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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY

The review of related literature and study consists of all the studies and literature that the
researchers deemed fit and relevant to the study conducted. It discussed the major components involved
in the scope of the study that helped in the advancement of the research. The following components are
community movement, community development, and community sustainability.
Community Movement
Based on “The Art of Community”, community movement is fueled by two components. The
needs and demands of an individual, and the community’s assets and liabilities (MacCallum, 1970).
Needs impose movement, it is the natural course of action to achieve survival. When an individual
needs food, it moves to obtain it; as in a community setting, when an individual needs to earn money,
it goes to work or puts up a shop, this makes up the flow in the community. The other factor that affects
community movement is the condition of the community and the presence and absence of services and
facilities. If a street is dark, individuals avoid it due to fear hindering public movement; reliable public
transportation can provide access to schools, jobs, and markets and helps in community mobility
(Altman & Wandersman, 1987).
Movement and change cause chain reactions. Places with high crime rate affect the public as it
influences the quality and availability of services and economic opportunities. New business
developments tend to attract investors that seeks to capitalize on existing economic form, which can
provide job opportunities creating income increase. Provision of an effective open space can encourage
physical activities that can bring neighbors together and strengthen community ties (Bell & Victor,
2007). These reactions can be controlled to achieve positive effects through community development.
Community Development
According to a study entitled “Understanding Community Development” by Jim Cavaye,
community development is a process where local people can not only create more jobs, income, and
infrastructure but also help their community become fundamentally able to manage change. The main
benefit of community development, such as better infrastructures and economic growth, comes from
the public’s change in attitude, improving existing skills, looking at a different perspective about a
problem, and utilizing assets in new ways (Cavaye, 2015). Development pertains not only to “more”-
jobs, investments but also to “less” – population, pollution.
Community development is segregated into three different forms (Chekoway, 1995). (1)
Community development as a process – its main responsibility is to bring forth social change. It is a
process of developing the public’s interest in helping their community achieve success. This encourages
social participation and involvement in the actual development of their community. (2) Community
development as a method – it acts as the means to solve community problems both with government
and private sectors involvement. This is the planned approach in different development sectors. (3)
Community development as a movement – the involvement of the government plays a big role in this
form, this pertains to development on a larger scale. These three forms explain the different role of
community development to the public and establish a boundary for each respective form.
Based on a study entitled “Community Development in Perspective”, community development
is divided into four major sectors – physical, social, economic, and environmental (Christenson &
Robinson, 1989). Physical development involves improvement or provision of infrastructures – roads,
utilities, and facilities. Social development pertains to any approach which promotes community
interaction that can establish social ties; this sector puts people in the center of development – provision
of socially oriented services and focuses on the development of the sociological and psychological
aspect of the community. Economic development focuses on the betterment of employment, income,
and economic base of the community – livelihood programs, provision of job inducing facilities, etc.
Environmental development’s main objective is to help the environment in terms of practicing
sustainability and lessening of pollutants.
Over the years community strategies and methods emerged from different community studies
conducted by investors, multi-sectoral advocates, city planners, and different development enthusiasts;
the difference in perspective produced eight major development strategies and approaches (Ontario,
2016). (1) Locality development – pertains to the improvement of public’s well-being through increased
resources, facilities, and services through active involvement of the public. Some examples are building
a community center, utility improvement, road work repairs. These solutions are tangible and directly
affects the physical environment of the people as well as public perception of community progress as
they can be noticed easily; although it needs proper preliminary studies to justify the need for such
change in order to sustain the development. (2) Social action – this strategy focuses on the socio-
political aspect of the community. This is an advocacy driven approach that aims to address social
needs. It includes anti-poverty activist seeking social assistance rate increase, social advocates seeking
redistribution of power. (3) Social planning – a process to address social issues that involve needs
assessments, analysis of service delivery mechanisms, systems coordination, and other technical
expertise. These approaches need the involvement of the public in consultation, interpretation of results,
and service planning. One example is needs assessment of homeless people and using the results to plan
a new housing development with appropriate services. (4) Social reform - activity by one group on
behalf of a relatively disadvantaged group; such activity is advocating for community acceptance,
supports, and services for people that have mental illness or person with disabilities. (5) Community
relations – focuses mainly on increasing social integration and aims to improve the social status of the
minor population. Some examples are the improvement of community faction structure and anti-racism
programs. (6) Social capital formation – focuses on connections among individuals. This includes
political engagement, civic and religious organizations, family gatherings, socializing, and group
recreational activities. A further example involves creating place and opportunities for community
members to gather and interact with each other, orientation programs to welcome newcomers,
community activities to develop social ties. The increase in social capital would result in better
community flow having effective schools, government, lower crime rate, and higher economic quality.
(7) Capacity building – an approach where the development would be based on the community capacity.
This would establish the limits of their capacity and from there would initiate growth and improvement.
A community can improve their capacity in ways such as professional development activities, the
involvement of all levels of the organization in planning, and recognizing the unique talents of
individuals. (8) Asset based community development – an approach that starts with the identification
of assets rather than needs. These assets pertain to gifts, skills, resources, and abilities of individuals in
a community. It starts with mapping out the location of such assets and uses the data to group people
with similar interests, or similar issues, and from there would establish the basis for the development
process.
Community development does not only aim at one thing, it is the entirety of the betterment of
a community. It is a collection of different strategies and approaches that best fit a certain community.
The given strategies cannot work independently as it needs complementary action to provide effective
development to problems or opportunities deemed by community assessment. To achieve effective
results proper assessment as well as implementation is advised in order to sustain the development.

Community sustainability
Along with modernization comes big changes such as an increase in population, advancement
in technology, climate change, and the ever changing priorities of humanity. Over the years these
changes opted the community development approach to evolve in order to keep up with modernization
and to provide accurate and efficient solutions. The principal approaches developed and from here
emerged community sustainability approach to meet the needs of the modern world as it does not only
ensure community development sustainability but also help counter climate change.
In 1987, United Nation’s “Our Common Future, a Report of the World Commission on
Environment and Development”, coined the most used definition of sustainable development:
“[Development] which is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs (United Nation, 1987).”
For some, its focus is entirely in the protection of the environment while for others, the definition of
sustainable development is broader which encompass both social and economic sectors (Been, et al.,
2010). In addition, according to (Power, 2008) sustainable development is the idea of ensuring a better
quality of life of the community both in present and in the future. It aims to meet four objectives at the
same time – social progress which recognizes the needs of the public, effective protection of the
environment, practical use of natural resources, and maintenance of high and stable levels of economic
growth and employment; and considering the long term implications of decisions. Moreover, based on
a standard guidelines for local government entitled “Toward a Sustainable Community”, regardless of
the definition or approach, there is a shared sense that sustainable development clearly identifies the
relationship between the economy, society, and environment which are seen as the three types of capital
– economic, social, and natural (Gruder, Haines, Hembd, MacKinnon, & Silberstein, 2007). From here,
(Power, 2008) established three core aims of community sustainability based on the three capitals. (1)
Healthy environment – this aims to achieve minimal ecological impact through minimizing waste and
pollution and encourage recycling. It also pertains to the protection and enhancement of the natural
environment and biodiversity. (2) Prosperous economy – to generate long term investments without
compromising the balance in the natural and social capital on which all economies depend through
minimizing resource use and environmental impact, and to develop new skills through learning and
training. It also aims to meet basic needs through the provision of local jobs and services. (3) Social
well-being – aims to strengthen social bond to prevent future collisions and to achieve a sense of
security, familiarity, support, and incorporation of different social groups that comes from respect for
difference in culture.

The aforementioned three capitals act as a guide for community sustainability strategies to
organize its structure and have a basis for the development plans. In development planning, community
sustainability strategy is broken down into four sectors instead of three – physical, economic,
environmental, and social (Power, 2008). Each of the sectors has its own focus but that does not mean
that the development strategies would be exclusive rather it would complement and reinforce each of
the development through overlapping different sectoral approach.
Physical – focus mainly on land use and transportation and mobility which offers three different
strategies; compact complete community strategy, alternative and active transportation strategy, and
low carbon mobility strategy (Community Sustainability Action Plan, 2012). Compact complete
community strategy focuses on land use development and ways in which it will affect the transportation
preference of the public that in turn would reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions.
The development is focused on concentrating density and allocation of mixed use spaces in specific
areas and stimulate connectivity between these areas. These actions would result to a vibrant community
through improving pedestrian and cycling opportunities, improving access and frequency of transit, and
preservation of parks and open spaces. This strategy is in line with transit-oriented development (TOD)
that aims to plan or develop a community clustered by its use, bringing closer together the people to its
needs and to where they need to be, in order to implicate walkability and cycling to reduce the use of
vehicles, decreasing CO2 emissions. Alternative and active transportation strategy – offers a
transportation system to the public with low environmental and social impact. It aims to promote
commute trip reduction strategies, to provide bicycle awareness and safety education, to promote
walking and cycling to the youth, to improve transit service amenities, to enhance pedestrian and cycling
environment, and to identify innovative funding opportunities to support alternative mode infrastructure
and programs. Low carbon mobility strategy – focused on opportunities to reduce the number and
distance of personal vehicular trips and encourage more efficient vehicle travel.
Economic – strategies that would provide jobs and services to the community as well as
management of community export. Based on (Nixon & Weiss, 2002), these are the few strategies to
achieve economic sustainability. (1) Green exports – refers to the production of goods and services that
would be offered outside the community. This would bring income and in turn would run through the
public and support other jobs inside the community; though export base could only be considered
sustainable if the production process would be environmentally neutral. (2) Building green amenities –
facilities are one of the basis in industry competition; high amenity location is inclined to be followed
with economic prosper. Workers tend to be drawn to pleasing environments that could offer recreational
activities, this would be provided by building green amenities. Likewise, businesses located near green
amenities could draw more customers and possible outside workers. (3) Support systems for efficient
production – it is to increase the efficiency of resource use to help the economic stability as it lowers
cost of inputs. The center of this approach are re-cycling and re-purposing of waste from other
processes. It includes developing business from re-using of materials before undergoing recycling such
as refillable bottles, dirty clothes, or rugged tires through processes such as cleaning, sorting, and
manufacturing. Another strategy is to use waste from the different process as input to another which is
called eco-industrial park strategy.
Environmental – this revolves around strategies aiming for the betterment of the environment,
specifically to practice efficient use of natural resources, to reduce GHG emissions, and to reduce
energy consumption. (1) Waste management – it is the process of minimizing the production and
maximizing the utilization of solid and liquid waste. This process revolves around the 3Rs – reduce,
reuse, and recycle as it could be applied to all stages of the product cycle (Productivity Commission,
2006). There are 3 major steps for effective waste management, first is the efforts in decreasing the
waste outputs by breaking down the inputs up to its last usable state. Second is segregation, this method
is important in order to easily control the separation of waste and determine its respective course. Lastly,
the wide variety of treatments for each of the respective classification of waste. The first and second
stage could be applied on a community scale by implementations of the officials and by encouraging
the public to practice the 3Rs in their daily lives. Another application of the first stage is the eco-
industrial networking, it is the exchange of materials or resources between industrial operations, where
one industry’s waste becomes another’s resource (Community Sustainability Action Plan, 2012). Waste
is divided into two classifications solid and liquid waste. Solid waste pertains to discarded solid
materials and could be categorized to biodegradable or non-biodegradable. Biodegradables are food
wastes, agricultural wastes, feces, paper, etc. while non-biodegradables are plastics, metals, rubber, etc.
Solid waste treatments include composting, biogas technology, and resource recovery. Composting is
the process of induction of biodegradable waste to soil and cures it for weeks to reuse it as organic
fertilizers. Biogas technology is the transformation of bio waste to biofuels through the process of
combustion or gasification. Resource recovery is the recycling of waste to useful products which
includes generation of electricity through plastic incineration, production of synthetic oil from plastic
waste, reuse of industrial scrap as metals, production of ethyl alcohol from agricultural waste,
reproduction of construction waste, and recycling of water and glass bottles (Productivity Commission,
2006). On the other hand, liquid waste is the liquid portion of a waste material such as gray water, black
water, industry liquid discharge, leachate from landfills, agricultural waste water, etc. Liquid waste
treatment is classified into two – grey water treatment and black water treatment. Grey water treatment
is the process of filtration of grey water to potable water while black water treatment undergoes a deeper
filtration method to reuse it as irrigation water. (2) Renewable energy source – the use of solar, wind,
bioenergy, hydropower, and geothermal are widely known strategies to achieve sustainability due to
the pressing issue of the depletion of non-renewable energy sources (IRENA, 2015). Renewable energy
sources encompass a huge scale in terms of production, the applications of renewables presented would
be based on community level scale in order to adapt it to community development plan. Solar energy
is the use of sun’s energy and transforms it into electricity; methods of procuring it are through
photovoltaic panels, solar collectors, and thin-film solar sheeting (Ferry & Monoian, 2012). It is the
most used energy source due to its flexibility in terms of site parameters and accessibility to the public
due to its affordable price. A common application is the utilization of roofs for solar panel placement,
and new technologies such infusion of photovoltaic cells onto roads and sidewalks (International
Energy Agency, 2011). Wind energy harness energy through airflow causing the rotation of wind
turbines. This energy source should be strategically located in high wind speed areas such as offshore,
high altitude areas, and blank fields (IRENA, 2015). It is prevalently utilized on a larger scale due to its
high generation of electricity compared to solar energy though lacks in flexibility for small scale use
because of the limitation on site selection parameters. Bioenergy refers to the energy stored in biomass
that produces electricity, thermal energy, or transportation fuels (biofuels) through the process of
combustion or gasification of dry biomass or methane. Biomass pertains to organisms and its
byproducts such as agriculture residues, animal feces, and industrial and municipal waste both in liquid
and in the solid state. Recent studies found out that fermentation of algae could widely produce biofuels
such as ethanol, methane, biodiesel, and hydrogen at a reasonable price and resulted in a widespread
use of bioenergy in different parts of the world (Frankfurt School UNEP, 2017). Due to the accessible
byproducts as inputs and minimal production processes, bioenergy trumped other energy sources in
terms of affordability, although it poses threats to the environment by emitting pollutants through
combustion, it could be prevented with proper site implementations, effective maintenance of the
facility, and hiring skilled workers. Hydropower generates a huge amount of energy on a large scale
basis through the use of dams and reservoir while in terms of small scale applications utilization of
rivers or canals could generate an ample amount of energy. Utilization of hydropower in a community
scale is uncommon due to limitations established by its key parameters for river or canal selection that
centers on the stability of current flow and minimal water residues. An in depth study of the water forms
is needed before proceeding with the applications as stability should be ensured to last for up to 50
years, and to study its effect on the ecological balance (Ferry & Monoian, 2012). Lastly, geothermal
energy, pertains to the thermal energy stored in the earth. This renewable source of energy is second to
hydropower in terms of energy generation capacity though it is not feasible on a community scale due
to the need of the area to be located near thermal points, the issues in environmental impact, and the
need of a huge area for a production facility. Therefore, application of renewable energy in community
development is limited based on the assets and capabilities of the community as well as its site
parameters. (3) Alternatives for fossil fuel-based vehicles – over the years, advancement in technology
lead humanity to the utilization of AFVs to reduce the dependency to fossil fuels that poses a huge
threat in the depletion of its resources. As of today, there are over ten international projects of AFVs
some of which are hydrogen fueled, electricity powered, biodiesel, LNG, LPG, and even the use of
water. According to (Department of Energy, 2016), there are presently three types of AFVs locally
available for public transport around the metro, and other technologies currently being studied for local
feasibility. These AFVs are auto LPG-fueled taxis, CNG buses, E-Trikes, and E-Jeepneys. These AFV
public transport could help increase mobility within the community with proper implementations as
well as contribute to sustain the environment. (4) Green building – it is to achieve economical,
environmentally sound and healthy space for the people as well as reduce environmental impact on the
ecosystem which is commonly known as sustainable design (Gruder, Haines, Hembd, MacKinnon, &
Silberstein, 2007). To achieve sustainability it is important for any development to consider its impact
on the environment from the moment of the conceptual phase, the actual construction, and up to the
building operations. Common approaches to the conceptual phase is to adopt sustainable design
guidelines, adaptive reuse approach, biomimicry, etc. For construction, possible applications to
materials used and actual construction methods such as lesser resource use, low impact materials, and
the use of highly durable materials to sustain the development for longer period. As for building
operations, implementations of practice of energy efficiency inside and outside the building is advised.
(5) Green purchasing – it is to purchase products and services that used resources with less impact on
the environment rather than the same products and services that serves the same purpose (Gruder,
Haines, Hembd, MacKinnon, & Silberstein, 2007). This could be controlled by implementations to
encourage the community to purchase green labeled products. Local applications are labeled products
as green products and services such as green energy star, eco leaf, and green choice philippines.
Social – sets its focus on the betterment of social well-being, cultivation of sustainability to an
individual, and to support community organizations. Primarily, provision of the needs of the community
comes first, this pertains to the whole development of the community through different sectors. In order
to sustain the development, the community must embrace the importance and principles of
sustainability. This is where the main role of social sustainability would be applied; it is to create
advocates of sustainability out of individuals inside the community. It could be achieved through
awareness programs and learning programs for basic sustainability principles that the community could
apply to their daily life.
But why should we aim towards sustainability? Because today is the era for action; to act
against climate change. Climate change is ultimately caused by our own activities and it is threatening
our way of life and the future of our planet. If left alone it would worsen the state of the planet leaving
us with depletion of natural sources, rising sea levels, and the destruction of the ecosystem. This issues
would root out creating more and more issues that would inevitably end human life. Economically
speaking, according to (United Nations, 2017) doing nothing would cost us more than if we take action
now; shifting investments to address climate change through sustainable development would be a wise
move. In order to achieve widespread change, sustainability must start within a community because a
community is large enough to be a voice, or a spark to ignite a whole nation and it is small enough to
properly control its variables, implement its regulations, and to easily center its focus on the
development. But we must remember that community sustainability doesn’t end with tangible
community development, it goes beyond generations of community effort to further the development
and to enhance the environment.

SYNTHESIS
In the review of related literature and study, references used were books, journals, dissertations,
reports, laws and ordinances, and website documents from international organizations that are in line
with the researchers’ study and support the research.
Community movement acted as a preface to further understand community development. It
explained the relationship between public needs, environmental condition and the community’s
projected movement and how they affect one another. The relevance of this study is to give the
researchers an insight in determining the standard movement of a community to help in providing an
effective community development plan, and how to control movement through community
development.
Community development explained the different forms and international standards of goals
and objectives for a community development. It presented eight different strategies and approaches used
internationally that acted as a standard guideline for the development though it established that
community development should be dynamically inclined to the community that would be developed.
The literatures helped further the study by giving the researchers awareness on different strategies used
internationally that could be adopted in the study and it gave understanding on the different roles of
community development in humanity’s way of life.
Community sustainability established that this community development approach rooted out
from humanity’s way of coping with the effects of the modern world. Same with community
development, it discussed the different goals and objectives of the approach and from here established
the four sectors of change and its relationship with one another – physical, economic, environmental,
and social. It presented several strategies under the respective sectors that are applied locally and
internationally. The purpose of the literatures in this theme is to attest the importance of the utilization
of community sustainability in this study. It also supported the study by showing the researchers a
variety of strategies that helped recognize the pre-feasibility of the study.
REVIEW OF RELATED STRUCTURES
Pakuranga town center
Located in Pakuranga, Auckland,
New Zealand, the Pakuranga Town Centre
sets its goal to become a vibrant town center
destination for the succeeding 30 years. This
review presents their design concepts,
strategies, and future plans. Information
presented in this study are gathered from
“Pakuranga Town Centre Masterplan”
presented by Howick Local Board on 2015.
The primary approach is the community Figure 1 - Location Map
feedback, from here the master planners built on six initial concepts that established the vision, design
concept and guiding principles for the community center’s future on which would focus on building,
connecting, greening and revitalizing the center (Howick Local Board, 2015).
The guiding principles are (1) to nurture a distinctness for the community center to set it apart
from other sub-regional centres, (2) to encourage the practices of sustainability in line with community
values through incentives and tools, (3) to weave the arts and values into the centre’s infrastructure,
public amenities, buildings and open spaces, (4) to ensure the delivery of an easy, legible and future
proofed parking system for the whole centre, (5) to focus taller buildings towards the middle of the
centre and avoid shading of open spaces, (6) and to take advantage of opportunities provided by new
transport infrastructure.
The design concept of the development came from the shape of the lot which is in a triangular
form (see Figure 2); a triangle’s strongest point is located at its corners and edges, from here the concept
emerged as putting its focus on strengthening the corners and edges of the area. The three strong corners
has three different roles (see Figure 3), the landmark corner would announce the town center to passing
traffic, the iconic corner presents a unique opportunity to develop a Transit Oriented Development and
would be an entry statement for the center and could attract pedestrians through ground

Figure 2 - Community center shape Figure 3 - Development concept

Source: (Howick Local Board, 2015) Source: (Howick Local Board, 2015)
level
activities such as restaurants and shops. The feature corner would be highly visible to local traffic, it
would be the location of bus stops to attract people getting on and off to enhance the location’s
liveliness.
In connecting the center, the plan is to enhance existing connections which are the roads, public
transport, and pedestrian and cycle network, and to provide new modes of transport system such as
multi- modal approach, and green links. Plans for
Figure 4 – Vehicular movement Figure 5 – Green links
connectivity aims to achieve a targeted vehicular movement in 30 years (see Figure 4), as well as
potential pedestrian and cycle system through green links (see Figure 5).

Source: (Howick Local Board, 2015) Source: (Howick Local Board, 2015)

The public space detailed design focus on three different Figure 6 – Public space plan
development of its respective edges (see Figure 6). The entertainment
edge would cater a town square that would offer activities such as
relaxation spots, gathering spaces, cafes and restaurants, and farmer’s
market. The square would provide a variety of plants to add texture, and
provision of rain gardens would break the standardization of paving to
provide a sense of green environment. Storm water could be directed into
the rain gardens to provide a water source for the plants and would be a
way of capturing and treating runoff. The movement edge would provide
a small plaza where people could buy coffee and newspaper while waiting
for the buses. It is also an ideal location for the public toilet to offer
accessibility to the busy people of this edge as well as ground parking for
vehicles and bicycles. The recreation edge would be an informal green
Source: (Howick Local Board,
space that would connect the library, arts center, and community hall to 2015)
integrate it into the center. The development outcome would result in the
building, connecting, greening, and revitalizing. Building a plan that would bring out the best utilization
of the center, providing efficient connections inside and outside the development,
Figure 7 - Figure 8 - Future vision for Pakuranga Town Center

Source: (Howick Local Board, 2015) Source: (Howick Local Board, 2015)
greening the development to improve the environment, and revitalizing the community movement and
economic balance inside and outside the community.

Firstenburg community center


Located in Washington, Vancouver,
Firstenburg Community Center is LEED Gold
Certified (see Figure 10) multi-use facility that is
composed of a combination of recreational and
community spaces with public services. This review
presents the community center’s features and its ties
with sustainability, all information is gathered from
Opsis Architecture’s document “Firstenburg
Community Center”. With a gross area of 80,982 sf,
Figure 9 – Location map
the center was completed on 2007 with a total
budget of seventeen million dollars (Opsis
Architecture, 2007). The development offers
recreational activities, open spaces, and public
utilities and planned in accordance with future
developments (see Figure 12). The recreational
part includes swimming and therapy pools, fitness
space, gymnasium, dance studios, and multi-
purpose activity spaces. The community space Source: (Opsis Architecture, 2007)
provides teen rooms, game rooms, senior lounge, Figure 10 – LEED credits achieved
meeting rooms, and resource room.
Figure 11 - Firstenburg Community Center Facade

Source: (Opsis Architecture, 2007)

LOCAL STRUCTURES

Source: (Opsis Architecture, 2007)


Figure 12 – Site development plan
In terms of sustainability, the community offers transportation mobility, water resource
recycling, smart construction, and energy efficiency. Transportation mobility was achieved through
provisions of bus stop and shelter, ample bicycle and vehicle parking, pedestrian links to adjacent park,
and the future rail transit; the community center aims to encourage walkability and cycling going to and
from the area. Through the utilization of waterless urinals, reuse of gray water from the pool to urinal
flushes, water use is reduced to 31% from the average consumption, and water used for sewage transport
is reduced to 63%; each year the community center recycles an approximate of 60,000 gallons. Energy
efficiency was attained by the use of passive systems such as solar shading devices, maximization of
day lighting through transparent building skin, use of radiant floor slabs to maintain comfortable
temperatures, use of central heat pump that recovers waste heat in the summer and reuse it for pool and
heating systems, and the use of daylight sensors to reduce the use of artificial lighting; these practices
resulted in 27% less energy use compared to average building consumption. For building construction,
use of strictly selected materials for durability and sustainability, and efficient use of recycled materials
resulted in 99.4% recycling of construction waste.
Local structures
This review presents three different related
projects located in the Philippines to measure the pre-
feasibility of the proposed project.
A. Ayala Center Cebu

Figure 13 – Location map


Located in Cebu City, Cebu, completed in 2008 by Stir
Architecture is a town center in the Cebu Business Park that
offers retail and amenities to the surrounding community as
well as the business district (Stir Architecture, 2010). It acts
as a tropical resort in the urban setting offering shopping,
Source: (Stir Architecture, 2010) dining and entertainment alternatives in a single block.
B. San Antonio Plaza

Located in Makati, it is a two-story community center


intended for Forbes Park and Dasmarinas Village residents to
serve their everyday needs. Redesigned by RCHITECTS Inc.,
with a gross floor area of 1,512 square meters completed on
2013 to introduce modern complementing the theme of
nearby Sanctuario de San Antonio (Rchitects, Inc., 2017).
Services offered include open green spaces, retail shops, cafes
and restaurants, and public utilities.

Source: Guillermo, Ned


C. UP Town Center

Located in Quezon City, it is a mixed-use retail, office, and


community development intended for the UP Village
community that offers services to satisfy students, residents,
and workers (Ayala Malls 360, 2016). It is an interactive
venue for free expression, skills development with facilities
such as green spaces, academic support facilities, student hub,
amphitheater, market, retail stores, cinemas, and offices.

Source: Gabaldon, Bryan