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- Steve Jobs
- Wheel of Time
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook, Red Letter Edition
- Cryptonomicon
- The Woman Who Smashed Codes: A True Story of Love, Spies, and the Unlikely Heroine who Outwitted America's Enemies
- Contagious: Why Things Catch On
- Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Technology Project
- Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are
- Zero to One: Notes on Start-ups, or How to Build the Future
- Console Wars: Sega, Nintendo, and the Battle that Defined a Generation
- Dust: Scarpetta (Book 21)
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Crushing It!: How Great Entrepreneurs Build Their Business and Influence—and How You Can, Too
- Make Time: How to Focus on What Matters Every Day
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- Wild Cards

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1

Desiderata'. Suppose we could solve problem Y in polynomial-time.

NP APPROXIMATION What else could we solve in polynomial time?

Reduction. Problem X polynomial-time (Cook) reduces to problem Y if arbitrary

instances of problem X can be solved using:

・Polynomial number of standard computational steps, plus

・Polynomial number of calls to oracle that solves problem Y.

Lec 23 : NP- Approximation CLRS 34-35

computational model supplemented by special piece

(mostly Kevin Wayne slides) of hardware that solves instances of Y in a single step

Algorithm

instance I
solution S to I

for Y

(of X)

Algorithm for X

Decision problem.

3-SAT ・Problem X is a set of strings.

・Instance s is one string.

es

uc

red

e T

tim -SE

l y- NT

T po

EN

DE A(s) = yes iff s ∈ X.

SA

3- EP

I ND

to

Def. Algorithm A runs in polynomial time if for every string s, A(s) terminates in at

INDEPENDENT-SET DIR-HAM-CYCLE GRAPH-3-COLOR SUBSET-SUM

most p( | s | ) "steps", where p(⋅) is some polynomial function.

length of s

VERTEX-COVER HAM-CYCLE PLANAR-3-COLOR SCHEDULING Ex.

・Problem PRIMES = { 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 23, 29, 31, 37, …. }.

・Instance s = 592335744548702854681.

・AKS algorithm: solves PRIMES in O( | s | 8 ) steps.

SET-COVER TSP 3-SAT poly-time reduces to all of

these problems (and many, many more)

3 4

Definition of P NP

P. Decision problems for which there is a poly-time algorithm. Certification algorithm intuition.

・Certifier views things from "managerial" viewpoint.

・Certifier doesn't determine whether s ∈ X on its own;

Problem Description Algorithm yes no rather, it checks a proposed proof t that s ∈ X.

MULTIPLE Is x a multiple of y ? grade-school division 51, 17 51, 16 Def. Algorithm C(s, t) is a certifier for problem X if for every string s,

s ∈ X iff there exists a string t such that C(s, t) = yes.

REL-PRIME Are x and y relatively prime ? Euclid (300 BCE) 34, 39 34, 51

"certificate" or "witness"

PRIMES Is x prime ? AKS (2002) 53 51 Def. NP is the set of problems for which there exists a poly-time certifier.

・C(s, t) is a poly-time algorithm.

・Certificate t is of polynomial size:

Is the edit distance between x

EDIT-DISTANCE dynamic programming niether neither acgggt ttttta | t | ≤ p( | s | ) for some polynomial p(⋅).

and y less than 5 ?

Is there a vector x that Gauss-Edmonds

L-SOLVE satisfies Ax = b ?

elimination

Remark. NP stands for nondeterministic polynomial time.

Is an undirected graph
depth-first search

U-CONN G connected? (Theseus)

5 6

COMPOSITES. Given an integer s, is s composite? SAT. Given a CNF formula Φ, does it have a satisfying truth assignment?

3-SAT. SAT where each clause contains exactly 3 literals.

Certificate. A nontrivial factor t of s. Such a certificate exists iff s is composite.

Moreover | t | ≤ | s |. Certificate. An assignment of truth values to the Boolean variables.

Certifier. Check that 1 < t < s and that s is a multiple of t. Certifier. Check that each clause in Φ has at least one true literal.

instance s 437669

instance s

certificate t 541 or 809 437,669 = 541 × 809

certificate t x1 = true, x2 = true, x3 = false, x4 = false

Conclusion. COMPOSITES ∈ NP. in fact, COMPOSITES ∈ P

Conclusions. SAT ∈ NP, 3-SAT ∈ NP.

7 8

Certifiers and certificates: Hamilton path Definition of NP

HAM-PATH. Given an undirected graph G = (V, E), does there exist a simple path P NP. Decision problems for which there is a poly-time certifier/verifier

that visits every node?

Problem Description Algorithm yes no

Certificate. A permutation of the n nodes.

Is there a vector x
Gauss–Edmonds

L-SOLVE that satisfies Ax = b ?

Certifier. Check that the permutation contains each node in V exactly once, and that elimination

COMPOSITES Is x composite ? AKS (2002) 51 53

Does x have a nontrivial factor less

FACTOR than y ?

? (56159, 50) (55687, 50)

Given a CNF formula, does it have a ¬ x1 ∨ ¬ x2 ∨ ¬ x3 ¬ x1 ∨ ¬ x2

SAT ? ¬ x1 ∨ ¬ x2 ∨ ¬ x3 ¬ x1 ∨ ¬ x2

satisfying truth assignment? ¬ x1 ∨ ¬ x2 ∨ ¬ x3 ¬ x1 ∨ ¬ x2

3-COLOR ?

be colored with 3 colors?

instance s certificate t

Is there a simple path between

HAM-PATH ?

Conclusion. HAM-PATH ∈ NP. u and v that visits every node?

9 10

NP. Decision problems for which there is a poly-time certifier. P. Decision problems for which there is a poly-time algorithm.

NP. Decision problems for which there is a poly-time certifier.

EXP. Decision problems for which there is an exponential-time algorithm.

Claim. P ⊆ NP.

“ NP captures vast domains of computational, scientific, and mathematical
Pf. Consider any problem X ∈ P.

endeavors, and seems to roughly delimit what mathematicians and scientists
・By definition, there exists a poly-time algorithm A(s) that solves X.

have been aspiring to compute feasibly. ” — Christos Papadimitriou ・Certificate t = ε, certifier C(s, t) = A(s). ▪

Claim. NP ⊆ EXP.

Pf. Consider any problem X ∈ NP.

“ In an ideal world it would be renamed P vs VP. ” — Clyde Kruskal ・By definition, there exists a poly-time certifier C(s, t) for X,

where certificate t satisfies | t | ≤ p( | s | ) for some polynomial p(⋅).

・To solve input s, run C(s, t) on all strings t with | t | ≤ p(| s |).

・Return yes if C(s, t) returns yes for any of these potential certificates. ▪

Remark. Time-hierarchy theorem implies P ⊊ EXP.

11 12

The main question: P vs. NP The main question: P vs. NP

Q. How to solve an instance of 3-SAT with n variables? Does P = NP? [Cook 1971, Edmonds, Levin, Yablonski, Gödel]

A. Exhaustive search: try all 2n truth assignments. Is the decision problem as easy as the certification problem?

Q. Can we do anything substantially more clever?

Conjecture. No poly-time algorithm for 3-SAT.

EXP NP EXP

"intractable"

P P = NP

If P ≠ NP If P = NP

If yes. Efficient algorithms for 3-SAT, TSP, 3-COLOR, FACTOR, …

If no. No efficient algorithms possible for 3-SAT, TSP, 3-COLOR, …

Consensus opinion. Probably no.

13 14

P ≠ NP. P ≠ NP.

answer to any of these questions. If I had to bet now, I would bet that

“ I conjecture that there is no good algorithm for the traveling salesman

P is not equal to NP. I estimate the half-life of this problem at 25–50

problem. My reasons are the same as for any mathematical conjecture:

more years, but I wouldn’t bet on it being solved before 2100. ”

(i) It is a legitimate mathematical possibility and (ii) I do not know.”

— Bob Tarjan (2002)

— Jack Edmonds 1966

nature of its difficulty…. All approaches tried so far probably (in

some cases, provably) have failed. In this sense P =NP is different

from many other major mathematical problems on which a gradual

progress was being constantly done (sometimes for centuries)

whereupon they yielded, either completely or partially. ”

— Alexander Razborov (2002)

15 16

Possible outcomes Possible outcomes

P ≠ NP. P = NP.

“ In my opinion this shouldn’t really be a hard problem; it’s just “ I think that in this respect I am on the loony fringe of the mathematical

that we came late to this theory, and haven’t yet developed any community: I think (not too strongly!) that P=NP and this will be

techniques for proving computations to be hard. Eventually, it will proved within twenty years. Some years ago, Charles Read and I

just be a footnote in the books. ” — John Conway worked on it quite bit, and we even had a celebratory dinner in a

good restaurant before we found an absolutely fatal mistake. ”

— Béla Bollobás (2002)

17 18

P = NP, but only Ω(n100) algorithm for 3-SAT. Millennium prize. $1 million for resolution of P = NP problem.

P ≠ NP, but with O(nlog*n) algorithm for 3-SAT.

P = NP is independent (of ZFC axiomatic set theory).

pessimistic. The outcome will be the truly worst case scenario:

namely that someone will prove “P = NP because there are only

finitely many obstructions to the opposite hypothesis”; hence there

exists a polynomial time solution to SAT but we will never know

its complexity! ” — Donald Knuth

19 20

NP-complete 3-satisfiability is NP-complete

NP-complete. A problem Y ∈ NP with the property that for every
Theorem. 3-SAT ∈ NP-complete.

problem X ∈ NP, X ≤ p Y. Pf. Cook, 1971; Levin, 1973

Theorem. Suppose Y ∈ NP-complete. Then Y ∈ P iff P = NP.

Pf. ⇐ If P = NP, then Y ∈ P because Y ∈ NP.

Pf. ⇒ Suppose Y ∈ P.

・Consider any problem X ∈ NP. Since X ≤ p Y, we have X ∈ P.

・This implies NP ⊆ P.

・We already know P ⊆ NP. Thus P = NP. ▪

Fundamental question. Do there exist "natural" NP-complete problems?

21 22

Remark. Once we establish first "natural" NP-complete problem,

Biology. Phylogeny reconstruction.

others fall like dominoes.

Chemical engineering. Heat exchanger network synthesis.

Chemistry. Protein folding.

Recipe. To prove that Y ∈ NP-complete:

・Step 1.

Civil engineering. Equilibrium of urban traffic flow.

Show that Y ∈ NP.

・Step 2.

Economics. Computation of arbitrage in financial markets with friction.

Choose an NP-complete problem X. Electrical engineering. VLSI layout.

Financial engineering. Minimum risk portfolio of given return.

Game theory. Nash equilibrium that maximizes social welfare.

Theorem. If X ∈ NP-complete, Y ∈ NP, and X ≤ p Y, then Y ∈ NP-complete. Mathematics. Given integer a1, …, an, compute

Pf. Consider any problem W ∈ NP. Then, both W ≤ p X and X ≤ p Y. Mechanical engineering. Structure of turbulence in sheared flows.

NP-complete

by assumption Operations research. Traveling salesperson problem.

Physics. Partition function of 3d Ising model.

Politics. Shapley–Shubik voting power.

Recreation. Versions of Sudoku, Checkers, Minesweeper, Tetris.

Statistics. Optimal experimental design.

23 24

Extent and impact of NP-completeness P vs. NP revisited

・Prime intellectual export of CS to other disciplines.

・6,000 citations per year (more than "compiler", "OS", "database").

・Broad applicability and classification power. NP

P NPC P = NP

NP-completeness can guide scientific inquiry.

・1926: Ising introduces simple model for phase transitions.

・1944: Onsager finds closed-form solution to 2D-ISING in tour de force. P ≠ NP P = NP

・2000: Istrail proves 3D-ISING ∈ NP-complete. a holy grail of Why we believe P ≠ NP.

statistical mechanics

“ We admire Wiles' proof of Fermat's last theorem, the scientific theories of Newton,

Einstein, Darwin, Watson and Crick, the design of the Golden Gate bridge and the

Pyramids, precisely because they seem to require a leap which cannot be made by

everyone, let alone by a simple mechanical device. ” — Avi Wigderson

25 26

・Ex. Send your credit card to Amazon.

Challenge. Factor this number. ・Ex. Digitally sign an e-document.

・Enables freedom of privacy, speech, press, political association.

7403756347956171282804679609742957314259318888923128908493 RSA. Based on dichotomy between complexity of two problems.

6232638972765034028266276891996419625117843995894330502127 ・To use: generate two random n-bit primes and multiply.

5853701189680982867331732731089309005525051168770632990723 ・To break: suffices to factor a 2n-bit integer.

96380786710086096962537934650563796359

RSA-704

($30,000 prize if you can factor)

RSA sold

RSA algorithm for $2.1 billion or design a t-shirt

27 28

Coping with NP-completeness Vertex cover

Q. Suppose I need to solve an NP-complete problem. What should I do? Given a graph G = (V, E) and an integer k, is there a subset of vertices S ⊆ V such

A. Theory says you're unlikely to find poly-time algorithm. that | S | ≤ k, and for each edge (u, v) either u ∈ S or v ∈ S or both?

・Solve problem to optimality.

・Solve problem in polynomial time. 1 6

2 7

4 9

5 10

29 30

Dealing with NP-completeness • In the subset-sum problem you are given a list S of positive numbers

and a target value t. You must decide if there is any subset of the

numbers that would add up to the target.

– Solve P=NP with an efficient algorithm for SAT or: • Example: the set {4,5} and target 19?

• In this case the answer is no.

– Give up on one of:

• One way to store information about what possible sums are reachable

– finding a general algorithm that solves any from a given set of numbers is a boolean array with indices in range

instance of the problem efficiently 0…t

• Entries in the array would be set to true if there were a subset of the

– solving the problem correctly or exactly (i.e. must given numbers that sums up the value of the subscript

settle for approximate solution) • Example: Suppose we have the numbers above, the boolean array

would indicate every possible value reachable by choosing any of the

– having an algorithm that can solve the problem subsets of the set {4,5}

in polynomial time. But you can still try to get a • table indexed from 0 to 19, entries 0, 4, 5, 9 are true, rest are false

“good” exponential algorithm • The key idea in developing an algorithm for the general problem is to

31

consider what happens to the above table if a new number is added to

the set {4,5} 32

SUBSETSUM algorithm - basic idea Algorithm for subset sum

• Suppose we have a big array S of bits, indexed from 0 to t to represent all sums – SUBSETSUM problem with n numbers x1, x2, ...,xn and target t

less than or equal to the target that can be reached using any subset of the given – Bit Vector: Tables of length t +1 indexed from 0 to t so that:

numbers. For this example the target =14, and the numbers are {4,5} i

– S [ j ] = true if there is a subset of first i numbers that sums to j

T t T T t t T t – for i = 0, S0[0] = true and for all 1≦ j ≦ t, S0[ j ] = false;

S=

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 – for 1 ≦ i ≦ n, for all 0 ≦ j ≦ t S i+1 [ j ] = Si [ j ] ⋁ Si [ j - xi+1 ] *see

note below

• S[j] is set true if there is any subset of the numbers that sums to j, false otherwise

– Correctness: The sums that can be reached using any subset of

(We are showing only the true ones above)

the first i+1 variables are (a) the sums that can be reached using

• S is shown for the numbers { 4, 5 } with target 14. By choosing various subsets of

any subset of the first i of the x values (i.e. the subset doesn’t

the numbers {4,5 } any of the sums marked by a ( black, upper-case) T can be

reached include the use of xi+1) and (b) the sums that can be reached by

• How would S change if a new number were added to the set, e.g. the set of

using xi+1 added to any of the sums that can be reached using only

numbers becomes {4,5,3}? a subset of the first i of the numbers

• The new set of reachable sums includes everything in the old set, plus any sum ( * and interpret any out of range subscripts as false)

that can be reached by adding the new number to any of the sums that could be Don’t really need n tables, but must be careful overwriting - go from

reached using the old set ( these new values are shown in lower-case blue) top end to small end to avoid confusion between old and new values

33

34

Analysis of Pseudo-polynomial

Algorithm for subset sum

– SUBSETSUM with n numbers x1, x2, ...,xn and target t

algorithm for subset sum

– Bit Vector: Tables of length t – So we have n tables to fill out, each of length t

– Want Ti [ j ] = 1 if there is a subset of first i numbers that – Simple bit operation and table lookup for each entry on a

Random Access Machine

sums to j

– O(nt ) - is this polynomial time ?

– for i = 0, for all 1≦ j ≦ t, T0[ j ] = 0

– Certainly the O(n) part is fine, but what about the t?

– for 1 ≦ i ≦ n, for all 1≦ j ≦ t T i+1 [ j ] = Ti [ j ] ⋁ Ti [ j - xi+1

– How does t compare to the size of the input?

]

– t itself takes O(log2 t) bits to record, so its value t is

– Correctness: The sums that can be reached using the actually exponential in the size of its representation

first i+1 values of x are the same as the sums that can

– Example: if t were an n-bit number, t could have a value

be reached using the first i values (i.e. they don’t use

around 2n so the algorithm running in time t is running in

xi+1) along with the sums that can be reached using xi+1

time exponential in size of the input n

plus sums that are reachable using the first i values of x

– This is called a pseudo-polynomial algorithm

35SUBSETSUM with n numbers x1, x2, ...,xn and target t 36

Pseudo-polynomial algorithm for subset Pseudo-polynomial algorithms

sum – Such algorithms are called “pseudo-polynomial” because they

are polynomial in the value of one of the inputs, not its size

– So we have n tables to fill out, each of length t – We would not want an addition algorithm that worked in time

proportional to the values of the operands, we want time

– Simple bit operation and table lookup for each entry proportional to the size of their representations (in binary, not

– O(nt ) - polynomial time ? unary), and this is exponentially smaller

– Certainly the O(n) part is fine, but what about the t? – NP-complete problems that remain NP-complete, requiring

time that is exponential even in the values (as opposed to

– How does t compare to the size of the input? number of bits) of any numbers, as well as in the overall size

– t itself takes log2 t bits to record, so its value is of the problem instance, are called strongly-NP-complete,

actually exponential in its size and of course, no polynomial or pseudo-polynomial

algorithms are known for them

– Example if t were an n-bit number, our algorithm runs

– Of problems we have studied, all are strongly NP-complete

in t steps, which is exponential time in the size of the except SUBSETSUM (and KNAPSACK). (remember those

input ≥ number of bits of t big numbers in the reduction? formula of length n generates

n-bit numbers, i.e. number values as big as 2n)

38

37

– Algorithm 1: repeat until no edges remain in G

– Approximate vertex cover – Take remaining vertex of highest degree, add it to VC, and

remove it and all edges it touches from G

– Can get a solution within twice the optimal

– This guarantees a vertex cover of size no more than O(log n) *

– Approximate ̗TSP size of minimum vertex cover

– for any ɛ can get solution within factor of (1+ɛ) – Algorithm 2: repeat until no edges remain in G

– Take any edge remaining and add both endpoints to VC and

remove them and all incident edges from G

– But for general TSP, existence of a poly time algorithm

– This guarantees a vertex cover of size no worse than two times

that produces a solution with cost that is guaranteed the size of minimum vertex cover

to be within twice the optimal cost implies that P=NP – Reason: any maximal matching must be a vertex cover and the

– Exercise: Prove the above. Hint: Show how to use min vertex cover must include at least one vertex from every

edge in the matching

such an algorithm to solve HAMCYCLE 39 40

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