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in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of



I hereby declare that this submission is my own work towards the MSc. Project

Management and that, to the best of my knowledge, it contains no material

previously published by another person, nor material which has been accepted for

the award of any other degree of the University, except where due acknowledgment

has been made in the text.


Student Name & ID



Certified by:
Supervisor Name



Certified by:
Head of Department Name




Project monitoring and evaluation are essential elements in managing a project. They

help to ensure that projects are implemented according to scope, cost, time and also

to meet the desired quality. It is a guide to ensure that project activities are

completed within the project specifications. This study sought to assess the

monitoring and evaluation challenges project managers encounter in the execution of

public infrastructure projects. A qualitative research design was adopted for the

study. A total of eight respondents were purposively sampled from a population of

14. Interview guide or unstructured interview was used as instrument for gathering

data from the respondents. Narrative analysis was used to analyse the data. The study

found that participation and close stakeholder consultations in tackling project

monitoring and evaluation challenges contributed in boosting the commitments of

the stakeholders in achieving their set project’s schedule, cost of the project in a

relatively stable denomination ensured a good balance of the project budget and that

has contributed to the maintenance of the project cost within the initial contract sum.

Project monitoring becomes difficult when the implementation or monitoring team

had to monitor so many contractors or different issues at the same time. The study

recommended that the project management team should espouse transparency in all

monitoring activities to boost the commitment of all members towards the

achievement of the project objectives. The study further suggests that the project

management team members should engage the beneficiary communities to win their

support to fast track the implementation of the project.


He has made everything beautiful in its time- Ecclesiastics 3:11

I dedicate this work to my Beloved wife Lawyer (Mrs.) Ohenewaa Boateng

Newman, my late father Mr. Samuel Akuffo Newman (Snr.) and my mother Mrs.
Rose Ernestina Newman


God has been faithful to me and I am indeed grateful for how far He has brought me.
I am thankful to my Supervisor Dr. Godwin Acquah for his endless assistance
throughout the entire work. I am especially thankful to my wife, Lawyer (Mrs.)
Ohenewaa Boateng Newman for her unflinching support. We made it because you
made it happen. My mother Mrs. Rose Ernestina Newman has been the pillar of my
existence and I am thankful. To my siblings, Samuel Akuffo Newman Jnr., Ernest
Kwabi Newman and Florence Newman, I am grateful for your love and support.


DECLARATION......................................................................................................... i
ABSTRACT .................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
DEDICATION............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................... iError! Bookmark not defined.
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................... v
CHAPTER ONE .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
INTRODUCTION....................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.1 Background of the Study ................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.2 Problem Statement ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.3 Research Aim and Objectives .......................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.4 Scope of the Study ............................................................................................. 5
1.5 Brief Research Methodology ............................................................................. 5
1.6 Significance and Value of the Research ............................................................ 6
1.7 Structure of the Thesis ....................................................................................... 6

CHAPTER TWO ....................................................................................................... 7

LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................................... 7
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 7
2.2Project Life Cycle ............................................................................................... 9
2.2.1 Pre-Project Phase ............................................................................................ 9
2.2.2 Planning and Design Phase ............................................................................ 9
2.2.3Contractor Selection Phase ............................................................................ 10
2.2.4 Project Mobilisation and Operations Phase .................................................. 10
2.2.5 Project Closeout and Termination Phase ...................................................... 11
2.3 Project Parameters ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.4 Monitoring and Evaluation as a Tool ............................................................... 12
2.5 Definition of Project Monitoring .................. Error! Bookmark not defined.2
2.6 Decision Making in Monitoring and Design of Project Monitoring System ... 13
2.7 Tools for Project Monitoring ........................................................................... 14
2.7.1 Verbal Communication ................................................................................ 14
2.7.2 Meetings ..................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.4
2.7.3 Reports .......................................................................................................... 15

2.7.4 Site Visits...................................................................................................... 16
2.8 Types of Project Monitoring ............................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.8.1 Physical Project Progress Monitoring .......... Error! Bookmark not defined. Quantifying output of activities in Absolute TermsError! Bookmark not
defined. Valuating the Output of the Activity ......... Error! Bookmark not defined. Using Time Spent on the Project / ActivityError! Bookmark not
2.8.2 Finance Progress Monitoring ....................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.8.3 Project Quality Monitoting ........................................................................... 18
2.8.4 Assumption Monitoring................................................................................ 18
2.9 Definition of Evaluation .............................. Error! Bookmark not defined.19
2.10 Purpose of Evaluation .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.0
2.11 Monitoring and Evaluation Approaches ........ Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.12 Planning for Monitoring and Evaluation ....................................................... 21
2.13 Strategic Questions in Conduction Monitoring and Evaluation Efforts .Error!
Bookmark not defined.
2.14 Barriers to Effective Implementation of Project Monitoring and Evaluation
in the Ghanaian Infrastructure Development IndustryError! Bookmark not
2.15 Driving factors to the Implementation of Project Monitoring and Practices in
the Ghanaian Infrastructure Development IndustryError! Bookmark not
2.16 External Influences on Monitoring and Evaluation – Political Influence and
management support ............................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.7
2.16.1 Political Influence ....................................................................................... 27
2.16.2 Management Support.................................................................................. 28
2.17 Relationship of Monitoring and Evaluation on Project Success ............Error!
Bookmark not defined.9
2.18 Summary ........................................................................................................ 30

CHAPTER THREE ................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.31

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................................................................... 31

3.1 Introduction .................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.1
3.2 Profile od the Prestea-Kumasi Power Enhancement ProjectError! Bookmark
not defined.1
3.3 Research Design ............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.2
3.4 Study Population ............................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.3
3.5 Data Sources and Instruments of Data \collectionError! Bookmark not
3.6 Sampling and Sampling Procedure ............... Error! Bookmark not defined.6
3.7 Procedures for Data Collection ....................................................................... 34
3.7 Methods of Data Analysis ............................................................................... 35
3.8 Ethical Concerns .............................................................................................. 35

CHAPTER FOUR .................................................................................................... 36

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .............................................................................. 36
4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 36
4.2 Project Time Monitoring and Evaluation ....... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.3 Project Cost Monitoring and Control ............................................................... 41
4.4 Project Quality Monitoring and Evaluation ..................................................... 44

CHAPTER FIVE ..................................................................................................... 49

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................. 49
5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 49
5.2 Summary of Major Findings ............................................................................ 49
5.2.1 Challenges Project Managers Encounter Monitoring and Evaluating Time 49
5.2.2 Project cost monitoring and control challenges............................................ 49
5.2.3 Project Quality Monitoring and Evaluation Error! Bookmark not defined.0
5.6 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 50
Recommendations .................................................................................................. 50

REFERENCES ......................................................................................................... 53
Appendix One: Introductory Letter to Respondants Error! Bookmark not defined.
Appendix Two: Interview Guide .............................. Error! Bookmark not defined.1




The construction industry generally plays a significant role in all economies,

contributing to economic development and also satisfying basic physical and social

needs (Moavenzadeh and Rossow, 1975). The construction industry thus contributes

to major national goals. However, the construction industry is fraught with problems

and challenges worldwide and these challenges coupled with chronic financial

limitations, institutional weaknesses etc. in developing countries like Ghana has

become greater and severe in current years (Ofori, 2000). The construction industry

world over, and more especially in developing nations, relies greatly on manual

labour and as such requires more human resource to undertake the many activities

aimed at attaining set goals (Callistus and Clinton, 2016). One may therefore argue

that technological development and technology transfer in developing countries is

quite limited and that may account for increased human resource in undertaking

activities in undertaking infrastructural projects.

Developing countries are also characterized by abundance of labour and thus account

for greater human resource in the construction industry (Moavenzadeh and Rossow,

1975). These activities however, need close supervision to ensure that they are

executed right at first hand to eliminate re-work, increased project cost and prolong

project duration and hence the need to monitor and evaluate projects to attain the

desired product (Callistus and Clinton, 2016). Many third world countries are

undertaking numerous projects in an attempt to improve their infrastructure and thus

improve the standard of living of its citizens. Huge sums of money are put into these

activities and as such, are important to get value for money. Two aspects that would

contribute towards ensuring these are monitoring and evaluation. Project monitoring

and evaluation are management functions geared towards achieving effective and

efficient use of project resources and hence cannot be overemphasized. Monitoring

and evaluation are therefore critical to the execution of the public infrastructure

projects. They seek to facilitate strategic decision making to guarantee successful

project implementation through a systematic and routine collection of project

information and assessment of same (Otieno, 2000).

Projects face numerous challenges in their implementation. These challenges may

originate from the low amount of attention given to project management practices

(Lusthaus et al., 1999). Project monitoring and evaluation is a major element in

enhancing the performances of projects (Anie and Tettey 2004). The organization or

individuals tasked in executing the projects has a major say in the overall success of

the project. Despite the fact that literature supports the assertion that, project

monitoring and evaluation can enhance the chances of achieving project success, the

implementation and execution of monitoring and evaluation is sometimes hindered

by the weak institutional or individual capacity. Therefore, Bhagavan and Virgin,

(2004) postulated that, capacity building of institutions is very relevant in terms of

enhancing performance. Ghana as a developing country needs public infrastructure

projects to achieve various national goals. A study into the monitoring and

evaluation challenges in the execution public infrastructure projects in the Kumasi

Metropolis is the focus of this research.


The successes of public infrastructure Project are a key role in realizing economic

growth and development. Undertaking monitoring and evaluation in project

implementation provides value to the general execution of infrastructure project via

providing corrective measures to ensure conformity. As indicated by Kahilu, (2010),

managers of projects are to embrace a more thorough monitoring and evaluation

approach by developing structures and indicators for measuring impact. This will

go a long way to ensure successful completion of projects. Projects monitoring and

evaluation is therefore a vital process in project delivery which is aimed at ensuring

that major objectives and goals are achieved (Callistus and Clinton, 2016).

However, the carrying out of monitoring and evaluation in the Ghanaian

infrastructure development industry has seen several setbacks due to among others

the poor performance in the industry and capacity inadequacies. As stated by Otieno,

(2000), despite the efforts by project implementers and stakeholders at achieving

project goals, challenges with cost of project, schedule and other set objectives

remains unsolved. The Aboadze T-3 power project is an evidence failed project due

to lack of monitoring and evaluation. The Anwomaso 161kV substation project

though service is faced with frequent challenges due to lack of monitoring and

evaluation. The new Juaboso 161kV substation could not be commissioned as a

result of technical a problem which goes to the core of monitoring and controlling

challenges during the project execution phase.

In Africa, project management is also complicated by some factors such as lack of

skills in project management, political and community or societal demands. The

paradox is, despite a consensus among scholars that proper monitoring and

evaluation leads to project success, there are still cases of project failure in Ghana

and in Kumasi. Further projects fail despite heavy presence of monitoring and

evaluation activities. This therefore raises serious issues as to whether the

monitoring and evaluation employed is effective enough to achieve project success.

The monitoring team perhaps may be lacking the necessary capacity or strength to

carry out their work effectively, or they may be approaching their work using

incorrect methodologies. The project monitoring team may also be lacking the

necessary management support (Kamau and Mohamed 2015)

Otieno (2000), reported that the inability of developing countries to successfully

deliver projects but indicated the remedy to this challenge is the implementation of

and efficient monitoring and evaluation system. Unfortunately, project monitoring

and evaluation have been faced with numerous setbacks to their implementation in

the sub-region due to reasons such as the complex nature of construction and

divergent views on project delivery with less technological integration in the

industry in developing nations (Chaplowe, 2008).

The study therefore identifies the present challenges obstructing the implementation

of monitoring and evaluation on Prestea-Kumasi Power Enhancement project. The

findings of the study attempted to provide a solution to the stated problem.


The aim of this study was to identify the challenges faced by government

infrastructure projects in the implementation of monitoring and evaluation.

To achieve this, the study sort:

1. To identify various steps and stages in project, monitoring and evaluation;

2. To identify the challenges faced by government infrastructure projects in the

implementation of monitoring and evaluation in terms of cost, time and


3. To determine the causative factors of the challenges that hinder the

successful implementation of monitoring and evaluation of government

infrastructure projects in Ghana.


This research was confined to the monitoring and evaluation challenges faced in

execution of public infrastructure projects: A case of the Prestea-Kumasi Power

Enhancement Project. The study was limited to the causes of the monitoring and

evaluation challenges with respect to cost, time and quality.


The study employed a qualitative data collection and analysis. Interview guide or

unstructured interview was used as instrument for gathering data from the

respondents. Narrative and trend analysis were used to analyse the data.

The study began with an in-depth review of literature focusing on the project

implementation monitoring and evaluation and its effects on government

infrastructure projects challenges among others. Commencing with basic

observations and theoretical insights derived from literature.


As stated by Cleland and Gareis (2006), the evolution of monitoring and controlling

instrument is noticeably related to the development of management of projects,

progemme and portfolio as a science of its own, emerged from the combination of

unique factors of engineering, and the military and defense activities. Jones (2010)

suggests that, monitoring and evaluation is critical, this is because projects activities

are mostly iterative. Effective M&E will ensure that repeating the iteration of same

mistakes within subsequent projects within a portfolio will therefore be prevented,

and also improve the overall value and efficiency of the management system

Moreover, the findings can also be used as a basis for fostering further studies on

monitoring and evaluation in Ghana. Apart from the direct yield of the issues

discussed, it would provide a significant contribution to the field of project

performance through the identification of the critical success factors for effective

monitoring and evaluation of government infrastructure project.


This study is in 5 chapters. Chapter 1 presented the introduction, problem statement,

aim and objectives, scope, methodology and significance of the thesis. Chapter 2

highlighted the review of relevant literature. Chapter 3 discusses the research

methodology. Chapter 4 dealt with analysis and discussion of findings conducted.

Chapter 5 provided summary of the researcher’s findings, conclusions and





Plethora of definitions for project abound in literature. Project Management

Institute in ‘A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2013,

Fifth Edition) also known as PMBOK® Guide, (2013), defines ‘a project as a

temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service or results’.

It states that since projects are temporary, a project has a definite

commencement and completion. It also states that ‘…The end is reached when

the project’s objectives have been achieved. Again when the project is objectives

cannot be attained, they may be terminated, just as when the need of it no longer

exists. A project may also be terminated if the client deems it necessary to

terminate. Lewis (2005) defines a project as planned undertaking with a defined

scope, budget, and objectives that is time bound. Wysocki, (2003) defines a

project as a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities with and

objective of meeting specific schedule, budget, and requirements. Diallo and

Thuillier, (2003) on the other hand described a project as comprising of some

features in respect of three traditional constraints time, cost and scope. They

consider these features as key in projects. According to Munns and Bjeirmi,

(1996), there are also targets to be achieved in executing project and they


 Clients’ satisfaction are to be met;

 Objectives must be accomplished;

 Project must have some impacts;

 There must be institutional or organizational capacity built in the

organization by the project;

 Financial returns; and

 Project must have some innovative features.

It may be noted that by gleaning from the definition and description of projects

in the literature, it may be argued that there is no single definition of what a

project is but a project is characterised by some features and encompasses

various stages with different disciplines. Lewis (2005) therefore postulates that

there are different disciplines involved in the execution of projects including:

planners, designers, skilled, and unskilled labour force and in addition, there are

various stages of the project generally.

It may also be noted that projects differ from each other and normally have

different characteristics. In the view of Nicholas & Herman (2008), projects are

characterised by the following:

 A definite purpose, objective, cost implication, time and performance


 Every project is unique;

 Skills from many disciplines and are needed;

 The project may include innovative techniques and technology which

possess significant elements of uncertainty and risk;

 Special scrutiny in project execution is important as lack of same may

jeopardize its objectives; and

 Every project has distinct phases.

It may therefore be argued that what a project is, - comprises the following:

 A project has a defined start and completion date;

 There must be a specific objective to be achieved with certain


 There is a budget and sometimes limits; and

 Human and nonhuman resources are also needed.


PMI (2013) defines project life cycle as the series of phases a project passes through

from its initiation to its closure. Undeniably, almost every project, including those in

the construction industry goes through various phases. According to Lawrence

(2003), life cycle in the construction industry comprises six phases. They are;

2.2.1 Pre-Project Phase

This stage is considered the preliminary stage of a project. It normally commences

with an idea. For instance, where the Government of Ghana may decide to ease the

congestion at the maternity ward of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi by

expanding the block. It is at this point that the Government of Ghana decides on the

type of project. The owner also selects a design professionals and consultant. It is at

the planning and design stage that the idea may be converted into a completed


2.2.2 Planning and Design Phase

At this phase, there is a clear-cut defined project to be executed. The Government of

Ghana may select the contractor suitable for the implementation of the project and

deployment during this phase. The project’s objectives are set at this stage. There

is also consideration of alternative ways to achieve those set objectives. Another

key consideration is financial feasibility. At this stage, it will involve among

others the preparation of a project brief, various sites will be investigated, the

financial implication will be estimated and the decision to continue with project at

this level will be considered. Having considered all these factors, the result of the

planning process will be used to develop a detailed design of various systems to be

used on the project including structural and electrical systems.

2.2.3 Contractor Selection Phase

In this phase, the owner of the project must decide on how he will select a contractor

for the execution of the project. It is either the owner makes an offer or the

contractors are made to submit offers. When offers are submitted by the contractors,

the consultants appointed by the owner would evaluate the offers/tenders that are

submitted by the prospective contractors. The successful contractor is selected and

the contract finalised.

2.2.4 Project Mobilisation and Operations Phase

Installation work commences at this stage; after the contractor for the project has

been selected and other various activities have been completed. The activities to be

complete include the preparation of a detailed program for the project, organisation

of the worksite, provision of temporary buildings, storage sites, materials and

equipment must be mobilised, arrangement for skilled and unskilled labour. When

this project mobilisation phase has been completed, the actual field construction

may commence. The contractor begins with the actual field construction and may be

in charge of entire assignments: monitoring and controlling, resource, and

documents control and correspondence for the management of the project.

2.2.5 Project Closing Phase

This phase denotes last stage in every project. It suggests that the project is about to

be completed and various undertakings by the execution team will be deemed to

being completed. There is a need for testing and start-up tasks, clean-up, inspections

and some subsidiary works that may arise from the inspections. Mostly the

construction office will be closed down at this point and workers’ employment



Limitations considered so germane in the realisation or otherwise of set of objectives

of a project are considered as Project parameters. Wysocki (2003), considers five

constraints. They are:

 Scope - Scope defines the boundaries of the project. The scope gives the

limits of the projects. The scope defines what will be done and what will

not be done;

 Quality - It involves the accepted quality of service, product, and process


 Cost- Cost implication of every project is a major concern to all


 Time- Time is an essential commodity with project execution. Normally

there are deadlines specified by the customer for the project to be

completed. Cost and time have been considered to be inversely related.

There can be reduction in time for the project to be completed but cost

will inversely increase as there may be the need to engage more workers,

resources etc; and

 Resources - Resources include personnel, plant and machinery, and

other logistics and assets with limits to its availability. Some are

fixed whilst others are variable only in the long term. Resources play a

key role in scheduling of project activities and systematic completion of

the project.


Monitoring and evaluation are considered as project management system for

resolution. Metalign, (2015), postulates that M&E can be considered as a singular

term as they are related but with different processes.


According to Metalign (2015), monitoring as a methodilac process of collecting,

processing, analysing and use of information to assess the efficiencies of inputs

such as budget, time, equipment, personnel and the likes that part of inputs

employed to generate an output measured by ascertaining the ratio of useful output

to total input. This among others may minimise the waste of resources. It involves

an assessment of whether project inputs are being delivered, whether the desired

objectives have been achieved, and are having the initial effects as planned. It

involves regular examination of the resources. Outputs and results of a project are

also examined.

Monitoring being a good management tool may be used by contractors and owners

of the project to ascertain the strength and weakness encountered in the project.

According to Otieno (2000) efficient project monitoring offers regular reports on the

execution and also aid in the recognizing potential challenges and setbacks while

improving on the positive side all aimed at facilitating timely and effective

decisions. Monitoring may form the basis to retrieve sufficient information by

persons responsible for the project. By retrieving information, this may arm persons

connected with the project take right decisions and thus ensure the project’s quality.

According to Jackson (2010), in managing a project, there are three key

elements which are; cost, quality, and time and they must be closely assessed and

monitored throughout the entire project. This therefore brings to the fore that

monitoring is not an event, but a process when it comes to infrastructural projects.



In having an effective monitoring system there is a need for a conceptual framework.

According to Otieno (2000), the purpose is that the framework may be used in

planning the project monitoring system. One needs to identify the purposes the

system to be used and its intended purposed. The system involves a process of

comparing actual use of inputs, and completed outputs. It may be argued that

without this comparison, it may be difficult to ascertain the efficiency of the project

and this is by monitoring. A project monitoring system provides information to

stakeholders and this information is employed in taking decisions during the

execution the project. Monitoring aids in ensuring maximum benefits.


It has been argued that when communication of information is ineffectively and

untimely carried out, it may lead to a setback in managing the information so

gathered. For instance, if a person charged with monitoring uses so much time in

gathering information about the ongoing project and yet fails to interpret same, this

will affect the project output. Whatever tool for monitoring is employed must be

used effectively and timely otherwise the specific monitoring tool may become

counterproductive. The benefits of having good communication as a monitoring tool

cannot be overemphasised. To achieve the project output, communication must thus

play a pivotal role. There are widely used tools for project monitoring

notwithstanding their limitations. These include the following:

2.7.1 Verbal Communication

This tool can be considered as the most effective mode of communication. The

positive strings to this tool are that it is quick, and the listener is generally afforded

the opportunity to adapt to concerns and also to raise questions. The limitation to

having to use this to communicate monitoring information may lead to

misunderstandings. Some persons may sometimes deny having that information.

2.7.2 Meetings

Various meetings during projects are inevitable. Meetings serve as platforms for the

communication and sharing of information. For instance, if there is a need to a

clarification, change or alter a constructional plan, it is at these meetings that they

are disseminated. The feedback from inspections onsite can also be given and it is all

aimed at bettering the output in the long run. It must be emphasised that meeting

though are important tools for M&E, they need to be used purposefully. There may

be the tendency for individual interests spurring its head at these meetings or the

tendency of even discussing issues other than the project.

2.7.3 Reports

Reports play an essential role in projects monitoring and must not be overlooked.

Records of activities in and on site must be kept as this also allows for

accountability. Without records of for instance resources, inputs supplied, expenses, it may be difficult to plan ahead for the completion of the project and

particularly the project’s efficiency. Having prepared these reports, they must be

submitted to the designated individuals for effective action. If the reports are not

submitted to the right people on the project, it becomes a useless tool for monitoring.

Again, when wrong information is gathered, there will be no useful decision making

as the required information is non-existent so far as the report prepared is concerned.

Wrong information in reports will also serve no useful purpose in monitoring a

project. When there is also lack of logistics like paper, printers etc, then it will be

difficult to use reports as a monitoring tool. According to Otieno (2000), project

monitoring report provides helps managers and others interest parties to evaluate

planned against executed. He postulates that these reports are used to document

project activities, determine aberration, note nonconformity and then through the

process resolve such challenges with corrective actions through a collective

engagement of stakeholders. The aim is that, corrective actions, identified challenges

of the current monitoring systems, will become a blue print for other development

programmes and project, as they will be reference material to access for the

planning of successive process assets. To Otieno (2000), there are limitations which

include the fact that managers tend to concentrate on a pre-determined set of data for

information while real problems on site may not be reported due to lack of interest of

the persons tasked to the reporting or the information may perhaps be too subjective.

2.7.4 Site Visits

Visiting the site where the project is ongoing is key. Persons in charge of monitoring

will be able to gather in-depth data for monitoring purposes (Metalign 2015). It

enables the project manager for instance know the progress of the project in terms of

costs, time and inputs. The tools for monitoring as stated above can play a role in

monitoring the strengths and weaknesses of a project, more especially public

infrastructural projects such as the Prestea-Kumasi power enhancement project.


According to Jody and Ray (2004) project monitoring includes the following major


2.8.1 Physical Project Progress Monitoring

This type of monitoring when adopted enables managers and owners of the project

to keep track of all activities and it also serves as a check on whether activities in

project are up to schedule. It enables managers to assess the significance of the

delay and whether any action can be taken to remedy the situation. There is a need

to manage time as time is a major component in physical project progress

monitoring. When the set objective is attained at the set time, it may be considered as

a project milestone and this defines the phases of the project and the decisive steps

taken in these phases. These milestones are used in monitoring physical progress.

Wysocki (2003) describes ‘mile stones as a means to test if the goals are achieved,

and it helps in discovering the status of the project. Effective monitoring of a project

physical progress requires systematic performance analysis’. This calls for answer to

the following questions:

 Is the whole project including its phases as a whole (and its individual

component) on schedule, ahead of schedule or behind schedule?;

 If there is a variation, where did it occur, why did it occur, who is

responsible for it and what would be its implication?; and

 What is the trend of the physical performance? What would be the likely

final cost and completion date of the project and its individual


Jackson (2010) on the other hand adopts approaches in measuring physical progress. Quantifying Output of The Activity in Absolute Terms.

This approach is used in determining the work completed on the project. It can be

calculated by measuring the quantity of work executed to date relative to the total

quantity of work planned.

For example, if it has been set for the construction a total of 5000 square meter

underground carpark and only 2,500 square meters has been constructed so far, it

means work of 2,500-meter square is yet to be completed. Valuing the Output of the Activity .

To calculate earned value of the completed construction of carpark and compare

with total value of work planned.

Value of work done *100(%)…………….ii

Total value of Work planned Using Time Spent on the Project /Activity.

Time spent to date*100(%)………………………..i

Total time to complete

The remaining time left will enable project managers know whether to speed up their

work to achieve the set time or otherwise. This invariably may keep project

managers on their toes and is a way of monitoring.

2.8.2 Finance Progress Monitoring- Monitoring of cost in projects is key. As the

project progresses the costs which include budgeted cost, actual cost etc. must be

measured periodically for purposes of cost monitoring and control. It allows for

the estimation of project cost (PMBOK, 2004).

2.8.3 Project Quality Monitoring- All materials, systems and labour must

conform to the terms, requirements and specifications stated in the contract. What

this invariably means is that issues of quality must be specified by the owner in

the contract. Monitoring of these items will enable project manager ascertain

whether quality has been compromised or not. Monitoring of these items to

ensure quality can take the form of periodic inspections, and periodic testing.

2.8.4 Assumption Monitoring- Risks may be monitored and controlled in projects.

Risks when not monitored and controlled can affect the project. This process of

monitoring risks in projects enables project managers to be in the known as to

what may happen and to assess them and put in place various measures or to

manage them when they occur.


An evaluation generally is carried out by a study of the outcome of a project and is

aimed at informing the design of future projects (Bamberger 1986). Evaluation

involves a rigorous and independent assessment of completed or ongoing activities.

The said assessment is aimed at ascertaining the degree to which the objectives of

the project has been achieved and this informs decision making for the future.

Evaluation is a process of determining systematically and objectively the relevance,

effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability and impact of activities in the light of a

project output. Evaluation also focuses on the analysis of the progress made in

obtaining the set objectives of the project (UNDP, 2009). Alotaibi (2011) found in

his study that Saudi Arabia lacked an appropriate construction contractor

performance evaluation framework and this significantly had a negative effect on the

project success generally. During evaluation, the data and information gathered at

the monitoring stage can be analysed and the impacts of the project during

evaluation (Otieno, 2000). According to UNDP (2009), ‘the key distinction

between monitoring and evaluation is that evaluations are done independently to

provide managers and staff with an objective assessment of whether or not they are

on track. However, both aims at providing information that can help inform

decisions, improve performance and achieve planned results’.


Evaluation has various purposes which include the following:

• It aids to ascertain the extent of obtaining the stated objectives;

• Problems connected with project planning and execution are also identified;

• Cumulative learning for future projects are also generated as a result of data

collected; and

• Policies and strategies are reformulated.


The approach adopted plays a significant role in the effectiveness of project

monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The plethora of literature have brought out

various approaches and same would be explained below.

Stem et al (2005) postulates that basic research, accounting and certification, status

assessment, and effectiveness measurement can be used by project managers as

some of the monitoring and evaluation approaches. Mladenovic et al (2013) on the

other hand has also established a two layers approach for the evaluation of projects.

The first approach according to Mladenovic et al (2013) was based on evaluation of

project stated objectives from the standpoint of each stakeholder in terms of

profitability, effectiveness and value for money etc. The second approach is the

balanced scorecard and is based on four perspectives which are the financial

perspective, customer perspective, Internal Business Process, and Learning &


Logical framework (Log frame) is considered as one of the commonest approaches

used in both planning and monitoring of projects. It is a prepared document giving

an overview of the objectives, activities and resources of a project. It also provides

information about external elements that may influence the project and assumptions

are also catered for in the statement. The logical framework as a tool aids in

strengthening project design, implementation and evaluation. The log frame is in the

entire project cycle. It aids in the organisation of thoughts, activities, set

performance indicators, investment to estimated results, set performance indicators,

allocate responsibilities etc. One benefit of this approach is that it encompasses all

the key parts and components of the project (University of Wolverhampton,

Middleton, 2005; Martinez, 2011). Log frame matrix as a tool has been viewed as

being applicable for all development projects and it is simple and efficient in data

collection, recording and reporting

Myrick (2013) on the other hand also postulates that a pragmatic approach to M&E

must be desired. He further explains that certain basic principles including measure

of objectives, performance indicator, target and periodic reporting should be part of

the monitoring and evaluation tool


Largely in designing a monitoring and evaluation system, one must consider what is

going to be monitored and evaluated. There are some basic steps that generally one

must consider and they include the following:

 The persons who will be play a role in the design, implementation, and

reporting must be identified and this includes project managers,

contractors, consultants etc.;

 Clarify the key aspects of the project including scope, purpose, intended

use, audience, and budget;

 Develop the questions to answer what you want to learn as a result of

your work;

 Choose indicators which will aid in measuring output, assess

performance etc.; and

 Select the data collection methods which may include interviews,

questionnaires, surveys.



According to Yume Sera and Susan Beaudry (2007), in conducting monitoring and

evaluation efforts, the specific areas to consider will depend on the actual

intervention, and its stated outcomes. Strategic questions to be asked include the


• Relevance: Are the objectives of the project measurable to the problems identified

and whether the goals of the project can address these setbacks?

• Efficiency: Cost and time are important in measuring efficiency and for that matter

there is a need to ask if the project can be completed in a timely and cost-effective


• Effectiveness: To what degree does the action obtain its objectives? Are there any

favourable factors or drawbacks during implementation?

• Impact: Are there any results/effects of the project? The project can either have

positive and negative effects.

• Sustainability: Are there lasting benefits after the intervention is completed?




It has been viewed globally that generally projects face numerous obstacles in their

implementation (Tengan and Aigbayboa 2016). Project monitoring and evaluation

has therefore been considered as a panacea to some extent, to enhance infrastructural

project performance. It has been argued that for a monitoring plan to be effective and

successful, it may largely depend on the capacity of the organisation and the

individual charged to undertake the monitoring. From a study, it has been found that

implementing monitoring and evaluation has been faced with weak institutional

capacity (Bhagavan and Virgin 2004). For correction of poor performance and to

achieve the objectives and aim on the project, it requires capacity building of

institutions. Capacity building is aimed at training individuals to strengthening

human resource development, equip individuals with skill sets etc. and this would

enable them to perform effectively.

Resources and budgetary allocation for monitoring and evaluation in the

construction industry in Ghana is limited thus posing a barrier to the implementation

of monitoring and evaluation the Ghanaian construction industry. Another barrier is

feeble relationship between monitoring and evaluation processes and other activities

in the phases of the project. There is a need for a strong interrelationship between the

monitoring and evaluation processes one side and other activities (including

planning and budgeting) in the project cycle on the other hand. Data collection and

analysis is an important monitoring process and planning for same is as important as

the monitoring itself. At the analysis of data for instance, threats, limitations etc. are

identified and that cements the need for a synergy between monitoring and

evaluation and other activities carried out in the project cycle (Chaplowe, (2008).

Quite important also, is a plan to manage the data of the monitoring and evaluation

system which helps reduce wastage of time and resources. There must be a budget

for every expense including staff, training facility costs, office supplies, equipment,

travel etc. Budgeting helps in the determination of whether all activities are included

in the project budget and this enhances project performance. Project monitoring and

evaluation face a challenge when there is a weak link between these crucial activities

and the system (International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2002).

A barrier to implementation of monitoring and evaluation in Ghana is the kind of

measures used in measuring project monitoring and evaluation. Gyadu-Asiedu

(2009) postulates that most measures are only have the ability of reporting on

performance after they have occurred. According to Beatham et al (2004), also noted

that major problems with the key performance indicators (KPIs) of the Construction

Best Practice Program (CBPP) for instance were fixed and hardly susceptible to

change and that they are designed as post-results KPIs (Beatham et al (2004).

According to the Ghana National Development Planning Commission (GNDPC),

monitoring and evaluation system may be affected by limited resources and

budgetary allocations for project monitoring and evaluation (Ghana National

Development Planning Commission (2010).

When project managers fail to comply with monitoring and evaluation guidelines

and when there are data gaps and poor data quality, they pose a challenge to

monitoring and evaluation in the construction industry. Lack of a comprehensive

national database of monitoring and evaluation system poses a barrier.

Monitoring and evaluation system must be effective. To be effective, the system

must be consistent with the objectives of the project. This therefore means that if

there is a disconnect, the desired outcomes of the project may not be achieved

(Ghana National Development Planning Commission (2010). Desired outcomes of

projects may not be achieved in Ghana and most developing countries because

stakeholders rarely consider how project objectives are consistent with the needs and

values of beneficiaries despite the increased demands for improved construction





A study of literature indicates that time is a factor considered in project monitoring

and evaluation. Practitioners have therefore revealed that when they are able to

complete project works in time, it is an indication of success (Tengan et al, 2014).

The major works are critical part of the project and that involves a lot of time and

that is mainly considered by project stakeholders/practitioners (Gyadu- Asiedu,

2009). The success of the project is considered when the major works which been

considered as critical are completed at the scheduled time. Generally, major works

when completed are considered as milestones and practitioners place premium on

same as payment certificates can be raised at this point. In Ghana, the duration of the

project is generally influenced by the time that the practitioner will be paid for the

work done and even in extreme situations, the contractor may halt work until he has

been paid (Gyadu- Asiedu, 2009).

One other key driver of project monitoring and evaluation is the desired goal/change

/effect of the project. For instance if the desired goal is to enter into public

infrastructures that will help reduce sexually transmitted diseases, there will be a

need for monitoring and evaluation. Primary areas for monitoring and evaluating

progress may include if the persons infected with HIV/AIDs are now using improved

medicines and for that matter there is a reduction in death which often happened


In Ghana, the main beneficiaries of a project are also a driver of project monitoring

and evaluation. For instance Ghana government may cause a public infrastructure to

be erected to house the institution known as Microfinance and Small Loans Centre

(MASLOC). The mandate of MASLOC may include giving small loans to

individuals who are in dire need of the assistance in order to boost their small scale

businesses. Monitoring progress in arriving at these goals is therefore important.

When such a project is completed, the standard of living of persons living in the

country including the Kumasi metropolis will be improved generally.

Another key driver of project monitoring and evaluation in Ghana is the project

scope and size. In the construction industry generally, they are used in assessing

project monitoring and evaluation. There will be the need for effective

communication, efficient decision-making process; various site meetings etc and

these are considered as indicators of good monitoring and evaluation system. The

quality of monitoring and evaluation may be affected by the success or otherwise of

these indicators used in monitoring and evaluation (Gyadu-Asiedu, 2009).

Duration of the project is also another driving factor of monitoring and evaluation

(Chaplowe 2008). Chaplowe, (2008) postulates that duration of the project affects


The overall project budget is an influencing factor of project monitoring and

evaluation. Cost normally associated with projects include fluctuation cost,

managerial cost, environmental and social cost, incidental cost and legal cost and

these must be well catered for in the budget. (Gyadu-Asiedu, 2009).



Political influence and management support have been considered as key external

influences on monitoring and evaluation (Charles and Humam 2015).

2.16.1 Political Influence

Kenya’s political culture like most developing countries is ethnic based. Politicians

use ethnic favoritism as a basis in manipulating the allocation of public expenditure

which is aimed at achieving votes from electorates. Ethnic groups associated with

government tend to receive huge expenditure on projects (Burgess et al, 2013).

Strong political support, together with a commitment to the smallholder sector for

example, the dairy industry, has a huge political support because of the dominant

ethnic affiliation in Kenya (Atieno, 2014). Muriithi & Crawford (2003) have

revealed the various issues associated with the approaches to project management in

developing countries and it includes coping with political and community demands

on project resources. Pinto (2000) has advised that project managers must not lose

sight of organizational politics and as effective managers, they should be willing and

able to use the relevant political tactics to advance project aims. In developing

countries, it has been argued that political impacts on projects must be reviewed during

the monitoring and evaluation phase in order to ascertain whether or not to go on with the

project (Cusworth and Franks, 2013). Political influence undoubtedly can have a positive or

negative impact on the project success.

2.16.2 Management Support

According to PMBOK (PMI, 2004), management of a project involves the processes

that organize, manage, and lead the project team. There are assigned roles and duties

for persons in the project team and this is aimed at project completion. The number

of persons in the project team may differ during the project lifecycle. It has been

argued that institutions that have mature human resource management practices

produce more successful projects and vice versa (Pretorius et al, 2012). There seems

to be a consensus among the literature reviewed that management support plays a

major role in achievement of project success (Andersen, 2006). There are several

measures that can be used in the assessment of management support in monitoring

and evaluation which include communication, leadership, managing politics,

managing societal demands and Motivation (Muriithi & Crawford, 2003; Marangu,

2012; Jetu & Riedl, 2013; Atencio, 2012; Yong & Mustaffa, 2012; Attarzadeh &

Ow, 2008; Georgieva & Allan, 2008; Yang et’ al, 2011). The correlation between

monitoring and evaluation and project success is argued, to a large extent, depends

on management support (Pequegnat et al (1995).



Most studies as indicated above illuminate some critical factors that contribute to

project success and one of such contributing factor is monitoring and evaluation

(Prabhakar, 2008). But despite the fact that effective monitoring and evaluation is

key in project success, project failures still arise because of lack of effective

monitoring and evaluation systems.

Papke-Shields et’ al (2010) and Hwang and Lim (2013) also argue similar thoughts

and note that the probability of achieving project success is high among other

factors when there is constant and persistent monitoring and evaluation of ongoing

and completed projects. These factors are considered key and relevant in

management of project scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communication

and risks. To a large extent, there seems to be an agreement that monitoring and

evaluation in the construction industry particularly public infrastructural projects are

major contributory factors to project success.

Bamberger and Hewitt, (1986), have similar expositions. They argue that monitoring

and evaluation helps stakeholders to; ascertain the extent to which the project is on

track and to make any necessary amendments accordingly, identify potential

problems, provide guidelines for planning of future projects, allow stakeholders to

make informed decisions concerning the project, effectively and efficiently use

resources needed in project life cycle and review the degree of impact of the project.


Conclusively, it may be stated that monitoring and evaluation play a major role in

project implementation including public infrastructural projects execution as such

there is the need for stakeholders to be keen on these factors. Eventually project

quality is achieved within time and costs. Weak institutional capacity, limited

resources and budgetary allocations for monitoring and evaluation, poor data quality,

data gaps etc. are barriers to project delivery in Ghana and this includes the

implementation of public infrastructural projects in Kumasi. Project success are

milestones for stakeholders and therefore the need for capacity building, improved

methods of monitoring and evaluation.




This chapter discusses the methodological approaches to the research. It

includes, research design, population, data sources and instruments, sample and

sampling procedure, for data collection, methods of data analysis to be adopted

and ethical concerns in conducting this research.


The Presrtea-Kumasi Power Enhancement Project is the second of Ghana Grid

Company’s (GRIDCo) 330kV transmission network in Ghana after the Aboadze

– Tema Transmission line. The project which is estimated to cost 67million

dollars is being financed with a concessional loan sourced from Korea Export

and Import Bank. This turnkey project is being executed by a consortium made

up of GS E&D and Samsung C&E of Korea. The scope of this turnkey project is

to Engineer, Procure and Construct a total of 185km 330kV transmission line

from Prestea in the Western Region to Kumsi in Ashanti Region, A 33kV

substation build in Kumasi and an expansion of the existing 161kV substation at

Anwomaso, Kumasi. The project was estimated to be completed in 18 months.

The power enhancement project is aimed at facilitating power evacuation from

the new power generation project undertaken in Aboadze power enclave to other

parts of the country. It is also to increase the transfer capacity to middle belt,

northern and the nearby countries. GRIDCo also aims at reducing transmission

line losses considerably while improving the system voltage stability. Lastly this

will support the ongoing rural electrification project expand from the current

75% coverage to an estimated 80% coverage across the country.


3.3.1 Qualitative research

Qualitative research involves experimentation and observation method that uses a

descriptive and narrative style with non-numerical data and it is generally used in

gaining an understanding of underpinning reasons, opinions and motivations (Punch,

1998). In the view of Denzin and Lincoln, (1994), qualitative research involves

interpretive and naturalistic approach in the sense. Thus it involves the study of

things in their natural environments. An attempt is thereafter made to interpret and

harmonize the meanings people attach to them. On his part, McLeod, (2017)

discusses the purpose of qualitative studies is to understand the social culture of

people which affects the behavior of the said people or society.

(Braun and Clarke, 2006) opines that qualitative research is exploratory in nature not

intended to give a conclusive answer to problems but it attempts to examine a

problem to gain further insight. Qualitative researchers utilize different techniques in

developing an comprehending how individuals interpret or view realities and

outcomes and how they act in those areas. These techniques according to Denzin and

Lincoln (1994) include interviewing individual’s direct statements, assessing

artifacts, cultural archives and statistics, using visible or non-public materials. By

using these techniques, the researcher develops a real experience of a person's

comprehension of a circumstance.

According to Glaser and Strauss, (1967), making sense of data may include utilizing

many strategies. These strategies include content evaluation, well-founded theory,

and thematic analysis or discourse analysis. They added that opportunities can only

be adequately understood if they can be seen in context. Therefore, a qualitative

researcher can understand the situations better when he involves himself deeply in

the environment/subject.

McLeod, (2017) again elaborated that qualitative researchers need people who are

studied to speak for themselves and not be coerced into saying anything as the

context must be as natural as possible. The people being studied in qualitative

researcher educate the researcher about their lives thus making this type of research

subjective. The concept involves gathering information from individuals who can be

studied. This research has both time and cost implications and as such qualitative

designs do not collect information on a large scale basis. There is the need to get

closer to the interviewed in order to get a clear understanding of the individual’s

view of social reality. The time required for data sets, evaluation and interpretation

may be long. There is a need to allocate time for the analysis of qualitative

recordings which may be difficult at times. The researcher must have thorough

knowledge to interpret the information gathered with care.

3.3.2 Quantitative Research

Quantitative research involves a formal and systematic process in obtaining

information/data in the form of numbers analysed through the use of statistics and

the relationships between the numbers. Statistics are based on mathematical

principles The information/data collected may be interpreted in the form of charts,

tables etc. A theory is supported or rejected when this research is carried out and this

concluded on based on the data, statistics and the relationships between the numbers

McLeod, (2017). The interpretation of quantitative data can be carried out with

statistical data as they are considered as objective and rational (Carr, 1994;

Denscombe, 2010).

Controlled observations, surveys, questionnaires are some of the methods utilized in

producing the quantitative information (data). The research participant is limited in

the extent of his reaction to the realities and as a result, the information given by the

participant may reflect the researchers' assumptions. Participants are not allowed to

explain their options as the experiments do not take place in natural environments

(Carr, 1994). A researcher undertaking this kind of research must have strong

knowledge in the application of statistical analysis as the converse can negatively

affect analysis and thus affect interpretation (Black, 1999).

Researchers are allowed to convert quantitative data into useful information to help

decision-making. We can use statistics to summarize collected data, describe

patterns, and their relationship. Statistics can be descriptive or inferential, while

descriptive statistics help the researcher to sum up data, inferential statistics are

utilized to discover the differences between data groups using the statistics.

In Denscombe,( 2010) explains that quantitative research involves large sample sizes

to achieve a more accurate analysis. Small size quantitative studies may be

unreliable due to the limited amount of data and thus making it difficult to generalize

the results to larger populations. Measured values are the underpinnings of

quantitative data thus making them less open to uncertainty in its interpretation and

this is as a result of the use of statistical analysis (Antonius, 2003). Assumptions can

also be tested by others using statistical analysis.

The Researcher employed qualitative method for this study. This was because the

study sought to examine the monitoring and evaluation challenges. The data

obtained was in the form of narration through interviews. Lastly, the researcher

asked open ended question to have in-depth explanation to the situation while the

respondents provides opinions on the issues to better describe the situation in its

natural form.


The study population constituted the project implementation and management team.

They comprised project consultant’s team, the contractors and a representative of the

client (Ghana Grid Company (GRIDCo). The project management team comprised

the lead consultant, contractor, representative of GRIDCo, project manager, project

planning officer, quantity surveyor, site engineer, and project finance officer. The

total population for the study was therefore 14.


A total of Five (5) core project management personnel were sampled for the study.

They include the Project Representative – GRIDC, and the Lead Consultant, as the

clients representatives, and for the contractor’s representatives were the Project

Manager, Project Engineer, and the Project Planner.


The researcher used purposive sampling techniques for selecting these Five (5)

project management personnel. These people were purposively sampled for the study

because they constituted the project management team and were responsible for the

monitoring and evaluation of the project.


The research will make use of relevant information from primary and secondary

data sources. The secondary data will mainly reflect on the review of related

literature from books, articles, journals and many other relevant written

publications. The study was also collected data primary sources through



The researcher sort permission from the project management team for the data

collection exercise through a formal letter. After the permission was granted, the

researcher scheduled appointments with the individual members of the project

management team. The interview them. The interview will be conducted by the

researcher by asking the questions and recording their answers at the same time.


The methods of analysis used in this research were selected due to the type of data

to be assessed and evaluated for the analysis and the objectives of the research.

Data gathered from the field exercise were edited to correct all grammatical errors.

Narrative analysis was used to analyse the data gathered from the interviews.

This method is considered useful for understanding major events in the narrative and

the effect those events have on the individual constructing the narrative. The

approach utilised an ‘evaluation model’ that organised the data into an abstract

(What was this about?), an orientation (Who? What? When? Where?), a

complication (Then what happened?), an evaluation (So what?), a result (What

finally happened?), and a coda (the finished narrative). Said narrative elements may

not occur in a constant order; multiple or reoccurring elements may exist within a

single narrative.


According to Saunders et al., (2009,p.184) Research ethics therefore relates to

questions about how we formulate and clarify our research topic, design our research

and gain access, collect data, process and store our data, analyze data and write

up our research findings in a moral and responsible way.

The researcher was guided by best practices and as such assured respondents that

all information sourced will be for the purpose of this research work. The managers

of the project who were interviewed were all given prior notice of authorisation in

line with the data collection, analysis, processing and storage accordingly.




This chapter presents the results and discussion of the data gathered from the field.

The chapter is organized under the monitoring and evaluation challenges

encountered by project managers in implementing public infrastructure projects

under sub-headings with respect to time, cost and the quality of the project.

4.2 Steps and Approaches adopted by the Project in implementing Monitoring

and Evaluation

The following section discusses the step and the approach as adopted by the Prestea

– Kumasi power enhancement project to achieve their Monitoring and evaluation

targets for the project.

The researcher posed the question; “what is has been the monitoring and evaluation

practice for this project? The Project Manager indicated that the contractor has GS-

E&C has its own standard reports and formats. However, prior to the start of this

project, they furnished the client’s team (consultant and client’s representative) with

all their management framework for reporting and communicating at all levels. He

said “The construction team discussed with the client our system for monitoring our

projects. The client and their consultants reviewed them with inputs of the GRIDCo

standards for approval.” He continued by adding that “The Logical framework we

are using now is a blend of our typical format and that of our clients.” When asked

about the main components and how the plan being implemented, the Project

Manager responded that; “The framework we are using is basically stats the plan for

achieving the projects goals, how the schedule will be monitored and all other

activities managed and controlled. A the main contractor for this project, we have

our document controller taking care of our records i.e, inspection requests, material

test sheets and all other records. Our planner uses aids like Microsoft project, where

all relevant information helps the team assess our performance and keep track of all

projects activities. We generate most of our reports through and our data source at

our project desk at our head office in Korea. These reports are our presented at our

weekly project meetings and daily briefs. (morning meetings) we have other

systems.” He then conclude by saying; “As standard procedure for our quality

control, various engineers are sent to manufacturers for factory acceptance test

before for all electrical and mechanical equipment to ensure conformance before

shipping is done.

The Lead Consultant in his narration to the same questions stated that; “The

contractor and his sub-contractors by the contract arrangement with the client

updates us with reports, check-list and approvals for all activities. They are to

request for inspections where there is the need to for approval.” The lead consultant

added that; “These are all to ensure they keep to the standards, check what should be

done against what has been done and to ensure conformity to the approved designs.”

By their account, both lead managers indicated that there is a plan that guides the

monitoring and evaluation process of the Prestea – Kumasi power enhancement



This section examined the challenges faced by project management team with the

schedule (time) of the project. This included the challenges associated with the

starting time, meeting the project scheduled and milestones, to be able to complete

the project within schedule. This was critical in project management as described by

Stem et al. (2005) that adhering to the timelines in project implementation helps to

restrict cost within the budgeted amount as well as meet project goals and objectives.

The project management team was asked to share their views on the duration of the

project as described in the project brief. In the project brief, the project duration was

18 months. This was supposed to start from September 2016 to February 2018.

From the study, all the members in the project management team were satisfied with

the project duration. The lead consultant indicated that the “duration of the project

was based on past experiences in similar projects with regard to the form and

scope.” The project planner also indicated that “the project duration was agreed

upon among all the stakeholders before the commencement of the project”. Thus, the

transparency within which the project duration was determined resulted in the

situation where all the stakeholders were satisfied with it. As a result, the project

manager reported that “the Prestea-Kumasi power enhancement project management

team members were committed to delivering the project within the project schedule”.

The implication is participation and transparency in establishing project duration

which is imperative in whipping stakeholders’ interest and commitment in working

within it.

The respondents were asked about the challenges they encountered with the

timelines in starting the project. The study found that the project did not start on

schedule as stipulated in the project brief. The project was delayed for two months

before starting. The project started on November 2016 instead of the scheduled

period of September 2016. From the study, some of the challenges encountered by

the project management team at the starting point were delays in land acquisition and

compensation problems. The Project Manager reiterated that “people are not willing

or hesitate to release land for the construction of transmission lines”. He further

explained that “This was attributed to their perception that one cannot use the land

for anything productive once transmission lines pass through it because of high

voltage, their safety and possible negative effects on the health”.

The project manager added that “upon further deliberations and engagements with

the community members, lands are being released for the project”. The result shows

that the lack of engagement of the beneficiary communities from the onset of a

project could cause delays in project implementation. In other words, the

involvement of Stakeholders and communities leaders in project planning and

implementation is key to ensure smooth project execution. This is in agreement with

the assertion of Mladenovic et al. (2013) that project beneficiaries are critical

stakeholders and as such should be engaged from the onset to guarantee smooth

project implementation and sustainability. Alhvari et al. (2013) posited that project

managers and development partners, however, mostly consider project beneficiaries

as non-technical people who could not contribute significantly to the planning and

implementation of the project.

The project planner also indicated that “part of the cause for the delay in the starting

of the Prestea-Kumasi power enhancement project was due to the confusion

surrounding the payment of compensations to the affected people. The project had to

be delayed to resolve most of the compensation challenges with respect to rightful

owners of properties who deserve to receive compensations either on their behalf or

on behalf of their families”. He again stated that; “The delays in the starting of the

project automatically fed into the project duration by delaying the completion date.

The implication is that the problem of frequent power outages and distribution losses

due to overloading in the Prestea-Kumasi power transmission corridor will

continuously persist for the additional months the project will have to extend to.”

The study further sought the views of the project management about the challenges

they encountered in meeting the various timelines in the implementation of the

project. This was important because any form of delays caused by such challenges

would feed into the project implementation system by delaying subsequent activities

and tasks to affect the overall schedule of the project. From the study, the project

engineer stated that “the project delayed further during the implementation because

of delays in the acquisition of the 330kv transmission lines corridor”. The

explanation was that the concentration in settling challenges associated with

compensation payments did not allow the project management team to order the

transmission lines on time, which affected the time of their delivery. The implication

is that the initial delays have had rippling effects on the other project activities by

causing further delays in the execution of the project.

This is in line with the assertion of Middleton (2005) that delays in the initial stages

of projects could have rippling effects on the other activities and project duration

when certain compatible activities are not concurrently done. This shows that the

project management team was not able to execute some of the project activities

simultaneously to address the delays at the initial stages. As a result, the project

implementation process has been delayed for four months i.e. two months at the start

and two months in acquiring the transmission lines. The project is, therefore,

expected to be completed in June 2018. This could aggravate the problem the project

seeks to address as more communities in the Prestea-Kumasi power transmission

corridor urbanize to create more load on the existing 161kv sub-station.

The respondents were further requested to indicate whether the execution of the

other project activities were in agreement with the timeline benchmarks in the

project brief. From the study, all the respondents admitted that the schedule for the

execution of all the other activities in the project has delayed. This explains the

extension in the duration of the project by four months. However, the Project

Manager indicated that the implementation of the project activities is going

according to the extend duration. The respondents attributed the delays in the

execution of the project to the initial delays caused by land acquisition and

compensation problems as well as delays in the acquisition of the transmission lines


The study inquired from the respondents about the challenges they encounter with

the timeliness in monitoring and evaluating the project activities. This was necessary

as the timelines in performing the monitoring and evaluation functions in project

management helps to ensure that projects are executed according to planned

specifications. The study found that the project management team has set up a

monitoring and evaluation unit after they the extension was granted them to

regularly conduct monitoring activities.

However, this unit was not manned by the leading project management team

member themselves, but by their subordinates and representatives. The project

consultant indicated that he has three assistants and three technicians or engineers

who daily monitor activities on the project site and furnish him with the information.

The lead consultant comes in as and when the entire project management team

wanted to apprise themselves with information about the progress of the work or

when there were some challenges facing the contractor. The project management

team now conducted monitoring exercises every week. According to the

representative of the Ghana Grid Company, the main challenge in the timelines and

regularity of the monitoring activities of the project management team is availability.

He narrated that “some of the project management team are sometimes not available

for the monitoring due to other engagements which affects the quality and

transparency of the monitoring exercise. This is a critical challenge since the

membership of the project management team is diverse with each person coming on

board with special expertise. As a result, their frequent absence could affect the

work done”.


The study also sort to assess the challenges encountered by the project management

team with respect to the cost monitoring and control of the project. This was

imperative because project cost management has a significant impact on the ability

to deliver on time and within budget most especially for a fixed cost Engineer,

Procure and Construct (EPC) - turnkey project. According to the project planner, the

total cost and cost of the various activities were arrived at through a bottom-up price

build up using a detailed bill of quantities. The financial cash flow for the project

was drawn by setting budget for resources and activity and contingency plans were

set to ensure the timely release of funds/revenue to ensure timely execution of the

project as cost baseline. In his explanation, he stated that “a schedule for invoicing

was planned along the delivery timelines with payment to be made within thirty (30)

working days”. The respondent alluded that “the total cost of the Prestea-Kumasi

power enhancement project was US$67 million”. This amount according to them

was fixed and would not change irrespective of happenings in the cause of the

project. The project planner added that they undertake monthly review using

performance review and variance analysis in analyzing weekly reports to ensure

project is kept on track.

The project planner indicated that “the delays in the execution of the project and the

compensation challenges though it affected the project time, it did not cause the

contract sum of the project to change”. The project consultant also stated that “the

project cost did not change as per the delays in implementation because the factors

causing the delays were not as a result of the project owners.” This implies that

liabilities on the project clients could cause variations in the contract sum of the

project. In addition, the project manager reported that “in all the delays, the project

management team was committed in maintaining payments within the estimated

budget of the contract as we made available management fund from our reserve to

take care of some they delays”. The results show that the level of commitment of the

project management team to execute projects within the initial contract sum is

critical to avoid cost variations. From the study, the project consultant indicated that

“careful thoughts and analyses went into the costing of the various

activities of the project… further, part of the criteria for the selection of the

project contractor was to select one whose price lists were far within the

estimated budgets to avoid upward review of the contract sum”.

The above statement shows that cost elements in the criteria for the selection and

awarding of project contracts is imperative in maintaining project cost within the

contract sum in the implementation period.

Maintaining the project cost within the initial contract sum also implies that timely

release of funds for the smooth and effective implementation of the project is crutial

to the success of the project. This is likely to enhance the project execution.

According to Charles et al. (2015), upward variation in project cost during

implementation is responsible for the delays and abandonments of several projects as

project clients have to organize themselves for more funds to finance the additional

costs. Alotaibi (2011) suggested that due diligence and critical thinking are crucially

required in project costing to avert such implementation delays and project


The project planner also stressed that “the costing of the project in a more stable

currency (dollars) has also contributed to the ensuring the project cost within the

initial contract sum”. He added that “most of the materials were procured within

budget and that was to avoid delays as they were imported from various countries”.

This is because internal inflation and depreciation of the local currency did not have

significant impact on the project cost. The study found that the project was funded

by the Exim Bank of South Korea. As a result, the budgeting and cost estimates for

the various activities and items were done in dollars. In addition, all the major items

were imported from outside Ghana in forex. These helped to maintain the project

cost within the initial contract sum. The above shows that costing project sums in a

more stable currency is an important element to restrict the implementation cost

within the estimated amount.

The project management team was unanimous on one critical set back that caused

the project another major challenge with respect to managing their cost. This was a

change in government and the initial effects of change in government policy on tax

and import duty exemptions. In the 2017 budget statement presented to Parliament.

Government directed in their new policy that all companies and entities who have

been granted exemption from payment of import duty charges including taxes were

required to pay and then file for claims through a new process with documentary

evidence. In their responses, they indicated that materials that were due for clearing

attracted unexpected high charges since they team could to meet the timelines to

either clear them or re-apply for these exemptions.

Another issue considered under the second objective was the how effectively the

management team has been able to monitor and evaluate cost components of the

project. From the study, all the respondents admitted that they are still closely

monitoring and effectively managing the cost of the project. According to the project

consultant, this was largely attributed to the engagement of highly qualified

consultants in electrical engineering and project management to prepare the project

contract document with respect to the scope and technical specifications of the

project to address the power issues in the Prestea-Kumasi power transmission

corridor. However, the project planner stated that “We are able to control cost from

the sub-contractors as their works are based on priced bill of quantities. Evatuations

are done by checking and measuring what has been done, compared with what is left

to be done”.

The Project manager indicated that even though they carried out a detailed risk

assessment for the transmission line corridor, there are still some area that require re-

engineering to divert the line from the planned route. This he said is likely to

increase the overall cost of the project even though they it will not affect he project

duration. The project manager explained further that the proposed route will be

shorter and less costly but then they will need to exhaust the change process to be

able to proceed with the change.


The study sought to analyze the challenges the project management team

encountered with the quality of the project. This was important because the quality

of the project determines the extent to which the project could address the intended

objectives. The respondents were requested to share their views on how the size of

the project posed a challenge to the quality control in their quest to monitor and

evaluate the project. From the study, the project manager indicated that

“the size of the project is a challenge, this is our first ever project in

Ghana so we had to make contract sub-contractor. The local content

arrangement brought on Ghanaian contractors who have the requisite

skills but the small sizes of the local engineering firms have necessitated

that many firms have to be engaged to execute the project’s various

aspects… it has made it difficult to monitor all of the sub-contractors since

more logistics and personnel had to be hired to ensure quality delivery of

service… this has caused some delays in finalizing the contractual

arrangements for each firm in relation to their estimated capacity”.

The result shows that contractual arrangements with respect to project size could

cause delays in the execution of projects. The narration also shows that project

monitoring becomes difficult when the implementation or monitoring team had to

monitor so many contractors or issues at the same time. The challenge comes in

when the project implementation team strive to ensure the expected quality standards

in the midst of monitoring so many implementation points at the same time.

The project quantity surveyor also narrated that the large size of the project makes

monitoring difficult in terms of reconciling and tracking the use of materials,

logistics and resources. The project engineer on his part stated that large size of the

project makes it difficult to monitor the effectiveness of the labour force in the

execution of the project. He indicated they could not be at every point at the same

time and so they mostly relied on test results, sample testing, and checklists

completed to assess the work done.

The project consultant reported that the monitoring problems arose by the need to

execute some multiple project activities and tasks at the same time to reduce project

implementation time. The representative from the Ghana Grid Company stated that

activities at the sub-station and transmission section are being executed concurrently

to avoid implementation delays during the raining season, thus with the limited

resources there is the need to increase the site visits to ascertain the level of quality

employed. He added that “some of the line are in difficult terrains so their inability

to monitor such places could result in poor quality of work by the contractor”. The

results above show that challenges in project monitoring and evaluation with respect

to the size arose from multiple sources, including operational strategies,

environmental factors and human resource management issues.

Another issue considered under the study was challenges with the project designs.

This was important because the form of these designs were done by the contractor

and approved by the client. This means that any change will have to go through a

change request through the consultants to the client. From the study, all the

respondents reported that the project implementation and monitoring processes

encountered some challenges with the project designs. Both the project consultant

and site engineer reported that some aspects of the project designs did not fit the

topography and geological factors in some portions of the project.

The project manager also stated that “some litigation surrounding the lands and

mining activities along the corridor of the project compelled the project team to

divert the transmission lines to other areas where the designs had to be changed”.

The implication is that such unanticipated challenge could affect project delivery.

The project contractor added that on-site changes had to be made to maintain the

quality of the project as parts of the designs were not technically feasible with

changes in site or land allocations. The project manager further stated that such

minor changes caused minor delays in the execution of the project.

The respondents were also asked to indicate the challenges they encountered with

the quality of labour in implementing the Prestea-Kumasi power enhancement

project. This was deemed necessary because the quality of labour engaged has

influence on the quality of the overall project. The study found that the project team

had challenges with the quality of some of the local technicians. He narrated that

“sometimes we have to correct them over and over… in other times too we

have to reject the quality of their work outputs, destroy them and give them

direct supervision to execute the task… this made monitoring of their

activities difficult as we always have to stay close to them to supervise

some of their activities to ensure that tasks are implemented according to

technical specifications”.

The result shows that effective and frequent monitoring and evaluation are

essential to ensure the successful execution of high quality project when the

quality of labour is low. It helps to avert the situation where projects are not

implemented according to planned specifications. The project consultant also

indicated that monitoring of labour was deduced from the quality of work output

delivered by the contractor as the actual workers were under the direct

supervision of the contractor.

The study further examined the challenges the project management team

encountered with the quality of materials and equipment used in the construction

of the project. This was imperative because the quality of materials and

equipment influence the quality of the overall project delivery as well as

executing the project on time. From the study, the project contractor stated that

frequent breakdown of some of the machinery and equipment was a major

challenge to implementation of the project. This was because project

implementation activities slowed down anytime the machines broke down. The

project manager attributed the frequent breakdowns of some of the machinery to

poor maintenance system and ageing of the equipment. The project consultant

also stated that the availability of few opportunities for the hiring of some of the

heavy machinery and equipment made it difficult to find easy replacement for

faulty ones to execute the project as expected. The results show that the

availability of more opportunities for project management team with respect to

machinery and equipment aided in project implementation.




This chapter presents the summary of major findings and the overall conclusion of

the study. The chapter again makes recommendations on how to reduce challenges in

the monitoring and evaluation of projects.


This section presents the summary of major findings of the study. The section is

organized under the challenges monitoring and evaluation that project managers

encounter with the of the project time, project cost and challenges encountered with

the quality of the project.

5.3 Current Monitoring and Evaluation Practice on the Project

1. The study found out that, the project had a project monitoring and evalua-

p0tion plan in the form of a logical framework that is followed for the project


2. From the study, data collection in the form of reports and request are the

responsibility of the contractors while the consultants verify and approve all

the processes and documents.

3. The study also found that the plan was arrived at based on previous documents

from other projects undertaken by all the stakeholders.

5.4. Project Monitoring and Evaluating Challenges in Terms of Cost, Time and


5.4.1 Challenges Project Managers Encounter Monitoring and Evaluating Time

1. The study found that participation and transparency in establishing project

duration contributed in boosting the commitments of the stakeholders in

achieving the timelines.

2. From the study, the lack of engagement of the beneficiary communities from

the onset of a project could cause delays in project implementation.

3. The non-availability of some of the project management team member affected

the quality and transparency of the monitoring exercise.

5.4.2 Project cost monitoring and control challenges

1. The study found that liabilities on the project clients could cause variations in

the contract sum of the project.

2. The costing of the project in a more stable currency (dollars) has contributed to

the maintenance of the project cost within the initial contract sum.

3. Project reengineering influences the cost of projects.

5.4.3 Project Quality Monitoring and Evaluation

1. The study found that project monitoring becomes difficult when the

implementation or monitoring team had to monitor so many contractors or

different issues at the same time.

2. From the study, monitoring problems arose by the need to execute some

multiple project activities and tasks at the same time to reduce project

implementation time.

3. Environmental factors have influence on the quality of projects as they

determine the level of fitness of particular designs to the area to sustain


5.5 Conclusion

Project monitoring and evaluation are essential elements in the project management

system. They help to ensure that projects are implemented according to planned

technical specifications, control cost, ensure that project activities are completed

within the specified timelines, and also ensure that the intended purposes for

implementing projects are met. The aim is to ensure value for money. However,

inherent challenges in the monitoring mechanisms of projects sometimes frustrate

the smooth and effective implementation of projects. This study sought to assess the

challenges associated with the monitoring of timing, cost and quality of the Prestea-

Kumasi Power Enhancement project. The study found that participation and

transparency in establishing project duration contributed in boosting the

commitments of the stakeholders in achieving the timelines, costing of the project in

a more stable currency (dollars) has contributed to the maintenance of the project

cost within the initial contract sum, and project monitoring becomes difficult when

the implementation or monitoring team had to monitor so many contractors or

different issues at the same time. The study concludes that placing much importance

on monitoring could help improve the outputs and outcomes of projects.

5.6 Recommendations

1. The study recommends that the project management team should espouse

transparency in all monitoring activities to boost the commitment of all

members towards the achievement of the project objectives. As a result, the

project management team should furnish absentee members during monitoring

with updated information to enhance transparency.

2. The study suggests that the Prestea-Kumasi power enhancement project team

members should engage the beneficiary communities to win their support. This

will help to fast track the implementation of the project by completing

activities on time without unnecessary litigations.

3. It is further recommended that further designs of the project by the consultants

should critically consider and factor into the process environmental factors

such as topography and geology. This will help to ensure environmental

compatibility with project designs to avoid extra costs in redesigning as well as

delays cause by on-site redesigns.

4. The study suggests that the project implementation plan should be organized

into phases to enable the project management team monitor effectively the

various phases without compromising on quality.

5.6 Suggestion for further studies

The study suggests that further studies should be conducted into the opportunity cost

for implementing this project as well as compatible project activities that could be

implemented concurrently without creating operational challenges and improve the

timeliness of completing the project.


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Dear Sir/Madam,


I am Peter Ebenezer Newman, a M.Sc. candidate of the Institute of Distance

Learning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. This

questionnaire is designed for a research study entitled “A STUDY INTO THE




to assess:

1. challenges project managers encounter with the timing of the project,

2. project cost monitoring and control challenges, and

3. challenges encountered with the quality of the project.

Kindly provide answers to the following questions. Information provided will be

treated with the highest confidentiality. I would like to convey my appreciation for

your cooperation in completing these questions.

Peter Ebenezer Newman, M.Sc. Candidate

Institute of Distance Learning
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

Mobile No: 0200844222



Project Time Monitoring and Evaluation Challenges

1. What are your views on the duration of the project?

2. What challenges did you encounter with the start of the project?

3. What challenges did you encounter in meeting the various time benchmarks in

the implementation of the project?

4. What challenges do you encounter in the timeliness of monitoring and

evaluating the project activities?

5. Is the project implementation going according to the planned time schedules?

6. If no, what might have accounted for that?

7. How do you think the project could be complemented per schedule?

Project cost monitoring and control challenges

1. What are your views on the contract sum of the project?

2. What challenges do you encounter with the cost control arrangements

surrounding the project?

3. What cost challenges do you encounter with the monitoring and evaluation of the


Project Quality Monitoring and Evaluation Challenges

1. What challenges do you encounter with the size of the project?

2. What challenges do you encounter with the design of the project?

3. What challenges do you encounter with the quality of labour employed for the


4. What challenges do you encounter with the quality of materials used for the


Any additional information:

Thank you