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Mr. Kirat Singh Sethi

Dr. I. J. Singh
N"", York
Prof. Bhai HarbaRS Lal

Mr. Harbans Singh Grover

Buffllo, New York

Dr. TrililchOn Singh
S, Hardit Singh Malik Mioharaja Amorind.r Singh Detroit
New Delhi Pltial..
Mr. Gailgl Singh Dhillon
Dr. Shamsher Singh
Mit. Ursula Gill
Wa"sltington, D.C.
Prof. Klrlmjlt Singh Rai
Dr. Narind.r Singh Kapony. Chief Editor Illinois
Prof. Hari Sjngh
Ajaib Singh Sidhu Dr. A. S. Dhaliwal
Assistant Editon Mr. B. S. Kalra
Dr. Gurnam Singh Sidhu Mn Satinder Kaur Klpony
Mr. B. S. Basi
Prof. 8hei Harban. lei Dr. I. J. Singh

J. P. Singh
New Orleans
Dr. Mohinder Singh Randhawa Prof. GaIda Singh
(Chandigarh) (Paiial.)
Mrs. Glil Sidhu
Dr. Kartar Singh letvani Prof. Harbans Singh S.n Francisco
(London) (Patial,a)
S. Khusltwant Singh Mrs. Man;it P.M. w'yl.m Prof. Ha;i Singh Everest
(Bombay) (London) Yuba 'City
Prof. W. H. Mcleod ~. C. S. Wallia
(New Zaal.nd) (California' Gurpreet Singh
Dr. Hakim Singh
Los Angeles

'THE SI KH SANSAR': Sansar means universe. Trilllitionally the mat.rial )lni...,..

R. S. Gyani
Dr. Bunt Singh
has been c:oiIsidered an "illusion" (Maya). Tho Sikh. consider'the material uni"",... Onterio. Canida
as • manile.~on of the Cosmic spirit. Thl. journal will attempt to present both the
material and spiritual aspects of Sikh culture. Dr. KesarSingh
Mr. G. S. 0.001
THE SIKH SANSAR is owned and managed by the Siish Foundation. P.O. Box VJRCQUver. Canldf
737. Redwood CitY. Califomia 94064, which is a non·political. nll"'profit, organiz·
ation dedicated to dissemination of knowledge about the history. literature, art, Mr. A. S. Chhetwll
culture and ·religlous precapts, of the Sikhs. 'Tho v.iews presentad by various authors London
,and contributors herein does not implv In endorsemiln! by either TH E 51 KH SAN· Mr. J. S. Sodhi
SAR' or The Sikh Foundation. Birmi....... U.K.
Volume 4, Number 4

Deumber 1975

Traditionally the role ,?f .the Indian W0!Y'en had There have been great Sikh maharanees andprin-
been a secondary and subn:us~\Ve ~ne. The H)nqu wo- cesses, and then there are the common people, fro!Jl
men by and large were limJted m thelt role ill the the learned professionals down to farmers and work-
house and subjected to the domineerinl!: role of the ers.. J:'aturally, .the different rapks perfopn their
male. On the' other hand, the Muslim wo~en shroud- -patriotic and SOCial duties accorQing til their opPQr-
ed in "purdah" (veil) were relegated to domestic tasks tunities.· A few years ago when there was war
within the four walls of her nome. It was not until between India and F'akistan, the wives and
the 15th century when Guru Nanak preached equal- of the Sikh farmers rendered the'most needed and im-
ity of man ,and woman, on~ness of God, rlf.e peed for portant help to their men fighting for their country.
w0!Y'en to ~e. ~ctlve !lI SOCIa!, cul=al, religIOus and This is part of our tradition.
nat~onal actlvltles, that the Sikh women emerged to a
level of responsibility egual to their contribution to Until 1947 when Indi'a became inQependent,
family and soeie!}:. In fact eman~ipatibn . of the Sikh Indians were not allowed -to immigrate to the United
women, not only !f! pnnc)pie but m practice preceed- States, and those that managed to come" into the
ed the great American suffrage I;Ilovement bv a few country :-vere not permirred full fledged citiz~,!ship
centuries. Equality be~towecf on Si~ women by the stams. Smce the doors have been opened and citizen-
ten Gurus bas been ulllque ill the history of all re- ship is now accessible to Indians, the lndian women
ligi,?ns of the' world. ,I~ ract theY, have achieved suchgenerally and the Sikh women in particular have
a high degree of eguallty that Sikh Women are fre- come oller ~'? the Uniteq States !nspired: by their new
quently found leadmg religious congregations side by modern spmt. Accord~ngly, SlkJi ladles are to be
Side with thelt menfolk. found to~ay performing the tasks of dO,ctors,
teachers; nurses and businesswomen in addition to
In the, past 500 years, Sikh women have stood their domestic responsibilities.
shoulder to shoulder with their menfolk in war, in
social reforms and religious campaigns on national We in this community try to preserve what we
liberation fronts and in every other wal k, of life. All feel are some of the fine things of our cultural herit-
of ihis does not mean that the Sikh women have in aEe, but at ,the same time we are very conscious and
any fotm or means neglected their domestic respon- aesU"ous of living up to our ambitions to be cpntrib-
siliility. In their role of a housewife, they are utin~ members of the American society. We feel
counsdors. inspirers and teachers for th7 young child- greatly stimulated hy the environments and opport-
ren and help onng a serene but dYD,amlc atmosphere unities for personal and professional growth in this
op the domestic scene for their children to grow in. country.
As this year is recognized as the Womens' Year
Historically, there are hundreds of Sikh ladies by the United Nations, it is a great privilege to pay
that have acquired equally the status of scholars~
figh~ers and every chapter of Sikh hiStory is. full or
a tribute to the' contributions of the Sikh ladies over
sacnfkes and acli,evements of these great ladles that the last five centuries.
have helped forge the Sikh nation of-what it is to,day. Satinder K. Kapany
The Sikh wome!l are participa~ing vigorously in
the general awakenmg among [ndlan women espe-
dally since India became, inaependent. The Sikh
community, although a small mmority in India, has
alw~ys been 'a lert and con:~cious of its public dutic:s.
Unhke any other creed, Sikhs are deeply rooted !D
the, Indian cultural background and the Sikh women
of all ranks are deeply patriotic.


EditQrial ..••... , ....' .... .. . , .. ..... , . , . , .. . .. • ...•. '. _. .• . ,,' . . , • ' • 112
Bebe Nanaki -the First Sikh . . ..". ' ,' • , .. . , . . . , .. . ••:•., , .. , . ., .• ' .' ..' .. i;1"3
Women, Prof Hi:I·zara Singh, .. .. . "..... ., . .... ..... . , •.. • •,. ...... ' .' . .' ... . 114-
A req,u~t to the. Subscribers • Aiai/) Singh si'dbu . .. .. .... .. ... .. .. . ...... . U4·
GliIIlf!ses of.S.i1<h !'Iistoty - SfilU:an Kal!r • t1=rSingh . . .......•... • ... 115
Slklii1;ifi~nd Wameif'S: f:m.,gndpation . Harinder 'Kaur B'hela' . _. .... ....... . . 116
'¥ ata KIiivi - WOinen fwshos . . , . . " .,., .•... • " .......... ., ....... . .. . 118
' .
Sad:l!Kaut. GUj<rhllran $hrgfJ .. .. .. , .. , ' ,' , . _. .. . " , ' " ,,,.' ............. . . 119
Tramslation: of Jllpji- ;. Si/.rdar ~jjmp.ilai!.sjnj!} , .. , . , ..... ,•..... ., .. .. '. '. . 12,(1
.Bihi Bhani - Mata Sulakhani .. " . '...• '; .... , .. . , " . .. ." . .•.•. , ... ' .• '''' , , . lZ8
Ma·t a,Glfjari-Mata'Sahib De'oIan (;rh~. Mother of Siklrs), , ........ ' .' ..... . 129
Dudoumey t9 l'{~nl(i(!ja. $~ib .. , . , • • •. • .. • . .. , ... . ...... .... . ... . . . . 13.0

Sansar ·Comm.uiliCiltioils: ...... .. ... . . '.... .. .. . .. . ..... , ..... . .. . . .. . U2

Second, Gurmaf .annp.A Call.for Applicaiio.ns' • D~. Harbans La/"\=e:hreillW'.Q{ GgUr Tet:h BMaJlW • 'Dr. -Barbam Lal
The Sikh 'tul~ni,l $ade.w .of Gr¢i!t ~ritaio • A. 5, Cllbt#.'Wai
A Height of Ingratiruqe and Deliberate Q~qimIiiatio.n Towatds,Sikli
SoldiCll'S'ofl'ndilm lllatio.nal ArIllY '.' •...... . . ' .' • . , ... ; , ' " • .. 1~4
S.acrifice of Brave Mo.ther (Balbil"K:aur) . • ....' .., " . ' . , .. ............ ' .' '.' 134
Women 'BraYin~ R~prC!$Si6i1 - Mai Bhago (The ,Fearless Lea&~) . .. .' . . . . • • •• U:S
Mah~.r3,l}1 lind ~ll..ui' in N~par:.L>r. Ka.n.clianmoy Mojumdar; BoJa.ngir . . • .... 13(5
In Fu~e ~ss~~ of1IU; sii<H SAl"ISAR ...... .............. .. ........ 140
Materials' Fonp;<; S~dy 0.( E~ I!i!i~~ ffis:tqrY i.n N'oMh AiJ!eri~ ......... 142

A sister's love for her brother is a perennial theme of Punjabi folklore. Of this sisterly affection, the most
tender and vivid example is that of Bebe Nanaki (1464-1518). The Janamsakhis are full of the stories of
her deep and devoted affection for her brother. Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh faith . Bebe Nanaki
was the first to recognize Guru Nanak as God's chosen one. She is seen here with her husband ]airam,
as Mardana. the ministrel. receives the rabab on which he accompanied Guru Nanak singing his divinely
inspired songs. This was before Guru Nanak set out on his preaching journeys, accompanied by Bhai

Prof_Hazara Singl\

I am not fu.Jl of guile, jealousy is not my

I am woman, not that who led to the exile hidden nature
Of Adam from Heaven and his fall below Frailty is not my name, nor I led man to.
on earth. frequent wars.
Thev' ana mislead These are the treach of the minds which
ihems\!lves Whe c:all me so. are illdevelQped
I am neither man's misfortune nor cause of For·they take me as a tQy without ·either
his weakness mind or soul
They led empty lives who$c minds are r do noT; want, to be betterhalf, but the just
thus depraved. . half,
I neither led to the loss ef paradISe nor I am not crazy to rule his heart but seek to
obstruct be.understood ,
Those w~o!ray or do penance to be He befools himself when he thinks that he
reunite With God. cajoles me,
I am the symbol of neaven itself, if man I make him great, he sllOuld not intrigue
Cares to see. to degrade me.

When wats vanish apd the double way of,

I am map's mother. my lap is blissful as life is' nor practised
heaven When wealrh corrupts not a few and poverty
I t is a free gift and not the reward after . degrades not many
death. When customs and law are used not to real and is not lost if my sons go astray suppress but libera,e
They have nm [0 pray for it, rather I yearn The human soulfrom the ~haekless : social and
for them . political
If God is love, hone is !Dore seWess in love Then my glory will radiate with all its'
than I sublimity
I give seldom caring to tah, I suffer but If with a few stray chan~es I can show my
never grumble, mettle
Because I am man's mother, his sister to How dazzling will be I, when I get
make him sober, \mgrudged equality.
His wife to cheer him, and his daughter to In bondage I rear him great, my liberation
ennoble him . will make him greater.

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Ajaib Singh Sidhu - Asst. Editor
AMAR SINGH (l\Ialaysia)

UO Lora, my brothers have pot spared the last d,rop of their

blood to eliminate tbe tyrannical opprcssio.n of the: rulers,
hCD(:C they have carned refuge at Your Feel. Tb~y who serve:
Your creatures deserve an exalted position. They came to tbe
rescue of children and women whose dreadful. eriq for help
had filled the air iIIld .made it heavy with grid. YOQr true
,worshippers have sacrificed everything they had. May their
son:ls have Your blessings, O. Lord. II

The Bartle of Chamkaur had ended, and corpses "0 Lord, my brothers have not spared the last
were lying. about everywhere. The Sikhs, under the drop of their blood to eliminate the ryrannical op-
superb leadership of Guru Gobind Singh, had shown pression of the rulers" henee they have earned refuge
heroic endurance and undaunted courage, though at Your Feet. They who serve Your creatures de-
they were only forty in number, and the Mughal serve an e~alted posidon. They <;arne to the reSCUe
army IJumbered over a hundred thousand. The de- of children and women whose dreadful cries for
voted lirtle band. of Sikbs had fought to the last, help had filled the air and ma:de it heavy with grief.
and the Guru with five of his diSCIples escaped in Your true worshippers. have sacrificed everything
the darkness of the night under the orders of his they had. Max their souls have Your blc:Ssings, 0
Five Beloved Ones (Panj Piyare). Lord."
The Mughal fo(ces spent th.e whole of .the ne...:t Speared and Burnt:
day celebrating their victory in the belief that Sant
Singh's head was that of the Guru and that the Sikhs After pr.ay.ings thus, she set fire. to the pyre
had been subdued. The corpses of the Mughal soldiers from every side. The rose skyhigh, inViting
had been 'buried, but the bodies of the Sikbs were the anention of the guards who stood .numb alld
left to rot on the battlefield. This ghastly sight appalled in sheer fright and pandemonium. In
roused a courageous young Sikb woman into action. moments, everything was reduced to ashes; thus her
Fear became alien to her, and the memory of her impormnities to God prevailed.
brothers fighting with remarkable valour and tenaciry
remained alive in her mind. Her ardour and zeal trans- She was at once surtounded by the gua:rds and
formed her into a lioness and· she waited for darkness questioned incessantly. Paying no hel'ci-to the guards,
to carry out her dury towards rhese immortal she s.a t with her hands cJa,sped and a contented
brothers. smile on her face . Disgusted with her, as they ceuld
not get .any answer, they speared ·the young woman
Corpses Collected and threw ner body into rhe flames.

At midnight, this young woman appeared in BU't all .rhar could be heard from her was,
Turkish overalls with a lamp in her hand, and passed WahegllJ'lI. Wahegunl. Wahegunl.
the snoring guaras stealthily. It seemed that the
deuds also came to her help and blotted Oijt the Stars
ahd lIl;lde it a perfectly dilrk night. She c{)llected the
bodies of the marryrs and piled them at one place.
The Sikhs' distinctive appearance solved her problem
of recognizing her· brothers. She was aware of the
price she was to pay fer this noble. deed, but she
could not see the corpses of her brothers being

At last, the first part of her task was over. She

had collected sufficient wood from the jungle and
piled it over the Corpses. With clasped hands, she
stood and prayed sincerely and wholeheartedly for
her valiant b.rothers to the Almighry. She pleaded
for heavenly refuge for the ~>uls of her dead brothers,
who ~ad. sacrificed their lives to save the chastio/
of their SISters:

It is no secret that the greatness of the Sikhs. the Khalsa, is
generally due to the greatness of their, womenfolk. Even ODe
of the Gurus had to say afttrauario tmdersaria maiDn rab
razllian (The men of Amritsar are· prisoners in their homes,
women haYe the grace of God)..

Various philosphers and religious teachers have who gave freedom and light to the world. He was the
held different views about women from time to time. first to remark, "Why hate the woman who gives
But Sikhism, which is the newest of the great reli- birth to prophets, great men and rulers?" Guru
gions, is the greatest emancipator of women. Nanak's childhood could not be disassociated from
Let us consider a few religions - not to criti- Mata Tripta's influence.
cize them, but to see their attitude to women. Girl's Self-Sacrifice
In Islam, women have to be strictly in purdah - Next we come to Bibi Bhani, who inimortalized
that is to say, veiled or hidden from the sight of man. herself through her self-sacrifice at a tender age when
However, divorce was allowed and maO'iage made a she lent a bleeding finger to support the stool of her
legal contract besides the marital union. father, Guru Amar Das, whe was being oathed by
the daughter (A common practice of pquring water
Christianity permits certain rights, duly modified on to an old father's body). She was the mother of
from time to time. In various countries, certain priv- the great Guru Arjan Dev, the compiler of Guru
ileges have been won by women themselves ; but celi- Grant" Sahib, and grandmother of Guru Har Gobind
bacy is essential in nunneries, and woman, in many Sahib, and lP'eat-great grandmother of Guru Gobind
Ways, is considered the centre of sin. Singh. Consistent with her example her descendants
Hinduism and Buddhism generally favour renun- Guru Arjan and Guru. Tegh Bahadur martyred them-
ciation and adl'ocate retirement into jungles and total selves and Guru Gobind Singh made the S).lpreme
celibacy for gaining salvation. sacrifice of his father, mother, and all four sons and
himself - not to win kingdoms, but for Sikhism and
Numerous Handicaps the Khalsa. It is that little seed of self-sacrifice which
It is well known that women cannot celebrate grew into the great Khalsa brotherhood, which has
maO'iages or conduct the marriage service in any -o f sl?r~ad to fb~r corners. of the world-a b~otherhood
the religions I have mentioned. Among· the Hindus, distmctlve, frrst, by itS deeds of manliness, and,
the Dev Das; cult is still practised, and, till recently, secondly, by the wearing of full beards, keshas, and
the wife and daughter had few material rights . Men turbans.
were at liberty to marry as many times as they liked
and their wives could not c1aini divorce. The killing It is the amrit of Guru Gobind Singh, which per-
of female babies was· common, whereas sat; (the haps started with Bibi Bhani and the great Mara
widow's self-immolation) had to be stopped by law Gujri, who gave birth to the greatest liberator of the
during the British regime. The question of widow world, GUril Gobind Singh. It was the amrir produced
rem3!riage was never consider~d even though the by Guru Gobind Singh on Baisakhi Day that emanci-
marnage age was as low as SIX months, With the pated a downtrodden race and transforme!i them into
result that some girls became widows while they were the conquerors, from Afghanistan to China, frOIn
yet children. Shaving of the head by woman is prac- Galgit to Delhi. But, while Ereparing the necta: it
tised by Christian nuns as well as certain sects of was left to the feat Mara Sahib Devan (Guru Gobmd
Hindus. Moreover cettai~ professio~s ~ere almost Singh's spiritua spouse) ·to /live the fmal touch to
taboo for women, espeCially the WieldIng 9f arms, make the "Water of Salvation" sweet with sugar
except in few instances, such as Joan of Arc or the bubbles (bitasa) - a respect shown to womanhood,
Rani of Jhansi. unknown by any other religion of the world. Sikh
\lUmanity and chivaJty towards women is in many
Position -of Women Key to Sikh Merits ways, derived from Mata Gujri.
It is no secret that the greatness of the Sikhs, the
Khalsa, is generally due to the greatness of their Sikh Women's Privileges
womenfold, Even one of the Gurus ·had to sayamrat- Now what does th.e great Guru's amrit of Baisakhi
sarjQ andersar;a maian rab raza;an (The men of Amrit- Day give to the womenfolk of the world in general,
sar are prisoners in their hO)lles, women have the espeCially of India. It gives equality in worship,
grace of God). equality in society, equality of thought, complete
Among the first Sikh WO!TIcn is Mata Tripta, aDolition of the veij wearing of kutcha (drawers).
who gave birth to the great Prophet, Guru Nanak, wielding of arms by women and children. abolition

of sati. widow remarriage, fidclty to wife and sister. Abdali, who had enslaved them and was raking them
fre,edom of speech. freedom to preach and to act as to Iran. But the Khalsa horsemen, against all odds,
priest, freedom from the need to be nuns and dev- rescued them aU. The Khalsa horsemen delivered
ilasis. and, above all. freedom of thought. When Guru each sister safely to her home in Maharashtra. a thou·
Gobind Singh's wife asked him, "Where are our four sand miles away. The women r,ode all the way, while
sons?" He replied, "What does it matter if feur sons the Sikhs were content to walk alongside. The British
are gone. There are mapy thousand alive (pointing writer, Cunninllham, rightly calls it "the greatest
to the Sikhs)." Today, there are millions. act of chivalry 1D the East." Perhaps, it is the greatest
No. it did not eng there; the heritage was ac- act of chivalry in the world. In European distances,
quired also by the Khalsll; women who would not ac- it would mean that Russian women rescued from
cept the forry muktas (Liberated), when they return- Paris were restored to Moscow.
ed home deserting the Guru, and they !tad to die
fighting in hattle, and Mai Bhago wielded arms out- Sikh Respect for Women
matching the Khalsa men. Sikh respeq for women does not end there. The
molestation of women by conquering Khalsa soldiers
Famous Women's Role was forbidden-something unlmown in 'the East, or
In the shorr, but great, history of the Sikhs. it even the West. The example set by the Khalsa sold-
was the · mother-in-law of the great Maharajah Ranjit iery during the two World Wars is superb in this res-
Singh, Sada Kaur, who was basically responsible for pect as compared with other warring ,nations.
the defeat of Shah 'Zaman at the last battle, for the
emancipation of India from the (oreign yoke after What is it that has transformed a down trodden
1,000 years. It was a Maharani of Patiala who caused race into such admirable people?.It is most definitely
the defeat of Holkar. Consider the manliness and the amrit of Guru Gobind Singh of memorable Baisa-
chivalry of the Khaisa when they rescued ' 15 ,000 khi Day, and, no less, th'e tradition inherited by
Mahratta women from the clutcltes of Ahmed Shah Sikh women down the ages.

English monthly magazine from The Sikh Cultural

Centre. J131I-A. Chittaranjan Avenue, calcutta~ 12, India


1. Explains the mission of the great Guru Nanak.
2. Upholds tne traditions and preStige of Sikhism.
~. Contains contributions by the bightst auth orities on Si~h. religion and cui turf;.
4. Offers ,a. challenge to toda~l's youth..
5. Its. articles have broad and rational views.
6. It affords food for thought for educated people of all religions and all nations.
7. Its articles arc of a high literary standard .and always· bring you something new.
8. It appeals not a.n ly to Indian nationals but to others as well.
Annual subscription: India - Rs. 20.00 • Outside India - S 5.50 or £2.30

A Teprcsentative in United St,atcs:

I. !'lof.ssor lhri Singh Everest. 2217 Melba St •• Yuba City, Ca. 95991
2. S. 'Ajaib Singh Sidhu, 13048 <Brookpark Road, Oakland, Ca. 94619
3. International Sikh Youth FederatioD, 13;3"'- Diana, Madison Heights, Mich.
4. Mr. BaIJir S. Bosi, 5438, Millbrook Rd., Bedford Ueights. Ohio 44146
5. Mr. D.• W. Singh, 3 777lDde~nde nce Ave. , Riverdale, N .Y. 10463

Khivi was a noble-minded WOmen. Deep was her shadow as that of a mighty tree. Bountifully she distribut-
ed in the langar ambrosial klleer enriched with large measures of ghee. Ramkali ki Var. Satta Balwand
Mata Khivi was the wife of Guru Angad (1504-15521. the Second Guru. She was noble of mind and revelled
in serving her Master and his Sikhs. -She toiled lovingly in the Guru-ka-Langar. or community kitchen. and
served the Guru's disciples wi th utmost courtesy and joy. The Guru-ka-Langar in her hands was a source of
unlimited bounty and the harbinger of community consciousness and love.

One of the verses in Asa-ki- Var says: "Why demean them who give birth to heroes among men?"
Guru Amar Das (1479-1574). the Third Guru. appointed women to conduct Sikh missionary and parish
work. Parishes in the charge of men were known as Manjian, from manji or string-bed. Those in the charge
of women were known as Pirhian, from pirhi or low-sitting.,stools on which they sat to minister to the dis-
ciples. Their selection for this important task proved the Guru's recognition of the organisational ability
of Sikh women.

SADA KAUR (1762-1832)
Gurcharan Singh

The invasions of Nadir Shah ahd Ahmad Shah Abdali of Rasulnagar (on the banks of Chenab River) from
brought the process of ,disintergration of .t he Mughal its Muslim ehief. But, around a,bout 1785 An., when
Empire, which had already commenced after the Mahan Sin~h had made his reputation, he discarded
death of Aurangzeb, to coml'leti.on. . Out of ~his the protemon of J ai Singh and declared his indepen-
chaos and anarchy arose the Sikhs ~ the Panjab, !fence; this had annoyed Jai Singh. Once, when
who later created a kingdom of the PanJab under Ma- Mahan Singh. visited Amrip;ar on Diwali, he ap-
haraja Ranjit Singh. D~ing his ~arly eare~r, the proached J ai SIngh wirli sweetmeats. But, the latter
Maharaja, was greatly assISted by hiS mother-1O-Iaw, msulted Mahan Singh by saying: "Go away, you
Sardarni Sada Kaur. Bhagtia (dandn~boy); 1 do not want to hear your
After the death of Abdali, control of the Sikhs sennmental talk. " Mahan Singh's young hlood was
infuriated, and he went away with the resolve to
over the Panjab ?ecame more organise~ and es~ablish­ avenge this insult. With this in mind, he invited
ed. Out of thiS system there came mto bemg the
various Misls, or small states. These Misls varied in Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia whose trans-Satluj
size and resources; and, exceptfor their religion, they territorie.s had been captured by the Kanhaiyas, and
had nothing in common and 'were without any unity who himself had run away to the east of the Satluj.
or purpose. Out of these, twelve were the most im- Mahan Singh was, also, able to getSansar Chand of
Kangra's help in this affair. BUt, before this help
portant Misls and are well-known throughout Sikh could reach Mahan Singh, he had had a few ski~mish­
history. es with the Kanhaiyas ·and lost some of his territory.
Now, the three allies iointly attacked Jai Singh; a
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Was, born in 17119 (A.D .l fierce battle IVas fought at Achal, a village two miles
and on the death of his father took over the kader- south of Batola and Jai Singh was defeated. Gurbak-
ship of the Sukarchakias - one of the, twelve hsh Sing, the eldest son of Jai SIngh was killea in this
important Misls. The base of this Misl was at Gujran- .encounter. Gurbakbsh Singh was, like his father,
wala, but they also possessed. some lands around handsome and had during his boyhood become an ex-
Gujrat, Sialkot, Pind Dadan Khan and Miani in the pert in riding and wielding 'the sword. The result of
west of river Jelham (now all these places are in West this battle was that all the possessions of Sukerchak-
Pakistan.) ias·. and Ramgarhias were restored to ,their re'Spective
claimants and the' fort of Kangra handed over to
Sansar Chand.
the Kanhaiyas were another important Misl of
the Sikhs 'a nd was on a par with the Bhang; Mis!. It When she received the news of her husband's
was founded by Sardar Jai Singh who came from the death, in battle, Sada Kaur did not cry; ·instead she
village of Mauza Kanha, 15 miles east of Lahore. The 'took the messenger's steed and rode to the scene of
Kanhaiyas possessed large parts of the disIricts of the battle where her husband was lying In bloQd. She
Amritsar and Gurdaspur, with their centre of activit- removed his weapons an.d adorned herself with these.
ies at Batala 1 .. Sardar Jai Singh's son, Sada!' Gurbak- And from this day there was a complete transfor-
hsh Singh was married to ,S ada Kaur, a daughter of mation in her. She had her husband's dead body
Sardar Daswandha Singh Alkel, who came from a brought to Batala where it was crearnated. Late·r, she
family of old traditions in courage and hravery. Sada had a Smadh built over this place.
Kaur, born in 17'6 2, was brought up in these heroic
surroundings where she developed in herself these Later, in ordc:r to avenge' his defeat, ]ai Singh at-
qualities. tac~ed Mahan Smgh. at Naoshehra, but was, once
agam defeated. Jru Singh fled towards Nurpur upon
the approach of his enemy. I,t was here thilt' the
Sardar J ai Singh (it was his privilege to have taken shrewd a~d enterprising Sada: Kaur, widow of Gur-
pahul at the hands of NaWab Kapur Singh) was the re- bakhsh 51Ogh, who had a ,great influence over her
nowned leader of the Kanhaiya Misl, and was a man age~ father-~-la~ and more or less regualted the
of influeI)ce in the Panjab. He had extended pro- affalrs of therr Misl proposed a the engagement of her
tection to Mahan Singh of Sultarchakia Misl in the only daughter-Mehtab Kaur - to RarJjit .Singh, the
latter's earlier life and I)~ helped him in the capture son of Mahan Singh. The bethrothal ceremony took

place sometime in 1785, when Ranjit was only five was filled by his mother-in-law, Sada Kaur, till he was
years old. Her intention was to unite the families of fit to carry out his princely duties independently.
these twO Misls, create a bond of friendship betwen This state of affairs gave Sada Kaur the opportunity of
the two houses and work it towards her benefit. using her influence over Ranjit Singh and use him as a
After the death of her father-in-law she became the stepping stone for her own political advancement.
head of the Kanhaiyas with a force of 8,000 horses. According to some writers, Mehtab Kaur, on the
(Khalsa Raj de Ursra'ya, Prem Sin!5h, 1, P. 55.) How death of her grandfather lai Singh, is supposed to
rightly the subse9uent events vmd,cated the truth of have inherited all the property and treasures of the
this artful planmng and her far·slghtedness l The re- Kanhaiyas, and Sada Kaur was merely acting as ·her
sult of this union was peace and prosperity for Regent 4. Whatever may be the case, Sada Kaur was
Mahan Singh's reign for many years. All the efforts in complete charge of the Kanhaiyas.
till then wasted in fighting against each other were The immediate results of this alliance went ac-
now concentrated to form a bigger and stronger cording to her plans. As soon as her father-in-law
force. And this laid the foundations of the Sikh Raj died in 1793, she was able to make her mother-in-
in the Panjab. law with her two sons retire from the scene. She
Sardar Mahan Singh died in March, 1792, leaving established her headquarters at Batala and commenc-
Ranjit Singh, only twelve years old, under the conuol ed planning for the achievement of her ambitions.
of his mother-in-law. Sada Kaur, "one of the most Ranjit Singh married Mehtab Kaur in 1796. This
artful and ambitious of her sex" that ever figured in marriage "brou!5ht together two of the most dynamic
history. "The wisdom and energy of this extraord- Sikh personalities of the time. Ranjit Singh and his
inan' woman . .. conduced matenallv to the su ccess mother-in-law, Sada Kaur , who by both working to-
of Ranjit Singh in his early exploits a,{d it is truly said gether and working against each other determined the
of her that she was the ladder by which Ranjit Singh course of Sikh hIStory for the next forty years. 5 "
reached the summit of his power." It was unfortun- After the marriage, Sada Kaur had accompanied her
ate for Ranjit Singh, that he did not have a mother daughter to her husband's home to live with her. To
who could Inspire him into greatness. So, this place get her hold on Ranjit Singh, Sada Kaur started poi-
.' ~::~?W2~:>?·0.:· .~ ~;,~:~:·~7;~:.-.
" ..
"- ' .' -.


soning his ears against Lakhpat Rai, the dewan of re-occupied the city. The citzens were not happy
late Mahan Singh. First of all, Sada Kaur checked the with the Bhangis; so , in 1799, they invited Ranjlt
papers main.tained By piwan L:'khpat Rai; when she Singh to take over the city, and promised whatever
found considerable discrepanCies m thtse, she had help they could give in achieving this aim.
him removed from the job. Then she sorted out the Besides, the Lahore citizens also sent an appeal to
Sukarchakia force discarding unwanted elements. Sada Kaur, now head of the Kanhaiya Misl, ~~:;;t­
Not satisfied with this, Sada Kaur started interfering ing her to support the Maharaja in this unde . g.,
in other matters directly which resulted into regular So, Ranjit Singh, with all the available forces, march- ,
clashes beliWeen Sada Kaur and Ranjit Singh's cd towards Batala where SadaKaur, who had already
mother. The invasion of Zaman Shah in 1796 gave returned there from Lahore, was waiting for him.'
some respite to this danger over than the clashes be- From there, both marched towards Arnritsar at·
twen the two ladies recommenced; the clashes were the head of their respective forces, estimated at about
merely "intrigues for power and influence and for 25,000. Meanwhile, Ranjit Singh had obtained fur-
the possession of his mind. 6 . Also the young couple ther informatio.n about the state of affairs in Lahore
weren't fond of each other and, on the tOp of it, Sada and the genuineness of the applicants; this was all
Kau~'s (,resence there and. her med~ling in their favorable to him. However, the news broadcast was
affalI"s did not prove conouctlve to their happy relat- that the Maharaja was on his usual religious visit to
ionship,but, on the other hand! her !,.res~nce Amritsar to bathe in the Sarovar. From Arnritsar he
aggravated the sad state of relationship. Ran]lt Smgh carried out a forced march and reached Lahore in one
felt estranged and was in want of a companion; his day and surprised the Bhangi Sardars. (It is said that
wife - Mehtab Kaut - had failed to fill this vacuum, all the planning for this surprise. attack hll:d been done
and Ran/·it Singh contracted his second marriage. by Sada Kaur.) The forces beselged the City when the·
Meanwhi e, Ran]it Sing's mother had died and Lakh- citzens were engrossed in watching the celebrations of
pat Rai was killed. Although Sada Kaur was able to · the Shia festival of Muharram. The three Bhangi Sar-
dislodge Lakhpat Rai and Ranjit Singh's mother, she dars were given no chance "to prepare the defences.
herself failed to take their place. So, Sada Kaur, However, the defenders sent out a force of about 200
taking her daughter (Mehtab Kaur) with her left for armed men to oppose Ranjit Singh, but it was defeat·
Batala. cd. Ranjit Singh now divided his force 'into two
THE COLLABORATION parts; one under Sada Kaur was to feign entry from
Ranjit Singh's marriage with Kaur had the Delhi Gate (this force, later entered. the Shah-
brought' him uner the intluence of the able and dip- Almi Gate which, had been k.ept open by the citizens,
lomatic Sada Kaur who "more than anyone else the second portlon, compnsmg 2,000 horses and 4
directe~ his unbounded energy towards unifying the guns (including 300 Akalis) under his own command
Panjab. " She was, "by all accounts a woman of was to rorce entry bv the Lohari Gate. Two of the
extraordinary ability and her considerable talents Bhangi Sardars had by now fled leaving only Chet
now enabled her to playa prominent part in Ranjit's Singh in the field. .
affairs . [n fact sh:e lJecame the leading personality in Chet Singh, planning on false information, took a
Ranjit's councils and the most powerful instrument force of about 400 to 500 men and advanced towards
of his early triumphs 8 " She, as will be seen, became Delhi Gate, where severe fighting took place. On rhe
the real power behind the young Ranjit Singh. other side, Ranjit Singh had forced entry·through a
different gate. Chet Singh on learning of this treach-
Labore ery made for the citadel and was just 1U time to enter
[n 1796, when Zaman Shah of Kahul invaded the it and shut himself up; otherwise, a slight delay on
Panjab and ·occupied Lahore, most of the Sikh Misls Chet Singh's part would have meant immediate occu-
buneo their differences and assembled at Arnritsar to pation of the citadd bv the invaders. Now started
plan a joint action a/Sainst the invader. Here, Sada desultory firing from both sides lasting for about
Kaur persuaded Ranjlt Singh to take up arms against twenty hours. The Maharaja wanted to bombard the
the Afghans when the majority of the chiefs were citadel and then take it by assault but his shrewd
against such an action. She delivered a spirited mother·in-Iaw advised him against it· she argued that
speech to the gathered chiefs and she is supposed to besieged, having no provisions withln and, with their
have made the bold statement that, if they ran away, communications from without having been cut off,
she would fight the invader alone. This firmness of a would soon be compelled to surrender themselves.
woman served the purpose and all the chiefs joined She was proved correct by the events; shortly, Chet
hands to fight the invader. Ranjit Singh was cbosen Sipgh surrendered on the condition that he be allow-
as their leader. But, fortunately, Zaman Shah, be- ed uflmolested exit Qut of the city and be given a
cause of the rebellion by his half·brother, Malunud, suitable allowance. These terms were granted and
had to return to KabuL As soon as Zaman Shah the eighteen year old chief occupied the famous fort.
turned his back, the Bhangi Sardars, the tyrant rulers [t was July 7th, 1799. Along with the fort, a number
of Lahore, who had fled at the advent of Zaman Shah of guns and large quantity of treasure came into the

Maharaja's hands. Chet Singh was given the village of structed to make sure that the fort was ceded to him
Vennia, 24 miles from Lahore, in Jagir worth Rs. before he rendered any help to Sansar Chand. When
7,000 a year. the time approached, as was suspected, Sansar Chand
This was a great victory for Ranjit Singh. Lahore, hesitated to hand over the fort, saying it would be
bein~ the political capital of the Pimjab , enhanced done after the Gorkhas wer.e expelled. However. he
Ran)lt's stature and political prestige and "also in- sent his son Anurodh Singh as a hostage to Diwan
vested him with the semblance of a title to the rest of Mohkam Chand. Meanwhile a delicate situation had
the Panjab." After this he proclaimed himself a Mah- arisen between the Maharaja and the British and ·th e
araja. Diwan had to be recalled from Kangra.
The capture of Lahore created jealousies among Taking advantage of the situation. Sansar Chand
other chiefs such as the Bhangis, the Ramgarhias and again approached Amar Singh Thapa, the ruler of
the Nawab of Kasur. They all collected themselves at Nepal, promising him the fort of Kangra. Meanwhile
the village of Bhasin (located between Lahore and he had brought his family toa safer place, put his
Amritsar) to give battle to Ranjit Singh. When Ranjit brother with four months' provisions in the fort and
Singh was tackling them, Sada Kaur fought J3:ssa closed its gates. Ranjit Singh was annoyed at this
Singh Ramgarhla near Batala and defeated him. duplicity of Sansar Chand, and this time he sent Sada
In 1801, Sada Kaur engaged in fighting against Kaur to take necessary action in the matter. Sada
the combined forces of the Raja of Noorpur and Kaur with Anurodh Singh seated on an elephant,
Raja Sansar Chand of Kangra who had captured some adv~ced towards the fort. On reaching the fort she
of her villages. On hearing this news, Ranjit Singh demanded the keys; these were refused. Then she
ad\·anced to help her. No sooner had the news of the tdd the boy to ask for the keys ; the young man
Maharaja's advanced reached the invading Rajas than obeyed her, and the gates were opened and the fort
they fled. Ranjit Singh not only recovered the vill- occupied. Thu.s. through the trick of a woman "San-
ages lost by Sada Kaur, but also, himself accupied sar Chand was foiled and Amar Singh retreated across
some of Sansar Chand's territory. All this territory the Satluj loudly exclaiming that he had been gro~sIy
and its revenue was handed over to Sada Kaur. duped. 9 •
Amritsar In 1820, the Muslims of Hazara, Pulki, Dha!11tor
In December, 1802, the Maharaja captured Amrit- and Tarbela revolted. Bhai Makhan Singh Nazim
sar - the religious headquarters of the Sikps ; the of Rawalpindi who was sent there to restore order
Kanhaiyas under Sad a Kaur rendered him great help was killed. lO S. Hukma Singh Chimni, whQ was then
in its capture. the Qiladar of the Arrock Fort, succeeded him, but
After proclaiming himself the Maharaja, Ranjit he made matters worse; the Afghans, because of their
Singh pro~eeded to occury smaller states and. to con- successes had gained confidence and had bemt:ne
solidate hiS power. In thIS he was greatly asSISted by bold_ Hearing this, the Maharaja asked Sada Kaur and
his mother-in-law, although , in the process, the Kan- S. Fateh Singh Ahluwalia to march with their forces
haiyas also suffered to a great extent. In the same to the place of rebellion. Prince Sher Singh, Sham
year Sardar Bhag Singh Bhugga died and, on the Singh Attari and Ram Dayal also accom·panied the
Maharaja's orders, all hIS estates were given to Sada force. On arrival the Ahluwalia Sardar and the others,
Kaur. by their moderate methods, were able to restore the
By 1805, with the help'.of~. Fateh Singh Ahlu,:"a- situation to some extent. But Sada Kaur took "the
alia and Sada Kaur, RanJit smgh had Lahore Iymg most rigorous steps". and was 4etermined to sev~rely
prostrate at his feet; Amritsar - the religious cap- punish the rebel tribes. Ratla, one of the .tribes ,
Ital -in his hands; and Kangra, Chiniet, Kasur and suffered most. The result was that the people of Mis-
Multan subdued or weakened. With so milch power wari, Sri Kot. Tarbela. Eusafzai and Swat joined
in his hand, now he was in a position to take on bigg- together to give battle to the Sikhs. The battle lasted
er conquests. the whole day. In the evening, the outnumbered
Kangra Sikhs retired to the entrenchments. Diwan Ram
The occupation of Kangra was important for Dayal Singh, who had pursued the enemy. too far and
dominating the hilly area between the rivers Satluj was the last to leave tlie field, together With hIS small
and Ravi. In 1806, the Gorkhas having defeated Sail- escort was ambushed and killed.
sar Chand in the battle of Mahal Mohri, proceeded The next day, Sardarni Sada Kaur attacked the

towards Kangra. The latter requested Ranjlt Singh to killers of Ram Dayal and serverely punished the
help him against the Gorkhas, but Ranjit Singh de- Gandhgarwalas. At last the Hazarawalas, seeing no
manded the fort of Kanwa in ·return, which Sansar other way out, accepted the terms offered by' the Sar-
Chand refused to part With. Having approached ev- arni. They cleared the arrears of their tribute and
eryone else unsuccessfully., Sansar Chand in 1809, promise<! to maintain peace in the area.
agreed to hand over the fort to the Maharaja. On this After this, she toured the whole area, ordered
the Maharaja despatched Diwan Mohkam Chand to forts to be built at the various places - Tarbela, Ch-
help San.sar Chand against the Gorkhas. He was in- azi, Darband - and herself returned to Lahore.

THE1WINS example some of the banles fought in the Norrh West
Frontier region were conducted under the leadership
Before we proceed furrher, it is essential that we of Prince Sher Singh. In 1826, when the Maharaja
deal with one of tlte important factors which remain- proceeded on tour, he appointed Prince Sher Singh to
ed a source of constant friction between these two act in hehalf of the Maharaja. All this did not go un-
strong personalities. This was the case of the twins noticed by the tival party who, naturaJJy, was not
born in 1808, to Mehtab Kaur the Maharaja's first pleased. So the heir apparent, Prince Kharak Singh
queen and the daughter af Sada Kaur. These two and his motl!er started Intriguing against Prince Sher
sons were named Tara Singh and Sher Singh. Various Singh. The cold-war of succession had started. It is
authorities have different views on the legitimacy of said that, when Ranjit Singh fell ill, Prince Kharak
these two sons of Maharaja and, consequently, there Singh, in order to avenge this insult, and also to as-
are strange stories prevalent that they were just pass- sure himself of their support for his succession started
ed on the Maharaja as his sons. Sir Lepel Griffin communicating with the English authorities in India.
writes: "Mehtab Kaur was the first in order, married It was during these communications that Prince
in 1786, a match which gave Ranjit Singh his com- Kharak Singh and his mother propogated that Sher
manding position, she being the granddaughter and Singh and Tara Singh weren't the real sons of the Ma-
heiress of the powerful Kanhaiya baron Jai Singh. haraja, and that they had mischieviously been planted
Her mother, the widow Sada Kaur, a truly remark- on the laner by the clever Sada Kaur. Strange, to
able woman, who relised that if her daughter was to what ahsurd limits personal jealousies, rivalries, pre-
retain her influence she must present her husband judices and selfishness can take individuals, and also
with an heir, procured a baby during one of the Ma- to what low levels of indecency they can stoop!
haraja's expeditions and passed him off as her Supporting the legitimacy of the twins, Khush-
daughter'S. This child, named lshar Singh, only lived want Singh writes that "when Sada Kaur fell from
a year and a half; and Sada Kaur determined to try power and. the princes came to stay with their father,
the . effects of twins. When Ranjit Singh had started Kharak Singh and his mother were picqued and gave
on his Cis-SarIuj expedition of 1807, it was !pven out curren~ to the gossip in order to counteract any
that Mehtab Kaur was pregnant and on hIS return possibility of Ranjit Singh's preferring Sher Singh,
twin sons were presented to hi.m, one purchased from who was fast becoming the father's favo·urite, as suc-
a chintz-weaver, and the other the offspring of a cessor. 13
slavegirl in Mai Sada Kaur's house. Ranja Singh at
first refused to have anything to say to the children, D. THE DISCORD
but the following year, when he was almost at war
with the: English ove~ the. <;is-Sa~luj question, he Any allian.ce would function smoothly so long as
thought It necessary to conclhate his temble mother- the interests of the allies received equitable treat-
in-law who had the Ramgarhia barons at her back and ment, so long as they had any regard for each other,
he acknowledged the boys, treating them as his own so long as there are no signs of selfishness on the part
and allowing them the tirIe of Prince. One of them, of any member of the alliance. But when once any of
Tara Singh, was 'an idiot; the other, Sher Singh grew these signs creeps in, the aJliance becomes shakey and
up an exceedingly handsome, brave and stupid man advances towards its doom. And the alliance between
and succeeded ·to the throne after the death of Nao Maharaja Ranjit Singh, his mother-in-law Sada Kaur
Nihal Singh, but was assasinated in 1843 by the Sind- and his friend S. Fateh Singh Ahluwalia was no ex-
hanwalia chiefs. 11 ception. The latter two being the minor partners
According to Fakir Syed Waheeduddin, whose became. disgus~ed with 0e activities of the Maharaja
narrative is based on the archives of the Fakir family and thelT relanons, partIcularly between the Maharaja
and hence can be taken as authentic, these boys were and Sada Kaur, became embittered. Many reasons
reaJJy born to Mehtab Kaur. 12 What worried the far- have been given for this discord.
sighted and ambitious Sada Kaur was that Prince The marriage between Maharaja Ranjit Singh and
Kharak Singh had been born before these twins, but Mehtab Kaur was a political alliance of which either
her dauj:hter's child, she being the first to marry party wanted to make use so far as their own interests
Ran)it Singh, should be the Maharaja's successor. The were concerned. (Othetwise, how could Mehtab
obVIOUS choice however, seemed to be Prince Kharak Ka)1r, as some argue, be reconciled to the son of her
Singh, the eldest son, and she started planning to father's killer!) Neither party tried to hide these feel-
chans-e this. With this aim in view she started streng- ings and the situation deteriorated so much that
thening her own position as well as that of her Ranjit Singh conttacted his second marriage.
grandson. After his third invasion of Multan in 1807, the
Sada Kaur was successful in this respect to a con- Maharaja returned to Lahore in May. But, before the
siderable ex~ent and the res~lts w~re encouraiP"g. rains came he had reduc.ed Adinanagar, the famous
The Maharaja would often gIVe Pnnce Sher Singh city of Adina Beg Khan and also extracted tribute
command of the various important campaigns. For from the Sikh Sardars bordering the Kangra hills.
These territories being the dependencies of the Kan- the document. The forr was caprured and immense
haiya Misl, the Maharaja's action annoyed hi~ m?ther- wealth carne to the victor's hand which was brought
in-law. This was the first cause and. begmn1Og. of to Lahore. Sada Kaur was also sent back to Lahore
discord between Sada Kaur and her son-1O-law., which where she stayed until her death. Batala was given in
led to the intriques, and the final ruin of this talented ] agir to Prince Sher Singh.
lady. T.he jealousy had taken such extreme fonns According to Amarnath, she. was in the habit. of
that in 1812, Sada Kaur nOt only herself refused to writing to Ranjit Singh's enemies and propagaung
attend the marriage of Prince Kha.rak Singh, but she hatred against him. _She supported the.~alwa Sardafs
even stopped Prince~ Sher Singh an~ Tara ?ingh from against the Maharaja during Metcalf's VISit. She seor a
attending it. And thIS was the br.eaking p~l!nt, word to the British that they could COllnt on her.
Sometime in 1820, RanJIl S10gh hav10g perform- In 1822 Rani Daya Kaur of Ambala died issue-
ed his usual rdigious ceremonies at the Golden. less and h~r state was confiscated by the British.
Gurdwara, Amritsar, proceeded to Batala and en- Thi~ policy of the Government of India was painful,
camped near it. Here, he suggeste~ Sada Kau~ to and may Issueless cherts feared the above treatments.
apportion a J agir for her grandson, Prmce Sher Smgh Ranjit Singh, also got\~orried about this policy.
who had attained manhood. On the other hand, Sada His fears were that the Bnush were every ume com-
Kaur who had often accused the Maharaja of being ing nearer his borders and. constructing new forrs.
parti~l, of showing favours to Prince Kh.~ak, Singh; Also, he expected the same treatment for the terri-
whereas ignoring the .twins, wanted ~n]lt Su:,gh to tories of Sardami Sada Kaur, on her death. So, m
bestow on his son an Independent Jaglr from hiS. own o,der to avoid this, he ,suggested to his moth~r-in,la~
resomces. Ranji! Singh who an eye on her pos- that she hand over her possessions on tht ClS-SatluJ
sessions started. creating discord between Sada Kaur side to him. Sbe wanted some time to think it over.
and Prince Sher Singh. Having succeeded in th!sthe But, the impatient Maharaja, without getting an ans-
Maharaja a:sked Sada Kaur to make some prOVISions wer from his mother-in-law, dispatched his trOOps to
from her territorv to her two grandsons-Sher Singh Wadhni, etc. I 6 The British many years after the sign-
and Tara Singh-'::born out of Sada Kaut's daughter ing of the Treaty of April, 1809 had started
Mehtak Kaur who had since died. According to considering her as an independent head of the Kan-
Fakir Waheedud-din (P. 139), the Maharaja propo.sed hai Misl; also. Wadhni being in the Cis-SatIuj regions
that she should give half of her estates to the twl,!S. the British claimed to protect her interests there.
Also, tht' Maharaja suggested she hand over adminiS- So, the British, who seemed to be waiting for an. op-
tration of her estales to Prmce Sher Smgh as she was
portUni~ immediately d~spatched a f?r~~ and eject"
quite aged and deserved some rest. But Sada ~'mr ed the Sikhs from Wadhm_ !he Maharaja. freqed and
was unwilling to do so, suspecung the ~aharaJ~ s 10- fumed but prudently aVOlded ..a c?lhslOn With the
tentions, she threatened to cross the Cis-Satlu] area
and place Wadhn; under the British protection. On British troups." However, R.anJlt Smgh com.menced
defensive preparations on hiS Side of the River. As
this Ranjit Singh w;ote a conc~~latory lette~ to he,r; already stated she even tried to cross over to the Brit-
"with every profeSSion of, hUI'!!l~ty as a son-m-I~w. ish. All this the Maharaja could not tolerate for long
Thus "petted and coaxed she J010ed the Maharaja at and she was given the treatment she .deserved. Ac-
Shahdara where whe was compelled to execute the cording to Murray, "howsoever humanity may/lead
desired deed in favour of her grandson; thereafter, she in her behalf, one does not see how she caul well
herself was placed in the fort. By t~is deed ~he lost be treated otherwise, being what she is, and has
all of her territories except th~ fe~ In the Cls-Satlu] been." 17
regions. This included Wadheru which had been cap- Sada Kaur died in December, 1832, at the age of
tured hy the Maharaja in 1808 and transferred to 70 years. Ranjit Singh himself came to Amritsar to
Sada Kaur against the payment by her of Rs, 15,000. offer condolences to her relations. The Maharaja
One day, on so_me pretext she. went out and. fled took possession of almost a~ of her 'estateS. He con-
towards her possessions. But frmce Kharak Smgh, fiscated all her valuables mcludmg a necklace of
who was dispatched after her l captured her on her pearls worth sixty thousand rupees. Although it.w";l;
wa:y to Mukerian, brought ber back to Lahor~ the result of "a deliberate and calculated pohcy
she was placed in close con~inement. On. thiS, Misr being followed by him, he still had a right to her pos-
Diwan Chand was sent to seize all her temtory. He sessions which he exercised.
. captured Batala and l'athankot ~ithout an~ OppOSI- "Thus fell, after having flsured ptominentl~ in
tion from her toOps. Then he seIZed Mukenan from Paniab politics for about thrrty years, the hlgh-
where he proceeded to Atalgarb the respository of spimed Sada Kaur, one of the most remarkable
the wealth of the Kanhaiyas; here he was offered a Women in the history of the Panjab. She had been
strong opposition, and the fort defied the MISt.. Sada the mainstay of Ranjit Singh's power, the ladder
Kaur, who was taken with him in close confmement, whereby that monarch had been enabled to rea~ the
was aked to sign an o.rder for the defenders to sur" summit of his greatness. She was the companIOn of
render. Initially, she refused, but after two days' his toils, and to her energy, intrigues and infl~ence he
deprivation of food she consented to fix her seal on chiefly owed his success in his early explOlts_ She
maintained an unbending disposition to the last, rendered Lahore fort to Ranjit Singh; it was Sada
and her ruin was brought about by the course of Kaur who by a trick had obtained the surrender of
events, not less than by the· high tone she was in the the Kangr~ fort, foiled Sansar Chand and duped Amu
habit of assuming and the independence of character Singh Thapa who had to retreat across the Satluj.
she asserted, both of which the Sikh Monarch had be- She proved a valuable ally to his young son-in-law in a
come incapable of tolerating by the growth of his number of campaigns and also conducted a number
power. She bore the calamity of her confinement of campaigns independently; she, too, can be rated
with great restlessness and impatience, upbraiding and among the capable generals.
execrating her ungrateful, beating her Her share in the building of the Sikh nation was
breast with vehemence and renewing her curse and weat; and. it would have been greater but for her self-
lamentations every day.i 8" Ishness which did not let her sub-ordinate her own
Such was Sada Kaur, an enterprising, masterful, interests as well as those of ~he Kanhaiya MisI to that
high-spirited, bold and amb.i~ious lady. of consid~rab~e of a greater cause, i.e. the Sikh Nation. She, in the
talents and remarkable ability., the like of which IS words of Waheeduddin, failed to realize ·that "if the
not known in the Sikh history. It was the result of Sikhs were to be unified, they had to have one leader
her far-sij!htedness and diplomacy that she brought and it was Ranjit Singh, and not she, who could ful-
the two lIDportant Misls together through the matri- fill that role." " It was," writes Waheeduddin, "a sad
mony of her daughter with Ranjit Singh, when the failure of vision on her part to try to destroy the
couple were still very yOllng. She combined her abil- image she had done so much to build.,,19 Initially she
ities with her position and status; tliis combination had helped in making Ranjit Singh the symbol of the
gave her an opportunity to play a great part in the whole Sikh nation; but, in the later years, she started
shapping of Ranjit Singh's fortune. She "became the undoing all that she had helped in making by workin2
leading p~rson:i.hty in R"'.'jit's c.ol1I!cils and the most against Ranjit Singh and plotting for his downfaJI.
powerful lDstrument of his early tnumphs." She be- For this she did not deserve any better treatment
came the real powe~ behind the throne. It was than she was meted out by her son-in-law, the Ma-
through her shrewdness that the Bhangi Sardar sur- haraja.
1. A Bhati Rajput .Namdcv. Wished to lay a village ncar the
present town of Batala. But. .this place was considered as 10. Prem Singh in Khalsa Raj de Usme, (Vol. 1, P. 73) states
unau$picious. so he changed the location t"O the prescnt that S. Makli;:m was iUJlbulhed and killed on Novc:mber
onc. In Panjabi, this means WataJya (exchanged). Hcnce 12,1819.
the name Batala. Sri Guru N aDak. was married in tbis 11. IU(tjit Singh. Griffin, PP 107-108; Syed Muhammad Latif
lown. His mothe.r.-in·law's house bas since beeD cbanged also subscribes to this story (Hiltory of the Punjab, P370)
into a Gurdwara.. Guru Hargabind Singh 's son Baba Gur· 12. The Real Ranjit Smgh, P 137
ditta was a1Jo manicd here: .. 13. H;'torv of the SikM, Kh ... hwant Singh, Vol. I, P 214
2. Hutary of the Panjab, Latif. P. 343 14. According to Prii!'cep, i.t was S. Desa SioSh Majithia who
3. According to Payne, it was a sort of penalty imposed by bad apprehended her (Ranjit Singh, P. 128)
S. Mahan Singh on hil defeated adversary. (A Short His. 15. According to Saba. Prem Singh, Sudarni Sada: Kaur, on
tory of the Sikhs, P. 69) . her own accord, came: to Amriuar to pc:actfuUy pUl her
4_. The Panjab as a Sovereign State, G. L. Chopra, P. 7 last clays. There she put up in her own lhvdi and stayc:d
5. The Real Ranjit Singh, Fakir Syed Waheeduddin, P. 133 there uptil hc:r death (Kha.J.A. Raj de Ulnic:. Vol. 1, P 84)
6. The Real Ranjit Singh, fakir Syed Waheeduddin, P. 136 16. Khalu Raj <i.e Usnie. !'rem Singh, Vol. I , PP. 79·83
7. A }futory of the SikM, Khu,hwant Singh, Vol. 1, P. 189 17. Raniit Singh, Princcp, P 135
8. The Panjab as a Sovereign State, G. L . Chopra, P. 7 18. History of the Panj.b, L.a tif, P 424
9. H;istory of the Sikhs, Cunningham, P. 133 19. The Real Ranjit Singh. Fakir Syed Waheeduddin, P. l40

The only Punjabi Weekly

fearlessty exposing the innermost stories of party intrigues,
secrets and scandals of Punjab politics and tru Iy espousing
the cause of the Punjab.i.s.
Published Every Saturday
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"..+++,.. .... +"" ...... +++ ... ot..,. ............ .t..,. ... "" ... +.j........... + ... + .... ... ++++4t++.+.4.+++ ... + ............. 01.."..... '..,. ............... ++", ........... ++.'

ft!O{'" <BCl m firl:l" up:m) or (hearken t0 33 ) even one:u "iraa' I ~ qrai iil fi:a ;11" fl1fll'>f1" 3 (»fHB )
l}il"" II inslruclion:J2 of the Guru . Hi (~J" ora cri" , I
<BClT fEo( m:u ~5TEl II The Guru has explained one thing Q!l!?i H~ feCI >IT;; R~" fe31 a
to me.
Rl;!u"ilRi t!' ii1~ f!!O! t!'3'O a I if'l om, (Ju
t!'3 T }{ - ~
There is but one Bestow« of all the
beings, May, I never forget Him, H~ <Xi? ill 0' ~ I

'ilrEJ \I EII
~'''!lCl 'il'a )){ICrlI" Though'''a man's age"be equal to fuur ",~,,, f~ iil ~Hi!" >I'll BOTi ,,1 u~

'iTa" t!Ha'" ~fE" \I ages and grow38even ten times3;more36. »f3 t!'RiP-"" ~~" it ;j <i~38 I
(')£1 -alf;;"f~fil Tl'a~" Though he be known·1t in the ninc ",~, (Ju ~ til )f;Jie1lJT"'»iefcr t{fH1l'I;j~ »8
?5 TfP.i" ,3<::::" tl~ ~fE"11 conti ncn ts ' O and 31l H were to (follow 1F.i" ~Re (HolO"/lOR) Hi (O'I'i"~'Je"'J
in his train) or(walk 13wi th~ :! him) and <Te, 3 ;I~ ' ~u ii.Rc"'ii'lf·· <!tR''' g~"8
;'iClT" C;T~" Cll:lTfe~" though he were to assume H good U RA'a;",O ~a ~l..n-r:t "3 R9,I~ UO'lI3:=1 em"8~
tl~" iiclClf3'" ';tf3l'" narnc"'i. and obtain"" praisc~"" and
i5fu" II renown 1':1 in the worhPU.
~ "' B!:J" o'i:!fCl';' 0 If" (God's) or I Hi ,),,' gracious" "iraa'" ~u (,.,f.J'i!~) ill (\?'1"') ,,1 t'tI'
I'l!I~El" 3 "" ~'3" T?5 glanco fall ; '" not 0" him, then"', 110 f"c~<'l";;.lJT'3o'" ?i<l1', 3'e"', \?R t!1 ~l!1
~~ a \I o.9ct'~ 1'li cfa'" one would care" for him, he is lICr." u"?i<ll ' ofu'orr, @;J alf::»ii" f.,.," ?i1\!
cilsl:')~fc(' ·e'Rlr.2 €R~:' accounted!>1 a \'crminliJ amo ng:; t )"fii31 c" farfci}fTG' ;:p~t b »i3 lJi~CIi:! 51
'CIa" II worms5t1 and C"t,:11 the sinner:;":! ~R fI3 ~;r(5"i3 5'~ ·~:;.a un 1
impute'" acclIsations'3 to him.
(';T.';O( fooClfu"; CllC" o Nanak! God grants"virtut"to the ~?i'(iq I <M'u<!f'g ioil-f~' ~ ~a1"
"Q-a"7 ~ ~~,r.~~G!I non-virtuousG!l and bestows";U piety6:l
~T. II on the pious6!!. 1.J.t!T"T. 01<R' il I
30 T" i'lfE?5 !l'3'E'l" I can think 72 of no such7J one who';3 Ii' fail f!!ii 'ir.JTI 1{'n1 '" fu»rE" ?i<l1'
f;:( ' f:r!l" ~,. m'e can show" any goodness" u"IO ora FfCit!T f=," \?fl" ~ ~ ~1"
O(ij" 11911 Him". ora" FfCit!T W I
!lfe~;; f~" l.l1Cl" By hearing" God's Name the mortal ""~ ~ ii'lf ~ ~" orac~1{'n1
!lfCl~l II becomes a perfect person", religious 1;!<J?i1lO'F.!", QTOHa l>fTqj", ~ tiuT" »f3
guide", spiritual hero'· and a great" ~ tioil" ;j Hit!' il I
'R~ tlfC3"~" .By hearing God's Name the reality ~ ~ ii'lf ti ~ orac ~T l£'if ?i
)){TCf'iI" II of the earth", it's supposed suppor- t:1031". fulri! ~ ~ iffitl3 lffit! »f3

ting"bull and the heaven" is revealed '>fRH'?i" iil »!Il5i'>f3 t!' lI3' ffilI Hit!' il I
unto the mortal.

{From: English and Panjabi Tran.slation of Sri Guru Granth Sahib by

s. Manmohan Singh, VoL 1· 8, 1969, Reproduced with permission of
Dr. Gmdarsh an Singh Thind. Ballwin, Missour~ U.S.A.,

\Il3lO5" II man comes to have the knowledge of
the continents", the worlds" aDd
flUT-t!ltP". y;ft»{i" »8 <loIl'l»fj 8"»!i"
,,1 ~ 5 Hit!1 D
the nether regions",
"!!~ ilfu" ;r; ~" By hearing the Lord's Name death" ile ~ ?iT}{ "&' ~ ClilO ~T }fa" lIil'i'il (~
Ci(TF.i" i I (';1(';0: gar:p" cannot" (torment) or (touch)88 the "'''''' i'itii' ~) tlT (~ mii" i'itii~ BiJI) R<l't!l" 1
lRl" ~"II mortal. 0 Nanak! the devotees" 5 0"'" ! l>!Qil'Ol1" iJHB1"~" H'~ <101
ever" enjoy happiness".
"!!~~.. 'I.f11.l" Cf! By hearkening to the Master's Name filEQ -e <'i'H ~ ~ qoc ,">,iTil TOlE,," "3
C>TR" II ~ II sorrow"and sin" meet with destrue- <mIf8" 3a'<J" el ~-e <10 1

"!!fm l!ll!~" 'aaW" By hearing the Lord 's Name the

f~<!" II status of god of dealh", god of crea- ~ -e m" »8 Hi'iJ -e ~«3" t!1 tR<'1
tion!J8 and god of rain 99 is obtained. lIil'U3 5 "",1 D 1
"!!f~ ~ftjl00 l'1HI<Jc' By hearing God's Name even the O>! '" ?iT}{ ~ ~l>fTilT
}i~3 II l
evil come to sing Lord'5 2 praises ';[;:rIGO 0"5 R~l ,,1 fRG3'
wilh their mouth 'Oo,
"!!~ ~aJ' FOIf3' By hearing God's Name the mort~1

:3f;r;' ~~' II understands the waysS of unit ing-twil h

the Lord and Ihe body's' s~e rct s ',

By hearingt he Lord's Name the know- H'8Q' ~ 'ii I}! ~ ~ ~ i!;:ri <:11 QTCHOl
~<!" II ledge of the four religious books lO
, ~IO • .: ~ rt!'>f i ~'»8 fBTel ~1l'1
six schools of philosophY'and twenty- lIH3l;i' t!l fuT'>f8 ~O'\B j Hit!1 D 1
seven ceremonial treatises'is acquired .
",. ....
(;1(')Ol :9c!l3T" lRT" Evert,: blissful 13 are the saints ll , 0
kaJ~"1I Nanak.
l!fm "i:'\:j" '\.11'1-1" Cf! By hearing the Lord's Name diseasel' fJ'>fTHT ~ ?iT}{ ~ ~ 0iiR'-~0' El,~cl"
- II':
OT!!1O = II and wickedness" are wiped to off. '3 Q!?il(J IS ~ ~ ;:tt-elG CJ75' I

"!!tm lit' -R3~" By hearkening to the Lord's Name wfut! ~ ?iT}{ ~ Ril~ ' qilC_~T ~",
truthfulness", contentment18 and
Divine knowledge" are obtained.
fi ~T '>IO'<JC" ~
reH(W;" II
By hearing the Lord's Name the fruit
of the ablution" at sixty-eight" bolies
lff t! ?iT}{

3lilW ~ iT~" t!'

F!O'1c ClilO
:<:5 l1O'\B 5 tlT'" D 1 ..
. d
, •• +++ ... .,.. ............"1......P+++++++++ ... "•• ++++++++++;p.++.+++++++4· • ., . . . . . , ••• +++............. J

Bibi Bhani's name is a byword in the Punjab for humility , service and devotion . She was the daughter of Guru
Amar Das and was married to Guru Ram Das (1534.81 ). Her son, Guru Arjun, became: Fifth Guru, or prophet-
teacher of the Sikhs. History rc:: cords man y beautiful stories of her deeds of humble service . Here she is seen servo
ing food to her father. Guru Amar Das.

'~: ::=.:- ~y~~:,~~y;:~.~~:~~~u. =:~.

.'-.' ,

Mata Sulakhani is remembered in history as. a woman of deep faith and piety. Here she is seen seeking the bless-
ing of Guru Hargobind (1595-1644). She was childless. She implored the Guru saying "you decided my fate be-
fore I was born ; you alone can re-write it." She receivl!d the blessings of Guru Hargobind and had seven children
who sacrificed th~ir lives for the cause which she acc~pted with faith and resignation.

Mata. Gujari was the mother of Guru Gobind Singh and widow of Guru Tegh Bahadur. The Guru laid down his
life 300 yeau ago, in 1675. in defence of faith and was called Hind di Chadar (Protector of the: Honour of India).
:'\.Ja13 Gujari was detained in a tow!::r at Sirhind with her two mjnor grandchildren, Zorawar Singh and Fatch Singh
aged 9 and. 7. On their refusal to give up their faith, these grandsons of Mala Gujari were, under the orders of the
~Iu g hal ,\tovern a r, bricked alive and subsequ e ntly exe cuu:d . This happened on December 12, 1705 . The news
pro ved a Caui shock for Mata Gujari.

", '~:T~~j7''' ~'-::'~::-;-'''': ":7:-

',<I " "'",


Guru Gobind Singh recited the !acted hymns and churned the holy amrit at Anandpur Sahib on March 30, 1699,
as ht: prt:pared to initiate the Khalsa. His wift: Mata Sahib Kaur, poured sugar·puffs into tht: vt:ssel. By this gt:sture
she symbolized the modesty and sweetness which were to bt'! two oC the essential traits of the martial order oC the
Khalsa. Mata Sahib Kaur was designatt:d by Guru Gobind Singh the motht'!r of the Panth and she guided
from Ddhi its affairs aIter the Guru's passing away, at Nander. on October 7. 1708.

\ \

\ \
Great people
\. to fly with

\ ... ,


T~e foll0w?lg r~sol-!ltion was, passed by the COJ]- generous hospitality they have extended to us.
greganon of ~ikh Pilgnms from U.S.A. and Cana'c)a
on November 17, 1975 in Pakistan. The resolution "We are very pleased to see that the Paki!;tan
was' approved with tremendous ertth\lSiasm aIld hail- Government. has made evc:,¥ effort to maintain Sikh
¢d Widely. Sheikh Rashid Ahmed, Deputy Le;uier GurdawllIas m gooe! condltwn. However the lack of
of the' PPP of the National Assembly and Minister perservence strictly in accQrdance with the Sikh faith,
of Food & Agricuhure ,of Pakistan was present in which ·can only be possible by perSons belonging to
the Congregation and was receptive to the contents Sikh .faith, was felt_,
of the resolution. It .is 'therefore resolved to request f .akist3.!). Gov-
The Sikh Pilgrimage delegation from Am¢rica and ernment to constitute a committee of devoted Sikhs
eaRada profoundly appreciates the good will shown fr~m Af~hanistan,. ~ID:edca, Bagdad, Bangkok,. B~t­
by Paltistan Government in making it possible for us t,a,m, Malay\!, , Phllippmes and Europ.e, to ~amtam
to visit Panja Sahi~, Dehra, Sahib and ~ankana S!lhib. and look after the Sikh Gurdilw.\lfas m Pakistan, so
We would further like to expres.S our .smcere gratitude that the proper servjces in the Gurdav,:-ai'aS are pre-
to the people of POO.Stan for the waim welcome: and formed in accordance with !hI! true Sikh traditions."
September 4, 1975 Chailigaili
25th Septj:Jllber, 19"1S
The Sikh Foundation
Po O. Box- 737
R~t!wood City, My Dear Kapany ji,
GaIifomia 94064
.I have· received a letter [rolI! S. Ganga 'Singh DhU-
Dear President, Ion along With the hand-out which.he has sent to me.
I have noticed from there under your signatures a
S.SA. Thank you for your letter and brochure personal invitation. This is a very good venture and
about the pilgrimage to Nankana Sahib which i re- will enlighten the persons viSiting the~ ,shrines. I
ceived after coming back from London. assure you my full cooperation during your stay in
It is really a matter ofgreat that th.e Sikh.
Foundation has been arranging tp guide a party of Please let ·me know wilat I can d.o here for the
pilgrims 'to Nankan<i S.ahib. ' I have also decided to convenience·of the members of the Party.
appro.ach some of my friends. and relatives to give
the information sent by you. With RegardS,

!, therefore, request you: to give me more ihfor- U meao 'SiI\gh

mation. about the Sikh F oundarion, which is nOt much .
known in the East: Coast. I ho~e you wiU not niis- R!!Yenue & E.lecPim Mihister
underSrand me' ,and sejld m'e the information. r will Punjab (India)
be in touch with y,ou-

Yours Sincerely,

Sardar Sujan Singh.,

cIa A. Bose
P. O. Box 121
New York 11~S2'


English Punjabi
by Profess!)r Kmar Sihgh & Gurdi;U Singh Chil. 1. Ura Aim .. . .... .. _. , .. . .. _...... , Rs. 1.50
lon_ Price: Rs. 4_00, 4.00, 4.00,4.50;.5.00,5.00 2. Akbar Bodh .......... ... _......... Rs. 1.50
ind Rs. 6.00 3.. Bal Bodh ............ , . • _._ ..• _ . ... Rs. 1.50
Z. STORY OF GURU. NANAK-by M.aJa Sihgh. 4. 1:amakTo.on .... _ ... , _.. _" _ ...... Rs. 150
Price: Rs. 10.00
Ayailable from:
E1I1S Patel Road, New Dellii 110008
The first two books ·are available from MIs Inter Cul-
Me Associates, Box 277', Thompson, Connecticut
06277, U.S.A.

Sansar Communications
SECOND GURMAT CAMP - In memory of the Guru's 'marryrdom, Guru
A CALL FOR APPLICATIONS Tegh Bahadur Tercentenary Memorial Trust has been
founded under the presidentship of Gurdial Singh
The next Gurmat Camp is scheduled to be held at
Cowan, Pennsylvania on December 25-28, 1975. The Dhillon (Speaker of the Indian P~liament~ _ Ot~er
members ot the Trust are: Karan Smgb (lodian Min-
enthusiasm for the first camp held in March, 1975, at ister of Health), M. J. Choudhary (Governor of Pun-
Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, prompted undertaking of jab, India), Giani Zai! Singh (Chief Minister of Pun- .
the second camp. The camp program will" consist of jab), Gurcharan Singh Tohra (President Shromni
rising at 4 a.m. for meditation, nitnem, kirtlln, gur- Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee), Harminder Sinj:h
bani villkhill and ordas which is followed by a salu- (Maharaja of Patiala), Surjit Singh Majitha (Chief
tation to the Sikh flag. Rest of the day is filled with Khalsa Diwan) , Inderjit Singh (Cliairman, Punjab &
discourses and discussions 01) Sikh theolow and Sindh Bank), Rajinder Singh Bhatia (Editor, Qaumi
Sikh history . In between discussions, exercises for Ekta).
relaxation and various outdoor games are scheduled.
Contemporary problems will be discussed at evening 10 order to observe the Tercentenary, a Guru
campfire. If a sufficient number of children are sign- Tegh Bahadur Tercentenary Memorial Society has
ed up a separate program for children will be arrang- been founded. The enrollment of the members of
ed. Sardar !ndermohan Singh of Stampford and Sard- the society is iI! progress. Every devotee is urged to
ami Rajinderjit Kaur of Long Island are working on become a member so that all can contribute for a
the children program. mote meaningful observance of this occasion. The
The Gurmat Camps are sponsored by the Sikh society has formed a committee under the chairman-
Foundation under the management of a camp com- ship of Giani .Zail Singh to stimulate as well as assist
mittee (composition given below). For 1976 three in efforts undertaken to organize the cdebt:ations
camps are scheduled, a spring camp in Pennsylvania, everywhere. Other members of this committee are:
a summer camp in New England , and a winter camp Charah Singh (U tter Perdesh Cabinet Minister) ,
in California. In 1977 also there will be three camps, Sohanpal Singh (West Bengal Cabinet Minister), H.
a spring camp in Pennsylvania, a fall camp in Penn- Singh Chatta (Haryana Cabinet Minister), Rangil
sylvania and a winter camp in California . . . All Singh Oammu & Kashmir Cabinet Minister), Gurcha-
those interested are urged to send their fee of $21 ran Singh {Punjabi University Patiala), Bhag Singh
per head as so,?n as possible. Children not requiring (Editor, Sikh Review) , Makhan Singh of Iran, P.L.
separate bed Will pay only $16. The cheque shotild Anand of Malysia, and Harbans Lal of U.S.A.
be issued in the name of Tbe Sikh F oundanon - send
to any member of the camp committee. Detailed The above .society has resolved to observe the
instructions will be mailed directly to tbose who whole year as a year of observance, beginnin.g from.
apply. Address all inquiries to the camp committee, December 1, 1975 to end on Novem.ber 30, 1976.
as given below: Tbe main theme of the celebration will be 'Inter-re-
Harbans Lal, 38 Helme Road, Kingston, R.I. ligious omity and understanding' as preached by Guru
02881 (401-789-7016) Tegh Bahadur. The Government of India would pro-
Inderjit Singh, 47 Pen Place, New Roche.Ile duce a movie on the life of. Guru Tegh Babadur in
10804 (916-632-4646) all of the 14 Indian national languages and release a
Balwant Singh, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 17837 commemorative postage stamp to mark this occasion.
(717-524-7519) An album of two long pl~y~g records ?f the s~abads
.janmeja Singh, 1365 Summit Road, Berkeley, of Guru Tegh Bahadur IS In preparanon. It IS also
California 94708 (415-548-1261) being considered to send a cultural delegation to dif-
ferent parts of the world to present the Guru's teach-
TERCENTENARY OF GURU TEGH BAHADUR ings before people. It is hoped that there will be ail
Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621-1675 A.D.), the overwhelming effort by the devoutees everywhere to
nineth Nanak as we call him, was a world teacher and organize congregations, kirtan darbars, study circles,
prophet who guided his followers to discover seq-ets discussion groups, and extensive reacling seSSlons. For
of spiritual life so that they can attain God conscious- any assistance one can contact any of the members
ness. He travelled extensively to spread his message of the Celebration Committee or directly to The
which he composed in poetry to the tune of 15 rogqs. Honorary General Secretary Sri Guru Teg Bahadur
On December 7, 1675 he was beheaded by the order Tercentenary Memorial Society clo Sheikhupua
of Aurangzeb for espousing the cause of religious House, one Purana Qila, New Delhi 11000, Inaia.
freedom so that all nations and countries would enjoy
full freedom of thought aI!d worship. (Dr. Harbans Lal, 38 Helme Rd., Kingston, R.I. 02881)

Sansar Communications

The above Society was formed in. 1960 and soon 9) The running ef il Sunday School in the Cen-
after s.t arted the Sikh Courier quarterly in English; a tral Sikh Tempk every Sunday evening for
religious lllld academic ma~azine devoted to the cause teaching,Punjabi and the Sikh religion and his-
of the Sikh religion and hIStOry, and also for tory to children. .
ative study of different religions. 10) Distributing free literature in English on the
The activities include the following:- Sikh faith overseas.
1) Publication of the Sikh Courier quarterly. 11) Participating in the activities of the World
2) Publishin~ several pamphlets in English op Congfess of Faiths, who organise inter-faith
Sikh religIOn and SiKh hlstpry. services. Some of olir workers are oil their
3) Organising services in English in the Central Executive Committee. .
Sikh Terriple on the rrrst Sunday of every t2) We prepare a list of all the Sikh Temples and
month since 1962 without exception. Quite a Associations in the whole of the· U.K. every
few Europeans turn up at this service, which year "nd print a booklet form for free distn-
is cQnducted entirely in English. The order of blino!'. This haS been done for the 1m
service arid the hymns for the c'onclusion of several years.
the service are' duly pnnted in English and 'are 13) We have been actively associated with almost
distributed beforehand. all nO.n political but religious organisations of
4) An-anginl' lectures by Sikh speakers on Sikh th~Sikh community both in this 'c ountry and
reli~ion In different places ~mong tl}e British in India.
aualence. 14) Some of out members are on the Executive
5) Distributing free literature in English on Sikh or Advisory Committees of the un'iii2d Na-
religion among llritish schools, colleges, Uni- tiorrs Association, The World Conference on
versities, libraries and other organisations. Religion ana Peace, Religious Education
Every week there are abo\lt 10·15 reques!s for Coullcil and Inner London Education Author-
literature. ity etc. ' .
6) Answering several letters every week from 15) We solicit liberal donations. You could also
Europeans seeking information on Sikh re- p~l:' for the. printing expenses of any pam~hlet
ligion. Some of them have embraced the Sikh WIlli your name and adelress for free distri"
religion and_some haye :t,lso been baptised. bution.
7) We maintain a libtarv for lending books in 16) You could become Life Member of The Sikh
English on the Sikh religion. Courier b,!, pavin~ $25 :00 and a Patton at
8) We have " als,? arrangements to supply new $lO.OO (nuntmum) per month.
beoks on Sikh religion in )<:nglish. (A. S. Chhatwal- Secretary)
Quarterly - Established 1960


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Sansar Communications

A HEIGHT OF INGRATITUDE AND DELIBERATE taken to represent Rani Jhansi Regiment which was a
DISCRIMINATION TOWARDS SIKH SOLDIERS small part of INA by showing a woman , the major
OF INDIAN NATIONAL ARMY (INA) role of Sikhs wbo represented 2/3 rds of the total
A Statue of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose with strength of INA as soldiers and officers, has been
Three Soldiers from INDIAN NATIONAL ARMY has completely ignored by not representing a Sikh Sold-
been unvieled by Vice President, Mr. B. D. Jatti in ier with turban and beard. We feel badly hurt from
Edward Park (now Subhash Park) opposite Redfort this sort of discrimination with a deliberate attempt
on 23rd January 1975 . In this Statue three Soldiers to ignore the part played by the brave Sikh Commun-
have been shown in which two are men with hats and ity in the Indian National Army. .
one is a woman representing Rani Jhansi Regiment We strongly condemn this omission on the part of
alongwith Netaji. It is a historical fact that the the organisers and the Government who have spon-
founder of INA was General Mohan Singh, a Sikh and sored the installation of the INCOMPLETE Statue at
also that about 28,000 out of total 42,000 Soldiers of such an important place and recommend tbat it will
Indian National Army under Subhash Chandra Bose still be in fitness of things to amend the omission by
were Sikhs. Whereas, the Sikhs have played a very including Sikh Soldier in this statue.
vital role in INA as weB as in the entire treedom fight, All India Sikh Students' Federation
it is very painful to note tht where care has been Bhopal Circle


Balbir Kaur made the supreme sacrifice at Jaitu. She joined the batch of volunteers to defy the British
authority and face raining bullets. When her infant child on her lap was hit by a bullet, she resignedly laid
him by on the wayside and marched along with the column., absorbed in singing the praises of the Lord.
Minutes later she herself fell to a shot from the machine-gun which had killed so many on that fateful day
(February 21. 1924).

Fierce: persecution terroz-izc:d the Punjab during the governorship of ~tir ~lannu (1748- 1753). Sikhs' heads sold for money and
severed skulls brought rewards from the:: government. At that lime Sikh women, along with their children. were captured from
their homes and gaoled in cells in Lahore where now sta.nds Gurdwar3 Shahidganj. As the Sikhs recall in their dailyArdas,
these noble women ground corn, each a maund and ;i quuter daily . They were fu rced to wear round their necks wreaths
made of the flesh of their slain children. They were given only a piece of bread each to live on;and yet lhey forsook not theif faith


Maj Bhago symbo[jzcd in her person the virtues of chastity , faith and courage. Her blood boiled at the pusillanimity of those:
who, dishe:artened by the ravages of a prolonged siege, disclaimed Guru Gobind Singh at Anandpur and returned to their
homes. Mai Bhago charged them with cowardice and lack of faith and led them back to battle with the armies of Wazir
Khan of Sirhind at Khidrana, now Muktsar. She herself fought with valour and redeemed the faithless . The forty deserters,
who lay dead on the: ground, were blessed by the Guru as Forty Immortals (Muktas). The spear Mai Bhago uscd in the battle
is still preserved with revc:rnc:ce at Sri Hazar Sahib.

Dr. Kancbanmoy Mojumdar. Bolangir

After annexing the Punjab, the British incarcer- The Resident, Lt. --Col. Geor,ge Ramsay, discredit-
ated Maharani lind Kaur,! Maharaja Ranjit Singh's ed ~he story; he entertained no misgivings about the
widow, in Banaras, whence, after the interception of sincere efforts of the purbar for the safe custody of
some suspicious letters written by her to Sardars the RanL 1t was patent; bowever, that the strictest
Chattar SlOgh and Sher Singh in the Punjab, she was surveillance notwithstanding, the Rani could, with
taken to the foft of Chunar.2 ease, correspond with her followers in India, particul-
In April, 1849, due to the <tarelessness 3 of the arly during the Shiva-Rani festival, when thousands
fort authorities, the Rani escaped to Nepal. 4 The of lnruans went freely to Nepal as merchants and
Rani's flight, particularly when the British rule had mendicants. B The ~ersonal remonstrance of the Act-
not been firmly entrenched in the P'unjab, caused the ing Prime Minister, G.eneral Bam Bahadur, with the
British mu ch uneasiness. An inveterate enemy of the Rani elici~e.d n.othing beyon.d a. stron,lb disavowal 'of
British, her restless disposition an~ intriguing pro- her comphelty 10 the 'aIleged mtngues.
pensities, were matters, of concern; I,.t was feared that
her influence stiIl worked in the Punjab and, her name Plan to Escape
stin cast a spell there. 5
The Rani's plans, however, did not abate. In th~
Political Asylum Granted middle of 1852, a new plan came to light, its c:>bject
being to facilitate the Rani's escape to' Kashmir with
As, soon as, she reached Nepal, Jind Kaur sought the help of Gulab Singh, !he ruler of Jammu and
politi'cal asylum ?f the. Nepalese Goyetnmen.t. Her re- Kashmir, and with the connivance of lang Bahadur
quest was comphed wlthbv' the Pnme Mmmcr, Jang himself. Some dismissed servants from the Rani's
Bahadur. THe British Government did not demand establishment deposed befo~e the Resident that
the Rani's extradition, but, instead it committed the letters had been exchanged between the three accom-
safe custody of her person to' the care of the Nepalese plices via Palpa, Butwal, and Hardwar , and that the
Government. Jang Bahadur was sternly warned that middle of July had been fixed as the time for tlie
his State would be held responsible if the Rani escap- Rani 's escape. " lang Bahadur, when pressed for an
ed, and if she abused her asylum in Nepal for spinning explanation admitted that female relatives of
designs against the British. lang Bahadur undertook the late Heera Singh, a brother of the Rani, and a
to keep the Rani under strict surveillance, so that she
"prime favourite." of the late Maharaj,a Ranjit Sin!jh,
would not be able to communicate with anybody in had recently arnved and lodged at Kathmandu. 2
The Rani was accommodated in a magnificent
palace close, to Jang Bahadur's own residence at Tha- Resident KeepS Close Watch
path ali. An annual subsidy of Rs. 14,000 was settled
on, an amount she always moaned as being too
paltry for her august state. 6 The Resident maintained a close watch, altbough
The British Resident made no bones a:bout the it appeared to him unlikely that lang Bahadur would
matter that the Rani should be treated 'as a prisoner actively help the Rani to escape in wanton violation
in Nepal, and the less she appeared in public the of his pledge to t)le British Gove!'IlIJlent. T.bere was,
better. Consequently, the Resid~t always discour- nevertbeles~, a lurking fear that "wete he (J ang Baha-
aged the Rani's apfearance in public, particularly in dur), inclined to do so, it would be easy for him to
the open Durbar. conceal the fact." 13 The Board of Administration,
Punjab, was asked to probe into the matter with part-
Restrictions Inadequate icular reference to Golab Singh's aIleged complicity.
The restrictions imposed by the Nepalese Govern- The Board dismissed the aIlegat;ion as baseless, for
ment proved toO inadequate, for the Rani, true to ... "however hostile might be the intentions of Ma-
appJ:ehensions or the British, began to negotiate with ' o.lab Singh) ~e is mosht uMnlikhely to di~a~
harhaja (Gtbi
her people in India with a view to ,escaping from sue a ng as brmgmg up t e a aranee.
!,/epaJ. It was report~d by the ~eside~t. that she was
10 correspondence With some S.lkb pnSlOners In' the It appeared to the Board more proba)lIe that the
AIlahabad fort, and that SOII)e Sikh Sardars had made Rani was seeking t? prop up infl!1en~e m. Nepal )ly
abortive attempts to sneak into Nepal through the creating a make-believe of Golab SlOgh s aJliance WIth
Chheesapani fort. her.

Golab Singh Suspect Sikh EmiSsary's Mission

The Commander-in-<:hief, sir Charles Napier, . During the Revolt of 1857? Jin~ K!1ur's presence
could not agree with the Board's views. He always m Nepal assumed added politIcal Significance. The
suspected Golab Singh's disposition and held him to ~~l.~ese Government kept a close watch on her, part-
be a dangerous power, partlcularly if he incited the i Iy when it was strongly suspected that the rebels
,Nepalese to rise against the British. A league of were trying to win her over to their side. A Si~h
Golab Singh and J ang Bahadur was "the greatest ex- emissary, Hukum Singh, went to Butwal in, the Nep-
ternal danger we have to apprehend, and· if it comes alese Tara! with the Khareetas from the King of Delhi
the Indian Army will need all the courage of the to the Rani .and Jang Bahadur. In a Hukumnamah,
troops and all the skill of their leaders", he warned. 15 the King of Delhi asked all the Nawabs, Raj"as,
Nazims, and Chutkladars in the territories between
Nepal and Lucknow and Lahore to rise against the
DanlOusie More Confident BritiSh. In an Arzee to the Rani, Hukum Singh
sought her help to enable him to reach Kathmandu
However, the Govemor' General, Lord Dalhousie , from Butwal, whete the Nepalese Polie!! had held hin1
was less panicky. He shrugged the matter off as a tale up. J ang Bahadur sent soldiers to seize him, but the
quite unwqrthy of credit. HI! had no doubt "that the latter managed to escape witb the Khareetas. 21
whole thihg is a fiction" for it is a series of impro-
babilities from first to last." 1 6 It W;lS as much Anglo-Nepalese Reilltions Strained
improbable that Jang Bahadur would risk the certain
displeasure of the British Government by actively in~ Towards the close of 1858, when the relations of
rriguing with the Rani as. it was unlikely. that the the BritiSh with J ang Bahadur were strained on the
latter would se~k asylum . in Golab Singh's State, "a score of the latter's lukewarmness about the seizure
nomriously subservient ally" of the British. More- of the fugitive rebels in' Nepalese territory 22, there
over, Golab Singh could hardly be blind t9 the fact were grounds to .suspect the existence of some plans
that it would i11 ·accord with his owu jnterest m "grat- calculated to facilitate the Rani's escape. Letters
uitously make an enemy" of the British by with fictitious names were intercepted; they were
.harbouring theit "bitterest enemy". 17 suspected tp ha,'e beel) addressed by the Rani to Ra:ja
Ranbeer Singh, the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir. It
was planned .that Ranpeer Singh would march on
Simla some tim.e in December. It was designed as a
Rani'sRlft with Jang Bahadur part of a l;u:ge"scale military movement against the
British, with Babu Kqer Singh of Bihar, Umr Singh,
Nevertheless; suspicion lurked in the wings. It the Begum of Oudh, Benee Madho, Devi Singh, Mahdi
W;lS ascertained that for some time past J angBali.a- Hossain, and Nana Sahib as its active coadjutors.
dut's relations with the Rani had been strained, and An anonymous letter believe4 to have been writ-
that the rift between >hem was widening. J ang Baha- ten by the Rani to one Chart Singh, of AmritSar,
dur coveted. the Rani'.$ magnificient palace and her carried the further information that Jang 13ahadur
tr,easures. The Rani in her tUtn was growing fidgery would march down in December through Chi dang,
over the inadequate subsidy given to her by the and that his brothers would do so through DarjeeJing
Nepalese Government. She was openly disrespectful and Pama. 23
in her dealings with the Minister, adding to the
latter's annoyance. J ang Bahadut was <:ager to get rid Si"gns of Conspiracy
of her; he had even hinted to the Resident that if the
Rani managed to escape, Nepal would not receive her All these pieces of intelligence ,smacked of a deep-
back. 18 It was, hence, not unlikely that Jang Baha- laid conspiracy of Jang Bahadur, the Rani, and the
dur would wink at her attemp1;S to escape; he might rebels to launch an all-out offensive against the
have even encouraged her to escape · with the fond Btit.ish. Re's ident Ramsay, then at Allahabad, opined
hope of catching and delivering her up to the ~ritish . that since Jang Bahadur was ill at ease with the
Thl; done, he would occupy her palace and seIZe her British,,24 it was very probable that he was in covert
treasures; besides, his Government would also be league with the rebels 'and the ruler of Jammu and
spared the annual expense incurred on her account. 19 Kashmir to grind some political axe It was, hence,
Jang 'Bahadur was strongly warned by the Resident politic 1:0 !;oft-pedal the Nepalese. 25 In fact , for
not to entertain such illusqry schemes, or else he some time emissaries ftom Jammu and Kashmir had
would incur thl' British Government's h·bstiliry. He been frequenting the Rani's palace not without the
was flointedly asked to prevent comm;mications be- knowledge and connivance of Jang Bahadur. Thus, in
tween the Rani and her relatives in India through March 1856 and December 1858, it was reported to
messengers, or missives. 20 the Residen.! by his informers that J awahir Singh, a

brother-in-law of the late Maharaja Kharak Singh and ter. The British Government now felt that the Rani
an employee of Raja Golab Singh, went to Kath- posed no .great danger for them, and that she was in-
mandu ·and stayed with the Rani, although J ang Bah Gapable of any great mischief.
Bahadur disclaimed any knowledge of the matter.2 8 Goes to Calcutta to Meet Son
Rani's Despair Towards the close of 1860, the Rani's son, Maha-
As the days wore on, the· Rani's hope to escape r~a Dalip Singh re.t urned from London to Calcutta,
grew dimmer; so did the fire of her implacable 2 The British Government then permitted the Rani
enmity towards the British. Prolonged incarceration to go down to Calcutta and settle in India on the ex-
had told on her health; lack of adequate provisions press undertaking that she would not take up her
for. maintenance made her worried; repeated tallures residence, ot visit any part of the province of Bengal
of her schemes to escape made her wholly dispirited. west of Monghyr, and that she would keep the Gov-
She stayed on a Kathmandu, ruJferlng a listless exis- ernment informed of her programme, her movements,
tence, in drudgery and depression, forlorn, destitute and her retinue. It was decided to provide her with a
of hope, and resigned to a fate , gloomy and uncer- subsidy of Rs. 30,000. The Rani ~ccepted the offer,
tain. to the great relief of Jang Bahadur. 29
Relations. with Jang Bahadur Worsen Before .setting out from Kathmandu, on 16th Jan-
uary, 1861, the Rani divulged some secrets to the
Her relations with J ang Bahadur worsened corres- Resident, to the effect that Jang Bahadur was intrigu-
pondiIlg with the increase in her irritable spirit. J ang in~ with the Sikhs at Lahore: and Kashmir. But the
Bahadur, too, grew impatient about her ; he made BntiSh Government took no official notice of these
many requests to the Resident to induce the Rani to inCriminating allegations, for fear that a probe in the
quit Nepal on the false pledge of a suitable pension in matter would create much unpleasanmess between
India ; 27 the sooner she could be got rid of the bet- the Governments of Nepal and India. 30
1. ~Iaha..r.uii Jindi Kaur is repn:scntc=d in tht Consultations · 18. S.C., 25 Jun. 1852, 137.
used here as Maharani Chanda Kaur, aoviously a miuspcU. L9. Gove"mor-Gtneral's Minute, 1852, S.C., 25 June 1852.
ing and mispronunciation. There was another lady by the 138.
name of (I\laharani) Chand Kaur. wife or Manaraja Kharak 20. S.C., 29 October 1852, 109; P.C., 5 May 1854,36·8
Singh, who suec"ceded Mahara.ja Ranjit Singh. To avoid 21. S.C•• 27 November 1857, "*48-53..
confusion we have UStd the cornet name Jind Kaur. 22. P.C .• 30 De.c ctnbet 1859. 995: 22 April 1859 , 197-8 ; 13
2. FOTl!ign Secru COffSlIlrQrio ns (S.C.). 2 5 ~tay 1849 , 108 ~I.y 1859. 32 3 : S.C.• 30 D«ember 1859 . 5"58·68 .
3. Governor-General's Minute, 24 April 1849. S.C.• 26 May 23. P.C., 30 December 1859, 1044-52.
1849 , 115 ; The Friend of Indi. (Scr.uDpore,) 3 May 1849. 24 . Relations between Jang Sahadur and the British wert
4. S.C., 26 May 1849, 115 stn.incd on thc scort of the Iugitive rroels harboured in
5. Ibid .. ~1inutC' of the Governor-General. 24 April 1849 Nepal. the behaviour of Rdident R:a:msay whom Jang
6. Command",; Kitllb Knantl, IV/z"mDt; Ph""l. Kathmandu. Bahadur want~d to expel from Nepal and certain eCOnom-
Register Cor 1908, 1909 , 1911 (Vlk.rllm SamlllllJ. ic issues, such as the harassment of the Indian merchants
7. S.C., 22 Marcb 1850, -108 . at Kathmandu.
8. S.C., 27 December 1850 , 15·-7. 25. ~.a. rupture with Nepal just now would certainly be acc-
9, Jang Babadue was away in England at this timc~ K. Dixit. ompanied by a movement in Kashmcre, ;and that would
Edi tor, Janl Bllhllduf Ko ViiaYllt Yalra (N~p(JlI. Kath- creale exci,J,cmenl perhaps morc in the Punjab. to say
mandu. 201.4) . nOlhing of the effect of such an outbrc.ak. in the whole: of
10. S.C., 27 September 1850, \5 -7. these 4QtriclS (of N. W. Pro,v ince) Ramsay to Govern.
II. S.C .• 25 June 1852" 13-1. ment. 3 July 1858. S.C., 25 February 1859,28 .
12. Substance: of a con:vcr~t,ion betwecn Jang Bahadur and 26. P.C.• 19 S<ptembcr 1856.6: 3.1 D«embcr 1858,4572·5,
the Resident about Labore'Rani·, S.C., 25 June 1852, 137 . 27 . Jang Bahadur -told the' Resient, "You wold make the pro.
Hccra Singh bad died at Kanpur about two ynrs carlier. mise to hel and when you have got her down to S'c gowlee
~Di Rup KUDwar. hi. wife, went to Kathmandu and lived have her srized and put i n iron. and send her away where
there with. monthly subsidy of Rs. 100 scttlcd on her by you please-; put her into jail or keep her in the Cort of Alla·
the Nepal Government. Foreun Politicltl COlllulllltions habad." Resident to Government, 26 August 185'6 , P.C.,
(P.C.) 5 May 1854,36-8 19 September 1656, 6.
13. Resident (Ramsay) to Government, 10 May 1852, S.C., "The Durbar is molt anxious to get rid of her. partly on
25 JUDe 1852,134 the score oJ expense and partly because she occasionaUy
14. Secretary to Board of Administration, Punjab to Govern- gives a little trouble." Ibid; Fo,iign PolificaJ , A (F .P·A).
ment, 25 May 1852, Same to Government and Resident, Noyem'ber 1860. 317.
25 Jun. 1852 , 140-\. 28. From London Dalip Singh wrote to his mother to request
1.5. Napier's Memoir on tht Defence of Jndia etc., Lt. Genen.l the Britisb Government to allow her to meet him in Lon·
Sir W. F.P. Napier. Editor: D'~ff!cu, Ci~lIafld Military of don. Dalip Singh was pc:rmitted to write to his mother
the Indian GOller"meltt By Sir Charles Napier, 364. freely and openly. P.C. t 19 September 1856, 6; Minute
16. G'o vernor-Gc.neral'.1 Minute, 18 M,ay 1852, S.C., 25 June oC the Governor·General, 13 Septembcr 1856, P.C .• 19
1852, 135.. September 1856, 8.
17. Ibid. 'J believe the Maharaja would as soon wish to Stt: 29. F.P·A, January 1861, 144·51 ; N~ptl1 Residency R~cords.
Ranjit Singh himself back. in Cashmere" u hi.s mischief Vol. 11.
making widow.' Ibid. 30. Ibid.


The next issue of The SIKH SANSAR March 1976 will featur~,
You -are invited t9 subm.i t l!I'ticies, n~ items; and other
ma:t~ p.erlln!:nt to. me sUbj eCL DeaCllihe.for manuscripts
is the 1St of Februaty. Kindly mail all material to:


Post Office Box 737
Redwood City;, Califomi!l9406~

In future The SIKJol SANS.M , plans to fcarore special subjects such I1,S

You are also invited to submit articles, news'items ;md other

lIlateriaipertinent to these' subjects. Pleasc:read car~ully the
"Insnitctions To Author-s'" inside back cover.

Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. '. ... .. . • . . , , .. . .. , , ...••.... , .•..

Amrita Shet'G!1' Her Life and Paintings. Richard Bartholomew . ... .. .

A View of an Artist - S. So/?hd Singh, Dr. R. K. janmeja.Singh . ..... , '

A H.istorian wiih a Brush - S. Kirpal.Singb; Prof N. D; Ahuja. , . , . , .. .

In Future Issues.of'TH.E SIKH SANSAR, . , .. , . .... ....... , . ...... .

Endowment Fund for THE SIKH SANSAR .... , ... ....•. , , ......•
Life: Mepiliq-s :o f "THE SIIffi.$A.N:SAA .. . .. ... ........... .... .. .
In the
Translation of Japji, Sa~dgt M¢n'lJoha.n Singh ...... .,., .. , .... , .. . .
issue Dr, N3rinqQ- Singh,Kapany, S'f;ientjst, ,4rti,st & An Entrepreneu.T "!'"

Sansar CommunicatioIiS ... , , . • .. , . . o •••••• •• •• ••• •••••••••• • ••

Sardami l'1'emka Kaur, .Los Angeles;

C. H.Loehlin, Yuba City: S.llari Singh ShergiU, Bombay;
Dr. I.J. Singh, New York: Secretary, All Ca,n~a: Sikh
Feder~tion, Vancouv.e r
Book Review, Sardar Ajaib Singh Siiibu , ... " ....... . ..... .. .. .

J..c.ners t6 th~ Edhor .. . . ".......... .... . .. . ..... ...... . , .,'

Our Journey to N"ankana Sahib " ! •• •• • , • • • • • • • • ., • • • " • • • •• • • •

AiShi - Contemporary Sikh Artist, Prof. .Harmandar Singh . ..•... , •• .

Materials fQr' thc:;Swdy of East Indian Histor-y
tn North..Amerka, BrUte !.iJ Brack
Announcing' the SECOND register of II
SIKHS IN THE U.SA & CANADA -1976 II Black ,nd Whi,-
REGISTER NOW .•. .l.. AST CALL I Passport type
I Portrait only I
regardless of age, sex or race I
This informatian wlH be induded in the new and complete I
Register of the Sikhs 1(1 The U.S.A.' & Caneda. Please' note I
th~t more than one member of a family (male or femalel may I
regilter. All registrants must fill the biographical data form. I
submit a nigh quality black and white passport size ph.orO" 1>-
graph and the mandatory registration f~. AllY prilvipusly I ..
submitted forfru or photos are no (o"ger valid. IZ
I ill Date Rtc8ived _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
lu a~imation Fl. Paid -"S'--_ _ _ _ __
i. NAME _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Iii:
1:5 Eli....""Y Pri.. Paid %S_ _ _ _ _ __
I ~ C;ommenu:
~ HqMEADDRESS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

], HOME PHONE _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ BUS. PHONE _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

4. O€CUPATION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

BUSINESSAOORESS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~


Write (0) for daughter
Or (S~ for son




I am enclosing check I "",onlY order for
$ few the follo wing :
10. AFFILIATIONS frlli~Q.Us•. cultural. prof.'u ional. o'!JIniZltiOnI REGISTRATION FEE .. , .•• . ..• . •'. • • $200
_ _COPies of The _RegiJter of Slkh$ in tM
u.s.A. & Can'" -
1976 ($3.00 {"Ir copy I . . ....
guSscriJ?t1on ,of' The Sikh s.",., (S6/year) . ~ _ _
SPECIAL SERVU;ES PERFORMED (un ex ,," .hae1J' If ~odl
rM S/klu & R~i,iOn ,
bv prof. G'anda Singh (SJ.50 p!f' copy) • •• _ __
Donation .••• •••••• • • . .• _. • . • . • . . .• _ __
TOTAL ....... .
12. I am pleased to Jupply the abo.. information to be.ineludid in
pIIrt or futl in the dir~ctory of Sikhs in U.S.A. and Canada and
would ~ haPf7Y to be p1ac;ed on the "...i1l"1 Un o.f The Sikh
Fo~ndation . I '\ ~ 11HE SIKH :~~ON I<P
'Po0 •.80. 737 - AedwoodClty. CaHfomialMO&'
~ji. liiii~lj·ten:'SIi;ij of Sikhs lhol- Ihey arl! 100 bus;/-mak/~i 'rhe;;'h&iory io reco~(fit;-~ With the exception
of'ii·";;.,:rir.':,;,~20f'd~di~ated sch~lars (such as Prof: Gonda Singh. Khushwant Singh;·eic.) ihis is unfor-
ru"dtely.t,ue:-pailicularly in North America. This situation need not continue for there is a significant ·
amount- of published maleriaL available for the researcher of Sikh history in Ihe United Siaies and Canada.
The 'difficulty is that such materiDls are scattered over a seventy year period. often to be found in obscure
journals or in special collections. In order to promote and facilitate research by Sikhs on Sikh history. the
Sikh Samar will reprint a series in successive issues that is perhaps the mosr extensive bibliography now
available on South Asian immigration to North America. Originally compiled and annotated by an anrhro-
poligist working among California Sikh communities. the bibliography has been expanded for SIK[I SANSAR
and a section added on archival resources. We hope that making such resources available will create an in-
terest in the history of Sikh immigration and setrlement in North America and stimulate further research.
The author and editor realize that this initial bibliographical effort is only a beginning. We encourage our
readers to bring to our arten/ion addirional citations of articles. b·ooks. and pamphlets which may hove been
overlooked_ We further urge anyone who knows of the existence or location of other types of historic mat-
erials (such as family histories. legal documents. co~respondence. diaries. photographs. tape recordings. etc.)
which could be made available for study and cataloging to colltact Sikh Sansar. In this way we can add to
our knowledge and understanding of Sikh history in North America and preserve Ihe story of our srruggles
and successes for future generations.
Chief Editor

South Asia Program - Syracuse- Univc:rsity

. . . . continu ed from previous issue 581. UCB- Social Science Library.
"United States vs. Bhagat Singh Thind, Decided In this short statement, Schibsby sympathetically
February 19, 1923," SUPREME COURT REPORT- notes the difficulties caused East Indians by the
ER. 43.:1~ (Aprill , 1923) , pp. 338-342. UCD. Sutherland decision of 1923, and concludes that,
ThIS IS the legal summary of the case in which "At the present time ... the Hindus have reason to
"Hindus" (the defendant was a Sikh) were declared feel more hopeful." The optimism was premature
ineligible for citizenship. - as rectifying legislation was not enacted until 1946.
Das, Taraknath. " Stateless Persons in the U.S .A_," "Race Discrimination in Naturalization," IOWA
CALCUTTA REVIEW. 16 :10uly 1925), pp. 40-46. LAW BULLETIN. 8(1928), pp. 129-161. UCB-
(Third series) UCB. Law Library.
The author provides an excellent short review of The legality and propriety of denyin~ naturali-
the specific acts which reduced many East Indians zation on the basis of "racial" classificauon (citing
and their American wives to the status of "stateless the Thind case) are questioned.
persons. " McGovney, D.O. "Naturalization of the Mixed
Chase, Raymond and S.G. Pandit. AN EXAMIN- Blood-A DiCtUm," CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW.
ATION OF THE OPINION OF THE SUPREME 2(May 1934), Pl" 377-391. UCD- Law Library.
COURT OF THE UNITED STATES DECIDING McGovney cnticizes the decision in U.S. vs.
AGAINST THE ELIGIBILITY OF HINDUS FOR Thind and the application of the "one-quarter in-
CITIZENSHIP. Los Angeles: privately printed (Pen- eligible blood" In naturalization classifications.
ker, Stone and Baird Co.), 1926. 18pp. UCB-Law Pandia, D.P. and MMe. Kamaladevi. "Justice for
Library. Hindus in America," THE CHRISTIAN CENTURY.
. This pamphlet discusses two key concepts of the 57(March 13, 1940), p. 357. UCB . .
Thmd Case (1923): first, the notion of "free white This is one of many "letters-to-the-editor" writ-
person" and ; second, the use of assimilability as a ten by East Indians abroad in suPl'0rt of the efforts
criterion of statutory race (p . 12), a:s well as' the of U.S . East Indians to abolish " alien land laws" and
assumed "will of Congress" for racial homogeneity ubarred zone" provisions, and, in some 'cases, restore
among American citizens. The authors conclude that citizenship and the right to naturalization. The
the Tfiind decision should be revised. authors contend that approximately fifty Hindus
Schibsby, Marian', "Hindus and A~erican Citizen- were being threatened with deportation at that time-
ship," in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL their only crime being entering the country illegally
(some as long as 20 years before). '
142 ; , . . continued in March issue
.." :.' ...
" ', ;
: ',
" .
Instructions to Authors
1. AU, matel'ialS to 'be submitted fol' publiatio.n
m SlItlJ&ANsi\R m)lstl be original ahd per-
tain. to. ·the fundamental ri:ligious precc.ptS,
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2. The material shnuldbctypc:written, double-
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3. Tbj: aniclc sbolild~> abQut fO.UI't9 tcit rype-
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. would - .. --. -'-for- se:rliI-
. .. be COnSidered ..
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describes in cnc:aps.ulat~ form the !!On~ts
iof thearticlc.
S•.lteference) to mja,n;riaJ qil which the' co~,
tents 0(- the anicle arc bascdshould· be in-
cluded to enable the reader to locate related
.~tcriaL rii; authors "sho.uiduke;Lj
~c; tIl see thal as ~I\Y pertinent plibliea-
tions as poSsible aJ;"C refm:nccd.
6~ If .a photograph is to be included in the man~
q(cript, tWO black al19 white g\q~ ptint§ of
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8~ Acceptance of the .manuscript will depend
lipon the. !it'i~aIil1. Cla(ity of nre~.h~tion.
and,s.m olady approach to the subject.
9, ,.\t this time Iio'Pl!ymcn~ is envjsaged for .t he
·material to. be published in SIKH. SANSAR.
1()." liuef biogrl!:phic:al skl:tch o;>f th~ atithpt
'and, list of hiS other publications should also
iH;' im;ltidcd.
11 . All the 'original material published in SIKH
SANSAR WiIi be cOpyrighted ;1(!!,col'liiAgiy.
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(or ~piinti"gc:Jsewhc;r~ .
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H. A)l iI\2.luiSt.riptS' (driginal and a CQPY), 'muS!!
he mailed to the Chief Edilor.S1KI;I SA-N-
SAlt. P;O. Hpx 737. Redwood Cit)!. Califor·
nla 940(14, U.S.A. .


Prof. Ganda Singh
The first authoratative publication in Ute U.S.A. covering
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