Anda di halaman 1dari 6

AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND

BALANCE CONTROL

AIRWORTHINESS NOTICE

VERSION : 3.0
DATE OF IMPLEMENTATION : 05-11-2009
OFFICE OF PRIME INTEREST : AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTORATE

05/11/2009 AWNOT-011-AWXX-3.0
AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE CONTROL

05/11/2009 AWNOT-011-AWXX-3.0
AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE CONTROL

A. AUTHORITY:

A1. This Airworthiness Notice is issued under the Authority vested in DG CAA vide Rule 4 and 51 of
Civil Aviation Rules, 1994.

B. PURPOSE:
B1. The purpose of this Airworthiness Notice is to describe the requirements for control of aircraft
weight and balance.

C. SCOPE:
C1. This Airworthiness Notice is applicable to all operators and aircraft maintenance organization.

D. DESCRIPTION:

D1. DEFINITIONS:

D1.1 Basic weight: Basic weight is the weight of the aircraft and all its basic equipment, plus that of
the declared quantity of unusable oil. In the case of turbine-engine aircraft and aircraft, the maximum
certificated take-off weight of which does not exceed 5700 kg, it may also include the weight of usable oil.

D1.2 Basic equipment: Basic equipment is the un-consumable fluids, and the equipment which is
common to all roles for which the operator intends to use the aircraft.

D1.3 Centre of Gravity: (C.G.) is the point about which the aircraft would balance if it were possible to
suspend it at that point. The weight of an aircraft may be assumed to be concentrated at its centre of
gravity.

D1.4 Centre of Gravity Datum (reference Datum) - is an imaginary plane from which all
measurements of arm are taken. For most aircraft the datum is established by the manufacturer and in
some cases its horizontal location is marked on the aircraft. Once selected all moment arms must be
taken with reference to the datum. The datum is specified in the Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS),
Certificate of Airworthiness or approved flight manual.

D1.5 Centre of Gravity Limits - are the most forward, most rearward centre of gravity positions at
which an aircraft may be operated in accordance with the Airworthiness certification standards of the
State of Design. Centre of gravity limits are normally expressed in millimeters forward or aft of the datum
but for a fixed wing aircraft may be stated as a percentage of the mean aerodynamic chord (M.A.C) of the
wing. The centre of gravity limits are specified in the Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS), Certificate of
Airworthiness or approved flight manual.

D1.6 Centre of Gravity Range - is the distance between the forward and aft centre of gravity limits.

D1.7 Mean Aerodynamic Chord (M. A. C.) – is the average chord of an imaginary wing having the
same aerodynamic characteristics as the actual wing.

D1.8 Operations Engineer – is an engineer who provides technical operational support for aircraft.

D1.9 Weight, Empty – is the measured or calculated weight of an aircraft including all items of fixed
equipment and other equipment that is mandatory for all operations, fixed ballast, unusable fuel, un-
drainable oil, total quantity of hydraulic fluid, but excluding all other items of disposable load.

05/11/2009 Page 1 of 4 AWNOT-011-AWXX-3.0


AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE CONTROL

D1.10 Weight, Maximum Take-off – is the maximum weight, according to the Certificate of
Airworthiness or approved flight manual, at which the aircraft is permitted to take-off.

D1.11 Weight, Maximum Zero Fuel – is the maximum weight approved for the aircraft not including
fuel load.

D1.12 Weight, Operating – is, in relation to a particular type of operation, the empty weight of the
aircraft plus those items of removable equipment and disposable load that remain constant for the type of
operation being conducted.

D2. GENERAL:

D2.1 Aircraft have a tendency to gain weight because of the accumulation of dirt, grease, corrosion
etc., in areas not readily accessible for washing and cleaning. Aircraft empty weight as well as, its centre
of gravity may vary because of repairs and/or incorporation of modifications, as such determination of the
accurate empty weight of the aircraft and its corresponding centre of gravity is extremely important, as
incorrect data could cause subsequent over loading of the aircraft resulting in an increase of structural
loads and reduction in performance.

D3. REQUIREMENTS:

D3.1 Complete and up to date weight and balance schedule and trim sheets are required for all aircraft
registered in Pakistan and must be carried on board the aircraft along with other documents such as the
Certificate of Airworthiness, Certificate of Maintenance and Flight Manual etc.

D3.2 The control of weight and balance is the responsibility of the operation.

D3.3 Aircraft would be weighed after every four years (on major check falling due after 04 years since
last weighing but not exceeding 5 years) unless preamble to the approved maintenance schedule
specifies otherwise.

D3.4 If the basic weight is estimated to have changed by more than 0.5% of the maximum certificated
take-off weight or if the centre of gravity is estimated to have changed by more than 0.5% of M.A.C., then
the aircraft shall be re-weighed physically.

D3.5 For new aircraft the manufacturer will furnish complete information with the aircraft not only
regarding its actual weight and balance, but will also include sketches and other data that will assist the
operator in checking the balance after alterations, together with weight and balance control manual or
loading instructions.

D3.6 For aircraft which had previously been registered in another state, weight and balance data,
certified by the Airworthiness Authority of that state will be accepted at the time of issue of Certificate of
Airworthiness in Pakistan. Physical weighing of the aircraft will be carried out on the major check falling
due after 4 years since last weighing but not exceeding 5 years. However, the weight and balance
schedule changed to the manufacturer’s production weight and balance format would be acceptable to
CAA Pakistan.

D3.7 In case, where complete weight and balance data is not available, the aircraft shall be weighed
and the empty weight and C. G. location determined before the issue of a Certificate of Airworthiness.

D3.8 Each weighing must be witnessed, and the result confirmed by an authorized officer of the
Airworthiness Directorate. Weight and balance schedule must be calculated and prepared by an
appropriately qualified AME in Category” A” or an operations engineer having PCAA approval on the
basis of following criteria:-

05/11/2009 Page 2 of 4 AWNOT-011-AWXX-3.0


AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE CONTROL

D3.8.1 BE degree holders with 3 years experience as an Operations Engineer.

D3.8.2 Basic training on weight and balance schedule from a reputable training
organization.

D3.8.3 Must have prepared at least two weight schedules under supervision of a senior
operations engineer.

D4. CHANGE IN EMPTY WEIGHT CONDITIONS:

D4.1 It shall be the responsibility of the operator to keep a complete, current and continuous record of
changes in empty weight and empty centre of gravity position, and this record shall contain all changes
affecting the weight or centre of gravity position, either through a modification or otherwise.

E. EVIDENCES (ACRONYMS / RECORDS / REFERENCES):


E1. ACRONYMS:

C.G CENTRE OF GRAVITY


TCDS TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET
M.A.C MEAN AERODYNAMIC CHORD
PCAA PAKISTAN CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY
AME AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ENGINEER

E2. RECORDS:

Nil
E3. REFERENCES:

Nil
IMPLEMENTATION:

This Airworthiness Notice shall be implemented with effective from 5th November 2009, and
st
supersedes Airworthiness Notice No. 11, Issue-2 dated 21 Oct, 2009.

05/11/2009 Page 3 of 4 AWNOT-011-AWXX-3.0


AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE CONTROL

INDEX

Sr. No. Contents Page No.

1. Authority 02

2. Purpose 02

3. Scope 02

4. Description 02

5. Definitions 02

6. General 03

7. Requirements 03

8. Change in empty weight conditions 03

9. Evidences (Acronyms / Records / References) 03

10. Acronyms 03

11. Records 03

12. References 03

13. Implementation 03

05/11/2009 Page 4 of 4 AWNOT-011-AWXX-3.0