cm

ct x Plate Spacing) + (N act x tebal plate)


0.46 + 17.0454545455 0.00188
+ 0.0320454545
m

1m
Psia
m = 121.627791541 in
in
in/tahun x 10 thn = 0.02 in
psia pada T 330.1093699406 oF

60.8138957705
- 8.8176 x1
x
x2
in = 0.0026671192 m

+ 0.0053342383
m

aka digunakan sieve tray karena D>1


mental Downcomer.
lir liquid 50-500 g.p.m

m
m2
cm
m
m
m
F6 = …….?
C8H16 LK (Bensin)
C16H32 HK (Minyak tanah)

F8 = …….? (Bensin)
C8H16 (Minyak tanah)
T = 285 oC C16H32 (Solar)
P = 1 atm C28H56

F9 = …….?
C16H32 (Minyak tanah)
C28H56 (Solar)

al 482 (474)
x/μ μmix Bmcamp
3.752347832 0.0473186115 37.33
8.097171638 74.67
9.28381408 130.67
21.13 242.67
x/μ μmix Bmcamp
22.06736453 0.04069403 106.40
2.506264582 11.20
0 -
24.57 117.60

x/μ μmix Bmcamp


0.223765901 0.0488507278 2.80
9.174318793 106.40
11.07243938 196.00
20.47 305.1999
ipping section

x Bm camp bottom
x 305.20
kg/jam

x Bm camp bottom
x 305.20
kg/jam

M camp bottom

atm
M^3 atm/kmol K
kg/m3

2.20462 lb/jam

kg/s
uangan besar untuk berbagai cara untuk pemeliharaan kolom tersebut.
urangi untuk masalah kolom langisng jangkung, maka jarak tray 0,46-0,15 m

SCL Operasi Pemisahan hal 107

-21, Harker hal 175)


-12, Harker hal 176)

(Pers 6-33, Harker hal 176)


cm
3.28 ft
39.37 in
INTERPOLASI
Suhu (oF) S
800.00 10500 y1
330.11 ??? y
1,000.00 9700 y2

y = (x - x1) * (y2 - y1) + y1


(x2 - x1)

y = 12379.56252 Psi