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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

NON-MODIFIABLE FACTORS: MODIFIABLE FACTORS:


 Genetic Alteration  Radiation
 Sex: Female  Virus
 Age: 30-50 years old

ETIOLOGY

Lymphocytes reacts
against an antigen

Mass production of cytokines

Damaged the endothelium

Production of PDGF and TGF


Nitric oxide Endothelin 1 Beta
hypoxia

Activated Fibroblasts

Increased production of
collagen

Fibrosis on Various Organs

Hand Skin
Visceral Organs

collagen collagen
accumulation accumulation
Vessels constricts Absence of sweat
glands

Less supply of
blood Skin tightness,
stiffness and
dryness
Ischemic injury

Fingertip necrosis

Esophagus Digestive Tract Heart Lungs

collagen collagen collagen collagen


accumulation accumulation accumulation accumulation

Absence of less peristalsis Myocardial Narrowing of


peristalsis fibrosis arteries

atrophy of villi
Thinning of esophagus with conduction problem Pulmonary hypertension
areas of ulceration

heart failure alveolitis & pleuritis