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ORIFICE

 An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter


through which a fluid flows. The usual purpose of an
orifice is the measurement or control of the flow.

 The upstream face of the orifice may be rounded or


sharp.

 Orifices used for measuring flow are usually circular,


square, or rectangular in cross section.
ORIFICE
 Because of simplicity of design and construction,
sharp-edged circular orifices are most common for
fluid measurement and have been most thoroughly
investigated by experiment.
ORIFICE

The energy equation is written for the entire stream,


neglecting unequal distribution of velocity in the cross
section,

Va2
p V 2
p Va 2  p p 
h a  t  b and Vt  2g   h   a  b 
2g w 2g w  2g   w w
ORIFICE

Since the most commonly encountered condition is


that both surface are exposed to the atmosphere,
then

Va 2 
Vt  2g   h
 2g 
ORIFICE

If also the cross-sectional area of the reservoir or


channel leading to the orifice is large in
comparison with the area of the orifice, the
velocity of approach becomes negligible, and

Vt  2 gh
ORIFICE
Coefficient Velocity – the actual velocity in the jet is
less than the theoretical velocity because of the
frictional resistance that occurs as the fluid enters and
passes through the orifice. The ratio of the actual
mean velocity V to the velocity Vt which would exist
without friction is called the coefficient of velocity and
is designated as Cv. Thus Cv = V/Vt and

V  CvVt  Cv 2 gh
ORIFICE
Coefficient Contraction – is the ratio of the actual area
of the contracted section of the stream or jet to the
area of the opening through which the fluid flows.
Cc=a/A
a = CcA
If V is the actual mean velocity in the vena contracta, the
discharge through the orifice is

Q = a V = CcA x Cv 2gh
ORIFICE
The section ab where
the contraction
caused by the orifice
ceases is called the
vena contracta
ORIFICE
Coefficient Discharge – It is usual to replace the
product CcCv with a single coefficient C, called the
coefficient of discharge. The equation for the discharge
of a fluid through an orifice thus becomes

Q = CA 2gh
ORIFICE
Head Lost

   A2   V 2
2
 1
HL   2  1 1    
 Cv    A1   2 g

If the orifice or nozzle takes off


directly from a tank where A1 is
very much greater than A2, then
the velocity of approach is
negligible,

 1 V2
HL   2  1
 Cv  2g
ORIFICE
Example:
Calculate the (a) theoritical velocity and (b) actual discharge
in liters per second through a 100-mm diameter orifice
under a head of 5.5m of water. Assume Cc = 0.61 and Cv =
0.98.
ORIFICE
Example:
Calculate the discharge through the 140-mm diameter orifice
shown. Assume C = 0.62.
ORIFICE
Example:
An open cylindrical tank, 2.4m in diameter and 6m tall has
1m of glycerin (Sg = 1.5), 2.5m of water, and 1.5 of oil (So =
0.82). Determine the discharge through the 125mm
diameter located at the bottom of the tank. Assume C =
0.65.
ORIFICE
Example:
A calibration test of a 12.5-mm-diameter circular sharp-edged
orifice in a vertical side of large tank showed a discharge of
590N of water in 81 seconds at a constant head of 4.7om.
Measurement of the jet showed that it traveled 2.35m
horizontally while dropping 300mm. Compute the three
orifice coefficients.
ORIFICE
Example:
An 80-mm-diameter circular sharp-edged orifice at the side
of a tank discharges water under a head of 6m. If the
coefficient of contraction Cc = 0.65 and the head lost is
200mm, Compute the discharge and the coefficients of
velocity Cv and discharge C.
ORIFICE
Submerged orifice
ORIFICE
Example: (Submerged orifice)
Two chambers (1) and (2) separated by a vertical wall with a circular
orifice through which the liquid from chamber (1) to chamber (2)
passes. Under the following given conditions, find the jet’s: (a)
theoretical velocity, (b) actual velocity, & (c) discharge. h1 = 8m, h2 =
3m, Ø0 = 4cm, Cc=0.65 (sharp-edged); Cv = 0.97.
ORIFICE
Unsteady (Qi<Qo)
ORIFICE
Unsteady (Qi>Qo)
ORIFICE
Unsteady (Qi=0)
ORIFICE
Constant Cross Section

h1

h2
ORIFICE
Submerged orifice

if As1 and As2 are constant,


ORIFICE
Submerged orifice Example:
Two vertical cylindrical tanks 1 & 2 having diameters 2m and 3m,
respectively, are connected with a 200-mm-diameter tube at its lower
portion, and having C = 0.60. when the tube is closed, the water surface
in tank 1 is 5 m above tank 2. How long will it take after opening the
tube, for the water surface in tank 2 to rise by 1 meter?
ORIFICE
Example:
An elevated water tank consists of an upper cylindrical part (4.88m in
diameter and 6.1m high) and a lower hemispherical part, at the lowest
point of which is an orifice 310mm id diameter (C=0.60). If, at time t=0,
the tank is full of water, when will the water level drop down 6.71 m,
after opening the orifice? And when will it be emptied?
ORIFICE
Example:
An elevated water tank consists of an upper cylindrical part (4.88m in
diameter and 6.1m high) and a lower hemispherical part, at the lowest
point of which is an orifice 310mm id diameter (C=0.60). If, at time t=0,
the tank is full of water, when will the water level drop down 6.71 m,
after opening the orifice? And when will it be emptied?
ORIFICE
Example:
An elevated water tank consists of an upper cylindrical part (4.88m in
diameter and 6.1m high) and a lower hemispherical part, at the lowest
point of which is an orifice 310mm id diameter (C=0.60). If, at time t=0,
the tank is full of water, when will the water level drop down 6.71 m,
after opening the orifice? And when will it be emptied?