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IPv4

## Network Fundamentals – Chapter 6

(Part1)

Objectives
 Explain the structure IP addressing and demonstrate the
ability to convert between 8-bit binary and decimal
numbers
 Given an IPv4 address, classify by type and describe how
it is used in the network
 Explain how addresses are assigned to networks by ISPs

 The dotted decimal structure of a binary IP address

 The general role of 8-bit binary in network addressing

 Convert 8-bit binary to decimal

 Convert decimal to 8-bit binary

 Example 1: Converting decimal to binary

 Exercise 1: Converting decimal to 8-bit binary

 Exercise 2: Converting decimal to 8-bit binary

 Types of addresses in the network and its purpose

 Types of addresses in the network and its purpose

and prefix combination

 The three types of communication in the Network Layer

 The address ranges reserved for special purposes in the
IPv4 protocol

 The purpose of several special addresses

 Twenty years ago, IP version 4 (IPv4) offered an addressing
strategy
−Internet Routing Table Explosion

Class D and E
12.5%

Class C
12.5% Class A
50%
Class B
25%

 The historic method for assigning addresses and the issues
associated with the method

 The process for requesting IPv4 public addresses, the role
ISPs play in the process, and the role of the regional
agencies that manage IP address registries

 Different types of ISPs and their roles in providing Internet
connectivity

 The address block from 224.0.0.0 through to 239.255.255.255 is reserved
for Multicast use (16 /8 blocks).
 The address block from 240.0.0.0 through to 255.255.255.255 is reserved
for future definition (16 /8 blocks).
 The address blocks 0.0.0.0/8, 14.0.0.0/8, and 127.0.0.0/8 are reserved, as
are the address ranges used for private networks and other reserved
uses.
 The remaining addresses, the equivalent of 219.92 /8 address blocks form
the pool of unicast addresses which are used for the Internet.
 The IPv4 Unicast Address Pool is divided into 2 parts:
–Those addresses held in the "IANA Reserved" pool, or "UnAllocated"
• This pool is used to meet future address requirements
–Those addresses that have been allocated to the RIRs or directly to end users,

Long-term solution: IPv6 (XTRA)

##  IPv6, or IPng (IP – the Next Generation) uses a 128-bit address

space, yielding
3,4~1038= 340.282.366.920.938.463.463.374.607.431.768.211.456
 IPv6 has been slow to arrive
−IPv4 revitalized by new features, making IPv6 a luxury, and not a
desperately needed fix
−IPv6 requires new software; IT staffs must be retrained

 IPv6 will most likely coexist with IPv4 for years to come.
−Some experts believe IPv4 will remain for more than 10 years.

IPv4
 32 bits or 4 bytes long
IPv6
 128 bits or 16 bytes: four times the bits of IPv4
• 3.4 * 1038 possible addressable nodes
• 340,282,366,920,938,463,374,607,432,768,211,456
• 5 * 1028 addresses per person

IPv4 vs. IPv6

##  IPv4  32 bits address

 IPv6  128 bits address
 IPv6 can be written as 32 hex digits, with colons separating the
values of the eight 16-bit pieces of the address:
FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210
1080:0000:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:417A
1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A
1080::8:800:200C:417A
0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
This can be written as this:
::1

The new protocol: IPv6 (XTRA)
 IPv6 is compatible with IPv4 since the beginning

 Overview of IPv6

 Cost savings with IP address let.
−IPv4: One address for one end user (and dynamic!)
−IPv6: A 64 bits range for one end user
−Autoconfiguration
−Security
−QoS
−VoIPv6
−Mobility

IPv4 Solutions to address crisis (XTRA)
 Even as work progressed on the next generation of IP
addressing, network engineers continued to develop IPv4 so
that it could handle the address crunch.

 CIDR
 VLSM
 NAT/PAT

 It is important to use a structured process to assign IP
addresses to hosts and the implications for choosing private

 End user devices can obtain addresses either statically
through an administrator or dynamically through DHCP