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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

Contents
Periodic table .......................................................................................................................................... 2
How to remember the first three periods .......................................................................................... 2
Oxidation vs. reduction: ............................................................................................................... 3
ACIDS BASES AND SALTS ......................................................................................................................... 3
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY ......................................................................................................................... 7
ELECTROLYSIS .......................................................................................................................................... 8
METALLURGY ........................................................................................................................................ 10
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: HCl ................................................................................................................ 11
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: AMMONIA.................................................................................................... 12
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: NITRIC ACID.................................................................................................. 14
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: SULPHURIC ACID .......................................................................................... 14
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ........................................................................................................................... 16
ALKANES ............................................................................................................................................ 16
ALKENES ............................................................................................................................................ 17
ALKYNES ............................................................................................................................................ 17
ALCOHOLS ......................................................................................................................................... 18
ACETIC ACID ...................................................................................................................................... 18
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS............................................................................................................................ 18

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

Periodic table
How to remember the first three periods

Hi He Lied Because Boron Could Not Oxidize Fluorine.

New Nations Might Also Sign Peace Security Clause. Arthur King Can

Hi Hydrogen Atomic No 1
He Helium Atomic No 2
Lied Lithium Atomic No 3
Because Berilium Atomic No 4
Boron Boron Atomic No 5
Could Carbon Atomic No 6
Not Nitrogen Atomic No 7
Oxidize Oxygen Atomic No 8
Fluorine Fluorine Atomic No 9
New Neon Atomic No 10
Nations Sodium (Na) Atomic No 11
Might Magnesium (Mg) Atomic No 12
Also Aluminium Atomic No 13
Sign Silicon Atomic No 14
Peace Phosphorous Atomic No 15
Security Sulphur Atomic No 16
Clause Chlorine (Cl) Atomic No 17
Arthur Argon Atomic No 18
King Potassium (K) Atomic No 19
Can Caclium Atomic No 20

Group 1 (alkali metals)

Li Na K Rb Cs Fr

Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium

LIttle NAsty Kids RuB CatS FuR

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

Group 17 (halogens)

F Cl Br I At

Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine


Fish Can't Breathe In Air.

We can easily get confused with Cations and anions

Remember this Cats has Paws  Cations positive Don’t need to remember Anion as -ve

Oxidation vs. reduction:


What happens at the Anode and what happens at the cathode?

Remember AN OIL RIG CAT

At the ANode, Oxidation Involves Loss of electrons.

Reduction Involves Gaining electrons at the CAThode

ACIDS BASES AND SALTS


ACID

 HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-

BASE

 CuO + 2HCl → CuCl2 + H2O

ALKALI

 NaOH[aq] Na+ + OH-

STRONG ACID

 HNO3 + H2O H3O+ + NO3-


 H2SO4 + 2H2O 2H3O+ + SO42-

WEAK ACID

 CH3COOH CH3COO- + H+

STRONG ALKALI

 NaOH[aq] Na+ + OH-


 KOH[aq] K+ + OH-

WEAK ALKALI

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

 NH4OH[aq] NH4+ + OH-

MONOBASIC ACID

 HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-


 NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O

DIBASIC ACID

 H2SO4 + 2H2O 2H3O+ + SO42-


 NaOH + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + H2O
 2NaOH + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O

TRIBASIC ACID

 H3PO4 + 3H2O 3H3O+ + PO43-


 NaOH + H3PO4 → NaH2PO4 + H2O
 2NaOH + H3PO4 Na2HPO4 + 2H2O
 3NaOH + H3PO4 → Na3PO4 + 3H2O

MONOACIDIC BASE

 NaOH[aq] Na+ + OH-

DIACIDIC BASE

 Ca(OH)2[aq] Ca2+ + 2OH-


 Cu(OH)2[aq] Cu2+ + 2OH-

ACIDS FROM NONMETALS

 H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl
 H2 + I2 → 2HI

ACIDS FROM ACIDIC OXIDES

 CO2 + H2O → H2CO3


 SO2 + H2O → H2SO3
 SO3 + H2O → H2SO4
 P2O5 + 3H2O → 2H3PO4

ACIDS FROM SALTS

 KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HNO3


 NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HCl

ACIDS BY OXIDATION OF NONMETALS

 S + 6HNO3 → H2SO4 + 2H2O + 6NO2↑

BASES FROM METALS

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

 4Na + O2 → 2Na2O
 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO

BASES FROM BASIC OXIDES

 K2O + H2O → 2KOH


 Na2O + H2O → 2NaOH

BASES FROM ACTIVE METALS AND WATER

 2K + 2H2O → 2KOH + H2↑


 2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2↑

BASES FROM SALTS

 AlCl3 + 3NaOH → 3NaCl + Al(OH)3↓


 FeSO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓

BASES BY DECOMPOSITION OF SALTS

 2Pb(NO3)2 → 2PbO +4NO2 + O2↑

REACTION OF CHLORIDES NITRATES BICARBONATES AND CARBONATES WITH ACIDS

 NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HCl


 NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HNO3
 2NaHCO3 + H2SO4[dil] → NA2SO4 + 2H2O + 2CO2↑
 Na2CO3 + 2HCl[dil] → 2NaCl + H2O + CO2↑

FORMATION OF ACID RAIN

 S + O2 → SO2
 H2O + SO2 → H2SO3[aq]
 2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3
 H2O + SO3 → H2SO4[aq]
 N2 + O2 → 2NO [at high temp.]
 2NO + O2 → 2NO2
 H2O + 2NO2 → HNO2 + HNO3

PREPARATION OF ACIDS

NEUTRALIZATION

 CuO + H2SO4[dil] → CuSO4 + H2O


 PbO + 2HNO3[dil] → Pb(NO3)2 + 2H2O
 Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4[dil] → CuSO4 + 2H2O
 Pb(OH)2 + 2HNO3[dil] → Pb(NO3)2 + 2H2O
 PbCO3 + 2HNO3[dil] → Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑
 ZnCO3 + 2HNO3[dil] → Zn(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑
 CuCO3 + H2SO4[dil] → CuSO4 + H2O + CO2↑

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

NEUTRALIZATON (TITRATION INVOLVED)

 NaOH + HCl[dil] → NaCl + H2O


 NaOH + HNO3[dil] → NaNO3 + H2O
 NH4OH + HCl[dil] → NH4Cl + H2O
 Na2CO3 + H2SO4[dil] → Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2↑
 (NH4)2CO3 + 2HCl[dil] → 2NH4Cl + H2O + CO2↑
 (NH4)2CO3 + H2SO4[dil] → (NH4)2SO4 + H2O + CO2↑

SIMPLE DISPLACEMENT

 Fe + H2SO4[dil] →FeSO4 + H2↑


 Fe + 2HCl[dil] → FeCl2 + H2↑
 Zn + H2SO4[dil] → ZnSO4 + H2↑
 Mg + 2HCl[dil] → MgCl2 + H2↑

DIRECT COMBINATION (SYNTHESIS)

 2Fe + 3Cl2 → 2FeCl3


 2Al + 3Cl2 → 2AlCl3
 Fe + S → FeS↓
 Zn + S → ZnS↓
 Pb + S → PbS↓

DOUBLE DECOMPOSITION (PRECIPITATION)

 Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → 2NaNO3 + PbCl2↓


 CaCl2 + Na2CO3 → 2NaCl + CaCO3↓
 ZnSO4 + (NH4)2CO3 → (NH4)2SO4 + ZnCO3↓
 Zn(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 → 2NaNO3 + ZnCO3↓
 Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 → 2NaNO3 + PbSO4↓

PREPARATION OF PbCl2 FROM PbO

 PbO + 2HNO3[dil] →Pb(NO3)2 + H2O


 Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → 2NaNO3 + PbCl2↓

PREPARATION OF PbSO4 FROM PbCO3

 PbCO3 + 2HNO3 → Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑


 Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4→ 2NaNO3 + PbSO4↓

PREPARATION OF PbCl2 FROM PbCO3

 PbCO3 + 2HNO3 → Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑


 Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → 2 NaNO3 + PbCl2↓

HYDROLYSIS OF SALTS

 NH4Cl + H2O → NH4OH + HCl

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

 NaHCO3 + H2O → NaOH + H2CO3


 Na2CO3 + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2CO3
 NaCl + H2O → NaOH + HCl
 MgCl2 + 2H2O → Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
REACTIONS OF NaOH SOLUTION ON SALTS

 Ca(NO3)2 + 2NaOH → 2NaNO3 + Ca(OH)2↓(white ppt-slightly soluble)


 MgCl2 + 2NaOH → 2NaCl + Mg(OH)2↓(dull white ppt-insoluble)
 FeSO4 + 2NaOH → 2Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓(dirty green ppt-insoluble)
 FeCl3 + 3NaOH → 3NaCl + Fe(OH)3↓(reddish brown ppt-insoluble)
 CuSO4 + 2NaOH → 2NaCl + Cu(OH)2↓(pale blue ppt-insoluble)
 ZnSO4 + 2NaOH → 2Na2SO4 + Zn(OH)2↓(gelatinous white ppt-insoluble)
 Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH[excess] →2H2O + Na2ZnO2(colourless sol-soluble)
 Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaOH → 2NaNO3 + Pb(OH)2↓(chalky white ppt-insoluble)
 Pb(OH)2 + 2NaOH[excess] → 2H2O + Na2PbO2(colourless sol-soluble)

REACTIONS OF NH4OH SOLUTION ON SALTS

 MgCl2 + 2NH4OH → 2NH4Cl + Mg(OH)2↓(dull white ppt-insoluble)


 FeSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓(dirty green ppt-insoluble)
 FeCl3 + 2NH4OH → 3NH4Cl + Fe(OH)3↓(reddish brown ppt-insoluble)
 CuSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Cu(OH)2↓(pale blue ppt-insoluble)
 Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4]SO4(deep blue or inky
blue sol-soluble)
 Cu(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2(deep blue or inky blue sol-soluble)
 ZnSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Zn(OH)2↓(gelatinous white ppt-insoluble)
 Zn(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] →4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4]SO4(colourless sol-soluble)
 Zn(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4](OH)2(colourless sol-soluble)
 Pb(NO3)2 + 2NH4OH → 2NH4NO3 + Pb(OH)2↓(chalky white-insoluble)

ACTION OF ALKALIS ON CERTAIN METALS

 Zn + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + H2↑


 Zn + 2KOH → K2ZnO2 + H2↑
 Pb + 2NaOH → Na2PbO2 + H2↑
 Pb + KOH → K2PbO2 + H2↑
 2Al + 2NaOH + 2H2O → 2NaAlO2 + 3H2↑
 2Al + 2KOH + 2H2O → 2KAlO2 + 3H2↑

ACTION OF ALKALIS ON OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES OF CERTAIN METALS

 ZnO + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + H2O


 Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + 2H2O
 PbO + 2NaOH → Na2PbO2 + H2O
 Pb(OH)2 + 2NaOH → Na2PbO2 + 2H2O

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

 Al2O3 + 2NaOH → 2NaAlO2 + H2O


 Al(OH)3 + NaOH → NaAlO2 + 2H2O
 Al2O3 + 2KOH → 2KAlO2 + H2O
 Al(OH)3 + KOH → KAlO2 + 2H2O

ELECTROLYSIS
STRONG ELECTROLYTES

 HCl[aq] H1+ + Cl1-


 HNO3[aq] H1+ + NO31-
 H2SO4[aq] 2H1+ + SO42-
 KOH[aq] K1+ + OH1-
 NaOH[aq] Na1+ + OH1-
 LiOH[aq] Li1+ + OH1-
 PbBr2[molten] Pb2+ + 2Br1-
 CuCl2[aq] Cu2+ + 2Cl1-
 AgNO3[aq] Ag1+ + NO31-

WEAK ELECTROLYTES

 CH3COOH[aq] CH3COO1- + H1+


 HCOOH[aq] HCOO1- + H1+
 H2CO3[aq] 2H1+ + CO32-
 Ca(OH)2[aq] Ca2+ + 2OH1-
 Mg(OH)2[aq] Mg2+ + 2OH1-
 NH4OH[aq] NH41+ + OH1-
 Na2CO3[aq] 2Na1+ + CO32-
 KHCO3 [aq] K1+ + HCO31-
 (CH3COO)2Pb[aq] 2CH3COO1- + Pb2+

ELECTROLYSIS OF MOLTEN PbBr2

 Electrolytic cell : Silica crucible


 Electrolyte : Molten PbBr2
 Electrodes : Graphite(inert)
 Temperature : >380⁰C
 Current : 3 amps
 Dissociation : PbBr2 Pb2+ +2Br1-
 Reaction at cathode : Pb +2e- → Pb (silvery grey deposit)
2+

 Reaction at anode : Br1- - 1e- → Br


Br + Br → Br2 (reddish brown fumes)

ELECTROLYSIS OF ACIDIFIED WATER

 Electrolyte : Acidified water with dil H2SO4


 Electrodes : Platinum foil(inert)
 Temperature : Ordinary temp

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

 Current : 3 amps
 Dissociation : H2SO4 2H1+ + SO42-
H2O H + OH1-
1+

 Reaction at cathode : H1+ +1e- → H x 4


2H + 2H → 2H2 (hydrogen gas evolved)
 Reaction at anode : OH1- -1e- → OH x 4
4OH → 2H2O + O2 (oxygen gas evolved)

ELECTROLYSIS OF Aq.CuSO4 (USING ACTIVE ELECTRODES)

 Electrolyte : aq. CuSO4


 Electrodes : Copper(active)
 Temperature : Ordinary temp
 Current : 3 amps
 Dissociation : CuSO4 Cu2+ + SO42-
H2O H1+ + OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu (brownish pink deposit)
 Reaction at anode : Cu - 2e- → Cu2+ (no product-Cu2+ ions formed)

ELECTROLYSIS OF Aq.CuSO4 (USING INERT ELECTRODES)

 Electrolyte : aq. CuSO4


 Electrodes : Platinum or carbon(inert)
 Temperature : Ordinary temp
 Current : 3 amps
 Dissociation : CuSO4 Cu2+ + SO42-
H2O H1+ + OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu (brownish pink deposit)
 Reaction at anode : OH1- - 1e- → OH x 2
4OH → 2H2O + O2 (oxygen gas evolved)
 Note: With active electrode anode diminishes in mass because it loses electrons.
Blue colour of CuSO4 remains unchanged with copper electrode but fades with inert
electrode because if copper anode is used, for every copper ion discharged at cathode a
copper ion is added to the sol. by the anode. Total no. of copper ions remains same. This is
not the case with inert electrodes.

ELECTROPLATING WITH NICKEL

 Electrolyte : aq. NiSO4


 Cathode : Article to be electroplated
 Anode : Block of nickel metal
 Dissociation : NiSO4 Ni2+ +SO42-
H2O H1+ +OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : Ni2+ +2e- → Ni (deposited)
 Reaction at anode : Ni – 2e- → Ni2+ (no product-Ni2+ ions formed)

ELECTROPLATING WITH SILVER

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 Electrolyte : aq. Na[Ag(CN)2] (sodium silver cyanide)


 Cathode : Cleaned article to be electroplated
 Anode : Block of silver metal
 Dissociation : Na[Ag(CN)2] Na1+ + Ag1+ + 2CN1-
H2O H1+ +OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : Ag1+ +1e- → Ag (deposited)
 Reaction at anode : Ag – 1e- → Ag1+ (no product-Ag1+ ions formed)

ELECTROREFINING OF COPPER

 Electrolyte : Aq. CuSO4


 Cathode : Pure thin sheet of copper
 Anode : Impure block of copper
 Dissociation : CuSO4 Cu2+ + SO42-
H2O H1+ +OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu (deposited)
 Reaction ay anode : Cu - 2e- → Cu2+ (no product-Cu2+ ions formed)

METALLURGY
CONCENTRATED ORE TO OXIDE

ROASTING

 2ZnS + 3O2 → 2ZnO + 2SO2↑


 4FeS + 7O2 → 2Fe2O3 + 4SO2↑

CALCINATION

 ZnCO3 → ZnO + CO2↑


 FeCO3 → FeO + CO2↑

REDUCTION OF METALLIC OXIDES

BY ELECTROLYSIS

 Al2O3 2Al3+ + 3O2-


 At cathode : 2Al3+ + 6e- → 2Al
 At anode : 3O2- - 6e- → 3[O] → 3O2↑

BY REDUCING AGENTS

 ZnO + C Zn + CO↑
 2PbO + C 2Pb + CO2↑
 Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2↑
 FeO + CO Fe + CO2↑

BY THERMAL DECOMPOSITION

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 2HgO 2Hg + O2↑


 2Ag2O 4Ag + O2↑

METALLURGY OF ZINC

 Roasting : 2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2↑


 Calcination : ZnCO3 2ZnO + CO2↑
 Reduction : ZnO + C Zn + CO↑

METALLURGY OF IRON

 Lower region : C + O2 → CO2 + Δ


 Middle region : CO2 + C → 2CO – Δ
CaCO3 → CaO + CO2↑
CaO + SiO2 → CaSiO3 [slag]
 Upper region : Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2↑

METALLURGY OF ALUMINIUM

CONCENTRATION OF ORE – BAEYER’S PROCESS

 Al2O3 . 2H2O 2NaAlO2 + 3H2O


 NaAlO2 + 2H2O NaOH + Al(OH)3↓
 2Al(OH)3 Al2O3 + 3H2O[vap]
ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION OF ALUMINA – HALL HEROULT’S PROCESS
 Electrolyte : Fused alumina-1part, cryolite-3 parts, fluorspar-1 part
 Electrolytic cell : Rectangular steel tank with carbon lining
 Cathode : Gas carbon
 Anode : Thick carbon rods (graphite) attached to copper clamps
 Temperature : 950⁰C
 Current : 100 amps
 Dissociation : Na3AlF6 3Na1+ + Al3+ + 6F1-
CaF2 Ca + 2F1-
2+

Al2O3 2Al3+ + 3O2-


 At cathode : 2Al3+ + 6e- → 2Al(pure metal deposited)
 At anode : 3O2- - 6e- → 3[O] →3O2(oxygen gas evolved)
 Thermite welding : Fe2O3 + 2Al → Al2O3 + 2Fe + Δ

RUSTING: 4Fe + 3O2 + xH2O → 2Fe2O3 . xH2O

STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: HCl


PREPARATION

BY SYNTHESIS: H2 + Cl2 2HCl↑

IN LABORATORY: NaCl + H2SO4 [conc] NaHSO4 + HCl↑

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

 CaO + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O


 2P2O5 + 3HCl → POCl3 + 3HPO3

ACIDIC PROPERTY

 Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2↑


 Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2↑
 Fe + 2HCl → FeCl2 + H2↑
 CuO + 2HCl →CuCl2 + H2O
 NH4OH + HCl → NH4Cl + H2O
 Na2CO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2↑
 Ca(HCO3)2 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2CO2↑
 Na2SO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O + SO2↑
 NaHSO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + SO2↑
 Na2S + 2HCl → NaCl + H2S↑
 FeS + 2HCl → FeCl2 + H2S↑
 CuS + 2HCl → CuCl2 + H2S↑
 AgNO3 + HCl → AgCl↓ + HNO3
 Pb(NO3)2 + 2HCl → PbCl2↓ + 2HNO3
 Na2S2O3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + SO2 + S + H2O

REACTIONS WITH OXIDISING AGENTS

 MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2


 PbO2 + 4HCl PbCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2
 Pb3O4 + 8HCl 3PbCl2 + 4H2O + Cl2
 2KMnO4 + 16HCl 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 8H2O + 5Cl2
 K2Cr2O7 + 14HCl 2KCl + 2CrCl3 + 7H2O + 3Cl2

AQUA REGIA REACTION

 HNO3 + 3HCl → NOCl + 2H2O + 2[Cl]


 Au + 3[Cl] →AuCl3
 Pt + 4[Cl] → PtCl4

STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: AMMONIA


PREPARATION

FROM AMMONIUM SALTS

 (NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑


 (NH4)2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑
 NH4Cl + NaOH NaCl + H2O + NH3↑

IN LAB: 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑

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 2NH3 + H2SO4[conc.] → (NH4)2SO4


 6NH3 + P2O5 + 3H2O → 2(NH4)3PO4
 8NH3 + CaCl2 [fused] → CaCl2 . 8NH3

FROM METAL NITRIDES

 3Mg + N2 → Mg3N2
 Mg3N2 + 6H2O[warm] → 3Mg(OH)2 + 2NH3↑
 3Ca + N2 → Ca3N2
 Ca3N2 + 6H2O[warm] → 3Ca(OH)2 + 2NH3↑
 2Al + N2 → 2AlN
 AlN + 3H2O[warm] →Al(OH)3 + NH3↑

HABER’S PROCESS

 Temperature : 450-500⁰C
 Pressure : 200-900 atms
 If catalyst finely divided Fe then promotor Mo
 If catalyst Fe2O3 then promotor 1% K2O and 3% Al2O3
 Impurities : CO, CO2, H2S
PREPARATION OF AMMONIUM SALTS
 NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl
 NH3 + HNO3 →NH4NO3
 2NH3 + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4
 NH4OH + HCl → NH4Cl + H2O
 NH4OH + HNO3 → NH4NO3 + H2O
 2NH4OH + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4 + 2H2O

COMBUSTION: 4NH3 + 3O2 → 2N2 + 6H2O

CATALYTIC OXIDATION: 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O + Δ

2NO + O2 → 2NO2

BASIC NATURE

 NH3 + H2O → NH4OH


 NH4OH NH4+ + OH-
 FeSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓(dirty green ppt-insoluble)
 FeCl3 + 2NH4OH → 3NH4Cl + Fe(OH)3↓(reddish brown ppt-insoluble)
 CuSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Cu(OH)2↓(pale blue ppt-insoluble)
 Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4]SO4(deep blue or inky
blue sol-soluble)
 Cu(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2(deep blue or inky blue sol-soluble)
 ZnSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Zn(OH)2↓(gelatinous white ppt-insoluble)
 Zn(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] →4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4]SO4(colourless sol-soluble)
 Zn(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4](OH)2(colourless sol-soluble)

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

REDUCING NATURE

 2NH3 + 3CuO →Cu + 3H2O + N2↑


 2NH3 + 3PbO → 3Pb + 3H2O + N2↑
 8NH3[excess] + 3Cl2 → 6NH4Cl + N2
 NH3 + 3Cl2[excess] → 3HCl + NCl3

STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: NITRIC ACID


PREPARATION

IN LAB

 KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HNO3[vap]


 NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HNO3[vap]

DECOMPOSITION OF HNO3: 4HNO3 → 4NO2 + 2H2O + O2

OXIDISING NATURE

2HNO3[conc.] → H2O + 2NO2 + [O]


Cu + [O] → CuO
CuO + 2HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O
Cu + 4HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + NO2
 Cu + 4HNO3[conc.] → Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NO2
 C + 4HNO3[conc.] → CO2 + 2H2O + 4NO2
 S + 6HNO3[conc.] → H2SO4 + 2H2O + 6NO2
 3Cu + 8HNO3[dil.] → 3Cu(NO3)2 + 4H2O + 2NO
 Cu + 4HNO3[conc.] → Cu(NO3)2 +2H2O +2NO2
 C7H8 + 3HNO3[conc.] → C7H5(NO2)3 + 3H2O

BROWN RING TEST

 6FeSO4 + 3H2SO4[conc.] + 2HNO3[dil.] → 3Fe2(SO4)3 + 4H2O + 2NO


 FeSO4 + NO → FeSO4 . NO

STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: SULPHURIC ACID


PREPARATION

CONTACT PROCESS

SULPHUR OR PYRITE BURNERS


 S + O2 → SO2
 2FeS + 3O2 → 2FeO + 2SO2
CONTACT TOWER
 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 + Δ
ABSORPTION TOWER
 SO3 + H2SO4 → H2S2O7

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

DILUTION TANK
 H2S2O7 + H2O → 2H2SO4

ACIDIC NATURE

 H2SO4 + 2H2O 2H3O+ + SO42-


 REACTIONS OF DIL. H2SO4
 Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2↑
 Fe + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2↑
 Na2O + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O
 MgO + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2O
 ZnO + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2O
 CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 +H2O
 2NaOH + H2SO4→ Na2SO4 + 2H2O
 Zn(OH)2 + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + 2H2O
 Na2CO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2↑
 CuCO3 + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O + CO2↑
 2KHCO3 + H2SO4 → K2SO4 + 2H2O + 2CO2↑
 Na2SO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O + SO2↑
 2NaHSO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2SO2↑
 Na2S + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2S↑
 ZnS + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2S↑
 FeS + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2S↑

DIBASIC ACID

DISSSOCIATES IN TWO STEPS

H2SO4 H+ + HSO4-
HSO4- H+ + SO42-
H2SO4 2H+ + SO42-

FORMS TWO TYPES OF SALTS

 NaOH + H2SO4 → NaHSO4[acid salt] + H2O


 2NaOH[excess] + H2SO4 → Na2SO4[normal salt] + 2H2O

NON VOLATILE ACID

 NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HCl


 KCl + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HCl
 NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HNO3
 KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HNO3

OXIDISING AGENT

H2SO4 → H2O + SO2 + [O]


Cu + [O] → CuO

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O


Cu + 2H2SO4 → CuSO4 + 2H2O + SO2↑
 C + 2H2SO4[conc.] → CO2 + 2H2O + 2SO2↑
 S + 2H2SO4[conc.] → 3SO2↑ + 2H2O
 2P + 5H2SO4[conc.] → 2H3PO4 + 2H2O + 5SO2↑
 Cu + 2H2SO4[conc.] → CuSO4 + 2H2O + SO2↑
 Zn + 2H2SO4[conc.] → ZnSO4 + 2H2O + SO2↑

STRONG DEHYDRATING AGENT

 C6H12O6 6C + 6H2O
 C12H22O11 12C + 11H2O
 [C6H10O5]n 6[C]n + 5[H2O]n
 CuSO4 . 5H2O CuSO4 + 5H2O

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
ALKANES
PREPARATION

IN LAB
 CH3COONa + NaOH CH4 + Na2CO3
 C2H5COONa + NaOH C2H6 + Na2CO3
 GENERAL METHOD – FROM ALKYL HALIDES
 CH3I + 2[H] CH4 + HI
 C2H5Br + 2[H] C2H6 + HBr
 2CH3I + 2Na C2H6 + 2NaI

SUBSTITUTION REACTION

 CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl


CH3Cl + Cl2[excess] →CH2Cl2 + HCl
CH2Cl2 + Cl2 → CHCl3 + HCl
CHCl3 + Cl2 → CCl4 + HCl
 C2H6 + Cl2 C2H5Cl + HCl
C2H5Cl + Cl2[excess] →C2H4Cl2 + HCl
C2H4Cl2 + Cl2 →C2H3Cl3 + HCl
C2H3Cl3 + Cl2 → C2H2Cl4 + HCl
C2H2Cl4 + Cl2 → C2HCl5 + HCl
C2HCl5 + Cl2 → CCl6 + HCl

OXIDATION

COMPLETE

 CH4 + 2O2[excess] → CO2 + 2H2O + Δ


 2C2H6 + 7O2[excess] → 4CO2 + 6H2O + Δ

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

INCOMPLETE

 2CH4 + 3O2[limited] → 2CO + 4H2O + Δ


 2C2H6 + 5O2[limited] → 4CO + 6H2O +Δ
 2C2H6 + 3O2[very limited] →4C + 6H2O

ALKENES
PREPARATION

IN LAB
 BY DEHYDRATION OF C2H5OH
 C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O
 BY DEHYDROHALOGENATION OF C2H5Br
 C2H5Br + KOH[alcoholic] C2H4 + KBr + H2O
GENERAL METHOD BY CRACKING
 C2H6 C2H4 + H2

ADDITION REACTIONS

HALOGENATION
 C2H4 + Cl2 C2H4Cl2
 C2H2 + Br2 C2H4Br2
 C2H4 + I2 C2H4I2
OXIDATION
 With cold dil. KMnO4 sol-Baeyer’s Reagent
 C2H4 + H2O + [O] → C2H4(OH)2
 Combustion
 C2H4 + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 2H2O + Δ

ALKYNES
PREPARATION

IN LAB
 CaC2 + 2H2O → C2H2 + Ca(OH)2
 C2H4Br2 + 2KOH[alcoholic] C2H2 + 2KBr + 2H2O
GENERAL METHOD
 FROM METHANE
 2CH4 C2H2 + 3H2

ADDITION REACTIONS

CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION
 C2H2 + H2 C2H4 + H2 C2H6
HALOGENATION
 C2H2 + Cl2 C2H2Cl2 + Cl2 C2H2Cl4
 C2H2 + Br2 C2H2Br2 + Br2 C2H2Br4
 C2H2 + I2 C2H2I2

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

OXIDATION
 With dil. Alkaline KMnO4
 C2H2 + 4[O] → OH-COOH
 Combustion
 2C2H2 + 5O2 → 4CO2 + 2H2O + Δ
AMMONIACAL SILVER NITRATE
 C2H2 + 2AgNO3 + 2NH4OH → Ag-C≡C-Ag + 2NH4NO3 + 2H2O

ALCOHOLS
PREPARATION

IN LAB
 C2H5Cl + NaOH[aq] C2H5OH + NaCl
 C2H5Br + KOH[aq] C2H5OH + KBr
INDUSTRIAL METHOD
 C2H4 + H2SO4 C2H5-HSO4
 C2H5-HSO4 + H2O → C2H5OH + H2SO4

COMBUSTION

 C2H5OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O

OXIDATION

 C2H5OH CH3CHO CH3COOH

SODIUM

 2C2H5OH + 2Na → 2C2H5ONa + H2

ACETIC ACID
 C2H5OH + CH3COOH CH3COO-C2H5 + H2O

SULPHURIC ACID

 C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O


 2C2H5OH[excess] C2H5-O-C2H5 + H2O

3C2H5OH +PCl3 → 3C2H5Cl + H3PO3

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
PREPARATION

 C2H5OH + [O] CH3CHO + H2O


 CH3CHO + [O] CH3COOH

ACIDIC NATURE

 CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O

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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10

 2CH3COOH + Ca(OH)2 → (CH3COO)2Ca + 2H2O


 CH3COOH + NH4OH → CH3COONH4 + H2O

ALCOHOLS

 C2H5OH + CH3COOH CH3COO-C2H5 + H2O

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