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EXCOUNT-II

User’s manual

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 1


Important information

Legal disclaimer
Any responsibility or liability for loss or damage in connection with the use of
this product and the accompanying documentation is disclaimed. The infor-
mation in this document is furnished for informational use only, is subject to
change without notice, may contain errors or inaccuracies, and represents no
commitment whatsoever.

Declaration of Conformity
Hereby, ABB AB, declares that this EXCOUNT-II system is in
compliance with the essential requirements and other relevant
provisions of Directive 1999/5/EC.

Federal Communications Commission Statement


This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and
(2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference
that may cause undesired operation.

WARNING!
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party
responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate
the equipment.

NOTE! This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for
a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are
designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when
the equipment is so operated in a commercial environment. This equipment
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed
and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful inter-
ference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential
area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be requi-
red to correct the interference at his own expense.

Trademark acknowledgements
Windows 95, 98, ME, NT4, 2000 and XP are registred trademarks of
Microsoft Corporation.

2 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


Safety information

Key to the symbols


This symbol is a visual notice to avoid mistakes which
can result in damage of the material and/or no function
of the surge arrester monitor EXCOUNT-II.
Read the text carefully and if you don’t understand do not
proceed.
Serious material damage, severe personal injury and/or
death can be the result of not following the information
given beside this symbol. Read the text carefully and if
you don’t understand do not proceed.

Safety instructions
Do not connect the Transceiver to other voltage sources
than a standard 9 volt battery type 6LR61/PP3
Ensure that the battery is connected correctly.
The Transceiver contains a radio transmitter and receiver
which must not be used where the use of radio transmit-
ters or other electronic devices is prohibited.

WARNING!
All work related to the fitting, mounting, assembly or
handling of EXCOUNT-II sensors and the surge arresters
shall be made with disconnected and earthed conduc-
tors. Follow all regulations and rules stated by internatio-
nal or national safety regulations.

Normally, the EXCOUNT-II sensors and the surge arres-


ters operate at a high voltage. Therefore they must be
installed in such a way that only qualified personnel has
access to them.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 3


Table of contents

Section Subject Page


- Important information 2
- Safety information 3
1. Introduction
1.1 Sequence of installation 8
1.2 EXCOUNT-II measuring principle 9
2. Before installation
2.1 Inspection upon arrival 12
2.2 Tools for assembly 12
2.3 Insert the 9V battery in the transceiver 12
2.4 Pre-installation 12
2.5 Installation of battery in the sensor 14
2.6 EXCOUNT-II software 15
2.7 First time administration of the sensors 20
3. Sensor installation
3.1 Note the sensor ID number 25
3.2 Common installation alternatives 25
3.3 Reference measurement 25
3.4 Installation of sensor alternative 1 26
3.5 Installation of sensor alternative 2 27
3.6 Installation of sensor alternative 3 28
3.7 Installation of sensor alternative 4 29

4 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


Table of contents

Section Subject Page


4. Using the transceiver
4.1 Transceiver functions 33
4.2 Transceiver symbols 35
4.3 Flowchart, making measurements 36
4.4 Sychronization of the clocks 37
4.5 Range of the communication 38
4.6 Your body affects the signal strength 38
4.7 Optimal direction of the internal 38
transceiver antenna
4.8 Direction of the sensor antenna 39
4.9 Special configurations 40
4.10 Total versus individual readings 42
4.11 Measurement strategy 42
5. Transceiver menus 44
6. Surge arrester monitoring theory
6.1 Introduction 52
6.2 Surge counting 52
6.3 Leakage current measurements 54
7. Radio transmission protocol 64
8. Technical data 66
9. Disposal 70
10. Transceiver error codes 72
11. Index 78

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 5


6 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual
Introduction

Section 1
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 7
1. Introduction

EXCOUNT-II is an advanced surge arrester monitor for effecti-


vely, reliably and safety monitoring and recording surges on high
voltage electrical networks.

EXCOUNT-II incorporates a sensor, which is mounted on the surge


arrester, a transceiver, for remote reading and a PC-program (Win-
dows 95/98/2000/ME/NT and XP).

This users manual describes the functions of EXCOUNT-II to give you


total control over surge monitoring.

Please visit www.abb.com/arrestersonline for more information about


EXCOUNT-II and also to download the latest version of the PC-pro-
gram.

1.1 Sequence of installation


As a quick guide, the respective procedure in the below table should
be followed for safe and correct installation of the EXCOUNT-II.

Procedure Section
Read the safety instructions carefully 1
What to do before installation 2
Special attention is drawn to Section 2.4 which
should be followed to ensure trouble-free operation.
How to install the sensors 3
Guide to using the transceiver 4

8 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


1. Introduction

1.2 EXCOUNT-II measuring principle

External antenna (option)


Surge Arrester

PC (computer with Windows


95/98/2000/ME/NT/XP installed)
Radio
waves

Sensor

Earth
Conductor

Insulating
base

Data cable
Transceiver

Figure 1.2.1
The principle of measuring with EXCOUNT-II

The sensor is mounted on the surge arrester in series with the earth
conductor. It is important that the surge arrester is insulated from the
ground with an insulating base. The sensor registers the number
of discharges, categorizes and records the amplitudes of the surges
together with their date and time and measures the leakage current.
As an option, resistive leakage current can also be measured.

The measuring data is transfered to the hand held transceiver by


radio communication. An optional external hand-held antenna is
available for the transceiver in special applications requiring a stronger
radio signal (transmission line application, for example)

The information from the hand-held transceiver is transferred to a PC


via data cable.

Statistical analysis can be undertaken in the PC via the EXCOUNT-II


software.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 9


10 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual
Before Installation

Section 2
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 11
2. Before installation

2.1 Inspection upon arrival


Upon arrival it is important that the cases are inspected and the
contents checked against the packing list which is attached to each
case. Any shortage or damage should be reported immediately to the
insurance and/or ABB representative and not later than 30 days from
the arrival of the goods. ABB cannot take responsibility for shortages
or damages not reported within this time period.

Verify that the following items are present together with this manual:
• Transceiver
• Data cable
• CD with software
• 9V battery
• Philips screwdriver

If the contents are to be stored for a long period of time prior to use,
they should be kept dry and indoors.

Battery 2.2 Tools for assembly


cover
Special instruments or tools are not required for installation of the
EXCOUNT-II sensor. For convenience, a philips screwdriver is provi-
ded for fitting of the 9V battery in the transceiver.

Figure 2.3.1 2.3 Insert the 9V battery in the transceiver


Location of Open the battery compartment on the rear of the transceiver using the
transceiver battery
supplied screwdriver. The compartment cover is locked with a single
compartment
philips-head screw. Insert the battery and ensure the correct polarity.
Replace the cover and firmly tighten the screw.
Important! After inserting a new battery, always check that the date
and time on the Transceiver are sychronized with the setting on the
PC. If not, set them as described in section 5 of this manual.

2.4 Pre-installation
Prior to installation of the EXCOUNT-II sensor onto the surge arrester, the fol-
lowing steps should be undertaken to ensure trouble-free operation.
a) Sensors ID-number
Make a note of the sensor ID-number and its intended location (sta-
tion, position and phase) before installation. The ID-number is located
as shown in figure 2.4.1 and unique for each individual sensor. The

12 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


2. Before installation

transceiver and the software utilize this information as the means of


identification during the measurement, and it is therefore very impor-
tant that the details are correct. After the sensor is installed it may not
be practical to view the identification number without first de-energi-
zing the surge arrester.

b) Charge the internal power source


Place the sensor outdoors, preferably in direct sunlight, for at least 48 Adhesive label
hours prior to installation. This will ensure the internal power source is (on underside) Engraved
(on topside)
fully charged. For indoor use, refer also to section 2.5.
Figure 2.4.1
c) Installation of the EXCOUNT-II software Location of sensor
Install the EXCOUNT-II software onto your PC. Installation instructions ID-number
are described in section 2.6.
d) Record sensor and station data
Record each new sensor’s ID-number in the administration part of the
PC-program, together with the station data and surge arrester data
for where it will be installed, as described in section 2.7.
e) Testing the communication between sensor and transceiver
Prior to installation, each sensor should be initialised by making a
reading of surge counter data only. See section 2.7, 4 and 5 for
details of how to use the transceiver. This will establish a link between
the administration details in the PC-program and the sensor. Confirm
that contact can be made with the sensor and revert to ABB if any error
codes occur. This measurement need not be saved in the PC-program.

Important! The test is best made at a location nearby where


the sensors will be installed. During this test, the sensor must
be at least 1 m above the ground, not placed on an earthed
object or anything with a metal frame, and preferably made with
15 – 30 m distance between the sensor and transceiver. This is
most easily achieved by one person holding the sensor at waist
height, while another person makes the measurement with the
transceiver.

f) Installation on surge arresters


The preparations are now done and you may proceed with installation of
the EXCOUNT-II sensor on the surge arrester. See section 3.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 13


2. Before installation

2.5 Installation of battery in the sensor


The sensor’s primary power sources are the in-built solar panels and
the field probe, which obtains the energy respectively from the sun
and the electrical field surrounding the surge arrester. The energy is
stored in a high efficiency capacitor.

When energy in the sensor falls below a certain level, the sensor swit-
ches off the listening function (to conserve energy for recording) until
such time that the energy level is sufficient again for communication.
This may occur if many attempts to communicate have been made in
a row or because there is insufficient sunlight and/or electrical field.

To ensure continuous power a long-life 9V lithium battery may be


installed.

Installation of a battery is an absolute necessity for indoor use of


the sensor, since no sunlight is available to provide the primary
source of power.

NOTE! A long-life battery is pre-installed from the factory for user con-
venience to minimize difficulties in communication due to insufficient
energy. Regardless, it is highly recommended that the internal high-
efficiency capacitor is fully charged before first-time use by following
the steps in section 2.4 b.

To replace the battery, open the battery cover using the supplied phi-
lips screwdriver to loosen the two screws, see figure 2.5.1. Insert the
battery, ensuring correct polarity, and then replace the battery cover.

Battery

Figure 2.5.1
Back view of the sensor with battery cover

14 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


2. Before installation

2.6 EXCOUNT-II Software


The enclosed CD includes a version of the EXCOUNT-II software for
administration and storage of the data as well as statistical analysis
of surge arresters. The program works only on PC´s with operating
system Windows 95/98/2000/ME/NT and XP.

To ensure you have the latest version, we suggest downloading the


EXCOUNT-II software from the website www.abb.com/arrestersonline.

Included with the delivery is a data cable for communication between


the hand held transceiver and the computer.

2.6.1 Installation
Insert the CD into your computer.
Press the START button in lower left corner
Select SETTINGS then CONTROL PANEL
Double-click on the icon ADD/REMOVE PROGRAMS
Select ADD NEW PROGRAMS
Follow the instructions on the screen

2.6.2 Uninstallation
Press the START button in lower left corner
Select SETTINGS then CONTROL PANEL
Double-click on the icon ADD/REMOVE PROGRAMS
Browse to the EXCOUNT-II software and click REMOVE
Follow the instructions on the screen.

2.6.3 Using the software


View the help file for detailed instructions on how to use the software.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 15


2. Before installation

2.6.4 Installation of USB drivers


The EXCOUNT-II transceiver is fitted with a USB port which requires
installation of special software drivers included on the CD. The Found
New Hardware Wizard should be used to install devices when they
are connected to the PC for the first time as this is the recommended
procedure for reliable device operation.

1. Connect the transceiver to the PC via the data cable. The PC will
automatically detect a new USB device.

2. The “Found New Hardware Wizard” window appears. A manual


installation of the software drivers is required. Choose “Install from a
list or specific location (Advanced)”. Then click Next.

Figure 2.6.1

16 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


2. Before installation

3. Choose “Search for the best driver in these locations”. Then


choose “Include this location in the search”, where you enter the
path to the driver catalogue found on the EXCOUNT-II installation
CD. Then click Next.

Figure 2.6.2

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 17


2. Before installation

4. The system will discover that the drivers has not passed the Win-
dows logo testing. This is only a warning arising from the unique
nature of EXCOUNT-II and does not affect the driver or system
performance. The device is USB compliant and the drivers are
Windows compliant. Click Continue Anyway.

Figure 2.6.3

18 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


2. Before installation

5. The system will find the setup files and follow the instruction of the
setup file to copy drivers. Confirm the device drivers found and
driver installation complete. Click Finish to close the wizard.

Figure 2.6.4

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 19


2. Before installation

2.7 First time administration of the sensors


1. Record the following details in the PC-program as specified in the
EXCOUNT-II help system for Administration. See figure 2.7.1 and
2.7.2.
• station data
• arrester data
• EXCOUNT-II sensor data
Input this data into the software as described in the help system.
Note that each record in the database must have a unique combination
of station, position and phase, see figure 2.7.2.

Figure 2.7.1 Figure 2.7.2


Main menu Administration data

All current generation ABB and earlier ASEA gapless ZnO surge
arrester types are included in the arrester data.
For other types of gapless surge arresters, simply select the appro-
priate IEC class from the dropdown list, see figure 2.7.2.

IMPORTANT! After input of the administration details, an


initial reading must always be made to establish a link bet-
ween the administration details in the PC software and the
sensor on site.

20 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


2. Before installation

2. Connect the transceiver to the PC via the data cable. See also sec-
tion 2.6.4 for installation of USB drivers if this is the first time use
of the transceiver. Download the sensor’s ID from the EXCOUNT-II
software into the Transceiver as described in the EXCOUNT-II help
system for Transfer data, see figure 2.7.3.

IMPORTANT! Check that the date and time on the Transcei-


ver are sychronized with the setting on the PC prior to trans-
fer, see figure 2.7.4 and 2.7.5. If not, set them as described
in section 5 of this manual. If this is not done the date stamp
from the sensor will be incorrect, which can lead to difficulties
in recording measurements.

Figure 2.7.3 Figure 2.7.4 Figure 2.7.5


Main menu Windows date/time Transceiver date/time
properties menu properties menu

3. Before going to site, check the Transceiver’s battery status. If


necessary, install a new battery as described in section 2.3.

4. Once at site, individually check that it is possible to make contact with


each sensor prior to installation, as described in section 2.4 e.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 21


22 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual
Sensor Installation

Section 3
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 23
3. Sensor installation

Safety information

Serious material damage, severe personal injury and/or death can be the result
of not following this instruction. Therefore, the personnel responsible for the
installation of the equipment shall read and follow this instruction carefully.
Handling and maintenance of all the sensors described in this instruction must
be done by personnel trained for this type of work.

WARNING!
All work related to the installation of EXCOUNT-II sensors and the surge
arresters shall be made with de-energized and earthed conductors. Follow all
regulations and rules stated by international or national safety regulations.
Normally, the EXCOUNT-II sensors and the surge arresters operate at a high
voltage. Therefore the sensor must be installed in such a way that only qualified
personnel has access to it.

24 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


3. Sensor installation

3.1 Note the sensor ID number


Before installation, note the sensor´s ID-number together with the
respective arrester station, position, phase and type. The data is used
in the EXCOUNT-II software for correct registration. See section 2.7.

3.2 Common installation alternatives


The following are the most common installation alternatives, and
are included here for information only. The separate installation
instruction supplied with the actual delivery shall always take
precedence.
Alternative 1 (Section 3.4):
The sensor is mounted directly on the vertical upright surge arres-
ter base. This is the best alternative for charging the internal power
source and for complete measurement.
Alternative 2 (Section 3.5):
The sensor is mounted vertically on a planar surface. The sensor is too
far away from the surge arrester field, so the only possiblity to charge
the internal power source is via the solar cells (or separate DC battery).
NOTE! Resistive current measurement is not supported with alternative 2.
Alternative 3 (Section 3.6):
The sensor is mounted on a Transmission Line Arrester (TLA), for
example PEXLINK. Special consideration must be paid to the arrang-
ement, and a separate antenna (available as an option) may be necessary
for certain configurations (tall towers, for example).
Alternative 4 (Section 3.7):
The sensor is mounted directly on the inverted (under-hung) surge
arrester base. Special attention must be paid to the arrangement,
especially if resistive current measurements are to be made.
A separate antenna (available as an option) may be necessary for
certain configurations (tall gantries, for example).

3.3 Reference measurement


After completion of installation of the sensor and energization of
the surge arrester, a full set of measurements shall be made for
reference and then transfered to the PC software as described in
section 5 of this manual. Revert to ABB if any error codes occur
during measurement or transfer.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 25


3. Sensor installation

3.4 Installation of sensor alternative 1

Figure 3.4.2
Top view

Figure 3.4.1 Figure 3.4.3


Side view

Screws, nuts, sockets, washers and conductors are not supplied by ABB
unless specified.

Mount EXCOUNT-II (3) on surge arrester´s bottom flange (4) above insula-
ting base (5) according to figure 3.3.1. Do not place close to venting duct
(if any). Bolt joint (1) and (2) is supplied with ABB insulating base (5).
Fitting and tightening torque according to instructions supplied with
insulating base.

EXCOUNT-II is used as earth connection.


Connect earth cable with tinplated socket (7) according to figure 3.3.3.
Recommended screw: M12 (6)
Tightening torque for M12: 84 Nm, use washers

26 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


3. Sensor installation

3.5 Installation of sensor alternative 2

Figure 3.5.2
Back view

Connect to earth
terminal on surge
arrester flange

Planar surface

Min 60 mm
to ground
plane

Antenna area, min


distance to groundplane:
Connect to earth 60 mm

Figure 3.5.1 Figure 3.5.3


Side view Front view

NOTE! Resistive current measurement is not supported with this special


application.

Mount EXCOUNT-II against planar surface. Use 2 X M6 bolts.


Connect upper terminal to flange, bottom terminal to earth via conductor.
Recommended screw: M12. Do not mount on earthed plate.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 27


3. Sensor installation

3.6 Installation of sensor alternative 3

Terminal
pre-assembled at factory

Coupling
pre-assembled at factory

EXCOUNT-II sensor

Facility to
attach weights

EXCOUNT-II sensor

Disconnecting
device
Disconnecting
device Earth cable
Earth cable

Figure 3.6.1 Figure 3.6.2

Note! Resistive current measurement may not always be possible with


this special application.

Assemble the EXCOUNT-II sensor to either the pre-assembled coupling,


figure 3.6.1, or to the pre-assembled terminal, figure 3.6.2, as appropriate
to the type of PEXLINK transmission line arrester.

28 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


3. Sensor installation

3.7 Installation of sensor alternative 4

�����������

Figure 3.7.1

Note! Resistive current measurement may not always be possible with


this special application.

The assembly of the components is generally as per section 3.4 alter-


native 1, except that the arrester is intended specifically for inverted
mounting. Furthermore, it may be necessary to mount the EXCOUNT-II
sensor “upside down” in certain cases, as shown in Figure 3.7.1. With
such arrangements, special precautions may be necessary to additionally
seal the battery compartment against water ingress.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 29


30 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual
Using the transceiver

Section 4
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 31
4. Using the transceiver

Important information
Environment
To achieve the best possible lifetime out of your EXCOUNT-II trans-
ceiver, avoid exposure to strong sunlight for extended periods, hot
temperatures (over +50 º C), cold temperatures (under -10 º C ) and
water (the design is showerproof but not watertight).

Cleaning
To clean the transceiver use only a damp soft cloth with a mild detergent.

Changing the battery


The transceiver is powered by a 9 volt battery. Always check the bat-
tery status before going to site to take measurements. Replace it when
necessary with type 6LR61/PP3.

NOTE! Used batteries should NOT simply be thrown away. Return the
battery to a recovery station or leave it with your local ABB representative
for environmentally friendly disposal.

32 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


4. Using the transceiver

4.1 Transceiver functions

External antenna
connection

EXCOUNT-II

Protective cover
Display screen
Enter
Increase value
Decrease value
Move up Battery cover
Go back
Move down

Data cable
connection

Figure 4.1.1

Switch the transceiver on/off


To turn on the transceiver press
To turn off the transceiver press

The transceiver turns itself off automatically after 5 minutes.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 33


4. Using the transceiver

4.1.1 Use of external hand-held antenna


A separate hand-held external antenna is available as an option for
use in special applications which require greater signal strength than is
possible to achieve with the transceiver’s internal antenna.

When the external antenna is to be used, the following steps should


be followed:

a) Remove the protective cover from the external antenna connection


on the underside of the transceiver.

b) Fit and hand-tighten the external antenna to the connection point.

c) Turn on the transceiver and enable the external antenna from the
settings menu as described in section 5.4.2.

d) Make measurements, following the guidelines given in Section 4 of


this User’s Manual. Note that the external antenna must be pointed
directly at the sensor´s in-built antenna in order to obtain the optimum
signal strength.

e) After completing the measurements, carefully unscrew the external


antenna and replace the protective cover on the transceiver.

f) In case the next measurements are to be made without the external


antenna, re-enable the internal antenna from the settings menu as
described in section 5.4.2.

Note! Difficulties in communication can occur if attempting to make


measurements with the external antenna enabled but not connected.

34 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


4. Using the transceiver

4.2 Transceiver symbols

Operation performed
Stand by
successfully
A B B

Operation performed
>>>>>>> Establishing contact
un-successfully

Active field xxx-yyyy-zzz Sensor ID

Data transfer from PC


Transfer data
to transceiver

Data transfer from


Read data
transceiver to PC

Battery check Battery condition

Leakage current
Settings
measurement

Resistive leakage
Date & clock
current measurement *

Read surge counter


Antenna
data

Total reading * Backlight

Operating voltage * Contrast



* Not avaiable in all versions

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 35


4. Using the transceiver

4.3 Flowchart, making measurements

Press to turn
on the transceiver

The main menu is


accessed by pressing
enter

1. Prepare the transceiver 2. Make measurements 3. Transmit data to the


for measurements See 5.3 EXCOUNT-II software
See 5.1.1 See 5.1.2

Check that the date and time Ensure the sensor to be read Check that the date and time
on the transceiver are is within range and orientation for on the transceiver are
synchronized with the settings transmission, see section synchronized with the settings
on the PC. See 4.4 4.5 to 4.10 on the PC. See 4.4

Set the transceiver to Set the transceiver to "Make Set the transceiver to
"Prepare the transceiver measurements" mode. "Data transfer from Transceiver
for measurements" mode. to PC" mode.

Connect the Different types of Connect the transceiver to


transceiver to the PC measurements can be the PC via the data cable
via the data cable. performed by following
the instructions in 5.3.

Open the EXCOUNT-II PC- Open the EXCOUNT-II


software and select "Transfer PC software and select "Transfer
Select Sensor ID from data" followed by
data" followed by "Prepare
the menu in the transceiver "Receive measured data
transceiver for measurement".
and press enter. from transceiver".

Select which Sensors are to


be read by station, position Click "Request data"
and phase. when ready.

Click "Send list to


transceiver" when ready.
This erases all stored Click "save" to store the
data in the transceiver. details in the database.

Before going to the site


check the battery status.
See 5.2.
Then turn off the transceiver
to conserve the battery.

36 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


4. Using the transceiver

4.4 Sychronization of the clocks


Prior to transfering data between the PC and the transceiver, it is
important to check that the date and time are sychronized between
both of them. See figure 4.1.1 and 4.1.2. If not, set them as described
in section 5.4. If this is not done, the date stamp from the sensor will
be incorrect, which can lead to difficulties in recording measurements.

Figure 4.1.1 Figure 4.1.2


Windows date/time Transceiver date/time
properties menu properties menu

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 37


4. Using the transceiver

4.5 Range of the communication


Direct and completely unobstructed line-of-sight is preferable between
the transceiver and the sensor during communication.
The transceiver can communicate with the sensor within a range
of up to 60 meters. However this may differ depending on external
factors, including the physical and geographical layout at the site or
the presence of radio disturbances in the vicinity. A separate (optional)
external hand-held antenna is available to boost the effective signal
strength and increase the communication distance in special confi-
gurations which require it. However to obtain the best possible signal
strength, see section 4.6 to 4.9 below.

4.6 Your body affects the signal strength


Keep the transceiver as far away as possible from your body (arm-
length), since your body acts to diminish the energy from the trans-
mitter. The antenna is located in the top of the transceiver, so do not
place your hands or other obstructions over this area.

4.7 Optimal direction of the internal


transceiver antenna
The signal strength between the antennas in the transceiver and
sensor are influenced by their orientation to each other. See figure
4.7.1 for the best performance from the transceiver when used alone.
Note that the best reception and maximum range is obtained by poin-
ting the transceiver at approximately right angles to the sensor instead
of directly at it. 0°
Strength

Op
tim tion
al d irec
irec al d
tion tim
Op
270° 90°

180°

Figure 4.7.1
Optimal direction of the transceiver internal antenna

38 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


4. Using the transceiver

4.8 Direction of the sensor antenna


It may seem logical to be as close as possible to the sensor to obtain the
highest signal strength. However, this is not the case since the sensor
antenna has a signal direction which is nearly horizontal, see figure
4.8.1 depicting the contact zone.
To achieve the highest signal strength, you should stand a distance
away which is equivalent to twice the height of the sensor above the
ground plane. As noted in section 4.7, facing almost 90° degrees to
the sensor will also assist in optimizing the signal strength.

Sensor

ction
al dire
Optim
Height

2 x Height

Figure 4.8.1
Optimal direction of the sensor antenna

Since EXCOUNT-II relies on radio communication to make contact


between the transceiver and sensor, so called ”dead zones” can exist,
whereby the location you are standing at does not permit adequate
signal strength. If a measurement is attempted in one of these zones,
an Error code 80 or 82 may appear on the transceiver. Taking a few
paces to move out of the ”dead zone” before retransmitting again is
often all that is needed to permit contact to be established between
the transceiver and sensor.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 39


4. Using the transceiver

4.9 Special configurations


If the sensor is located a significant height above the ground, it may be dif-
ficult to make contact since it is not practical to be within the contact zone
as described in section 4.8. Examples are tall transmission line towers and
gantries. The taller the structure, the smaller the contact zone at ground level.
For these special configurations, a separate hand-held external antenna is
available as an option. This is a directed antenna which focuses the signal in
order to boost the effective strength and thereby increase the communication
distance. Since the signal is directed, the external antenna must be pointed
directly at the sensor’s in-built antenna in order to obtain the optimum signal
strength.

Direct and completely unobstructed line-of-sight is preferable between the


transceiver antenna and the sensor during communication. The first attempt
for communication should always follow the guidelines given in section 4.8,
but with the external antenna pointed directly at the sensor. If difficulties are
experienced, trial different locations around the sensor. Note that different
contact zones may apply for each phase or individual readings (see section
4.10). If necessary, and is possible to do safely, it is recommended to finally
stand directly under the sensor while making measurements using the exter-
nal antenna in such special configurations. See figure 4.9.1.

90 o
direction
Optimal

Transceiver
antenna

Figure 4.9.1
Use of hand-held external antenna in special configurations

Use of the external antenna may even assist communication in standard


configurations which otherwise have difficulty making contact because of
external factors.

40 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


4. Using the transceiver

4.9.1 Tower and Gantry layout


Experience has shown that specific special configurations, arrangements,
locations, geography etc can affect the robustness of the performance
of EXCOUNT-II. For this reason, it is strongly recommend undertaking a
field trial prior to full-scale installation. Since many factors are inter-related,
a simple trial made at the base of the transmission tower or gantry may
not be adequate to guarantee performance when mounted in service.
Instead, what is preferred is a trial with sensors fitted on a 3-phase set
of arresters mounted on each different tower/gantry configuration under
consideration. Communication should be checked both with the line de-
energized and energized. The final functionality at a given location with a
specific special configuration can then be determined.

As a further consideration, whilst the use of the external antenna may


assist in achieving effective communication, the tower/gantry layout and
configuration can affect the ultimate accuracy of the resistive leakage
current measurements (if available), since the positioning of the surge
arresters in relation to each other may alter the field-strength factor based
in the measuring principle (refer section 6). See figure 4.9.2 for example.
In such cases, the measured values must be treated subjectively. Nevert-
heless, absolute values are of lesser interest, since a rising trend gives a
better indication of potential arrester deterioration over time.

Figure 4.9.2
Example of vertical tower arrangement (double circuit)

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 41


4. Using the transceiver

4.10 Total versus Individual readings


Attempts to make a total reading (available in extended version only)
– i.e. consecutively leakage current, surge count, resistive current – may
be inappropriate with certain configurations and generate errors, since
the information is “in the air” too long. Should this occur, individual
readings of the separate measurements need to be made instead. See
section 5.3. Note that different contact zones may apply for each indivi-
dual reading.

4.11 Measurement strategy


To avoid unnecessary outages plus the high cost of unwarranted testing
of arresters, a decision should be made on a suitable time interval for
regular reading of the EXCOUNT-II data. This interval depends on a
number of factors including network arrangement, lightning flash density,
system redundancy, resources, desired accuracy in time-stamp, etc.

As a guide, the following strategy for a schedule of taking measurements


is proposed to begin with:
• Always a short time directly after energization to obtain a reference
value.
• At regular time intervals, determined by site availability and importance.
Two readings per year is a reasonable starting point but more may be
warranted, especially in locations where the arresters are exposed to
high lightning activity and/or heavy atmospheric pollution.
• Specifically in advance of the designated lighting season and thereafter
following periods with bad weather conditions.
• After special fault conditions causing flashover in the network or TOV’s
of high amplitude and/or long duration.

Readings must be made more often and with short regular time intervals
if the intention is to correlate the EXCOUNT-II data with other external
measurements and recordings - lightning activity meters, SCADA, etc.

42 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


Transceiver menus

Section 5
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 43
5. Transceiver menus

Stand by
Turn the transceiver on by pressing
Turn the transceiver off by pressing
Got to the main menu by pressing

The transceiver turns itself off automatically after 5 minutes.


The program version is shown in the lower left corner. The E ABB
2.0.0 E
stands for extended version which includes resistive leakage
current measurement.

5. Main menu
Select alternative with the key.
Then press

Transfer data (see 5.1)


Battery check (see 5.2)
Make measurements (see 5.3)
Settings (see 5.4)

Back to stand-by

5.1 Transfer data


Select alternative with the key.
Then press

Data transfer from PC to Transceiver (see 5.1.1)


Data transfer from Transceiver to PC (see 5.1.2)

Back to main menu

44 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


5. Transceiver menus

5.1.1 Data transfer from PC to Transceiver


In this mode, Sensor ID’s can be transfered from the PC to the
transceiver. Connect the data cable between the transceiver
and the PC.
See also the software help instructions.

Back to transfer data menu

5.1.2 Data transfer from Transceiver to PC


In this mode data collected from the Sensors can be
transmitted to the PC. Connect the data cable between the
transceiver and the PC.
See also the software help instructions.

Back to transfer data menu

5.2 Battery check


Displays the condition of the battery. Always check the
condition of the battery before transfering data to/from the
transceiver. Change battery if necessary.
If the battery expires during a measurement session,data can
0% 100%
be corrupted or lost.
In such case download the sensor ID’s again and take new
readings.

NOTE! Whenever the battery is replaced the transceiver clock


and date must be checked and sychronized with the PC (see
4.4) prior to transfering data or making measurements.

Back to main menu

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 45


5. Transceiver menus

5.3 Make measurements


Select alternative with the key.
Then press A

Leakage current measurement (see 5.3.1)


Read surge counter data (see 5.3.2)
A
Resistive leakage current measurement (see 5.3.3) 
Total reading (all of the above see 5.3.4)

Back to main meny

5.3.1 Leakage current measurement


Select sensor ID to read data from with the
Start the reading by pressing

A successful transmission is marked with


A failed transmission is marked with
If the transmission was unsuccessful, an error code
will be displayed.
Progress bar Error code

Back to read data menu

5.3.2 Read surge counter data


Select sensor ID to read data from with the key.
Start the reading by pressing

A successful transmission is marked with


A failed transmission is marked with
If the transmission was unsuccessful, an error code
will be displayed.
Progress bar Error code

Back to read data menu

46 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


5. Transceiver menus

5.3.3 Resistive leakage current measurement


Not available in all versions.

Select sensor ID to read data from with the key.


Start the reading by pressing

Before the transmission begins the operating voltage must be


given. (see 5.3.3.1)
Progress bar Error code
A successful transmission is marked with
A failed transmission is marked with
If the transmission was unsuccessful, an error code
will be displayed.

Back to read data menu

5.3.3.1 Operating voltage


Not available in all versions.

The actual operating voltage must be given when


measuring the resistive leakage current.
The system voltage is displayed as a default value.
Adjust the value to the actual value with
and keys.
Enter the correct value by pressing

NOTE! If the system is 3-phase, the value should be the actual


phase-phase voltage. Otherwise, for 1-phase systems, the value
should be the phase-ground voltage.

The progress bar will indicate that the transmission


has begun.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 47


5. Transceiver menus

5.3.4 Total reading


Not available in all versions.

Select sensor ID to read data from with the key.


Start the reading by pressing

Before the transmission begins, the operating voltage must be


given. (see 5.3.3.1)

Each reading is made in turn automatically.

A successful transmission is marked with


A failed transmission is marked with
If the transmission was unsuccessful, an error code

will be displayed

If any reading is unsuccessfull press


key again to repeat the reading.

Back to total reading menu

5.4 Settings menu


Select alternative with the key.
Then press

Backlight settings (see 5.4.1)


Antenna settings (see 5.4.2)
Contrast settings (see 5.4.3)
Clock and date settings (see 5.4.4)

Back to main meny

48 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


5. Transceiver menus

5.4.1 Backlight
By default backlight is disabled.

Enable backlight by pressing .


Enabled backlight is indicated by instead
of .

Disable backlight by pressing .

Changes are stored in non volatile memory.

Back to settings meny

5.4.2 External antenna


By default internal antenna is enabled.

Enable external antenna by pressing .


Enabled external antenna is indicated by instead
of .

Disable external antenna by pressing .

Changes are stored in non volatile memory.

Back to settings meny

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 49


5. Transceiver menus

5.4.3 Set contrast


Increase contrast by pressing .

Decrease contrast by pressing .

Changes are stored in non volatile memory.

Back to settings meny

5.4.4 Set clock and date


The cursor highlights which digit to adjust. The cursor is
moved to the next digit by pressing the key.
Each digit is changed by using the and
keys.
After changing any digit the status symbol is changed to X .
When the correct date and clock is set move the cursor to the
X and enter the value by
pressing
This changes the status symbol to

50 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


Surge arrester monitoring theory

Section 6
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 51
6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

6.1 Introduction
The rising demands for improved reliability of power supply and
reduced maintenance costs have increased the attention on condi-
tion monitoring of equipment in HV substations. As far as metal-oxide
surge arresters are concerned, there are two important aspects which
are related to the reliability of the arresters:
• The stress on the arrester in terms of the intensity
and frequency of impulse currents
• The condition of the arrester in terms of its insulating
properties in normal service

The first aspect is addressed by performing continuous surge coun-


ting and the second by leakage current measurements on regular
basis.

The EXCOUNT-II is designed to handle both surge counting and


leakage current measurements in a single monitoring system. The
EXCOUNT-II system comprises a sensor, permanently mounted at the
base of the arrester, a transceiver for wireless communication with the
sensor, and proprietary software installed on a personal computer.

In the following, the bases for surge counting and leakage current
measurements are described, and the corresponding functions of the
EXCOUNT-II are presented. For general information on various diag-
nostic methods for metal-oxide arresters, please refer to IEC 60099-5.

6.2 Surge counting


General
The primary aim of a surge counter is to give an indication of the
stress on the arrester from impulse currents caused by overvoltages.
In addition, surge counters may be helpful in analysing the occur-
rences of overvoltages on the system, provided the surge counting
information is sufficiently detailed.

Surge counting with EXCOUNT-II


Surge counters operate at impulse currents above a certain ampli-
tude. The EXCOUNT-II sensor is equipped with an impulse current

52 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

transformer for registration of discharge currents from 10 A and


above, see figure 6.2.1.

The measured current peak values are sorted into five impulse current
ranges and stored in the EXCOUNT-II memory along with the date and
time of each impulse. The impulse current ranges are: 10 - 99 A, 100
- 999A, 1000 - 4999 A, 5000 - 9999 A and >10000 A. The preci-
sion of the impulse current measurements is optimized with regard
to lightning current impulses. The EXCOUNT-II memory keeps the
information on the 1000 most recent impulses, with a maximum rate
of 2 impulses per second. For technical data on surge counting, see
technical data in section 8 on page 52.

Impulse current
transformer

Figure 6.2.1
Internal parts of the EXCOUNT-II sensor

The memory content is transmitted to the EXCOUNT-II transceiver, at


the time of the leakage current measurements described below. The
surge counter data is later transmitted to a personal computer and
analyzed by means of the EXCOUNT-II software.

The use of the detailed surge counting information provided by the


EXCOUNT-II is not limited to the estimation of arrester stresses. The
information can also be used to analyse the occurrence of the last
1000 lightning overvoltages with regard to date, time and amplitude
of the arrester impulse current. When this information is combined
with data from event recorders etc., investigations of lightning faults or
other system events may be greatly facilitated.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 53


6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

6.3 Leakage current measurements


Apart from the brief occasions when a surge arrester is functioning
as an overvoltage-limiting device, it is expected to behave like an
insulator. The insulating properties are essential for the length of life
of the arrester and for the operation reliability of the power system.
Any deterioration of the insulating properties of a metal-oxide arrester
will cause an increase in the resistive leakage current, at given values
of voltage and temperature. Therefore, the resistive leakage current
in service can be used as a diagnostic tool to check the condition
of a surge arrester. Leakage current measurements for diagnostic
purposes are usually made on temporary basis at regular intervals.
Repeated measurements may be necessary for closer investigations,
if significant changes in the condition of an arrester are revealed by
temporary measurements.

Leakage current of metal-oxide arresters


The total leakage current of a metal-oxide arrester can be divided into
capacitive and resistive parts, see figure 6.3.1, with a predominant
capacitive component and a significantly smaller resistive part (5 to
20% of the total current). The capacitive leakage current is caused by
the permittivity of the metal-oxide varistors, by the stray capacitances
and by internal grading capacitors (if applied).

A large increase in the resistive leakage current is needed before a


noticeable change occurs in the total leakage current level. Therefore,
the total leakage current is unsuitable for arrester diagnostic purposes.
Instead, it may be used for other diagnostic or maintenance purposes,
e.g. to estimate the prevailing amount of insulator surface pollution
and the associated need for insulator washing, greasing etc. of the
insulators in the substation.

The resistive component of the leakage current, on the other hand,


is a sensitive indicator of any changes in the voltage-current cha-
racteristic of a metal-oxide arrester. The EXCOUNT-II is equipped for
measurement of the total leakage current and, optionally, for measure-
ment of the resistive leakage current. In this way, the EXCOUNT-II may
be equipped to fulfil different diagnostic needs in addition to surge
counting.

54 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

Figure 6.3.1
Electrical representation of metal-oxide surge
arrester in the leakage current region

Resistive leakage current


The resistive leakage current is defined as the peak value of the resis-
tive component of the leakage current, i.e. the instantaneous value of
the leakage current when the voltage across the arrester is at its maxi-
mum (dU/dt = 0). In the leakage current region, the resistive current
depends on the voltage stress and temperature of the varistors. The
typical non-linear behavior of the resistive leakage current is shown in
figure 6.3.2 for two different varistor temperatures. The voltage stress
is expressed as the ratio of the operating voltage to the rated voltage
of the arrester (U/Ur).

Figure 6.3.2
Example of voltage-current characteristics
of a metal-oxide surge arrester

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 55


6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

The maximum continuous operating voltage of an arrester (the Uc


according to IEC, or the MCOV according to ANSI) usually cor-
responds to a voltage stress in the range 0,7-0,85 p.u. of the rated
voltage.

In normal arrester applications, the operating voltage stress usually


ranges from 0,5 to 0,8 p.u. of the rated voltage. In this range, the
resistive leakage currents at +20°C may vary from 10 to 600 µA
depending on the size and make of the varistors.

Harmonics in the total leakage current


The non-linear voltage-current characteristic of a metal-oxide arrester,
illustrated in figure 6.3.2, gives rise to harmonics in the total leakage
current when the arrester is energized with a sinusoidal voltage. The
harmonic content depends on the degree of non-linearity, which is a
function of voltage stress, temperature and make of the arrester. As
an example, the third harmonic content of the total leakage current is
typically 10-40% of the resistive current.

The harmonic content of the total leakage current can, therefore, be


used as an indicator of the resistive leakage current. Using harmonics
for measuring the resistive leakage current is advantageous compared
to other methods, since no voltage reference is needed to determine
the resistive part of the total leakage current. The third order harmonic
is of special interest in this respect, since it has the largest magnitude
of the current harmonics.

The actual resistive leakage current level can be readily determined


from measurements of the third harmonic, provided the appropriate
information is available regarding the third harmonic content of the
resistive current at the prevailing voltage stress and temperature. This
information is specific to the arrester make and type, and must there-
fore be supplied by the arrester manufacturer.

56 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

Another source of harmonics in the total leakage current is the har-


monic content in the system voltage. The voltage harmonics produce
capacitive harmonic currents in the arrester. This is clearly illustrated in
figure 6.3.3, showing results from total leakage current measurements
on two different arresters in service conditions that are significantly
different in terms of system voltage harmonics.

Figure 6.3.3
Total leakage currents of metal-oxide
surge arresters in different service conditions

The capacitive harmonic currents produced by the voltage harmonics


may be of the same order of magnitude as the harmonic currents
generated by the non-linear resistive leakage current. This means
that the third harmonic content originating from the system voltage
interferes with the third harmonic content associated with the resistive
leakage current of the arrester. In order to perform accurate measure-
ments of the resistive leakage current by means of third order harmo-
nic analysis, it is therefore necessary to compensate for the third order
harmonic content in the system voltage.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 57


6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

Leakage current measurements with EXCOUNT-II


When the EXCOUNT-II is optionally equipped for measurement of
resistive leakage currents, the measurement is based on third har-
monic analysis of the total leakage current with compensation for the
third harmonic in the system voltage. The compensation is performed
by simultaneous measurements of both the total leakage current of
the arrester and the current induced in a field probe, the latter being
proportional to the harmonic content in the system voltage.

The principle for measurement of the resistive leakage current with the
EXCOUNT-II is the same as for the original leakage current monitor,
LCM, developed by ABB Switchgear and TransiNor, and described in
detail in [2].

The procedure for total leakage current and field probe current
measurements with EXCOUNT-II is presented step-by-step in the fol-
lowing:

Zero-flux current
transformer Field probe

Figure 6.3.4
Internal parts of the EXCOUNT-II sensor

58 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

The total leakage current is measured by means of the zero-flux


current transformer, and the electric field generated by the system
voltage is measured in terms of the current induced in the field probe,
both shown in figure 6.3.4. The field probe current, see figure 6.3.5, is
used to compensate for the harmonic content in the system voltage.

Every 10 seconds, the data communication system of the EXCOUNT-II


sensor is activated to establish contact with an EXCOUNT-II transceiver
in the vicinity. If successful, the sensor makes the total leakage current
and field probe current measurements described above and transmits
the measured data to the transceiver. In addition, the sensor also trans-
mits surge counting data along with data on ambient temperature and
sensor identity, etc. For details on the sensor/transceiver data commu-
nication system, see technical data in section 11 on page 42.

Electric field
surrounding the
arrester
Field
probe
Ip

Figure 6.3.5
Principle of field probe for determination
of system voltage harmonics

In the transceiver, the magnitudes of the total leakage currents are


checked with regard to the measurement ranges (see Table 1). Extre-
mely low current levels, caused by the arrester being out of opera-
tion etc., are also identified. Accepted measurements are analysed
by means of Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) to determine the
magnitude and phase angle of the first and third order harmonic
components of the total leakage and field probe currents (for resistive
leakage current option). Several measurements are analysed to verify
the stability of the current levels. The total leakage current and field
probe current data (as well as the surge counting data) are temporarily
stored in the transceiver for later downloading to a personal computer.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 59


6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

By means of the EXCOUNT-II software, the total leakage, field probe


current and surge counting data are analyzed and presented for
each arrester. The resistive leakage current level (optional) is calcu-
lated in two steps: First, the resistive third harmonic of the arrester
resistive leakage current, with compensation for the third harmonic in
the voltage, is determined by the equation below (for a three-phase
horizontal installation). For a detailed explanation of the equation and
its basis, see [2]. Secondly, the resistive leakage current is determi-
ned from the resistive third harmonic current by means of information
supplied by the arrester manufacturer.

The ratio of the total resistive leakage current to the third harmonic
current depends on the operating voltage stress (the operating voltage
divided by the rated voltage) and the arrester temperature (in practice,
the ambient temperature). These parameters are therefore recorded
at the time of the total leakage current and field probe current measu-
rements. The ambient temperature is automatically measured by the
sensor, while the operating voltage is entered into the transceiver at the
time of the total leakage current and field probe measurement.

Figure 6.3.6

Resistive leakage current information from the


surge arrester manufacturer
The information from the arrester manufacturer is given in accordance
with IEC 60099-5 [1] for each arrester type. All ABB type arresters are
included in the EXCOUNT-II software to allow measurements of resis-
tive leakage currents. To be ably to correctly calculate the resistive lea-
kage current for non-ABB type of arresters the characteristics of that
type must be added to the data base. Please contact your ABB office
for further information. The manufacturer’s information comprises:
• Maximum recommended levels of total resistive leakage current and
resistive third harmonic current at a specified voltage stress (U/Ur =
0,7) and a specified ambient temperature (+20°C). These conditions
are referred to as “standard operating conditions”.

60 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

• Multipliers for the total resistive leakage current and the resistive
third harmonic as functions of voltage stress and ambient tempera-
ture. These multipliers are used for converting the actual values of
voltage stress and ambient temperature at the time of measurement
to standard operating conditions. Examples of such multipliers are
given in Figures 6.3.7 and 6.3.8.

Figure 6.3.7
Typical information for conversion to
standard operating voltage conditions

Figure 6.3.8
Typical information for conversion to
standard ambient temperature conditions

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 61


6. Surge arrester monitoring theory

Evaluation of resistive leakage current levels


By means of the manufacturer information, the resistive leakage
current level is determined from the resistive third harmonic current,
and the results obtained under the actual operating conditions are
converted to the standard operating conditions. After conversion, the
results of the leakage current measurements can be evaluated in two
different ways:
• The converted leakage current level can be compared with previous
results obtained for the same arrester, to reveal any significant chan-
ges in the leakage current level over time.
• The converted leakage current level can be compared with the
maximum level recommended by the arrester manufacturer.

These comparisons are carried out by the EXCOUNT-II software. The


results may be presented and documented in graphs, tables and
reports.

References
[1] IEC 60099-5 Ed. 1.1 (2000-03): Surge arresters - Part 5: Selection
and application recommendations.

[2} J. Lundquist, L. Stenström, A. Schei, B. Hansen, ”New Method


for Measurement of the Resistive Leakage Currents of Metal-Oxide
Surge Arresters in Service,” IEEE Trans. On PWRD, Vol. 5, No. 4,
November 1990.

62 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


Radio transmission protocol

Section 7
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 63
7. Radio transmission protocol

7.1 Packet communication protocol


All radio channels are subject to noise, intereference and fading. In many
cases, radio channels are shared by several users of services. Packet
communication protocols are widely used to achieve error-free communi-
cations over imperfect and/or shared communication channels.

Almost all short-range wireless data communications use some form of


packet protocol to automatically assure information is received correctly
at the correct destination. A packet generally includes a training pream-
ble, a start symbol, routing information (to/from, etc.) a packet ID, all or
part of a message and error detection bits. Other information may be
included depending on the protocol.

Figure 7.1.1 shows one of the packet formats used in EXCOUNT-II. The
structure begins with a training preamble, which improves weak signal
detection at the receiver by ”training” the data slicer for best noise immu-
nity, and providing signal transitions to train the clock recovery process.
The training preamble usually consists of several bytes of a
1-0-1-0-1-0 ... sequence.
EXCOUNT-II RF Link Packet Format
Start From Packet Size/Status FCS High FCS Low
Preamble To Byte Message
Symbol Byte Number Byte* Byte Byte

Figure 7.1.1

The preamble is followed by a start symbol (often called a start vector),


which is a distinct pattern of bits marking the start of the information sec-
tion of the packet.

The start symbol is followed by ”to” and ”from” address information. In


the EXCOUNT-II protocol, the packet ID is followed by message size or
status information.

The message then follows . The following two bytes of the packet com-
prise a 16 bit error checking code (frame check sequence), based on the
X.25 packet standard (ISO 3309). The error checking code is recompu-
ted at the destination to confirm error-free detection. The ISO 3309 frame
check sequence provides very high confidence of error detection for
packets up to 256 bytes in length.

In summary, EXCOUNT-II protocols provides the following features:


• 16-bit ISO 3309 error detection calculation to test message integrity
• Automatic packet retransmission until acknowledgement is received; 8
retries with semi-random back off plus ”acknowledge” and ”link failure”
alarm messages.

64 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


7. Radio transmission
9. protocoll
Disposal

Technical data

Section 8
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 65
8. Technical data

8.1 Technical data


Surge counting Sensor/Transceiver
Counting threshold Data Communication
10 A
(8/20 µs) AM radio (OOK)
10–99 A Type ETSI and FCC
Surge current amp- 100-999 A approved
litude classification 1000-4999 A 868.35 MHz or
(8/20 µs) 5000-9999 A Frequency
916.50 MHz
> 10 000 A
Integrated on circuit-
Error in surge coun- Antenna board. Optional hand-
< 20%
ting amplitude held external.
Surge counting time Output power -3dBm (0.75 mW)
< 0.5 s
resolution Operation range (max.)
up to 60 m (120 m
YYYY:MM:DD: Environment
Surge counting time with external antenna)
hhmmss dependent
stamp format
(1 s resolution) Required system conditions for stable
1000 registrations communication
Surge counting
(wrap-around)
memory capacity 0.4 to 0.9 p.u. arres-
System voltage
ter Ur
Leakage Current Measurement
Third harmonic con-
Measuring range of Max 3%
tent in system voltage
total leakage 0.2 – 12 mA
current (peak value) Field probe current 3 - 190 µApeak
Error in total leakage Leakage current 0.2 - 12 mApeak
< 5%
current Radio interference
Optional at communication Below -97 dBm
Measuring range of frequency
resistive leakage cur- 10 – 2000 µA Ambient temperature -10 to +60 °C
rent (peak value)
Error in resistive < 10 µA (10 – 50 µA);
leakage current < 20% (50 – 2000 µA

Required arrester condition during leakage current measurement


Transient leakage currents can affect the measurements made. To ensure both
stable readings and the best possible consistency for comparison between measu-
red values, leakage current measurements should not be made while it is raining or
otherwise when large external leakage currents can be expected to flow on the hou-
sing. This is less of an issue for arresters with silicone housings, since such external
leakage currents are lower.

66 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


8. Technical data

General
Sensor Transceiver External antenna
Climatic Sealed, water-tight design, IP67
Weather-resistant Weather resistant
conditions (Battery compartment, IP 65)
Ambient
–50 °C to +60 °C
temperature -10 °C to +50 °C -10 °C to +50 °C
Operation: –40 °C to +60 °C
range
Measuring
50 or 60 Hz
frequency N/A N/A
(software selectable)
range
Short-circuit
65 kA acc. to IEC 60099-4 N/A N/A
capability
Built-in solar cell and field probe 9 Volt battery
Primary power
Back-up 9 Volt lithium battery Alkaline type N/A
supply
U9VL (primary for indoor use) 6LR61/PP3
Battery replace- 8 years with 1200 mAh
> 4 hours N/A
ment period lithium battery
Weight (without
2072 g 221 g 420 g
battery)

System clock
The time-stamp for surge counting is only as accurate as the value stored in the sensor.
This value is “reset” each time contact is made with the transceiver, but in between mea-
surements can drift because of temperature dependence, as depicted in Figure 8.1.1.

Figure 8.1.1
Temperature dependent time deviation

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 67


8. Technical data

8.2 Dimensions

EXCOUNT-II
ID. No: XXXXXXXX
Cat. No:
1HSA44X XXX-X
Made in Sweden

Figure 8.2.1
Sensor

Figure 8.2.2 Figure 8.2.3


Sensor External antenna

68 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


Disposal

Section 9
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 69
9. Disposal

Disposal
When the items incorporating EXCOUNT-II are taken out of service,
components shall be disposed of according to local regulations.

The sensor, transceiver and external antenna contain electronic,


metal, rubber and plastic components. The 9V battery in each device
must be removed and disposed of separately.
The sensor is assembled in a sealed case, making it difficult to dis-
mantle completely for separate disposal.

70 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


Transceiver error codes

Section 10
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 71
10. Transceiver error codes

Error Description Suggested cause and action


code
01 System error The transceiver could not perform the
requested task. Turn off the transceiver and
restart. Attempt with individual readings
rather than total reading (if this was the
case). If the error persists, a serious inter-
nal fault may have occured. Contact your
EXCOUNT-II service representative.
11 Prohibited action The user has attempted to do something which
is prohibited. For example, it is not permitted to
re-transmit an already successful transmission.
Turn off the transceiver and restart.
21 Checksum error An error occurred in the data transmission
and the data has been lost or corrupted.
Interference from a nearby high-frequency
source can be a likely cause. Wait 30
seconds before attempting to retransmit the
data. Attempt with individual readings rather
than total reading (if this was the case).
31 EEPROM data read error The transceiver could not read from the inter-
nal EEPROM memory. Turn off the transceiver
and restart. If the error persists a serious
internal fault may have occured. Contact your
EXCOUNT-II service representative.
32 EEPROM data write The transceiver could not write to the inter-
error nal EEPROM memory. Turn off the transcei-
ver and restart. If the error persists, contact
your EXCOUNT-II service representative.
41 Low temperature The ambient temperature is lower than defi-
ned in the database for resistive current mea-
surements, (lowest defined temperature is -10
º C). Take measurements at another time.
42 High temperature The ambient temperature is higher than
defined in the database for resistive current
measurements, (highest defined temperature is
+60 º C). Take measurements at another time.

72 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


10. Transceiver error codes

Error Description Suggested cause and action


code
51 Too low field probe The system voltage is too low to generate suf-
current ficient current in the field probe in the sensor.
Check that:
a) the line is correctly energized.
b) the sensor is correctly mounted.

If none of the above are found to be the cause,


take measurements at another time.
52 Too high field probe The system voltage is too high and generating
current excessive current in the field probe in the sensor.
Check that:
a) the line is correctly energized.
b) the sensor is correctly mounted.

If none of the above are found to be the cause,


take measurements at another time.
61 Low leakage current The measured leakage current is too low
(< 0.2 mApeak).
Check that:
a) the line is correctly energized.
b) the sensor is correctly mounted.

If none of the above are found to be the cause


take measurements at another time.

62 High leakage current The measured leakage current is too high


(> 12 mApeak).
Check that:
a) the line is correctly energized.
b) the sensor is correctly mounted.

If none of the above are found to be the cause


take measurements at another time.
If the error persists the surge arrester may be
suspect.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 73


10. Transceiver error codes

Error Description Suggested cause and action


code
70 Unstable leakage A stable value for the leakage current cannot
current be measured. A likely cause may be an unsta-
ble line voltage. Take measurements at another
time.
71 Operating voltage out The operating voltage for compensation of
of range resistive leakage current measurement is out of
range (0.4 to 0.9 p.u. of arrester Ur). Verify the
value given as described in section 5.3.3.1.
80 Sensor not found The sensor ID was not recognised by any
locally present sensor. Wait 30 seconds before
retransmitting again. If contact still cannot be
Read the safety informa- established, check:
tion in section 3 carefully a) the chosen sensor ID is present at this station
before working with the b) the distance and orientation to the sensor is
sensor. as described in section 4.
c) interference from a high frequency source
d) battery status to ensure the transceiver
battery voltage is sufficient.
e) antenna status to ensure it is correctly
enabled.

Note! If none of the above are found to be the


cause, then consider the following:
When the energy in the sensor falls below a certain
level, the sensor switches off the listening function
(to conserve energy for recording) until such time
that the energy level is sufficient again for com-
munication. This may occur if many attempts to
communicate have been made in a row or because
there is insufficient sunlight and/or electrical field.
Should unexplained difficulties occur during com-
munication, it is suggested to wait until another time
to make measurements or else install a 9V battery
in the sensor.

74 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


10. Transceiver error codes

Error Description Suggested cause and action


code
81 Transmission buffer The transceiver registred a buffer error. Turn
error off the transceiver and restart. Attempt with
individual readings rather than total reading
(if this was the case). If the error persists,
a serious internal fault may have occured.
Contact your EXCOUNT-II service represen-
tative.
82 Connection lost The sensor recognised its ID but the con-
nection was lost during the transmission.
Wait 30 seconds before re-transmiting again.
Read the safety information If the error persists, check:
in section 3 carefully before a) the distance and orientation to the sensor
working with the sensor. is as described in section 4.
b) interference from a high frequency source
c) battery status to ensure the transceiver-
battery voltage is sufficient.
d) antenna status to ensure it is correctly
enabled.

Note! If none of the above are found to be


the cause, then consider the following:
When the energy in the sensor falls below a
certain level, the sensor switches off the liste-
ning function (to conserve energy for recor-
ding) until such time that the energy level
is sufficient again for communication. This
may occur if many attempts to communicate
have been made in a row or because there
is insufficient sunlight and/or electrical field.
Should unexplained difficulties occur during
communication, it is suggested to wait until
another time to make measurements or else
install a 9V battery in the sensor.

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 75


76 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual
12. Index

Index

Section 11
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 77
11. Index

A M
Administration 20 Making measurements 36
arrester data 20 Measuring principle 9
sensor data 20 Measurement strategy 42
station data 20
transceiver date/time 21 P
windows date/time 21 Packet communication protocol 64
Antenna 34, 38, 39 PC 9
B Pre-installation 12

Battery 12, 14 R
battery check 45 Radio transmission protocol 64
C Range of the communication 38
Reference measurement 25
Cleaning 32 Resistive leakage current 47, 55, 58
D S
Data cable 9 Safety instructions 3
Data transfer 44 Sensor 9
Dimensions 68 antenna 39
Disposal 70 field probe 58
ID-number 20
I Installation 25
Set clock and date 37
ID number 13 Software 15
Insulating base 9 Special configurations 40
Surge arrester monitoring 52
K leakage current measurements 54
Key to the symbols 3 resistive leakage current 55
surge counting 52
L Surge counter data 46
Leakage current 46, 47, 54, 58 Sychronization of the clocks 37
measurement

78 1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual


11. Index

T
Technical data 66, 67
Total reading 48
Transceiver 9
antenna 34, 38
battery check 45
cleaning 32
data transfer 44
date/time 50
error codes 72, 73, 74, 75
functions 33
measurement 46
menus 44
range of the communication 38
sychronization of the clocks 37
symbols 35

1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual 79


1HSA 801 080-15en, Edition 3.2, 2010-03

NOTE: ABB AB is working continuously to improve the products.


We therefore reserve the right to change designs, dimensions and
data without prior notice.

ABB AB
High Voltage Products
Surge Arresters
SE-771 80 LUDVIKA, Sweden
Phone +46 (0)240 78 20 00
Fax. +46 (0)240 179 83
E-mail:
80
arresters.div@se.abb.com
1HSA 801 080-15en EXCOUNT-II Users Manual
Internet: http://www.abb.com/arrestersonline