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Zafar Ali Abro

MPA QAU Islamabad

Facebook ID: Zafar Ali Abro (smart Abro)

Important bones of body

1. Vertebral column

These are 33 in numbers and vertebral column covers most

sensitive part of the nervous system

2. Clavicle

These are also known collar bones these are two bones
located the base of the neck and in front of the shoulders
3. Scapula

Two bones located at the top of back on each side, large, flat
and triangular in shape, also known as shoulder bones

4. Sternum

It is a centrally placed bone of thorax where ribs are

attached, long flat and soft bone, whose lower part is
composed of flexible mass also known as chest bon

5. Humerus

Is the bone of upper arm, very strong bone of upper

extremity it has three main parts 1- Shaft 2- upper head 3-
lower head

6. Ulna

It extend from elbow to wrist, a main bone of fore-arm

7. Femur
It is the bone of lower limbs, larger and stronger bone its
main function is to bear
The weight of body

8. Patella

Disk like bone act like a knee-cap and protects knee joints

9. Tibia

A bone of lower leg which is known as the calf –bone

It is second calf- bone fixed to the Tibla at both end

Zafar Ali abro

MPA QAU islamabad
Facebook ID: Zafar Ali Abro (smart Abro)
The muscular system of body
The muscle

Those organs of body, which are composed of contractile

tissue and possess the ability to contract, usually in response
to a stimulus from the nervous system , muscles consist of
small fiber, composed by threadlike protein known as
myofibril . Basic unit of muscle is myofibril.

Voluntary muscles

Those muscles which are under control and act at will. These
muscles produced voluntary movements by pulling against
the bone of skeleton, to which it attached by means of
Examples are biceps and Trapizius muscles
Involuntary muscles

Those muscles which do not come under conscious control

these are also called smooth muscles these muscles maintain
the movement of internal body system
Example cardiac muscle, found only in heart, cannot
fatigued and continues to contract rhythmically even when
disconnected from the nervous system

Types of muscles

1- Smooth muscle

These are involuntary muscles which are composed of

spindle –shaped cells each having a central nucleus. Also
known as unstriated muscles the smooth muscles are found
1 Internal organs
2 Reproductory organs
3 Organs of excertory system
4 Skin
Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscles are also known as striated muscle, also

called voluntary muscles, composed of long fibers
surrounded by membrane sheath Sarcotemona. The
movement of skeletal muscles is controlled by central nerves

Cardiac muscles

This muscle tissue composes most of the hearts of the

vertebrates; the cardiac muscle does not come under
voluntary control, only present in the heart