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3, MARCH 2015

Detection and Monitoring of Leakage Currents in

Power Transmission Insulators
Marcelo Martins Werneck, Daniel Moreira dos Santos, Cesar Cosenza de Carvalho,
Fábio Vieira Batista de Nazaré, and Regina Célia da Silva Barros Allil

Abstract— An optoelectronic sensor for real-time leakage on the insulator surface will dissolve with the water droplets
current monitoring on high-voltage (500 kV) and medium- and will provide an alternative path from high-voltage to
voltage (13.8 kV) power line insulators was developed. The leak- ground potential [1], [2]. Although these currents are around
age current drives an ultrabright light-emitting diode producing
an amplitude modulated light signal. The optically intensity- a few miliamperes, when multiplied by the total number of
encoded signal is coupled to a plastic optical fiber cable and insulators located in that particular transmission line, the total
transmitted from the high potential measurement point to the current can reach high values that can engage protection
remote unit in ground potential. After the demodulation, the devices, leading to electrical power line interruptions, thus
leakage current root mean square values are concentrated in a leading to financial and operational losses to distribution
data logger and sent to a remote station 150-km away by general
packet radio service technology. Field tests at real operational companies and unsatisfied customers.
conditions on coastal regions have been performed; all data Additionally, night dew or light rain increases the con-
collected are stored in a structured database, which can be ductance of the polluted layer leading to arcs. Depending
consulted from the Internet, while a serially produced head was on the conductivity of the layer, these arcs can develop and
developed and the sensor is ready for commercialization. Since cause what is known as a flashover, when the air around the
leakage current on high-voltage insulators depends on local air
pollution and microclimate changes, several sensors have to be insulator ionizes becoming a conductor, leading occasionally
used to cover the region monitored. For this reason, research has to the destruction of the whole insulator followed by outages.
been conducted to determine the sensor representativeness, i.e., In general, this phenomenon happens in the following stages:
the actual area, which can be covered by only one sensor. • Settling of pollutants on the insulator surface
Index Terms— Current, distribution, leakage, monitoring, • Compounding soluble pollutants with rainwater or dew
optical, sensor, transmission lines. and formation of a conductive layer
• Starting of leakage currents
• Surface of the insulator gets hot followed by the
formation of dry areas

I NSULATORS are key components in energy distribution

systems, and, after being installed, remain in field for long
periods of time. Insulator leakage current is the current flowing
• Partial discharges
• Occurrence of flashover.
Consequently, the insulator leakage current monitoring as an
from high voltage conductor to ground over the outside surface indicative parameter of a possible flashover incident, enabling
of the insulator. Leakage current occurs in any high voltage a proper planning of insulator predictive maintenance,
insulator, either in transmission lines (TL) or in distribution becomes significant.
lines installed outdoors due to the progressively coating of
conductive deposit from environment pollution. II. L EAKAGE C URRENT E VALUATION
These pollutants can be dust, ashes, smoke, clay powder,
Superficial leakage current is the result of the interaction
chemicals from nearby industries or salt-spray on seashore
between the climate and the contaminants deposited over the
areas. In the presence of wet atmospheric conditions, particles
surface of the insulator, an approximate expression for the
Manuscript received July 1, 2014; revised October 3, 2014; accepted
leakage current is given by
October 3, 2014. Date of publication October 8, 2014; date of current U U πγm D
version December 11, 2014. This work was supported by the Ampla I L E AK AG E = = = Eπγm D (1)
Energia e Serviços S.A., Niterói. The associate editor coordinating the review Rm l
of this paper and approving it for publication was Prof. Aime Lay-Ekuakille. where I L E AK AG E is the leakage current, U is the distribution/
M. M. Werneck, D. M. dos Santos, C. C. de Carvalho, and
F. V. B. de Nazaré are with the Photonics and Instrumentation Laboratory, transmission line voltage, Rm represents the insulator surface
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-901, Brazil resistance (which is related to the contaminant density), l is
(e-mail:;; cesar@lif.coppe. the insulator creepage distance, γm is the conductivity of the;
R. C. da Silva Barros Allil is with the Biological Defense Laboratory, dewy and contaminated surface, D is the insulator diameter,
Brazilian Army Technology Center, Rio de Janeiro 20031-144, Brazil (e-mail: and E is the electric field intensity through the creepage path [3]. The variables described in (1) are shown in Fig 1.
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available
online at The accumulation of contaminants over the insulator
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JSEN.2014.2361788 surface, combined with the environmental high humidity,
1530-437X © 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See for more information.

have also been employed by [12] and, more recently,

by [7], [13], and [14]. Particularly, in [14], the authors
describe the first development stages of the employment of
plastic optical fibres in leakage current detection. However, in
order to be useful for the electric company, a leakage current
monitoring system needs to present, at least, four basic char-
acteristics: ease of use (i.e., be practical), low cost, safety and
In this paper an optoelectronic system is described, being
capable of measuring, storing and radio transmit by GPRS
(General Packet Radio Service) data link the insulator
leakage current data as well as local temperature and air
Fig. 1. Representation of the variables from (1). relative humidity using plastic optical fiber (POF) technology.
Comparing with other solutions available in literature, this
system presents some advantages, such as immunity to
causes the increase of the conductivity (γm ) that enables electromagnetic interference; low cost; lightweight, easy
the leakage current emergence. The electric companies need installation at the power line without the need to turn it off,
to maintain a continuous monitoring of leakage current and and does not need a power supply close to high voltages. Other
for this they rely in parameters that help establishing a benefits can also be mentioned, that is: optimization and mon-
preventive strategy of water-jet-cleaning or substitution of itoring of energy losses, increase of the distribution network
insulators placed on the area with favorable conditions to reliability yielding a reduction of intervals between turn-offs,
flashover occurrence. In recent years, many studies have been optimization of the insulators washing routine and easy way
carried out to improve pollution assessment, such as [1], [4], to compare different kinds of anti-pollution insulators.
and [5]. There are also many standards that help technicians
to improve insulator performance, such as the IEC60815 [6],
which defines parameters for insulator selection, for instance,
pollution severity level, creepage or arcing distance. An optoelectronic transducer intended for measuring
Particularly, the in-field tests which were carried out for this leakage currents from both high voltage transmission line (TL)
work showed that the quantity of deposited contaminants and and medium voltage distribution line was developed. The
environmental humidity are directly related to the leakage working principle of the sensor is very simple, based on
current value. the fact that an LED output light is proportional to its
The usual method to assess insulator pollution is the ESDD, direct current. So, a high efficient LED is installed inside
meaning Equivalent Salt Deposit Density. The ESDD is by the transducer so as to the leakage current flowing from
definition the amount of sodium chlorine deposited over the high voltage line to ground potential over the insulator
insulator surface that would produce the same conductivity surface drives the LED supplying enough energy to make it
at a given natural pollution. In order to measure ESDD it is lighten. Then the LED output light, modulated by the leakage
necessary to wash the polluted insulator with distilled water, current, is fed into a POF that transmits the signal to the
carefully collect the water and then measure its conductivity. Remote Unit (RU) installed at ground potential.
Now, the amount of salt that would produce the same conduc- Amplitude modulated fiber optic sensors have been
tivity divided by the surface of the insulator area will give the abandoned some decades ago due to several side-effects such
ESDD factor in mg/cm2. The washing is performed on what is as optical power drift due to temperature and ageing, modal
known as “sacrifice insulator”, that is, an insulator of the same instability and macro-curvature losses. However, with the
type as those used on that specific location but without electric availability of POFs at low cost, these sensors were re-visited
wires. This insulator is hoisted to the top of the tower and left and some examples appeared in the literature lately [11], [12].
there for a specific amount of time until it gets polluted as For the reasons stated above, when using an amplitude
much as the others. Then, this insulator is lowered down and modulated fiber optic sensor it is necessary to address all the
washed. mentioned conditions. For instance, when dealing with plastic
Leakage current assessment is not a new concern of the optical fiber waveguides, all rays in a bent fiber are leaky,
electric company personnel. Accidents involving flashover that is, they can traverse the core-cladding interface and never
events in insulators employed in transmission/distribution return. At successive reflections the guided light inside the
lines, especially near seashore areas, have been a major fiber loses power. However, some rays reflect back in the clad-
issue for energy companies for a long time. Consequently, air interface returning to the core [15], and become guided
several sensor types and on-line monitoring techniques have again. The higher the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber,
been developed and widely used for protection systems [7]. the more these returning rays are allowed to penetrate back
Also, current literature presents several techniques to into the core. This effect happens with POFs that possess
monitor insulator pollution. Classic techniques apply resistive millions of guided modes and very large NA. Indeed, for a
dividers [8], [9], induction coil, as described in patent [10] and bending radius of 32 mm, a standard 1-mm-diameter POF
a magnetic toroid around the insulator [11]. Optical methods loses only about 0.1 dB per turn [16]. Therefore, bend losses

Fig. 2. Temperature dependence for Nichia LEDs. (a) NSPB300 Blue,

(b) NSPG310 Green and (c) NSPR510 Red (graphs available at [17]).

are negligible in a POF cable connecting the transducer and

the receiver.
The other issue to account for is the temperature dependence
of the LED, whose output light fades as temperature rises. This
thermal drift depends on semiconductor material and dopants,
that is, for different LED colors (wavelength), different drifts
apply. In order to find the LED type which best complies
with transmission requirements, three different LEDs were
investigated, namely: blue, green and red LEDs. In reality,
the best wavelength for a silicon photodetector is around
850 nm, which corresponds to its peak response. However,
we decided to use visible LEDs for the project because it
facilitates maintenance since the operator can see whether the
transducer is working or not just by looking into the POF
output connector. Fig. 2 shows three temperature dependence
graphs for three LEDs manufactured by Nichia Corporation: Fig. 3. Temperature drift in the spectra of three different Nichia LEDs:
(a) NSPB310 Blue, (b) NSPG310 Green and (c) NSPR510 Red. φ is the
NSPB310 Blue, NSPG310 Green and the NSPR510 Red [17], LED diameter.
[18], [19].
Notice the smaller dependence of the blue and green LEDs
with temperature variation. However, since the wavelength
of all three LEDs fall outside the peak sensitivity of the order to be compensated by the software.
photodetector, one has also to check the wavelength drift The circuit diagram of the sensor is shown in Fig 4.
with temperature, since for different wavelengths there will be Since the LED only conducts in one direction, the full wave
different gains. Fig 3 shows the wavelength performance for rectifier allows the detection of an alternate leakage current
the three LEDs with the same current in different temperatures. signal. The two transient voltage suppressors (transorbs)
As it can be seen in Fig. 3 (a), (b) and (c), the peak protect the sensor from transients which may occur in the
wavelength (that is, the wavelength at which the maximum high voltage line.
value of the optical power is obtained) of both blue and green The transducer, shown in Fig. 5, is comprised of a ceramic
LED drifts are negligible with temperature, i.e. the peak wave- cup in which the circuits are located, a polymeric insulator
length does not considerably vary, whereas red LED presents and a POF cable to transmit the current signal to the receiver
a large drift. From these results the green LED was chosen system.
since it provides lower optical losses when employed in POF For a high voltage TL application, the sensor taps the
light transmission systems while its temperature dependence leakage current from the top skirt of the insulator string as
characteristic is similar to the one presented by the blue LED shown in Fig. 6 (a). The medium voltage distribution line
(Figs. 2 and 3); its drift under temperature was recorded in version is intended to be installed on the top of the insulator

Fig. 4. Circuit diagram of the sensor.

Fig. 5. The optoelectronic transducer. Left - Ceramic head and optoelec-

tronics, Right - Bottom view after epoxy filling, Inset: Optoelectronic printed
circuit board.

under test and then energized from the high voltage line, as
shown in Fig 6 (b). Notice that in both cases the leakage
current from high voltage to ground is forced to traverse the
transmitter LED.
The optical fiber from the current transducer goes from the
high voltage line all the way down to a mid-tower location
that can be easily accessed by the operators. The Remote Unit
receives the optical fiber and converts the optical amplitude
modulated signal to a voltage one, which is proportional to Fig. 6. Installation scheme of the high voltage TL sensor (a) and medium
voltage distribution lines sensor (b). In both cases the leakage current from
the monitored current. The block diagram of the RU is shown high voltage to ground is forced to traverse the sensor.
in Fig. 7. The RU’s interface section demodulates the optical
signal into digital data that is stored in memory together
with local temperature and air relative humidity. After been
codified, the data are transmitted by GPRS to the cellular
communication network. The electronic hardware of the RU
is composed of a CPU board associated with a datalogger
system, the sensor interrogation system, power supply
(which can be implemented by a battery, for instance) and a
GPRS modem transmitter. Figure 7 shows the block diagram
of the overall system.
As mentioned before, the RU can communicate with the
data server through GPRS cell phone network. In this way all
RUs can send data to the electric company’s Internet server
where data is stored and analyzed. Any authorized user can Fig. 7. Block diagram of the Remote Unit.
access the web page to check for the data in order to observe,
for instance, the trend line of the leakage current in any
specified location.
In a medium voltage application, the RU is energized by used batteries with enough ampere-hour capacity to power
the 127 VAC available on the poles. In this case the RU box is the transmitter for one year in continuous operation. In this
compact as shown in Fig. 8. In high voltage applications there case the RU was accommodated in a larger box as will be
is no AC voltage available to powering the RU, therefore we seen later (in Fig. 12).


Fig. 8. The remote unit box.

measurements: First, the standard deviation (SD) of the output

voltage was calculated by applying a current source to the
input and covering all input range, in this case, from zero to
60 mArms . This procedure was done ten times for each value
shown in the first column of Table I, resulting in the second
column of the table (Averaged Output Voltage). The next step
was to evaluate the SD of the output voltage for each value,
resulting in the third column of the table (Standard Deviation)
which is the uncertainty of the voltage measurement. The
output voltage SD results obtained so far were produced
for calibration purpose. In field applications, when leakage
currents are to be measured, there is a need to know the
Fig. 9. Calibration of the sensor. The fitting shows a third order polynomial uncertainty of the input current measurements.
that is used by the software for calculating the leakage current. In order to calculate the uncertainty of the input current,
the first step was analyze the regression curve and evaluate its
derivative at each current value shown in the first column of
Table I (Input Current). The SD of current is the projection of
Three tests have been applied to the sensor in order to the SD in voltage over the x-axis by the slope of the curve at
calibrate it and collect data to perform software compensations that point. This can be found by dividing the SD of the output
where necessary. They are: input/output relation (sensitivity); voltage by the derivative of the regression curve shown in
uncertainty at fixed temperature and temperature drift of the Fig. 9 at each point. The results are shown in the fourth column
sensor/receiver outside the case (ceramic cup) for different of the table (Uncertainty). Table I shows the measurements, the
currents. averages, the standard deviations obtained and the calculated
A. Input/Output (Sensitivity)
The LED output optical power responds parabolically to
the input current, whereas photodiodes in photoconductive C. Thermal Drift Tests
configuration responds linearly to the input light. Therefore we
LED optical power fades as temperature increases. This
must expect a parabolic sensitivity of output voltage against
is clear by observing in Fig. 2 the output power of the
input current for the transducer chain. In order to measure the
green LED which drifts about 5% for a temperature range
input current by observing output voltage, a calibration curve
of 20 to 50 °C. Therefore, it is expected to observe this drift
must be obtained. This is shown in Fig 9 where each dot
in the transducer chain. The transducer thermal drift evaluation
in the curve is the result of an average of 50 measurements
was performed by inserting both transmitter and receiver into
at constant temperature. The regression line drawn over the
an oven and varying the temperature covering the temperature
input/output plot is a third order polynomial with regression
range expected in the field. Figure 10 shows the results of
coefficient R2 = 0.999908. This polynomial is used by the
this test.
software to calculate the leakage current from the output
As expected, for all input currents, the output voltage
decreases as temperature rises, particularly for 60 mA at 65 °C.
However, as it will be seen, maximum currents observed in
B. Uncertainty of Leakage Current Measurement real applications rarely exceed 20 mA and local temperatures
Accuracy of measurement can be done by sweeping the are limited to the range of 25 to 40 °C. In this range the error is
input range several times, from zero to 60 mA and calculating about 3%, quite acceptable for this kind of application, when
the standard deviation for each value. The steps below were the idea is to monitor leakage current increase rather than to
used in order to calculate the uncertainty of the input current know it precisely.

Fig. 12. Satellite picture showing the location of the measurement units
Fig. 10. Temperature drift of the set transmitter-receiver. (adapted from Google Maps).

Fig. 11. Installation sequence. 1) The tower at left was chosen for the
installation; 2) Equipment being hoisted to the top; 3) Transmitter box being Fig. 13. Pictures of the installation sequence in a 13.8 kV line. 1) The pole
fixed; 4) Arrows indicate the position of the sensor and the transmitter box; chosen for the installation; 2) Equipment being hoisted to the top of insulator;
5) Transmitter box in place and being tested by technician. 3) Complete system installed on the pole; 4) Indication of the sensor position
and the high voltage line.

V. F IELD I NSTALLATION AND DATA A SSESSMENT B. Installation in 13.8 kV Distribution Line

As stated above, the system was designed for monitoring The medium voltage system was installed in a seashore area
currents in both high voltage TL and medium voltage where the local electric company has had many problems due
distribution lines. Two Brazilian electric companies allowed to flashovers and electric shortages. We installed five units in
the installation of the system in their operational grids: one in different locations of a large area so as to map and identify
a 500 kV TL and another one in a 13.8 kV distribution line. similar meteorological conditions. Fig. 12 shows a satellite
The first prototype was installed in a single 500 kV TL tower picture of the area under study with the location of the remote
and was kept there for several months while transmitting units (RU).
data. In a second row of experiments, several sensors were The installation in the field was performed without
installed at a medium voltage distribution line. This section de-energizing the high voltage line using appropriated high-
describes the installation of both systems. voltage procedures, Fig. 13 shows the installation sequence.
After installation, the transducer starts acquiring data to the
A. Installation in 500 kV Transmission Line RU which are sent in real time to a specially designed web
page where each RU can be accessed separately in order to
The TL chosen for installation of the 500 kV monitoring check for the actual status of each insulator.
system was located in the island of São Luis, at the Brazilian
northern state of Maranhão where strong winds blowing from
the seashore bring severe pollution to the insulators. Fig. 11
shows the installation sequence. The transmitter box (Fig.11-5) A. Real Time Analysis
contains two 45 Ah batteries, enough for powering the receptor After installation, in both high- and medium-voltage lines,
and GPRS transmitter for as much as 12 months. the RU started transmitting data immediately so it was possible

Fig. 14. Data collected from sensor installed on an insulator at 500 kV.
Upper trace is the temperature; lower trace the leakage current. Each peak in
the upper trace represents one complete day cycle in which the temperature
rises from 25 °C during the night to about 40 °C at noon.

Fig. 15. Data collected from 500 kV insulator show leakage currents in
excess of 12 mA. Fig. 16. Web page screens of the system.

to check locally on the Internet the adequate operation of

the system. The high voltage version transmits to its web page
the data acquired; in this case the leakage currents together
with local temperature. Fig. 14 shows one of these graphs.
Note that the temperature fluctuates from 25 °C during the
night to about 40 °C at noon. On the other hand, the leakage
current is nearly zero during the hotter part of the day but
rises during the night when temperature drops and eventually,
reaches the dew point. Notice also that the leakage current
keeps a tendency of increasing from day to day, starting on
Day 1 and increases progressively up to Day 7. Then, suddenly
at Day 8 it is low again. This is because there was a tropical
rain that day (notice the drop in temperature on Day 7) and
the insulator was washed out from the deposited salt. After
that day the current starts to rise again until the next raining
event. Strong rain washes the insulator, fine rain or dew, on the
other hand, makes the salt conducting, increasing the leakage
current. Another example of information that can be extracted
from these data is shown in Fig. 15, where very high peaks
of currents occur in dry seasons without rains.
This graph shows several peaks in excess of 12 mA. These
currents represent a power of more than 5.000 W over the
insulator. In an LT of 400 km, with each insulator burning such
power, an enormous amount of energy is lost. These currents
not only decrease the lifetime of the insulator but can also
trigger the TL protection devices if many peaks occur at same Fig. 17. Graph from field data obtained from the system web page.
The data obtained from RUs installed in medium voltage units installed. When a unit is chosen, its parameters are
distribution lines can be seen in the system web page. displayed in the screen as shown in Figure 16.
Figure 16 shows the main page which can be accessed Figure 17 shows the data collected from two RUs installed
by authorized users. In this page there is a list of all the in the field. It is possible to create graphs of all parameters

such as temperature, dew point, humidity and leakage current page proving, therefore, to be reliable. The small thermal drift
of any location. observed in the sensor-transmitter set was unimportant for
During the generation of the graph in Fig. 17 (upper) all the data analysis. The LED/POF technology applied for the
monitored parameters were selected: leakage current, humidity leakage current sensor presented some advantages over other
and temperature. However, just two or one type of data can techniques adopted previously: efficiency, easy installation,
be selected such as in Fig 17 (lower), where only the leakage robustness and reliability.
current is shown. The data has been analyzed for two months The objectives of this project were reached. However,
in order to establish relationships between leakage current in order to this technique be of any usefulness to electric
and climate parameters, and between two different sites of companies, it is necessary to transform the data into informa-
installation. tion. This means to establish parameters which can determinate
It is possible to observe that the leakage current is strongly the real status of the insulator regarding the leakage current
related to the humidity. One can note in Fig 17 (upper) that flows to the ground. After such parameters have been
that larger humidity (green) leads to larger leakage current established, it will be possible to issue the “washing warn-
(orange), that is, high humidity increases the conductance of ings” meaning that if the set of insulators were not washed
the polluted layer leading to arcs. It can also be observed immediately, a flashover may occur. The establishment of these
that as the ambient temperature approaches the dew point the parameters will produce the logistic insertion of this activity in
leakage current increases. companies, reducing the risk of a failing insulator causing an
Observing the two graphs of Fig. 17, a slightly similarity energy shortage. To create these parameters it will be neces-
can be seen in the leakage current behavior. Despite the fact sary to analyze a great diversified amount of data from differ-
that these two RUs were installed about 3 km away from each ent critical points of maritime pollution inside the area under
other, their leakage current increasing patterns are similar. The study. Thus, it will be possible to determinate the optimal time
intensity difference, however, can be explained by the fact that to intervene, i.e., to carry out the washing of insulators.
the RU 52237 (Fig. 17 (lower) is sheltered from pollutants The data obtained from the sites of installation will be
by large trees and buildings. This analysis is important to evaluated in order to be possible to increase the distance
determine the maximum distance that the RUs can be installed between them. All external parameters have to be taken into
from each other. account, such as the buildings and trees around, the distance
from the sea and roads.
B. Statistical Analysis of the Data
The resulting data of the leakage current monitoring
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[13] S. C. Oliveira and E. Fontana, “Optical detection of partial discharges Cesar Cosenza de Carvalho was born in
on insulator strings of high-voltage transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1966. He received
Instrum. Meas., vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 2328–2334, Jul. 2009. the B.Sc., M.Sc., and D.Sc. degrees in elec-
[14] M. M. Werneck et al., “Detection and monitoring of leakage currents in tronic engineering from the Federal University of
distribution line insulators,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Instrum. Meas. Technol. Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, in 1989,
Conf., Montevideo, Uruguay, May 2014, pp. 468–482. 1994, and 2000, respectively. He is currently a
[15] G. Durana, J. Zubia, J. Arrue, G. Aldabaldetreku, and J. Mateo, Researcher with the Instrumentation and Photonics
“Dependence of bending losses on cladding thickness in plastic optical Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Program, UFRJ.
fibers,” Appl. Opt., vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 997–1002, 2003. His research interests include fiber optics, sensors,
[16] W. Daum, J. Krauser, P. E. Zanzow, and O. Ziemann, POF— transducers, and optoeletronic instrumentation.
Polymer Optical Fiber for Data Communication. Berlin, Germany:
Springer-Verlag, 2002.
[17] Nichia Corp. (Jun. 2, 2014). Specifications for Blue LED. [Online].
[18] Nichia Corp. (Jun. 2, 2014). Specifications for Green LED. [Online].
[19] Nichia Corp. (Jun. 2, 2014). Specifications for Red LED. [Online].
Fábio Vieira Batista de Nazaré was born in
Maceió, Brazil, in 1984. He received the Degree
in electronic engineering from the Universidade
Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil, in 2007.
Marcelo Martins Werneck was born in Petrópolis, He was a Research Engineer with the Nuclear Instru-
Brazil. He received the Degree in electronic engi- mentation Laboratory, Regional Center of Nuclear
neering from the Pontifícia Universidade Católica of Sciences, Recife. He received the M.Sc. degree
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1975, the in electrical engineering from the Institute for
M.Sc. degree from the Biomedical Engineering Pro- Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Engineering,
gram, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro,
Rio de Janeiro, in 1977, and the Ph.D. degree from Brazil, in 2010, where he is currently pursuing the
the University of Sussex, Brighton, U.K., in 1985. D.Sc. degree at the Instrumentation and Photonics Laboratory, Electrical
He has been with UFRJ since 1978, where he is Engineering Program, and is also an Electronic Engineer.
currently a Lecturer and Researcher. He is also the
Coordinator of the Instrumentation and Photonics
Laboratory at the Electrical Engineering Program, UFRJ. His research inter-
ests include fiber optics sensors, transducers, and instrumentation.

Daniel Moreira dos Santos was born in Regina Célia da Silva Barros Allil was born in
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He received the Degree from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. She received the Degree in
the Federal Centre of Technology Education Celso electronic engineering from the Faculdade Nuno
Suckow da Fonseca, Rio de Janeiro, in 2010, as an Lisboa, Rio de Janeiro, in 1988, and the M.Sc.
Electronic Engineer. He is currently pursuing the degree from the Biomedical Engineering Program,
M.Sc. degree at the Photonics and Instrumentation Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ),
Laboratory, Electric Engineering Program, Federal Rio de Janeiro, in 2004, and the Ph.D. degree from
University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro. the Electronic Engineering Program, Instrumentation
He is also a Researcher with the Institute for and Photonics Laboratory, UFRJ, in 2010. She is
Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Engineering, currently a Researcher with the Brazilian Army
UFRJ. His research interests include sensors, Technology Center, Rio de Janeiro. Her research
instrumentation, and fiber optics. interest lies in fiber optics sensors and optoelectronic instrumentation.