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"Lily", "Lilies", and "Lilium" redirect here. For other uses, see Lily
(disambiguation), Lilies (disambiguation), and Lilium (disambiguation).

Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants
growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of
flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the
world. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their
range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants have "lily" in their
common name but are not related to true lilies.

Contents [hide]


Lilium longiflorum flower – 1. Stigma, 2. Style, 3. Stamens, 4. Filament, 5. Tepal

Lilies are tall perennials ranging in height from 2–6 ft (60–180 cm). They form
naked or tunicless scaly underground bulbs which are their organs of perennation.
In some North American species the base of the bulb develops into rhizomes, on
which numerous small bulbs are found. Some species develop stolons. Most bulbs are
buried deep in the ground, but a few species form bulbs near the soil surface. Many
species form stem-roots. With these, the bulb grows naturally at some depth in the
soil, and each year the new stem puts out adventitious roots above the bulb as it
emerges from the soil. These roots are in addition to the basal roots that develop
at the base of the bulb.

Lily, petal
The flowers are large, often fragrant, and come in a wide range of colors including
whites, yellows, oranges, pinks, reds and purples. Markings include spots and brush
strokes. The plants are late spring- or summer-flowering. Flowers are borne in
racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem, with six tepals spreading or reflexed, to
give flowers varying from funnel shape to a "Turk's cap". The tepals are free from
each other, and bear a nectary at the base of each flower. The ovary is 'superior',
borne above the point of attachment of the anthers. The fruit is a three-celled

stamen of lilium
Seeds ripen in late summer. They exhibit varying and sometimes complex germination
patterns, many adapted to cool temperate climates.
Naturally most cool temperate species are deciduous and dormant in winter in their
native environment. But a few species which distribute in hot summer and mild
winter area (Lilium candidum, Lilium catesbaei, Lilium longiflorum) lose leaves and
remain relatively short dormant in Summer or Autumn, sprout from Autumn to winter,
forming dwarf stem bearing a basal rosette of leaves until, after they have
received sufficient chilling, the stem begins to elongate in warming weather.

Lilium candidum seeds

The basic chromosome number is twelve (n=12).[4]
Taxonomical division in sections follows the classical division of Comber,[5]
species acceptance follows the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families,[6] the
taxonomy of section Pseudolirium is from the Flora of North America,[7] the
taxonomy of Section Liriotypus is given in consideration of Resetnik et al. 2007,
[8] the taxonomy of Chinese species (various sections) follows the Flora of
China[9] and the taxonomy of Section Sinomartagon follows Nishikawa et al.[10] as
does the taxonomy of Section Archelirion.[11]
The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, as of January 2014, considers
Nomocharis a separate genus in its own right,[12] however some authorities consider
Nomocharis to be embedded within Lilium, rather than treat it as a separate genus.
There are seven sections:
• Martagon
• Pseudolirium
• Liriotypus
• Archelirion
• Sinomartagon
• Leucolirion
• Daurolirion
For a full list of accepted species[2] with their native ranges, see List of Lilium

Some species formerly included within this genus have now been placed in other
genera. These genera include Cardiocrinum, Notholirion, Nomocharis and Fritillaria.
The botanic name Lilium is the Latin form and is a Linnaean name. The Latin name is
derived from the Greek λείριον, leírion, generally assumed to refer to true, white
lilies as exemplified by the Madonna lily.[18][19] The word was borrowed from
Coptic (dial. Fayyumic) hleri, from standard hreri, from Demotic hrry, from
Egyptian hrṛt "flower".[citation needed] Meillet maintains that both the Egyptian
and the Greek word are possible loans from an extinct, substratum language of the
Eastern Mediterranean.[citation needed] The Greeks also used the word κρῖνον,
krīnon, albeit for non-white lilies.[citation needed]
The term "lily" has in the past been applied to numerous flowering plants, often
with only superficial resemblance to the true lily, including water lily, fire
lily, lily of the Nile, calla lily, trout lily, kaffir lily, cobra lily, lily of
the valley, daylily, ginger lily, Amazon lily, leek lily, Peruvian lily, and
others. All English translations of the Bible render the Hebrew shūshan, shōshan,
shōshannā as "lily", but the "lily among the thorns" of Song of Solomon, for
instance, may be the honeysuckle.[20]
For a list of other species described as lilies, see Lily (disambiguation).
Distribution and habitat[edit]
The range of lilies in the Old World extends across much of Europe, across most of
Asia to Japan, south to India, and east to Indochina and the Philippines. In the
New World they extend from southern Canada through much of the United States. They
are commonly adapted to either woodland habitats, often montane, or sometimes to
grassland habitats. A few can survive in marshland and epiphytes are known in
tropical southeast Asia. In general they prefer moderately acidic or lime-free
Lilies are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including
the Dun-bar.
Many species are widely grown in the garden in temperate and sub-tropical regions.
They may also be grown as potted plants. Numerous ornamental hybrids have been
developed. They can be used in herbaceous borders, woodland and shrub plantings,
and as patio plants. Some lilies, especially Lilium longiflorum, form important cut
flower crops. These may be forced for particular markets; for instance, Lilium
longiflorum for the Easter trade, when it may be called the Easter lily.
Lilies are usually planted as bulbs in the dormant season. They are best planted in
a south-facing (northern hemisphere), slightly sloping aspect, in sun or part
shade, at a depth 2½ times the height of the bulb (except Lilium candidum which
should be planted at the surface). Most prefer a porous, loamy soil, and good
drainage is essential. Most species bloom in July or August (northern hemisphere).
The flowering periods of certain lily species begin in late spring, while others
bloom in late summer or early autumn.[21] They have contractile roots which pull
the plant down to the correct depth, therefore it is better to plant them too
shallowly than too deep. A soil pH of around 6.5 is generally safe. The soil should
be well-drained, and plants must be kept watered during the growing season. Some
plants have strong wiry stems, but those with heavy flower heads may need staking.
Below is a list of lily species and cultivars that have gained the Royal
Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:[24][25][26]-

Classification of garden forms[edit]

Numerous forms, mostly hybrids, are grown for the garden. They vary according to
the species and interspecific hybrids that they derived from, and are classified in
the following broad groups:[27][28][29]
Asiatic hybrids (Division I)[edit]

These are derived from hybrids between species in Lilium section Sinomartagon.[30]
They are derived from central and East Asian species and interspecific hybrids,
including Lilium amabile, Lilium bulbiferum, Lilium callosum, Lilium cernuum,
Lilium concolor, Lilium dauricum, Lilium davidii, Lilium × hollandicum, Lilium
lancifolium (syn. Lilium tigrinum), Lilium lankongense, Lilium leichtlinii, Lilium
× maculatum, Lilium pumilum, Lilium × scottiae, Lilium wardii and Lilium wilsonii.
These are plants with medium-sized, upright or outward facing flowers, mostly
unscented. There are various cultivars such as Lilium 'Cappuccino', Lilium
'Dimension', Lilium 'Little Kiss' and Lilium 'Navona'.[32]
• Dwarf (Patio, Border) varieties are much shorter, c.36–61 cm in height
and were designed for containers.[33] They often bear the cultivar name 'Tiny',
such as the 'Lily Looks' series, e.g. 'Tiny Padhye',[34] 'Tiny Dessert'.[35]
Martagon hybrids (Division II)[edit]

These are based on Lilium dalhansonii, Lilium hansonii, Lilium martagon, Lilium
medeoloides, and Lilium tsingtauense.
The flowers are nodding, Turk's cap style (with the petals strongly recurved).
Candidum (Euro-Caucasian) hybrids (Division III)[edit]

This includes mostly European species: Lilium candidum, Lilium chalcedonicum,
Lilium kesselringianum, Lilium monadelphum, Lilium pomponium, Lilium pyrenaicum and
Lilium × testaceum.
American hybrids (Division IV)[edit]
These are mostly taller growing forms, originally derived from Lilium bolanderi,
Lilium × burbankii, Lilium canadense, Lilium columbianum, Lilium grayi, Lilium
humboldtii, Lilium kelleyanum, Lilium kelloggii, Lilium maritimum, Lilium
michauxii, Lilium michiganense, Lilium occidentale, Lilium × pardaboldtii, Lilium
pardalinum, Lilium parryi, Lilium parvum, Lilium philadelphicum, Lilium pitkinense,
Lilium superbum, Lilium ollmeri, Lilium washingtonianum, and Lilium wigginsii.
Many are clump-forming perennials with rhizomatous rootstocks.
Longiflorum hybrids (Division V)[edit]
These are cultivated forms of this species and its subspecies.
They are most important as plants for cut flowers, and are less often grown in the
garden than other hybrids.
Trumpet lilies (Division VI), including Aurelian hybrids (with L. henryi)[edit]

This group includes hybrids of many Asiatic species and their interspecific
hybrids, including Lilium × aurelianense, Lilium brownii, Lilium × centigale,
Lilium henryi, Lilium × imperiale, Lilium × kewense, Lilium leucanthum, Lilium
regale, Lilium rosthornii, Lilium sargentiae, Lilium sulphureum and Lilium ×
The flowers are trumpet shaped, facing outward or somewhat downward, and tend to be
strongly fragrant, often especially night-fragrant.
Oriental hybrids (Division VII)[edit]

These are based on hybrids within Lilium section Archelirion,[30][31] specifically
Lilium auratum and Lilium speciosum, together with crossbreeds from several species
native to Japan, including Lilium nobilissimum, Lilium rubellum, Lilium alexandrae,
and Lilium japonicum.
They are fragrant, and the flowers tend to be outward facing. Plants tend to be
tall, and the flowers may be quite large. The whole group are sometimes referred to
as "stargazers" because many of them appear to look upwards. (For the specific
cultivar, see Lilium 'Stargazer'.)
Other hybrids (Division VIII)[edit]

Includes all other garden hybrids.
Species (Division IX)[edit]
All natural species and naturally occurring forms are included in this group.
The flowers can be classified by flower aspect and form:[36]
• Flower aspect:
• a up-facing
• b out-facing
• c down-facing
• Flower form:
• a trumpet-shaped
• b bowl-shaped
• c flat (or with tepal tips recurved)
• d tepals strongly recurved (with the Turk's cap form as the ultimate
Many newer commercial varieties are developed by using new technologies such as
ovary culture and embryo rescue.[37]
Pests and diseases[edit]

Scarlet lily beetles, Oxfordshire, UK

Aphids may infest plants. Leatherjackets feed on the roots. Larvae of the Scarlet
lily beetle can cause serious damage to the stems and leaves. The scarlet beetle
lays its eggs and completes its life cycle only on true lilies (Lilium) and
fritillaries (Fritillaria).[38] Oriental, rubrum, tiger and trumpet lilies as well
as Oriental trumpets (orienpets) and Turk's cap lilies and native North American
Lilium species are all vulnerable, but the beetle prefers some types over others.
The beetle could also be having an effect on native Canadian species and some rare
and endangered species found in northeastern North America.[39] Daylilies
(Hemerocallis, not true lilies) are excluded from this category. Plants can suffer
from damage caused by mice, deer and squirrels. Slugs, snails and millipedes attack
seedlings, leaves and flowers. Brown spots on damp leaves may signal botrytis (also
known as lily disease). Various fungal and viral diseases can cause mottling of
leaves and stunting of growth.
Propagation and growth[edit]
Lilies can be propagated in several ways;
• by division of the bulbs
• by growing-on bulbils which are adventitious bulbs formed on the stem
• by scaling, for which whole scales are detached from the bulb and
planted to form a new bulb
• by seed; there are many seed germination patterns, which can be complex
• by micropropagation techniques (which include tissue culture);[40]
commercial quantities of lilies are often propagated in vitro and then planted out
to grow into plants large enough to sell.
According to a study done by Anna Pobudkiewicz and Jadwiga the use of flurprimidol
foliar spray helps aid in the limitation of stem elongation in oriental lilies. (1)
Some Lilium species are toxic to cats. This is known to be so especially for Lilium
longiflorum though other Lilium and the unrelated Hemerocallis can also cause the
same symptoms.[41][42][43][44] The true mechanism of toxicity is undetermined, but
it involves damage to the renal tubular epithelium (composing the substance of the
kidney and secreting, collecting, and conducting urine), which can cause acute
renal failure.[44] Veterinary help should be sought, as a matter of urgency, for
any cat that is suspected of eating any part of a lily – including licking pollen
that may have brushed onto its coat.[45]
Culinary and herb uses[edit]
Lilium bulbs are starchy and edible as root vegetables, although bulbs of some
species may be very bitter. The non-bitter bulbs of Lilium lancifolium, Lilium
pumilum, and especially Lilium brownii (Chinese: 百合; pinyin: bǎihé) and Lilium
davidii var. unicolor are grown on a large scale in China as a luxury or health
food, and are most often sold in dry form for herb, the fresh form often appears
with other vegetables. The dried bulbs are commonly used in the south to flavor
soup. Lily flowers are also said to be efficacious in pulmonary affections, and to
have tonic properties.[46] Lily flowers and bulbs are eaten especially in the
summer, for their perceived ability to reduce internal heat.[47] They may be
reconstituted and stir-fried, grated and used to thicken soup, or processed to
extract starch. Their texture and taste draw comparisons with the potato, although
the individual bulb scales are much smaller. There are also species which are meant
to be suitable for culinary and/or herb uses. There are five traditional lily
species whose bulbs are certified and classified as "vegetable and non-staple
foodstuffs" on the National geographical indication product list of China.[48]
• Culinary use:[49]
野百合 Lilium brownii, 百合 Lilium brownii var. viridulum, 渥丹 Lilium concolor, 毛百合
Lilium dauricum, 川百合 Lilium davidii, 东北百合 Lilium distichum, 卷丹 Lilium
lancifolium, 新疆百合 Lilium martagon var. pilosiusculum, 山丹 Lilium pumilum, 南川百
合 Lilium rosthornii, 药百合 Lilium speciosum var. gloriosoides.
• Herb use:[50][51]
野百合 Lilium brownii, 百合 Lilium brownii var. viridulum, 渥丹 Lilium concolor, 毛百
合 Lilium dauricum, 卷丹 Lilium lancifolium, 山丹 Lilium pumilum, 南川百合 Lilium
rosthornii, 药百合 Lilium speciosum var. gloriosoides, 淡黄花百合 Lilium sulphureum.
And there are researches about the selection of new varieties of edible lilies from
the horticultural cultivars, such as 'Batistero' and 'California' among 15 lilies
in Beijing,[52] and 'Prato' and 'Small foreigners' among 13 lilies in Ningbo.[53]
• Culinary use:
Yuri-ne (lily-root) is also common in Japanese cuisine, especially as an ingredient
of chawan-mushi (savoury egg custard). The major lilium species cultivated as
vegetable are Lilium leichtlinii var. maximowiczii, Lilium lancifolium, and Lilium
• Herb use:
Lilium lancifolium, Lilium brownii var. viridulum, Lilium brownii var. colchesteri,
Lilium pumilum[56]
North America[edit]
The flower buds and roots of Lilium canadense are traditionally gathered and eaten
by North American indigenous peoples.[57]
• Culinary use:
The parts of lilium species which are officially listed as food material are the
flower and bulbs of Lilium lancifolium Thunb., Lilium brownii var. viridulum Baker,
Lilium pumilum DC., Lilium candidum Loureiro.[58] Most edible lily bulbs which can
be purchased in a market are mostly imported from mainland China (only in the scale
form, and most marked as 蘭州百合 Lilium davidii var. unicolor) and Japan (whole
bulbs, should mostly be Lilium leichtlinii var. maximowiczii). There are already
commercially available organic growing and normal growing edible lily bulbs. The
varieties are selected by the Taiwanese Department of Agriculture from the Asiatic
lily cultivars that are imported from the Netherlands; the seedling bulbs must be
imported from the Netherlands every year.[59][60][61]
• Herb use:
Lilium lancifolium Thunb., Lilium brownii var. viridulum Baker, Lilium pumilum DC.
South Korea[edit]
• Herb use:
The lilium species which are officially listed as herbs are 참나리 Lilium
lancifolium Thunberg; 당나리 Lilium brownii var. viridulun Baker;[63][64]
Not Lilium[edit]
The "lily" flower buds known as jīnzhēn (金针, "golden needles") in Chinese cuisine
are actually from Hemerocallis citrina.[65]
In culture[edit]
Lilium bulbiferum has long been recognised as a symbol of the Orange Order in
Northern Ireland.[66] Lilium candidum; the Madonna Lily, carries a great deal of
symbolic value in many cultures. See the article for more information.

• Lilium regale : bud formation
• white Lilium hanging in garden
• Orange lily showing stamens with pollen-covered anthers, Ontario,
• Recently open and still unopened flowers of white Asiatic hybrid
• Lilium maculatum in fields
• Pollen of Lilium auratum (oriental lily); back-scattered electron
microscope image
• Microscopic view of lily pollen 100X
• Lilium pomponium (Flower)
• Lilium 'Centerfold'
See also[edit]
• Lily seed germination types
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Modernism, Tradition and the new Orange Order logo". Retrieved 17 September 2016.
• Gao, Yun-Dong; Hohenegger, Markus; Harris, AJ; Zhou, Song-Dong; He,
Xing-Jin; Wan, Juan (2012). "A new species in the genus Nomocharis Franchet
(Liliaceae): evidence that brings the genus Nomocharis into Lilium". Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 298 (1): 69–85. doi:10.1007/s00606-011-0524-1.
ISSN 0378-2697.
• Rønsted, N.; Law, S.; Thornton, H.; Fay, M. F.; Chase, M. W. (2005).
"Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the monophyly of Fritillaria and Lilium
(Liliaceae; Liliales) and the infrageneric classification of Fritillaria".
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 35 (3): 509–527.
doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.12.023. PMID 15878122.
• "Nomocharis", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic
Gardens, Kew
External links[edit]

• The Plant List

• Online Lily Register, over 9400 entries Lilium
• de Florum: Lilium species
• North American Lily Society
• Royal Horticultural Society Lily Group
• 1 2 3 Time-lapse videos
• Lilium at the Encyclopedia of Life
• Lily perenialization, Flower Bulb Research Program, Department of
Horticulture, Cornell University
• Crossing polygon of the genus Lilium.
• Bulb flower production » Lilies, International Flower Bulb Centre
• Lily Picture Book, International Flower Bulb Centre
• Flora Europaea: Lilium
• Flora of China: Lilium
• Flora of Nepal: Lilium species list
• Flora of North America: Lilium

<img src="//" alt=""

title="" width="1" height="1" style="border: none; position: absolute;" />
Categories: LiliumBulbous plantsGarden plantsLiliaceae generaRoot
vegetablesTaxa named by Carl Linnaeus

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