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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/LPT.2017.2657228, IEEE Photonics

Technology Letters

Wireless Optical Communication Systems

Mohammad Vahid Jamali, Ata Chizari, and Jawad A. Salehi, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—In this letter, we analytically evaluate the end-to- ݄ሺͳሻ ሺݐሻ ݄ሺʹሻ ሺݐሻ ݄ሺܰͳሻ ሺݐሻ

end bit error rate (BER) of point-to-point multi-hop underwater

wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems with respect to ܵ ܴͳ ܴʹ ܴܰ ܦ

all degrading effects of the UWOC channel, namely absorption,

scattering, and turbulence-induced fading. To do so, we first

derive the BER expression of a single-hop UWOC link as Fig. 1. Block diagram of the UWOC system with multi-hop transmission.

the building block for end-to-end BER evaluation. We also

apply Gauss-Hermite quadrature formula to obtain the closed- with much reduced impairing effects, to significantly improve

form solution for the system BER in the case of lognormal the system performance or equivalently increase the viable

underwater fading channel. Numerical results demonstrate that communication range without increasing the total transmitted

multi-hop transmission, by alleviating channel impairments, can power. Moreover, whereas the short range of UWOC systems

significantly improve the system performance and extend the is their main drawback compared to their acoustic counterpart,

viable end-to-end communication distance.

Index Terms—Underwater wireless optical communications,

by employing multi-hop transmission one can increase the

BER performance, multi-hop transmission, serial relaying. total transmitted power by the number of intermediate relay

nodes to support significantly longer distances while maintain-

I. I NTRODUCTION ing the safe transmit power density. This letter, as a pioneering

work on multi-hop UWOC systems, accurately considers all

ODAY’S growing interest to underwater explorations ne-

T cessitates design of appropriate and efficient underwater

communication methods and systems. In comparison to the

of the channel degrading effects and derives the required ex-

pressions for the BER performance of such systems in general

case to quantitatively determine how much performance gains

traditional underwater acoustic communications, the optical

they introduce and how long communication ranges they can

counterpart has the advantages of higher bandwidth, lower

support.

time latency, and better security. These unique features make

underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) as a II. C HANNEL AND S YSTEM M ODEL

powerful alternative for high-speed and large-data underwater A. Channel Model

communications. However, due to the three main degrading

In order to include the absorption and scattering effects, we

effects of UWOC channels, i.e., absorption, scattering, and

apply MC method to simulate the UWOC channel impulse

turbulence, the present capability of UWOC systems is limited

response similar to [3] and [9]. We denote this fading-free

to ranges that are typically less than 100 m, which hampers (i)

their widespread usage. impulse response of the ith hop by h0 (t). On the other

The primary works on UWOC have mainly focused on hand, to consider the ith hop turbulence effects, we multiply

(i)

investigating the absorption and scattering effects of under- h0 (t) by a fading coefficient, h̃(i) , which for weak oceanic

water optical channels [1], [2]. Meanwhile, UWOC channel turbulence can be modeled as a random variable (RV) with

impulse response has been modeled using Monte Carlo (MC) lognormal probability density function (PDF) [10], [11] as;

( )2

approach in [3]. Also a cellular UWOC network based on (i)

1 ln(h̃ )−2µX

optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique fh̃(i)(h̃(i) ) = √ exp−

i

2 , (1)

has been proposed in [4] while potential applications and 2

2h̃(i) 2πσXi 8σ Xi

challenges of such a network, and the performance of its

mobile users have been elaborated in [5] and [6], respectively. where µXi and σX 2

are respectively the mean and variance of

i

On the other hand, theoretical and experimental studies on the the Gaussian distributed log-amplitude factor Xi = 12 ln(h̃(i) ).

fading of UWOC channels have been carried out in [7], [8]. To guarantee that fading neither attenuates nor amplifies the

It is shown that all of the channel impairing effects, i.e., average power, we normalize fading coefficients as E[h̃(i) ] =

loss, delay spread, and fading variance rapidly increase as 1, which implies that µXi = −σX 2

i

. For the light wave with

the link length increases [3], [7]. This distance-dependency instantaneous intensity I , the scintillation index is defined

( i )

motivates the design of a multi-hop UWOC system, in order as S.I. = E[Ii2 ] − E2 [Ii ] /E2 [Ii ], which for weak optical

to divide the total communication distance to shorter ones each turbulence relates to the log-amplitude variance as S.I. =

The authors are with the Optical Networks Research Laboratory exp(4σX 2

i

) − 1 [12].

(ONRL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of

Technology, Tehran, Iran (e-mails: mohammad.v.jamali@gmail.com, B. System Model

chizari.ata@gmail.com, and jasalehi@sharif.edu). As it is illustrated in Fig. 1, we consider a UWOC system

Copyright (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted.

However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be with N intermediate relay nodes in a serial topology. As

obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to pubs-permissions@ieee.org. opposed to cooperative communication and parallel relaying,

1041-1135 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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Technology Letters

in multi-hop transmission each node only receives the trans- conditional probability of error when “b0 ” is sent can be

mitted signal of its previous node because the transmitted obtained as;

power of each transmitter is designed such that guarantee [ ∑−1 ]

a good performance for each intermediate hop. Each relay h̃ γ (s)+(−1)b0 +1 k=−L 2bk γ (I,k)

node operates based on bit detect-and-forward (BDF) strategy, Pbe|b0 ,h̃,bk= Q , (4)

2σTb

i.e., each ith node1 after detecting the received optical signal

transmits the detected signal, with the average transmitted √ ∫∞

(i)

power per bit of Pb , to the next node. Therefore, the where Q (x) = (1/ 2π) x exp(−y 2 /2)dy is the Gaussian-

transmitted data sequence of the ith node has the form Q function. The final BER can then be obtained by averaging

∑∞ (i) (i) over h̃ and all 2L possible data sequences for bk s as follows;

S (i) (t) = k=−∞ bk P (t − kTb ), in which Tb is the

∫

1 ∑ ∞1[ ]

(i)

bit duration time and bk ∈ {0, 1} is the kth time slot

transmitted bit of the ith node, representing on-off keying Pbe = L Pbe|0,h̃,bk + Pbe|1,h̃,bk fh̃ (h̃)dh̃. (5)

2 0 2

(OOK) modulation. Moreover, P (i) (t − kTb ) is the kth time bk

slot transmitted optical signal of the ith node with the average In the case of lognormal underwater fading channel, the

(i)

power per bit of Pb , which, for the sake of fairness, relates averaging over fading coefficient in (5) can effectively be

∑N (i)

to the total transmitted power per bit as i=0 Pb = Pb . calculated using Gauss-Hermite quadrature formula (GHQF)

The received signal by the ith node can be expressed as; [17, Eq. (25.4.46)] as follows;

∞

∑ ∫ ∞

(i) (i−1) (i) (i) (i−1) (i) 1

Pbe|b0 ,h̃=e2x ,bk e−(x−µX ) /2σX dx

2 2

y (t) = S (t)∗h (t) = h̃ bk Γ (t−kTb ), (2) Pbe|b0 ,bk = √ 2

k=−∞ 2πσX x=−∞

( ( √ ))

1 ∑

(i) V

where Γ(i) (t) = P (i−1) (t) ∗ h0 (t), and ∗ denotes the convo- ≈√ wq Q Cb0 exp 2xq 2σX 2 + 2µ , (6)

X

lution operation. Each receiver, either in relay nodes or in the π q=1

destination, performs symbol-by-symbol processing which is

suboptimal in the presence of inter-symbol interference (ISI) in which V is the order of approximation, wq , q = 1, 2, ..., V ,

[13]. In other words, each receiver integrates over each Tb are the weights of the V th-order approximation and xq is the

seconds and compares the result with an appropriate threshold qth zero of the V th-order Hermite polynomial, HV (x) [17].

to detect the received optical signal in the presence of noise. Moreover, the parameter Cb0 in (6) is defined as;

Since different noise components are additive and independent ∑−1

from each other, we model them as an equivalent component γ (s)+(−1)b0 +1 k=−L 2bk γ (I,k)

Cb0 = . (7)

with Gaussian distribution [14]. Moreover, we assume that the 2σTb

signal-dependent shot noise has a negligible effect with respect

to the other noise components and hence the noise variance is Hereafter, for the sake of brevity, we denote the ith node

(i)

independent from the incoming optical signal power [15]. conditional BER with Pcbe−b0 which can be obtained as (4).

In this section, we analytically obtain the average BER of

single-hop transmission as the building block for end-to-end In this section, we analyze the end-to-end BER of the relay-

BER evaluation. Based on Eq. (2), the 0th time slot integrated assisted UWOC system relying on the results of the previous

current of the receiver output can be expressed as; section. Let U denote the number of nodes that incorrectly

detect their previous node’s 0th time slot transmitted bit.

−1

∑ For this case, the conditional end-to-end correct detection

r(b0 ) = b0 h̃γ (s) + h̃ bk γ (I,k) + vTb , (3)

probability, Pe2e−b0 (c|{β̄}, H), can be obtained as;

k=−L

∫T ∫ −(k−1)Tb Pe2e−b0 (c|{β̄}, H) =

where γ (s) = R 0 b Γ(t)dt, γ (I,k) = R −kTb Γ(t)dt,

and R = ηq/hf is the photodetector responsivity. Besides, ∑

N +1

η, q, h, f , and L are the photodetector quantum efficiency, Pe2e−b0 (c|U, {β̄}, H) Pr(U = u|b0 , {β̄}, H), (8)

electron charge, Planck’s constant, optical source frequency, u=0

in which H = (h̃(1) , h̃(2) , ..., h̃(N +1) ) is the fading coefficients

receiver integrated noise component which has a Gaussian

vector and {β̄} implies the transmitted data sequences of all

distribution with mean zero and variance σT2 b [14], [16].

transmitters. Pr(U = u|b0 , {β̄}, H) is the conditional proba-

Owing to the slow fading nature of UWOC channels

bility that u nodes out of N + 1 nodes incorrectly detect the

[8], we assume the availability of channel state information

received bit. Obviously, Pe2e−b0 (c|U = odd, {β̄}, H) = 0 and

(CSI) which allows the receiver to compare its integrated

Pe2e−b0 (c|U = even, {β̄}, H) = 1. Therefore, the end-to-end

current over each Tb seconds with the optimum threshold

conditional

∑ BER can be evaluated as Pe2e−b0 (error|{β̄}, H) =

value h̃γ (s) /2 to minimize the detection error. Therefore, the

1 − u∈ΛN Pr(U = u|b0 , {β̄}, H), where ΛN specifies the

1 In our system model, we denote the source node S as the 0th node, relay set of all even⌊ numbers⌋ in the set {0, 1, ..., N + 1}, i.e.,

Ri as the ith node, and destination D as the (N + 1)th node. ΛN = {0, 2, ..., N2+1 × 2}, where ⌊x⌋ is the integer portion

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Technology Letters

TABLE I

of the real value x. On the other hand, Pr(U = u|b0 , {β̄}, H) S OME OF THE IMPORTANT PARAMETERS FOR THE CHANNEL AND NOISE

for u = 0, 1, ..., N + 1 can be obtained as; CHARACTERIZATION [3], [9], [16].

∑

N +1 ∑

N +1 ∑

N +1 ( Coefficient Symbol Value

(s1 )

Pr(U = u|b0 , {β̄}, H) = ... Pcbe−b 0 Half angle field of view FOV 400

s1 =1 s2 =s1 +1 su =su−1 +1 Receiver aperture diameter D0 20 cm

∏

N +1 [ ]) Source wavelength λ 532 nm

(s ) (s ) (s ) Transmitter full beam diver- θdiv 0.020

× Pcbe−b

2

0

× ... × Pcbe−b

u

0

× 1 − Pcbe−b

u+1

0

. (9) gence angle

su+1 =1

Quantum efficiency η 0.8

su+1 ̸=s1 ,s2 ,...,su

Equivalent temperature Te 290 K

Load resistance RL 100 Ω

Averaging Pe2e−b0 (error|{∑ β̄}, H) over {β̄} and H results into Dark current Idc 1.226 × 10−9 A

Pe2e−b0 (error) = 1 − u∈ΛN Pr(U∑= u|b0 ), where ∫ Pr(U = Background mean count rate nb 1.8094 × 108 1/s

u|b0 ) is defined as Pr(U = u|b0 ) = {β̄} P ({β̄}) H Pr(U = Rate of dissipation of mean- χT 2 × 10−7 K2 /s

square temperature

u|b0 , {β̄}, H)f (H)dH, in which P ({β̄}) and f (H) are the Rate of dissipation of turbu- ε 1.5 × 10−5 m2 /s3

(i)

joint PDFs of β̄s and h̃(i) s, respectively. Since bk s are lent kinetic energy per unit

independent with identical probability and h̃(i) s are also mass of fluid

Relative strength of tempera- w −2.5

independent, Pr(U = u|b0 ) reduces into a similar form to ture and salinity fluctuations

(i) (i)

Eq. (9) except that Pcbe−b0 is replaced by Pbe−b0 which is the 0

10 Analytical,

(i)

averaged form of Pcbe−b0 and is defined as; Integral

Analytical,

∫

−2

10

1 ∑

GHQF Series

(i) (i) Simulations

Pbe−b0 = Li Pcbe−b0 fh̃(i) (h̃(i) )dh̃(i) . (10) 10

−4

Average BER

2 (i−1) h̃ (i)

bk −6 45 m

10 22.5 m

9m 15 m

−8

−10

dimensional integrals which in the case of weak oceanic 10 11.25 m

−12

Total average transmitted power per bit, Pb [dBm]

60 70

the following two cases), Pr(U = u|b0 ) and therefore the Fig. 2. BER of a single-hop UWOC system with 1 Gbps data rate and

average BER can more explicitly be expressed. various link ranges, i.e., d0 = 45 m, 22.5 m, 15 m, 11.25 m, and 9 m.

Senario I: The form of Eq. (9) suggests that Pr(U = u|b0 )

V. N UMERICAL R ESULTS

rapidly decreases for larger values of u, since it is propor-

tional to the product of the BERs of u nodes. Therefore, to In this section, we present the numerical results for the BER

simplify the average end-to-end BER expression, we make an of relay-assisted UWOC system. We simulate the channel im-

assumption: although it is possible to correctly detect a bit pulse response similar to [3], [9] and the channel scintillation

at the destination despite of incorrect detection in some of index for a propagating plane wave like [7]. Table I shows

the intermediate relay nodes (i.e., when u ̸= 0), we neglect some of the important parameters for the channel simulation

these fortunate events and assume that a bit can correctly be and noise characterization. Although all of our derivations in

detected at the destination if and only if all of the receivers this letter are valid for any water type and for both diffusive

detect without an error (i.e., when u = 0). This assumption LED-based and collimated laser-based UWOC links, for the

is valid particularly when each hop has a good performance, sake of brevity, here, we assume a laser-based UWOC system

(i) established in 30 m depth coastal water [3], [9]. Moreover,

i.e., a small Pbe−b0 . In this case, the average end-to-end BER

can be evaluated as; perfect alignment is assumed owing to the highly scattering

nature of UWOC channels.

∏

N +1 [ ]

(i) Fig. 2 illustrates the BER of a single-hop UWOC system

Pe2e−b0 (error) = 1 − 1 − Pbe−b0 . (11) for various link ranges and 1 Gbps data transmission rate,

i=1

obtained using Eq. (10). As expected, increasing the range of

Senario II: Suppose that all links have the same average communication severely degrades the performance. Moreover,

(i) we applied (6) to calculate the system BER using GHQF. It

BER of Pbe−b0 = Pbe−b0 . This is a valid assumption for

example when all hops have the same link length and water is observed that the system BER can effectively be calculated

quality and all receivers have the same structure. In this case, using only V = 30 points.

the average BER of the system can be obtained as follows; In Fig. 3, we applied the results of photon-counting meth-

ods, namely Gaussian and saddle-point approximations [18],

Pe2e−b0 (error) = 1− [19], to evaluate the system BER in the presence of shot noise.

∑ (N + 1) u N +1−u

As it can be seen, Gaussian approximation can provide rela-

(Pbe−b0 ) (1 − Pbe−b0 ) . (12) tively the same results as saddle-point approximation. Hence,

u

u∈ΛN due to its simplicity and acceptable accuracy, Gaussian approx-

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Technology Letters

10

0

Analytical channel, namely absorption, scattering, and fading. Relying on

−2

Gaussian Gauss-Hermite quadrature formula a closed-form solution for

10 Saddle−Point

the BER of system under weak oceanic turbulence obtained.

10

−4

Excellent matches between analytical results and numerical

Average BER

−6 45 m

simulations verified the accuracy of our derived expressions

10 22.5 m

9m

15 m for the BER of multi-hop UWOC system with bit detect-

10

−8 and-forward relaying. Additionally, our results demonstrated

−10

that to reach wide-range underwater optical communications,

10 11.25 m

designing the relay-assisted topology should be of utmost

10

−12 importance. For instance, dual-hop transmission in 45 m and

−20 −10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Total average transmitted power per bit, Pb [dBm] 22.5 m coastal water links, improves the system performance

at the BER of 10−6 by 39 dB and 17.5 dB, respectively.

Fig. 3. Comparing different methods in evaluating the average BER of a

single-hop UWOC system with 1 Gbps data rate and different link ranges. R EFERENCES

10

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[4] F. Akhoundi, J. A. Salehi, and A. Tashakori, “Cellular underwater wire-

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VI. C ONCLUSION diversity: MIMO scheme,” To be appeared in IEEE Trans. Commun.

In this letter, we have analytically studied the end-to-end

performance of UWOC systems with serial relaying. Our

channel model is based upon the major degrading effects of the

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