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Facilities Piping

EPT 09-T-01

July 1998 Draft

Scope
This Engineering Practice Tutorial (EPT) supplements the basic requirements for the design of piping
systems for refineries, petrochemical plants and onshore and offshore production and processing
facilities contained in MP 16-P-01. It covers all piping for onshore and offshore production and
processing facilities.

Version 0
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

Table of Contents

Scope................................................................................................................................................... 1

Table of Figures ................................................................................................................................ 5

Table of Tables ................................................................................................................................. 6

1. References.................................................................................................................................. 7

1.1. MEPS–Mobil Engineering Practices............................................................................ 7

1.2. Mobil Tutorials ................................................................................................................. 7

1.3. API–American Petroleum Institute ............................................................................... 7

1.4. ASTM–American Society for Testing and Materials ................................................. 8

1.5. ASME –Society of Mechanical Engineers ................................................................... 8

1.6. CFR–U.S. Code of Federal Regulations .....................................................................8

1.7. MSS–Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valves and Fittings Industry,


Inc......................................................................................................................................8

1.8. NFPA–National Fire Protection Association............................................................... 9

2. General ........................................................................................................................................ 9

3. Definitions .................................................................................................................................. 9

4. Piping Design ..........................................................................................................................11

4.1. Design Basis..................................................................................................................11

4.2. Sizing Criteria ................................................................................................................12

4.3. Pressure Design............................................................................................................12

4.4. Static and Dynamic Analysis.......................................................................................12

4.5. Pipe Wall Thickness Equations ..................................................................................13

4.6. Pressure Ratings ..........................................................................................................21

4.7. Determining Pressure Breaks .....................................................................................24

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5. Piping Layout and Arrangement ........................................................................................30

5.1. General...........................................................................................................................30

5.2. Maintenance and Operability ......................................................................................30

6. Design Considerations for Specific Piping Systems....................................................31

6.1. Compressors .................................................................................................................31

6.2. Pump Piping ..................................................................................................................34

6.3. Steam Turbine Piping ...................................................................................................37

6.4. Vessel Piping.................................................................................................................39

6.5. Fired Heater Piping .......................................................................................................43

6.6. Relief Valve Piping ........................................................................................................45

6.7. Utility Piping ...................................................................................................................46

6.8. Exchanger Piping..........................................................................................................47

6.9. Storage Tank Piping .....................................................................................................48

6.10. Underground Piping......................................................................................................49

6.11. Manifold Piping ..............................................................................................................49

6.12. Control Valve Stations..................................................................................................51

7. Pipe Supports..........................................................................................................................52

8. Joints and Special Components (Including Blanks).....................................................53

8.1. Flange Protectors..........................................................................................................54

9. Valving .......................................................................................................................................56

9.1. Chokes............................................................................................................................56

10. Vents and Drains ....................................................................................................................57

11. Branch Connections ..............................................................................................................57

12. Models .......................................................................................................................................57

13. Piping Insulation .....................................................................................................................58

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13.1. Insulating Materials .......................................................................................................59

13.2. Vapor Barrier.................................................................................................................59

13.3. H2S ..................................................................................................................................59

13.4. Thickness of Insulation................................................................................................59

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Table of Figures
Figure 1: Example Flowsheet of a Simplified Production System .................................. 24

Figure 2: Example 1: Flowsheet Showing the Location of Pressure Breaks ..............27

Figure 3: Example 2: Required Pressure Breaks with Valve in Position 5...................28

Figure 4: Example 3: Flowsheet Showing an Acceptable Alternative to the Location


of Pressure Breaks.....................................................................................................29

Figure 5: Example 4: Another Acceptable Alternative to the Location of Pressure


Breaks............................................................................................................................29

Figure 6: Schematic Diagram Showing a Typical Drain Piping Arrangement


(Courtesy of Paragon Engineering Services, Inc.) ............................................42

Figure 7: Sectional View of a Manifold Valve (Courtesy of National Supply Co.) .......51

Figure 8: Types of Flange Protectors (Courtesy of Paragon Engineering Services,


Inc.)................................................................................................................................. 55

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Table of Tables
Table 1: Thread Allowance for Pipe Wall Thickness Calculations, ASME B31.3......... 13

Table 2: Minimum Yield Strength for Various Grades of Pipe.......................................... 15

Table 3: Basic Design Factor F ................................................................................................. 15

Table 4: Temperature Derating Factor, T................................................................................ 16

Table 5: Design Factors for Steel Pipe Construction (Courtesy of ASME ) ...................19

Table 6: Summary ASME Pressure Ratings Material Group 1.1 (Source: ASME
B16.5)............................................................................................................................. 22

Table 7: Pressure-Temperature Ratings (Metric Units ) (Maximum Allowable Working


Pressure in MPa) (Source: API SPEC 6A) ...........................................................23

Table 8: Pressure-Temperature Ratings (Customary Units ) (Maximum Allowable


Working Pressure in psi) (Source: API SPEC 6A) ............................................23

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1. References
The following publications form a part of this Practice. Unless otherwise specified herein , use the
latest edition.

1.1. MEPS–Mobil Engineering Practices


MP 00-P-04 Winterizing & Heat Tracing
MP 15-P-04 Centrifugal Compressors
MP 15-P-05 Reciprocating Compressors
MP 16-P-01 Piping-General Design
MP 16-P-30A Piping - Materials and Service Classifications (M&R)
MP 16-P-31A Piping-Classifications-(E&P, On/Offshore)
MP 16-P-40 Piping-Fabrication, Erection, Inspection, & Testing
MP 33-P-13 Electrical - MV Motor Control
MP 33-P-23 Electrical - Raceway & Cable Tray Installations
MP 70-P-06 Pressure Relief and Vapor Depressuring Systems

1.2. Mobil Tutorials

EPT 04-T-06 Steam Systems


EPT 04-T-09 Cooling Water Systems
EPT 04-T-10 Utility Stations -Service Water, Steam, Air
EPT 04-T-13 Fuel Gas Systems
EPT 04-T-18 Instrument and Plant Air Systems
EPT 09-T-05 Piping-Code Selection Guide

1.3. API–American Petroleum Institute

API RP 14C Recommended Practice for Analysis, Design, Installation, and Testing of
Basic Surface Safety Systems for Offshore Production Platforms Fifth
Edition; Errata - 1994
API RP 14E Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production

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Platform Piping Systems Fifth Edition


API SPEC 5L Specification for Line Pipe Forty-First Edition
API SPEC 6A Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment Seventeenth
Edition
API STD 600 Steel Gate Valves - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends, Bolted and Pressure
Seal Bonnets Tenth Edition

1.4. ASTM–American Society for Testing and Materials

ASTM A106 Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-
Temperature Service

1.5. ASME–Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASME B31.3 Process Piping


ASME B31.4 Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas,
Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols
ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings NPS 1/2 Through NPS 24
ASME B16.34 Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End
ASME B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 Through NPS 60

1.6. CFR–U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

49 CFR 192 Transportation, Subchapter D–Pipeline Safety, Transportation of Natural


and Other Gases by Pipeline: Minimum Federal Safety Standards

1.7. MSS–Manufacturers Standardization Society of the


Valves and Fittings Industry, Inc.

MSS SP-58 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Materials, Design and Manufacture
MSS SP-69 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Selection and Application

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1.8. NFPA–National Fire Protection Association

NFPA 321 Standard on Basic Classification of Flammable and Combustible Liquids


(National Fire Codes, vol. 6)

2. General
The design of piping systems for refineries, petrochemical plants, and onshore and offshore
production and processing facilities contained in MP 16-P-01 shall be in accordance with
requirements of this Tutorial, unless superceded by more stringent local regulations.

3. Definitions
Cold Spring Cold spring is the intentional deformation of piping during assembly to
produce a desired initial dis placement or stress.
Facility A site containing one or more pieces of equipment and interconnecting
piping required to convey, separate, treat, process, pump or compress a
fluid.
Fluid Term used for a gas, liquid, vapor or mixture thereof.
Fluid Service A piping code term that establishes the basis for design of a piping system
and considers the combination of fluid properties, operating conditions and
other factors. ASME B31.3 has fluid service classifications as listed below.
Fluid Service, A fluid service in which all of the following apply:
Category D 1. The fluid handled is nonflammable , nontoxic and not damaging to
human tissues.
2. The design pressure does not exceed 1035 kPa (150 psi).
3. The design temperature is -29–186°C (-20–366°F).
Fluid Service, A fluid service in which the potential for personnelexposure is judged to be
Category M significant and in which a single exposure to a very small quantity of a
toxic fluid, caused by leakage, can produce serious irreversible harm to
persons on breathing or bodily contact, even when prompt restorative
measures are taken.
Fluid Service, A fluid service for which the owner specifies the use of Chapter IX of
High Pressure ASME B31.3 for piping design and construction.
Fluid Service, A fluid service pertaining to most piping covered by ASME B31.3, i.e. not
Normal subject to the rules of Category D, Category M or High Pressure Fluid

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Service and not subject to severe cyclic conditions.


Maximum The maximum pressure at the coincident temperature to which a pressure
Allowable retaining component can be subjected without exceeding the allowable
Working Pressure stress of the material or pressure/temperature rating of the component.
(MAWP)
NPS Nominal Pipe Size in inches.
Piping Assemblies of piping components used to convey, distribute, mix, separate ,
discharge , meter, control or snub fluid flows. Piping also includes pipe-
supporting elements, but not support structures.
Piping Mechanical elements suitable for joining or assembly into pressure-tight
Components fluid-containing piping systems . Components include pipe , tubing, fittings ,
flanges, gaskets, bolting, valves and devices such as expansion joints,
flexible joints, pressure hoses, traps, strainers, in-line portions of
instruments and separators.
Piping System Interconnected piping subject to the same set or sets of design conditions.
Pressure Class Pressure rating class designation (for example , Class 150, 300, 600, etc.) for
pipe flanges and flanged fittings in accordance with the pressure-
temperature rating criteria of ASME B16.5, ASME B16.47 and ASME
B16.34.
Primary Piping Piping that contains process streams during normaloperation of a plant or
that shall contain process streams during operation of standby or spare
equipment. This includes bypass piping, alternative process connections ,
startup piping, chemical piping and auxiliary piping systems such as gland
oil, seal oil, lubricating oil, fuel gas, fuel oil, heating or cooling oil, flushing
oil, flare and blowdown piping and the like. Also considered to be primary
piping is non-Category D fluid service utility piping that is essential to
operation of the plant.
Safeguarding Provision of protective measures of the types outlined in Appendix G of
ASME B31.3, where deemed necessary.
Secondary Piping Piping (other than specifically defined as primary piping) that is used as
drains , vents, pumpouts, sample connections (if not in continuous service)
and certain instrument leads that contain process streams only upon
intermittent or occasional use and are not an integral or essential part of the
process system.
Severe Cyclic Those conditions in which the displacement stress (SE ) computed in
Conditions accordance with ASME B31.3 exceeds 80 percent of the code allowable
stress (SA ) and the equivalent number of cycles exceeds 7000.
Utility Piping Includes piping systems for fluid such as air, nitrogen, cooling water,
steam, etc.

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4. Piping Design

4.1. Design Basis

• ASME B31.3 does not require a margin between maximum operating and design
conditions. However, it does not permit continuous operation of a piping system at
conditions exceeding design conditions . Therefore, the design conditions (pressure,
temperature, location of spec. breaks, etc.) shall be carefully determined, considering
cost/risk factors. Short-term (upset) operation above the design conditions is
acceptable within the limitations of ASME B31.3.
• The design of piping shall provide for the most severe coincident (occurring at the
same time) condition of temperature, pressure and loading. The most severe condition
is that which results in the greatest required component thickness and highest-pressure
rating. When two or more conditions exist, they shall be separately evaluated using
design pressure, design temperature and loadings applicable to each case.
• In determining the operating pressure and temperature of a piping system, variations
may be expected because of operating fluctuations , other than upsets. When
establishing maximum operating conditions, these fluctuations shall be considered as
well as liquid static head, fluid friction losses under clean and fouled conditions, pump
and compressor characteristics and pressure pulsations.
• For design pressures of 3450 kPa (500 psi) or less, the design pressure is generally set
at 10 percent or 210 kPa (30 psi) above the maximum anticipated operating pressure,
whichever is greater.
• For design pressures greater than 3450 kPa (500 psi), setting the design pressure 10
percent higher than the operating pressure may result in unjustifiable costs,
particularly if higher flange ratings are required. For such piping systems, each
system shall be evaluated in order to establish a reasonable design pressure rather than
setting a fixed percentage over the maximum operating pressure. The design of a
centrifugalpump discharge line shall be at least equal to the pump shutoff pressure.
• The design temperature shall be the highest or lowest temperature to which the piping
system is subjected plus a margin to cover uncertainties in temperature predictio n.
The following are examples of conditions that may determine the piping system
design temperature:
− In hot service (above ambient temperature), use the maximum expected operating
temperature plus a minimum of 25°C (45°F) as a safety factor.
− For cold service (below ambient temperature), use the minimum expected
operating temperature minus a minimum of 5°C (10°F) as a safety factor.
− The maximum temperature that can occur when bypassing a heat exchanger or
cooler for cleaning.

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− A high metal temperature on uninsulated pipe due to solar radiation.


− The maximum metal temperature that can occur during steamout or decoking
operations.
− When flanges, valves and other components are not insulated, the temperature
allowance for uninsulated components described in ASME B31.3 shall not be
used without Mobil approval. (Note: Many times, operating plants will decide to
insulate these components at some later date).

4.2. Sizing Criteria


General rules for line sizing are listed in MP 16-P-01, Section 3.2 and Appendix B. The
rules shall be applicable in most normal situations, but may not be suitable for all cases.
Hydraulic calculations shall be performed to confirm the total pressure drops and pressure
balance within the piping system, regardless of whether the lines meet the allowable
pressure drop and velocity criteria given in MP 16-P-01.

4.3. Pressure Design


General rules for pressure design of pipe and other components are listed in MP 16-P-01,
Section 3.3. Pressure classes, wall thickness and material selection of pipe and other
components shall be determined using design conditions. When the calculated wall
thickness considering manufacturers' under-allowance (mill tolerance) exceeds the nearest
commercially available wall thickness by a few thousandths of an inch, the corros ion
allowance may be adjusted subject to Mobil approval.

4.4. Static and Dynamic Analysis


• Piping systems shall have sufficient flexibility to prevent thermal expansion or
contraction from causing:
− Failure of piping or supports from overstress or fatigue
− Leakage at joints
− Detrimental stresses or distortion in piping and valves or in connected equipment
• When the routing of a piping system does not inherently provide adequate flexibility,
the needed flexibility shall be provided by expansion bends, loops or offsets. Bellows
expansion joints are the least preferred means of providing required flexibility and
they shall not be used without prior Mobil approval.
• In addition to static stress analysis , piping systems shall be reviewed for the
possibility of flow-induced vibration, pressure pulse induced vibration, hydraulic
surge (water hammer) and slug flow. This includes, but is not limited to, compressor
piping, reciprocating pumps, high-velocity gas lines (including relief valve discharge
lines), loading lines, seawater lines, liquid lines with quick closing valves, etc.

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4.5. Pipe Wall Thickness Equations

4.5.1. ASME B31.3


The wall thickness required by ASME B31.3 can be calculated for a given
pipe by:

 Pi d o   100 
t =  t c + t th + 
 2(S t E L + Pi Y )  100 - Tol 

Where:

t = Required pipe wall thickness to be specified when ordering


the pipe, mm (in).
tc = Corrosion allowance, mm (in), normally 1.3 mm (0.05 in)
for carbon steel.
tth = Thread or groove depth, mm (in) (Table 1).
Pi = Internal design pipe pressure, kPa (psig).
do = Pipe OD, mm (in).
St = Allowable stress for pipe material at design temperature,
kPa (psi); See ASME B31.3, Appendix A.
EL = Longitudinal weld joint factor, dimensionless.
= 1.00 for seamless.
= 0.85 for electrical resistance welded ERW pipe.
Y = Coefficient.
= 0.4 for ferrous materials below 900°F.
Tol = Pipe manufacturer's allowed wall thickness tolerance.
= 12.5 percent for API SPEC 5L pipe up to 20 in diameter.
= 10 percent for API SPEC 5L pipe greater than 20 in
diameter.

Table 1: Thread Allowance for Pipe Wall Thickness Calculations, ASME B31.3

Nominal Pipe Size ttn (in)


1 3
/4– /8 0.05
1 3
/2– /4 0.06
1–2 0.08

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Nominal Pipe Size ttn (in)


21 /2 –20 0.11
The code requires that the specified wall thickness be sufficient that, even
with the wall in an assumed corroded condition where a thread or groove is
cut, the hoop stress shall not exceed the allowable . For this reason, tc and tth
shall be added to the thickness required by hoop stress alone.

Pipe is manufactured to meet a nominalwall thickness. The finished pipe


can have slightly less than the specified wall thickness as long as the pipe
meets the nominalwall thickness and tolerance requirements of the code
under which the pipe is manufactured (normally ASTM A106 or API SPEC
5L).

For ease in picking a pipe wall thickness, tables such as Table 2.5 in API RP
14E are published, giving the maximum allowable working pressure for
standard pipe diameters and wall thickness.

||Start E&P Only

4.5.2. ASME B31.8 and 49 CFR 192


1. The wall thickness specified by ASME B31.8 and by 49 CFR 192 for a
given pipe can be calculated by:
Pi d o
t=
2(FEL TS y )

t = Required pipe wall thickness to be specified when ordering


the pipe, mm (in).
Pi = Internal design pipe pressure, kPa (psig).
do = Pipe OD, mm (in).
Sy = Minimum yield strength of pipe material, kPa (psi); Table
2.
F = Design factor, dimensionless (Table 3).
EL = Longitudinal weld joint factor, dimensionless.
= 1.00 for seamless, ERW and flash weld.
= 0.80 for furnace lap and electrical fusion welded pipe.
= 0.60 for furnace buttwelded pipe.
T = Temperature derating factor, dimensionless (Table 4).

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Table 2: Minimum Yield Strength for Various Grades of Pipe

Grade Minimum Yield Strength, psi


API 5L-B 35,000
API 5LX-42 42,000
API 5LX-46 46,000
API 5LX-52 52,000
API 5l X-60 60,000
API 5L X-65 65,000
ASTM A-106B 35,000
ASTM A-333-6 35,000
Note: For additional information see ASME B31.8, Appendix D.

Table 3: Basic Design Factor, F

Location Class Class Location Design Factor, General Description (see


F Note)
(B31.8 Definition) (DOT CFR 192)
Location Class 1, Not Applicable 0.80 Based on actual operating
Division 1 conditions
Location Class 1, Class Location 1 0.72 Sparsely populated areas,
Division 2 farmland, deserts
Location Class 2 Class Location 2 0.60 Fringe areas around cities and
towns
Location Class 3 Class Location 3 0.50 Residentialand industrial
areas.
Location Class 4 Class Location 4 0.40 Dense areas with multi-story
buildings
NOTE: These descriptions are general in nature. A more specific description of locations for use of
the different factors is included in ASME B31.8 and Department of Transportation requirements.

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Table 4: Temperature Derating Factor, T

Temperature, °F Derating Factor


-20 to 250 1.000
300 0.967
350 0.933
400 0.900
450 0.867

4.5.2.1. Threaded Pipe


ASME B31.8 does not have a section on threaded or grooved joints; it
assumes that all pipe is welded. If threaded pipe is used, consideration shall
be given to adding an allowance for thread or groove depth, as specified in
ASME B31.3 (Table 1).

4.5.2.2. Corrosion Allowances


Most gas transmission lines handle a relatively "clean" product and so no
specific wall thickness allowance is suggested for internal corrosion in
ASME B31.8. In chemical plants and refineries a more corrosive product is
normally handled. ASME B31.3 specifically states that an allowance shall
be included for corrosion and erosion. API RP 14E suggests that a
corrosion/mechanical strength allowance of 1.25 mm (0.05 in) be used for
carbon steel piping. This has become more or less a standard for production
facility piping. In sour service most operators increase the corrosion
allowance to 2.5 mm (0.10 in) (see MP 16-P-01).

4.5.2.3. Safety Factors


ASME B31.8 recognizes that some gas transmission lines are located in
sparsely settled areas where the cost of failure is low, while others are
located in the middle of suburban areas where the potential for loss of life is
greater and still others are located next to large concentrations of people
where the risk to life is even greater. Thus, along the length of a gas
transmission line , several different safety factors may be appropriate . This is
considered by multiplying the pipe yield strength by a factor appropriate for
a specific risk rather than specifying a single allowable stress for the
material. Factors range from the most liberal (F = 0.80) to the most severe (F
= 0.40). The greater the consequence of failure, the lower the design factor
and thus the greater the required wall thickness.

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4.5.2.4. Location Class


• Table 3 shows in general terms the location class and design factor, F, to
use in different instances. A more specific description of locations for
use of the different factors can be found in ASME B31.8 and 49 CFR
192. To determine the location class, it is necessary first to define a
location class for the area in question. Unfortunately, the definition of
location class and even terminology is somewhat different between
ASME B31.8 and 49 CFR 192. ASME B31.8 applies to gathering lines
offshore and onshore, unless within a city or subdivision. For pipelines
located within a city or subdivision, local city, county or state codes
apply. ASME B31.8 defines location class in terms of a "one-mile
section."
• To calculate the one-mile section layout, use a section one mile long and
one-quarter mile wide along the pipeline route, with the pipeline on the
center of the section. Count the dwellings intended for human
occupancy. Each separate dwelling unit in a multiple dwelling building
is counted as a separate building intended for human occupancy.
• Before 1989, ASME B31.8 designated the design factor by a
construction type as either A, B, C or D. In 1989, ASME B31.8 was
revised and the term "construction type" was eliminated. The new
designation is called the Location Class.
• There are five classes of locations for ASME B31.8:

4.5.2.4.1. Location Class 1–Division 1


This design factor (F) of 0.80 is based on actual gas pipeline operational
experience at operation levels in excess of those previously recommended by
ASME B31.8.

4.5.2.4.2. Location Class 1–Division 2


Any one mile section that has 10 or fewer buildings intended for human
occupancy. This includes areas such a wastelands, deserts, rugged
mountains , grazing land and farmland.

4.5.2.4.3. Location Class 2


Any one mile section that has more than 10 but fewer than 46 buildings
intended for human occupancy. This includes fringe areas around cities and
towns, industrial areas, ranch or country estates.

4.5.2.4.4. Location Class 3


Any one mile section that has 46 or more buildings intended for human
occupancy. This includes suburban housing developments, shopping centers,
residential areas and industrial areas.

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4.5.2.4.5. Location Class 4


Includes locations where multistory buildings are prevalent, traffic is heavy
or dense and where there may be numerous other underground utilities.

4.5.3. 49 CFR 192


• 49 CFR 192 applies to gas transportation lines, including pipeline
facilities within the limits of the outer continental shelf. The code
applies to onshore gas gathering and distribution lines located within
cities, towns, villages, residential or commercial areas , subdivisions and
business or shopping centers. This code does not apply to gathering lines
outside of these areas or to offshore gathering lines upstream of facilities
where hydrocarbons are produced, separated, dehydrated or processed.
• As previously mentioned, 49 CFR 192 uses different terms than ASME
B31.8 to describe the populated areas that are used in determining the
design factor, F. 49 CFR 192 uses a term called the "class location."
• The class location onshore for the Department of Transportation (49 CFR
192) is determined by a class location unit , which is an area extending
220 yards on either side of the centerline of any continuous 1 mile length
of pipeline. Each separate dwelling unit in a multiple dwelling unit
building is counted as a separate building intended for human occupancy.
• There are four classes of locations for 49 CFR 192:

4.5.3.1. Class Location 1


Includes areas that contain 10 or fewer buildings intended for human
occupancy.

4.5.3.2. Class Location 2


Includes areas where there are more than 10 but fewer than 46 buildings
intended for human occupancy.

4.5.3.3. Class Location 3


Includes areas where there are 46 or more buildings intended for human
occupancy or where the pipeline lies within 100 yards of a building or a
small, well-defined outside area such as a playground, recreation area,
outdoor theater or other place of public assembly that is occupied by 20 or
more persons for at least five days a week for 10 weeks in any 12 month
period.

4.5.3.4. Class Location 4


Includes areas where buildings with four or more stories above ground are
present.

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• There are several class boundaries. When a cluster of buildings intended


for human occupancy requires a Class 2 or Class 3 location, the location
ends 220 yards from the nearest building in the cluster. A Class 4
location ends 220 yards from the nearest building with four or more
stories above ground.
• The design factor for both ASME B31.8 and 49 CFR 192 is a function of
the location class (or the class location). In populated areas, however, a
different design factor may be required for pipelines located near roads,
highways and railroads. Table 5 shows the required design factor for
both codes to be used for various locations . 49 CFR 192 requirements
allow some exceptions to these design factors. Specifically , a design
factor of 0.60 is used for pipe located on offshore platforms including
risers or facilities sited in inland navigable waters. A design factor of
0.54 is used for pipe that has been subjected to cold expansion to meet
the specified minimum yield strength and is subsequently heated, other
than by welding or stress relieving, to a temperature higher than 482°C
(900°F) for any period of time or is heated above 316°C (600°F) for
more than one hour.

Table 5: Design Factors for Steel Pipe Construction (Courtesy of ASME)

Facility Location Class

1 2 3 4

Div. 1 Div. 2
Pipelines, mains and service lines 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
Crossings of roads, railroads without casing:
a. Private roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
b. Unimproved public roads 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40
c. Roads, highways or public streets with hard 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.50 0.40
surface and railroads
Crossings of roads , railroads with casing :
a. Private roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
b. Unimproved public roads 0.72 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
c. Roads, highways or public streets with hard 0.72 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
surface and railroads
Parallel encroachment of pipelines and mains on roads and railroads :
a. Private roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
b. Unimproved public roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

Facility Location Class

1 2 3 4

Div. 1 Div. 2
c. Roads, highways or public streets with hard 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40
surface and railroads
Fabricated assemblies 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40
Pipelines on bridges 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40
Compressor station piping 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.40
Near concentration of people in Location Class 1 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.40
and 2

• In different local governmental jurisdictions there may be slightly


different definitions for the location class (or the class location). Some
jurisdictions also differentiate between sweet and sour services. The
designer is cautioned to become familiar with the Department of
Transportation, and local codes and standards before completing the
design.
• ASME B31.8 includes a table that lists allowable working pressures for
various pipe grades and design factors for normally available pipe
diameters and wall thickness for use in gas transmission and distribution
piping.

4.5.4. ASME B31.4


The equation for required wall thickness in ASME B31.4 is the same as that
in ASME B31.8, except that the safety factor is fixed at F = 0.72 and there is
no temperature derating factor. This is because the consequences of a leak in
an oil line are not as severe as the consequences of a leak in a gas line. It is
possible for a gas leak to lead quickly to an explosion and loss of life if a
combustible cloud of gas comes in contact with a spark. An oil leak, on the
other hand, provides a visual warning of its presence . It shall typically
spread more slowly to a source of combustion, giving ample warning for
personnel in the vicinity to escape. While it may catch fire, it is unlikely to
result in an explosion.

ASME B31.4 does not have a temperature derating factor ("T") since it states
that it is only applicable to temperatures -29–121°C (-20–250°F).

4.5.5. Comparison of ASME B31.3 and ASME B31.8


If we compare the wall thickness required by ASME B31.3 and ASME B31.8 for piping
in a compressor station, it can be seen that ASME B31.3 is more conservative than ASME
B31.8, especially when higher yield strength pipe materialis used. This difference creates
a problem in choosing the interface between a production facility designed to ASME

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

B31.3 and a pipeline designed to ASME B31.8 or ASME B31.4. The location of the
transition varies from company to company , but it is usually at the plant fence for an
onshore facility and at the first flange above the water on an offshore platform (see EPT
09-T-05).

End of E&P Only||

4.6. Pressure Ratings


When designing piping systems one shall consider piping components such as pipe
flanges, fittings and valves. These piping components shall be able to withstand the
stresses imposed by internal pressure. Unlike pipe, they are not straight cylinders but are
of complex geometry and require a detailed study in order to determine the pressures they
can withstand. Rather than requiring every designer to perform finite element analysis on
each component, industry has developed standards for pipe flanges, fittings and valves.
The goal of the standards is to provide interchangeability between manufacturers, set
dimensional standards , specify allowable service ratings for pressure and temperature
ranges, specify material properties and specify methods of production and quality control.
ASME B16.5 and API SPEC 6A specifications are the most commonly used. By
specifying a specific pressure rating class that is rated for a pressure equaling or exceeding
the maximum working pressure of the particular piping system, the designer is assured
that all flanges, fittings and valves furnished by any manufacturer shall contain the
pressure and have interchangeable dimensions.

4.6.1. ASME B16.5


ASME B16.5 has seven classes of flanges: 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and
2500. Historically, the class designation was the allowable working pressure
at 454°C (850°F). For example, the 300 ASME class rating had a primary
pressure rating of 2068 kPa (300 psi) at 454°C (850°F). For all classes, the
maximum non-shock pressure rating is higher at lower temperatures. Over
time and with the development of new materials, the meaning of the pressure
rating classes has changed and the class designation is no longer equal to the
maximum working pressure.

Table 6 is a listing of the maximum non-shock working pressure rating for


Material Group 1.1, as listed in the 1996 edition of ASME B16.5. Material
Group 1.1 includes most of the carbon steels commonly used in production
facility piping. Table 6 lists temperatures up to 93.3°C (200°F) since most
facility piping operates at temperatures less than 93.3°C (200°F).

© Mobil Oil,1998 21 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

Table 6: Summary ASME Pressure Ratings Material Group 1.1 (Source: ASME
B16.5)

Class Temperature °F -20 to Temperature °F 100 to


100 Pressure (psig) 200 Pressure (psig)
150 285 260
300 740 675
600 1480 1350
900 2220 2025
1500 3705 3375
2500 6170 5625
Table 2 in ASME B16.5 contains additional information for other materials
and for temperatures up to 815.6°C (1500°F). The pressure rating at any
specific temperature above 37.8°C (100°F) can be determined by
interpolation.

The pressure rating of a piping system is set either by the wall thickness of
the pipe or by the pressure rating of the valves and fittings . Note that in
ASME B31.3 the allowable stress for most commonly used steels in
production facility piping systems is constant through 204.4°C (400°F) and
in ASME B31.8 the temperature derating factor is 1.0 through 121.1°C
(250°F). Thus the pressure rating of a piping system may be set by the wall
thickness of the pipe at low temperatures and by the pressure rating of the
valves and fittings at a higher temperature.

Although ASME Class 400 exists, it shall not be used in production facility
design. Valves and fittings in this class are not readily available and so may
cost more than those in Class 600.

4.6.2. API SPEC 6A


Like ASME B16.5, API SPEC 6A also has seven classes of flanges: 2,000,
3,000, 5,000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 and 30,000. The API class designation
is the maximum non-shock working pressure rating at 37.8°C (100°F). For
example , 2,000 API class has a pressure rating of 2,000 psi at 37.8°C
(100°F). API flanges are derated for temperature as shown in Tables 7 and 8.
For more information, see API SPEC 6A.

© Mobil Oil,1998 22 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

Table 7: Pressure-Temperature Ratings (Metric Units) (Maximum Allowable


Working Pressure in MPa) (Source: API SPEC 6A)

Temperature °C Flange Class

2000 3000 5000

(MPa) (MPa) (MPa)


-18 to 121 13.8 20.7 34.5
149 13.5 20.2 33.6
177 13.1 19.7 32.8
204 12.8 19.2 32.0
232 12.5 18.7 31.2
260 12.0 18.0 29.9
288 11.3 16.9 28.2
316 10.6 15.9 26.6
343 9.9 14.8 24.7

Table 8: Pressure-Temperature Ratings (Customary Units) (Maximum


Allowable Working Pressure in psi) (Source: API SPEC 6A)

Temperature °F Flange Class

2000 3000 5000

(psi) (psi) (psi)


0 to 250 2000 3000 5000
300 1955 2930 4880
350 1905 2860 4765
400 1860 2785 4645
450 1810 2715 4525
500 1735 2605 4340
550 1635 2455 4090
600 1540 2310 3850
650 1430 2145 3575

© Mobil Oil,1998 23 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

4.7. Determining Pressure Breaks

4.7.1. Rules
This Section describes a procedure for determining the design pressure for a
specific segment of a piping system.

Consider the case of a well with a shut-in tubing pressure of 69,000 kPa
(10,000 psi) flowing through a choke to a series of successive separators to a
tank as shown in Figure 1. The wellhead shall be designed to withstand
69,000 kPa (10,000 psi) internal pressure, but the tank is incapable of
withstanding pressures much in excess of one atmosphere. Clearly, there
shall be one or more locations in such a system where the design pressure
(that is, the maximum pressure to which the piping can be subjected) is
higher on the upstream side than it is on the downstream side. These
locations , called "pressure breaks" or "spec breaks," occur at valves, control
valves, chokes or other devices which can be shut to isolate one segment of
the piping system from another.

Figure 1: Example Flowsheet of a Simplified Production System


Since overpressure of a piping system is extremely dangerous and could lead
directly to personnel injury or death, the system shall be designed to
withstand the maximum pressure it could be subjected to under any
circumstance of inadvertent operation of a manual valve or control. That is,
we cannot assume that a knowledgeable operator would never open or close
valves in a sequence that could overpressure a segment of the piping system;
even knowledgeable operators make mistakes in logic or in tracing out piping

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

to determine the correct valve to open or close. Similarly, we cannot depend


on operational controls to function properly , since controls do fail and piping
system failure due to overpressure can have very high costs.

In determining the location of pressure breaks, the following rules shall be


followed:

1. Any manual valve can be either open or closed. Use whichever


condition creates the highest pressure level for the system.
2. Check valves leak and eventually allow pressure from downstream to
leak back to the upstream position.
3. Allow pressure to equalize from one side to another. In addition , we
shall assume that control valves fail either open or closed in such a
manner as to subject the system to maximum pressure.
4. Shutdown systems can be in bypass and, by themselves, do not provide
sufficient protection from overpressure. Some operators assume that two
completely independent shutdown sensor valve combinations shall
provide sufficient protection from overpressure to be acceptable in
certain circumstances. (See API RP 14C for the case of protecting long
flow lines from overpressure with two independent, fail-close shutdown
valves.)
These rules are based on years of operating experience with many production
facility piping systems and reflect an industry consensus that the probability
of the assumption occurring is too high to justify the cost of failure. If we
make the assumption that no device will work to limit pressure, then it would
be necessary to design the wellhead, separators and tank in Figure 1 for
69,000 kPa (10,000 psi). Therefore , we assume that relief valves work and
that if they are sized correctly, they shall restrict the pressure in their portion
of the system to the set pressure of the relief valve. This assumption is made
because of the proven reliability of relief valves.

4.7.1.1. Shutdown Sensor


In some cases , such as for facilities designed in accordance with API RP
14C, a high pressure shutdown sensor shall fail before pressure rises to a
relief valve set point. This provides greater reliability and further reduces the
risk of overpressure.

4.7.1.2. Overpressure
In reality , the pressure in the piping system may exceed relief valve set
pressure for a short period of time while the relief valve is handling its full
design load.

• The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code allows pressure to build up
to 110–125 percent of set pressure under certain conditions of relief.

© Mobil Oil,1998 25 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

• This overpressure is considered in the safety factors of piping wall


thickness calculations and fitting class pressure ratings and need not be
considered in determining the design pressure for the piping system.

4.7.1.3. Types of Valves


It is imperative that system overpressure be prevented by a relief valve and
not by a back pressure control valve . Relief valves are designed for rapid
opening, with proven flow coefficients and set points that cannot
inadvertently be adjusted. This is not true for a back pressure control valve,
for which the response time, setpoint and percent opening can be easily and
inadvertently adjusted.

4.7.2. Procedure
To determine the location of pressure breaks, a complete mechanical flow
diagram (sometimes called a process and instrument diagram, or P&ID) is
needed. This diagram shall show schematically the process and the location
of all equipment, valves, controls and instrumentation.

1. Starting at the lowest pressure relief valve (normally the pressure


vacuum valve on a tank), proceed upstream through the piping system
until reaching a manual valve, control valve or choke.
2. Apply the four rules to determine the maximum pressure the upstream
side of this valve can experience. If this is higher than the pressure
rating of the downstream pipe, then a pressure break occurs at this point.
If not, continue upstream to the next device in the system and apply the
four rules until a pressure break is located.
3. Continue upstream through each line in the process until all pressure
breaks are located.
This procedure is best explained by an example . In Figure 2 the relief valve
on the low pressure separator protects it from seeing pressures in excess of
1400 kPa (200 psi). Thus the flanges and immediate piping around this
vessel can be ANSI Class 150. Following the piping upstream to valve 4, it
is seen that this valve can be closed when valve 1 is open. Since the control
valve and the check valve can communicate pressure, the maximum pressure
valve 4 can be subjected to is set by the next relief valve upstream, or 10,200
kPa (1480 psi). Thus valves 1 through 4, as well as all the flanges and piping
around the HP separator, shall be rated ASME Class 600.

© Mobil Oil,1998 26 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

Figure 2: Example 1: Flowsheet Showing the Location of Pressure Breaks


Next, following the inlet from the LP separator upstream to the manifold
valves, it is seen that all manifold valves could be closed, subjecting those on
the flow lines from high pressure wells to 34,500 kPa (5000 psi) and from
other wells to their shut-in tubing pressure (SITP). Following the inlet line
from the HP separator upstream, pressure breaks are required as shown.

In Figure 3 a valve is installed at position 5. This requires the pressure


breaks as shown. Valves B, D and F shall be rated 5000 API because of the
possibility of 5, B and D being closed when A, E and F are open.

© Mobil Oil,1998 27 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

Figure 3: Example 2: Required Pressure Breaks with Valve in Position 5


This situation is not practical because of the 5000 API rating required for the
control station. Two alternatives can be proposed without violating any
rules. These are shown in Figures 4 and 5.

© Mobil Oil,1998 28 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

Figure 4: Example 3: Flowsheet Showing an Acceptable Alternative to the


Location of Pressure Breaks

Figure 5: Example 4: Another Acceptable Alternative to the Location of


Pressure Breaks

© Mobil Oil,1998 29 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

These examples are shown to help to explain how to apply the rules of
Section 4.7 of this MEP and not to make any point regarding the proper way
to design a specific situation. The important point is that in complex piping
systems, care shall be taken to follow the procedure and rules properly and to
choose the pressure break locations carefully. Often such an analysis leads to
a re-evaluation of the proper location of valves in a piping system.

5. Piping Layout and Arrangement

5.1. General

• Piping shall be run overhead throughout a unit except in freezing climates, where
water, drainage and pumpout lines shall be underground (below the frost line) to the
maximum extent possible . Proper corrosion protection shall be applied to
underground piping.
• Equipment subject to damage by heat, such as motor-operated valves, shall not be
located where heat can exceed the design temperature of the equipment. Avoid
routing lines containing cold high-vapor-pressure fluids near uninsulated hot lines or
equipment, especially suction lines to pumps handling such fluids.
• Avoid routing lines with flanged joints, threaded connections , high radiant heat or
high-pressures near instrument/electrical cable trays.
• Expansion bends shall be located in a horizontal plane and clear of any accessway.
Underground expansion bends require expansion pits. Where expansion pits are
provided, suitable anchors shall be furnished to ensure that the pipe expansion is
contained within the pit dimensions.
• Tank piping shall be designed with adequate loops and offsets to accommodate
expected tank settlement. If this is not possible where large tank settlements are
anticipated, ball joints with fire resistant packing or metal bellows expansion joints
may be considered.

• The installation arrangement of expansion joints shall be subject to Mobil approval


and shall be reviewed by the joint manufacturer. This approval and review shall
conside r service conditions, anchors, guides, supports, piping configuration and all
necessary calculations.

5.2. Maintenance and Operability


Piping shall be arranged to allow removal of equipment without removing or proving
temporary support of equipment block valves. Removable pipe details shall be provided
where required for equipment removal or maintenance.

© Mobil Oil,1998 30 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

To the extent possible , manually operated valves shall be located so that


handwheels/handles are operable from a platform or grade level. If handwheels/handle s
are more than 1.8 m (6 ft) above a platform or grade level, the valves shall be equipped
with gear operators, extension stems or chain operators.

6. Design Considerations for Specific Piping Systems

6.1. Compressors
• Special precaution is necessary in the design of the piping at or near compressors to
reduce fatigue failures. The piping shall have the minimum of overhanging weight.
Braces shall be provided as needed to reduce vibration. Full penetration buttwelds
shall be used wherever feasible , including fittings such as branch connections , etc.
• To avoid damage to centrifugal compressors, a time delay shall be incorporated into
the circuit of centrifugal compressors when needed to ensure that valve closing is not
complete until the compressor has slowed suffic iently to prevent compressor damage
should surge occur during the coastdown period.

6.1.1. Suction Piping


• Knockout drums shall be provided upstream of all compressors, except
those handling gases with no possibility of condensate (most air
compressors, for example). Compressor suction piping between the
knockout vessel and the compressor shall be designed with a straight
length equal to or exceeding that required by the manufacturer and also
designed to prevent trapping or collecting liquid. If this is not
reasonable, additional knockout equipment shall be installed.
• Piping shall slope continuously downward from the knockout vessel to
the compressor suction connection. As an alternative , and depending on
the location of the compressor suction valve, piping shall slope from the
valve to the compressor suction on one side and from the valve to the
knockout vessel on the other side. Valves shall be located only in
horizontal piping.
• The intake filter-silencer for an air compressor shall be located in a
position that prevents the entrance of dust, moisture or corrosive gases.
• Air compressor suction piping between the filter-silencer and compressor
connection shall either be epoxy-coated steel, hot-dip galvanized steel or
stainless steel. Other permanent, corrosion-resistant materials may be
used subject to Mobil approval. A suction line valve (usually a butterfly
valve) shall be provided as part of the compressor package for startup
purposes on all centrifugal air compressors.

© Mobil Oil,1998 31 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

• Suction strainers shall be provided in the suction lines to all compressors


in accordance with Section 11 of MP 16-P-01. All screens and filters
shall be sufficiently reinforced to prevent their collapse/failure and entry
into the compressor. All strainers shall be installed as close to the
compressor as feasible .
• When temporary suction strainers are used, pressure gauge taps shall be
provided upstream and downstream for commissioning of compressor.
When the temporary strainers are removed, the tapped connections shall
be plugged and seal-welded in accordance with MP 16-P-40.
• Compressor piping shall be cleaned in accordance with MP 16-P-40.
• No hose shall be used in lube oil and seal oil piping.

6.1.2. Emergency Isolation Valves


• Requirements for emergency isolation valves at reciprocating
compressors are generally specified/reviewed by Lost Prevention and/or
rotating equipment specialists. In general, the following isolation valves
are required:
− Reciprocating compressors over 200 horsepower in hydrocarbon or
toxic service shall have emergency isolation valves on the suction
and discharge sides. Where the discharge goes to two different
locations , isolation valves are required in both discharge lines.
Valves shall be in accordance with MP 16-P-30A (M&R) or MP 16-
P-31A (E&P).
− Reciprocating compressors under 1000 horsepower may have hand-
operated emergency isolation valves in sizes up to and including
NPS 8. The valves shall be remotely operated if they are NPS 10
and larger, or if they are of a size that requires a gear operator.
Hand-operated emergency valves shall be located at least 9 m (30 ft)
horizontally from the compressor. Remote-operated emergency
shutoff valves may be located closer than 9 m (30 ft); however, the
control shall be installed at least 15 m (50 ft) from the compressor.
− Reciprocating compressors 1000 horsepower and larger shall have
remotely operated emergency isolation valves. A pushbutton station
with a position indicator shall be located in the area of the
compressor, at least 15 m (50 ft) away and in a readily accessible
location not expected to be exposed to fire. A second control station
shall be installed in the control room.
− Fireproofing of remote-control emergency valve assemblies is
required. All resilient seated emergency control valves shall be of a
fire safe design.

• Requirements for emergency isolation valves at centrifugal compressors


are generally specified/reviewed by Lost Prevention and/or rotating

© Mobil Oil,1998 32 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

equipment specialists. In general, the following isolation valves are


required:
− Centrifugal compressors in all sizes shall have a remote-operated
emergency block valve in the suction piping. The compressor
suction isolation valve , if remotely operated, can also be the
emergency valve. Necessary safeguards for the discharge piping are
discussed in Section 6.1.3 of this MEP.
− Location requirements for motor-operated remote valves and for the
pushbutton stations shall be the same as those for reciprocating
compressors.
− Fireproofing of remote-control emergency valve assemblies is
required. All resilient seated emergency control valves shall be of a
fire safe design.

6.1.3. Reciprocating and Positive Displacement


Compressors
• An isometric drawing of all compressor piping shall be prepared to
enable the vendor and/or Mobil to perform an analysis of piping
pulsation. The piping shown shall extend from knockout vessel to the
compressor suction and from the discharge through any cooler to the
next major vessel. The piping shall include relief valves, bypasses and
recirculating lines. The drawing shall be fully dimensioned and show all
supports, guides and anchors.
• The design for pulsation limitations shall be in accordance with MP 15-
P-05 and subject to approval by Mobil and the compressor manufacturer.
The use of restrictions in the piping to reduce pressure pulsation shall be
subject to Mobil approval.
• The suction and discharge piping of reciprocating compressors shall be
securely anchored to control vibration. The anchoring method used shall
be approved by Mobil.
• If suction valve unloaders have not been provided for compressor
startup, a valve bypass shall be installed from suction to discharge within
the suction and discharge block valves. If required by the project
specifications, bypass valves shall be manually operated and used only
after maintenance for initial run-in at no load. The configuration of
bypass piping and valve location shall prevent the collection of liquid
with the valve closed.
• The selection of any check valve used in the discharge of a reciprocating
compressor shall be subject to Mobil approval. The recommended valve
type is a reed plate type, such as manufactured by Hoerbiger or Ibach.
• As a minimum, the suction line immediately upstream and adjacent to
the suction pulsation damper for compressors handling gas at or near its
dew point shall be heat-traced or steam jacketed for approximately 6 or 8

© Mobil Oil,1998 33 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

diameters to vaporize liquid traveling on the pipe wall. Rotary


compressors in similar service but not requiring suction pulsation damper
equipment shall be provided with liquid removal facilities immediately
adjacent to the compressor suction connection. In freezing climates, heat
tracing of the suction piping in such service shall be required from the
knockout drum up to and including the pulsation dampers.
• Relief valves shall be provided upstream of the first valve on the
discharge line of positive displacement compressors where necessary to
prevent excessive pressure or stalling if either is harmful to the
equipment. The discharge from relief valves shall not be returned to the
suction line or suction drum.

6.1.4. Centrifugal Compressor Piping


• Bottom-connected compressor suction lines shall contain a sump or boot
with a gauge glass and drain located at the low point in the line below
and as close to the compressor as feasible.
• Check valve selection shall be in accordance with MP 16-P-30A (M&R)
or MP 16-P-31A (E&P). Check valve installation shall be as close to the
nozzle as feasible to reduce possible damage to the compressor during
surge conditions and to prevent backflow during an emergency.
• If silencers are required, they shall be installed in the suction and
discharge piping as close to the compressor nozzles as feasible but
downstream of the check valve on the discharge side. In order to
optimize the layout, the silencers may be arranged with side or end
connections. Silencer shells and flanges shall conform to the appropriate
piping classifications .

• Interconnecting oil piping between the compressor, turbine and lube oil
console shall comply with the piping specifications for the console (see
MP 15-P-04). No elastometric or metal hose shall be used for lube or
seal oil piping.
• Low points in the discharge line from an oil-lubricated air compressor
shall be avoided to eliminate the possibility of lube oil being trapped and
subsequently ignited. If low points are unavoidable , they shall be
provided with drains . The recommendations for auxiliary piping
contained in Section 6.2.3 of this MEP are also applicable to centrifugal
compressors.

6.2. Pump Piping


• Block valves shall be provided in the suction and discharge lines of all pumps. The
valves shall be located within 3 m (10 ft) of the pump nozzles. Connections for vents,
drains and pressure gauges shall be located inside these block valves.
• Expansion joints shall not be used on pump suction and discharge lines without Mobil
approval. An exception is pumps taking suction from a cooling tower basin, where an

© Mobil Oil,1998 34 of 59
EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

expansion joint is frequently needed on the short suction line from the basin. For such
pumps , an expansion joint is generally not needed on the discharge side of the pump if
the piping contains at least one 90 degree elbow before going underground.

6.2.1. Suction Piping


• Suction piping for pumps shall be arranged so that the flow is as smooth
(non-turbulent) as possible at the pump suction nozzle . Suction piping
shall be designed to avoid pocketing vapor or gas. Any reduction in
suction line size required at horizontal pump nozzles shall be made with
an eccentric reducer positioned as follows: flat side on top for horizontal
runs and vertical runs approaching the nozzle from below; flat side on
the bottom for vertical runs approaching the nozzle from above.
A concentric reducer shall be used if the reduction occurs immediately
adjacent to an elbow on the downcomer from an overhead header. Long-
radius elbows shall be used in all suction lines.

• For double-suction centrifugal pumps there shall be at least 5 pipe


diameters between a side-suction nozzle and any upstream elbow, unless
the elbow is in the vertical plane . There shall also be at least 5 pipe
diameters between a top-suction nozzle and any upstream elbow in a
vertical plane parallel to the pump shaft.
− Where no reducer is installed between the pump flange and the
elbow, a straight run at least 5 pipe diameters long shall be provided.
A valve may be installed within the run. In a horizontal line, the
valve stem for gate valves shall be installed in the vertical-up
position.
− Where a reducer is installed between the pump flange and the elbow,
a straight run at least 2 pipe diameters long (based on the larger pipe
diameter) shall be provided. A reducer next to the pump flange is
considered to be equivalent to 3 large diameters.
• Suction lines containing cold high-vapor-pressure fluids shall not be
routed near hot lines or equipment. Provision for venting blocked-in
fluids shall be made.
• Suction block valves shall be line size. However, where a centrifugal
pump's suction nozzle is smaller than the suction line size, the block
valve may be the same size as the pump suction nozzle if pressure drop
considerations permit and the velocity through the valve does not exceed
3 m/s (10 ft/sec).
• Permanent strainers shall be installed in suction lines to pumps handling
fluids that may contain solids (such as coke fines), unless the pump is
specifically designed to handle such material. They shall also be
installed on other pumps if required by MP 16-P-40 or the P&IDs. All
strainers shall be designed to withstand the pressure forces from a
blocked mesh.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

• Temporary strainers shall be installed in the suction lines of all pumps ,


except for pumps where permanent strainers are installed. Strainers shall
have a free area at least twice the pump suction area and a mesh size
approved by the pump manufacturer. If a cone-type strainer, the cone
shall point upstream. All strainers shall be located in the suction line
between the pump and the block valve and as close to the pump as
feasible . Suction lines shall be designed so that the temporary strainers
may be easily installed and removed without springing the pipe.
Strainers shall be sufficiently rigid and resistant to corrosion to prevent
their failure and entry into the pump.

6.2.2. Discharge Piping


• A check valve shall be installed in the discharge line of each centrifugal
or rotary pump. The check valve shall be located between the pump and
the block valve. If pressure drop considerations permit , the block and
check valves may be one size smaller than the discharge line size, but not
smaller than the pump discharge nozzle. Check valves are usually not
needed for reciprocating pumps that have internal valving that prevents
backflow or for those that do not discharge into vapor or mixed-phase
process conditions.
• Check valve selection shall be in accordance with MP 16-P-30A (M&R)
or MP 16-P-31A (E&P). Special attention is required for lines where
quick closing (<10 sec) check valves may cause pressure surges (water
hammer).
• A drain shall be provided between the block and check valves in lines
containing highly corrosive or toxic fluids, such as phenol, caustic or
acid. For maximum drainage, the drain shall be on the check valve body
above the closure member.
• If a pump is expected to operate for extended periods at flowrates lower
than the manufacturer's recommended minimum flowrate, it shall be
equipped with either a flow-actuated recirculation line back to the point
of suction or a flow-actuated shut-down switch. The minimum size of
the recirculating line shall be NPS 3/4 . The line shall be equipped with at
least one block valve and an orifice sized to restrict flow to the
recommended minimum flowrate of the pump.
• Pumps that may be idle during plant operation and that have to start
quickly shall be provided with warm-up lines if the pump design
temperature exceeds 230°C (450°F) or if the process fluid will solidify at
atmospheric temperature. Cooldown lines shall be provided for pumps
operating at design temperatures less than 0°C (32°F). A warm-up line
shall consist of an NPS 3 /4 (minimum) valved bypass around the pump
discharge block and check valves. The warm-up lines shall be heat
traced if the process fluid will solidify at atmospheric temperature.
• A relief valve shall be provided upstream of the first valve on the
discharge line of positive displacement pumps. Normally, the relief
valve shall discharge into the pump suction line. In services where a

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serious heat buildup may occur at the pump during blocked discharge, or
where the pressure breakdown will liberate gas, the relief valve discharge
line shall be installed to relieve to an unblocked suction source, such as a
tank or an accumulator. The relief valve may only be eliminated if the
pump and the equipment downstream of the pump are designed to
withstand the shutoff or stalling pressure.

6.2.3. Auxiliary Piping for Pumps


• Auxiliary piping shall conform to the applicable line class specification
(see MP 16-P-30A [M&R] or MP 16-P-31A [E&P]) and shall be
arranged and valved to permit easy removal and maintenance of
equipment.
• Cooling water piping shall be provided with block valves at each pump.
In freezing climates, a valved bypass shall be provided so that a flow can
be maintained when the block valves are closed.
• Pump spill pans/baseplates, casing drains and vents shall be piped to the
appropriate drainage or flare system, as shall cooling water that is not
returned to the cooling tower. Vents on vacuum service pumps,
however, shall be piped to the vapor space on the vacuum vessel. Fluids
shall not be discharged onto pump bases.
• If a pump is steam traced or steam jacketed, the trap and trap piping shall
be located so that they do not interfere with pump maintenance.

6.3. Steam Turbine Piping

• Steam driver piping, including drains , shall be designed to avoid pockets and to
minimize condensation. Inlet piping to turbines and other steam drivers shall branch
from the top of the supply header and contain a block valve in a horizontal run near
and above the header.
• Connections to exhaust headers shall be made to the top of the header unless the line
from the driver is at least one size smaller than the header. If it is smaller, it is
permissible to make a centerline connection to the side of the header, provided that
such routing does not obstruct space in a pipe rack available for future lines.
• Provisions are generally made for bleed warming steam into turbines and other steam
drivers.
• Piping connections for pressure indicators shall be provided in supply and exhaust
piping of turbines driving centrifugal compressors.

6.3.1. Turbine Inlet Piping


• For initial throttling of general-purpose turbines, a valve shall be
installed at the turbine inlet. For inlet piping NPS 6 and larger, a gate
valve is generally acceptable . For NPS 4 and smaller inlet piping, a
globe valve shall be used.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

• Inlet piping to each turbine shall be equipped with a commercial in-line


steam strainer with a scale trap section. The drain connection shall be
equipped with a steam trap and a free blow connection. For critical
turbines, the separator shall have bypass piping.
• Special-purpose turbines driven with super-heated steam shall have a
connection immediately upstream of the separator for turbine washing.
The connection shall be NPS 4 with a valve and blind flange.

6.3.2. Turbine Exhaust Piping


• A gate valve shall be provided in the exhaust line of each steam driver
that does not exhaust directly to the atmosphere or directly into an
individual condenser. This gate valve shall be installed close to the
steam driver so that the position of the gate is obvious to the operator
whenever he or she is in a position to operate the inlet valve.
• Exhaust lines from turbines that exhaust directly to the atmosphere shall
be provided with exhaust heads and silencers.
• Exhaust piping from condensing turbines shall be equipped with a water-
seal relief valve. It shall be sized for maximum steam flow through the
turbine nozzles and set for atmospheric pressure.
• Where there is a block valve in the exhaust line from a steam driver and
the steam driver casing (and any expansion joints) is not designed for full
steam supply pressure, a spring-loaded relief valve shall be provided on
the exhaust piping between the driver and the first block valve. Relief
valves shall be sized for the full steam capacity of the driver and set for
the turbine case design pressure.
• Each relief valve shall be provided with a separate discharge line
arranged to discharge steam to the atmosphere as directly as possible and
supported so that minimum load is carried by the relief valve. The top of
the discharge pipe shall be at a height that prevents the discharge of
steam from creating hazards, such as burns, frozen condensate on
walkways or reduce visibility. Each discharge pipe shall be provided
with a weep hole to prevent the accumulation of water above the relief
valve. In many areas it may be necessary to route the drain to the nearest
drain funnel.

6.3.3. Auxiliary Piping


• Trapped drain piping (steam trap) shall be provided at the lowest point of
each turbine casing drain.
• Untrapped drain piping shall be provided at the lowest point of the steam
end of reciprocating pumps and compressors.
• Drain piping from turbine shaft packing glands and from governor valve
packing glands shall be connected to an open drain system. These drain
lines shall be run separately.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

6.4. Vessel Piping

6.4.1. Arrangement
• Piping at vessel nozzles shall be arranged so that blanks can be readily
installed and valves easily removed for maintenance. Blanks shall be in
accordance with Section 7 of MP 16-P-01.
• For economy and ease of support, piping at towers shall be run parallel to
and as close as feasible to the tower.
• The piping designer shall coordinate piping requirements with the
designers of the instruments, structures and vessels to achieve the
optimum nozzle location so that valves, instruments and blanks are
accessible from grade or platforms and do not obstruct passageways.
• Process requirements usually govern the location of the valves in vessel
piping. However, block valves shall generally be provided at vessel
nozzles for all piping connections , except as follows:
− Connections for vapor and reboiler lines, unless the reboilers are in
parallel and need to be cleaned onstream
− Connections for sidestream drawoff lines (except water drawoffs)
− Furnace transfer lines to vacuum vessels
− Connections to lines containing block valves located within 9 m (30
ft) in a horizontal direction from the vessel nozzle
• Valves, flanged joints and threaded joints shall not be located inside
vessel skirts.
• Piping connections shall not be made to manway covers, other than on
coke drums. (The bottom manway cover [or bottom head] on coke
drums is the preferred location for the main charge, quench and drain
nozzles.)

6.4.2. Emergency Shutoff Valves


• Emergency shutoff valves shall be provided on outlets below normal
operating liquid levels on all process vessels where the volume of liquid
exceeds 75 M3 (2000 U.S. gallons) in the bottom or side draws, and
where one or more of the following conditions exist:
− The liquid conforms to NFPA 321, Classes 1A and 1B. These
classifications include liquids with a flash point below 23°C (73°F)
and a boiling point below 38°C (100°F) and liquids that are heated
above their flash point. For complete specification refer to NFPA
321.
− The temperature is 260°C (500°F) or higher.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

− The pressure is 2070 kPag (300 psig) or greater.


• Emergency shutoff valves shall be located as close to the vessel as
feasible , but no farther than 9 m (30 ft) measured horizontally from the
side of the vessel. The total pipe length from the nozzle to the valve
shall not exceed 15 m (50 ft).
• Emergency shutoff valves shall be operable from grade of platforms as
follows:

− Access to a manually operated valve shall be considered adequate if


it can be operated from a platform no more than 6 m (20 ft) above
grade and access to the platforms is by stairway. Access to the
platform by ladder shall not be permitted.
− Valves NPS 8 and smaller may be manually operated. They may
also be fitted with extension spindles or angle drives to fulfill the
criteria of operability from grade . The use of chain wheels for this
service shall be subject to Mobil approval.
− Valves NPS 10 and larger shall be power-operated. Their controls
shall be located in a place at grade safe from fire exposure. Electric
cables, motor operators, valve operators, pistons, etc. shall be
fireproofed. Resilient seated valves shall be of a fire safe design.
• A control valve shall satisfy the requirements for an emergency block
valve if the following conditions are met:
− It is not equipped with a stop to prevent full closure.
− It meets the accessibility requirements in the above paragraph.
− It will provide a tight shutoff.
− It will close on failure of the air supply.
− It meets the fire resistance requirements in the above paragraph.
• The pipe material and wall thickness from the vessel to the emergency
block valve shall be provided a corrosion resistance no less than that of
the vessel or vessel liner.
• Emergency shutoff valves need not be installed in thermo-syphon
reboiler circuits if the corrosion resistance of the piping is not less than
that of the vessel.
• If the liquid from a side draw pan flows into the bottom of a second
vessel (such as a stripper) and the total liquid in the drawoff pan plus that
in the bottom of the second vessel exceeds 75 M3 (2000 U.S. gallons),
then an emergency valve shall be installed in the bottom outlet line on
the second vessel provided one of the three conditions noted in the first
paragraph above exists. However, if a control valve in the side draw line
between those vessels meets the requirements above, an emergency

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

block valve is not required in the second vessel outlet unless the liquid in
the bottom of that vessel exceeds 75 M3 (2000 U.S. gallons).

6.4.3. Vents and Drains


• Atmospheric vents on vessels shall be equipped with blinded or plugged
block valves.
• All vessel drains discharging into a sewer or open drain shall have
permanent piping arranged to permit the visual observation of flow (if
permitted by environmental rules). Vent and drain connections shall be
sized so that the water used for a hydrostatic test or for flushing can be
drained off without pulling a vacuum.
• Vessel drain lines shall not be used for steam-out connections.
• Drains used only during shutdown periods shall be provided with plugs
or blanks. Vents and drains tied into closed drain systems shared with
equipment of a higher working pressure shall be equipped with check
valves. Vents and drains from equipment containing water or water
vapor shall not be tied into low-temperature of LPG/LNG vent or drain
systems.
• If vessel drain valves are used often, they have a tendency to erode out.
As the valve is opened and closed, solid slurry abruptly flows across the
valve and creates an erosive action. Figure 6 shows a tandem valve
arrangement to minimize this potential problem. To drain the vessel, the
throttling valve is closed and one or more drain valves are opened, with
no flow going through them. The throttling valve is then opened. To
stop draining the throttling valve is closed, flow goes to zero and the
drain valves are shut. The throttling valve shall eventually cut out, but it
can be repaired easily without having to drain the vessel.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

Figure 6: Schematic Diagram Showing a Typical Drain Piping Arrangement


(Courtesy of Paragon Engineering Services, Inc.)
• Vessel drain systems can be very dangerous and deserve careful
attention. There is a tendency to connect high-pressure vessels with low-
pressure vessels through the drain system. If a drain is inadvertently left
open, pressure can communicate through the drain system from the high-
pressure vessel to the low-pressure vessel. In such a system, the low
pressure vessel relief valve shall be sized for this potential gas blowby
condition.
• The liquid drained from a vessel may flash a considerable quantity of
natural gas when it flows into an atmospheric drain header. The gas will
exit from the piping system to the atmosphere at the nearest possible
location. Thus, the sump collecting vessel drains shall be vented to a
safe location as well as being designed for gas blowby.
• Open gravity drains shall not be combined with pressure vessel drain
systems. The gas flashing from vessel liquids may exit an open drain
system at any point and create a hazard.
• On open drain piping leaving buildings, a liquid seal shall be installed as
further protection to assure that gases flashing from liquids from other
locations in the drain system will not vent from the system in the
building.
• The elevation of gravity drain systems shall be checked carefully to
assure that liquids will flow to the collection point without exiting the
piping at an intermediate low point (see MP 16-P-01).

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

6.4.4. Steamout and Pumpout


• If steamout is specified on the P&IDs, permanent NPS 11 /2 or larger
steamout connections shall be provided for all vessels not equipped with
a process steam connection. Steamout connections shall consist of a
block valve at the vessel, a flanged check valve, a removable spool with
bleeder valve and a second block valve. Steam inlets to vessels shall be
designed so the line can be drained of condensate prior to being placed
into service.
• Process steam connections shall consist of a block valve at the vessel, a
spool with bleeder and a single-seated automatic or manual control
valve. A block valve shall also be installed at the steam header takeoff.
• Pumpout piping shall be provided for all vessels in accordance with the
P&IDs. Where feasib le, process pumps and lines shall be used for
pumpout.
• The pumpout header shall have a classification covering the highest
temperature and pressure encountered in any branch connection, and
shall be run at an elevation to permit gravity drainage from the vessel.

6.5. Fired Heater Piping

6.5.1. Process Piping


• Lines, in which coke formation or fouling of tubes is anticipated, shall be
designed and constructed to facilitate planned methods of mechanical
cleaning.
• Unless otherwise shown on the P&IDs, permanent steam/air decoking
and/or pigging connections shall be made to the process piping on
heaters in crude , vacuum, coker and visbreaker units. Dropout spools
shall be provided for all decoking connections, except for those steam
connections that are also installed for steamout operations.
• Blanks shall be provided at the inlet and outlet of each heater. On
heaters with parallel coils (passes), blanks are required to separate the
coils for decoking purposes. Each of the parallel coils require steam/air
decoking connections.
• The decoking manifold shall be located above the blowdown drum so
that the effluent coke line can slope toward the drum. Steam and air
valves shall be located near peep doors for tube observation. Spool
pieces shall be installed at heater inlet and outlet connections to provide
observation of coke buildup in heater tubes.
• When not provided on the heater coils, flanged vent and drain
connections (NPS 11 /2 minimum) shall be installed in the piping. These
connections shall be equipped with a valve and a blind flange. If
feasible , these connections shall be used for pressure testing the coils.

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• A check valve shall be installed at the tower/reactor end of the heater


transfer line to prevent backflow if a heater tube ruptures on catalytic
hydrodesulfurization (CHD), hydrotreater or hydrocracker units. A
check valve shall be provided at other locations or units if shown on the
P&IDs. The transfer-line check valve shall be a full-port swing check
valve with buttweld ends, bolted cover, no external moving parts,
conforming to API STD 600. The seating surfaces, pivot pins, pivot pin
bushings and disc center pivot surfaces shall be hardfaced. The valve
shall be installed in horizontalpiping as near to the tower/reactor as
possible .
• If blowdown facilities are required by the P&IDs, blowdown valves shall
be sized for a flow area approximately equal to that of the largest tube in
the coil, but shall not be smaller than NPS 2. Where there is a likelihood
of coke formation, manually operated valves shall be globe types with
the pressure against the bottom of the disc.

6.5.2. Burner Fuel Piping


• Heaters shall have manual burner control valves for fuel oil, fuel gas and
steam. Burner valves shall be located so that adjustments can be made
while observing the flame from a working level without entering the area
beneath the heater. The piping layout shall allow easy access for burner
tip cleaning.
• On all heaters and fired boilers, burner and pilot safety shutoff valve
actuation shall be at least 15 m (50 ft) away from and adjacent to the
purge steam actuation.
• Gas distribution headers at heaters shall be arranged for uniform
distribution, with burner line valves connected to the top of the header.
The headers may be located at an elevation above or below the burners to
suit the individual condition. However, access to the burners shall not be
obstructed. Drains shall be installed at low points on the headers and on
the leads from the header to the burners. Valves for throttling fuel gas
shall be of the globe or needle design. On/off valves may be ball valves,
but they shall not be used for throttling. A block and bleed valve (with
blank) shall be provided in the fuel gas line to each heater.
• Fuel oil headers shall be circulated, self-cleaning and void of dead ends.
All residual fuel oil line shall be heat traced and insulated.
• The fuel oil header at each heater shall be located at an elevation above
the burners, with globe-type burner line valves connected to the side or
top of the header and the lines draining to the burners.
• If provided, atomizing steam for burners shall be supplied from a
pressure-controlled header that is properly drained and trapped to prevent
condensate from entering the burners. When steam-out connections are
specified, they shall be provided for each burner oil line adjacent to the
oil valve. Lines to burners shall be run from the top of the steam header.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

• Piping arrangements for steam atomization shall incorporate safeguards


to prevent fuel oil from entering the steam system. Unless otherwise
specified, a ball check valve shall be installed in each steam connection
at the burner, with the valve in the up-flow position.

6.5.3. Utilities Piping


• Purge and steamout lines to heaters shall be supplied from a remote
manifold located at grade level and in a "safe" area. A trap shall be
installed on each line to the heater. The manifold shall be located a
minimum of 15 m (50 ft) horizontally from the nearest purge steam
discharge point.
• Emergency purging steam lines are generally piped to header boxes and
combustion chambers so that purge steam can be applied separately and
equally to each box or chamber. Each valve shall be identified at the
remoter header in relation to the header box or combustion chamber it
supplies. Purge steam to header boxes is not needed if welded return
bends are used.
• Permanently piped steamout connections shall be provided to the inlet
and outlet of each heater pass containing liquids or liquid/gas mixtures.
Steam at 690–1380 kPag (100–200 psig) is normally used. A check
valve and double blocks with bleed valve shall be provided at all
steamout connections . From the heater coil, the arrangement shall be
block valve, bleeder, check valve, block valve. The final block valve
may be omitted if the steam pressure will at all times be higher than the
process pressure.
• A properly trapped service steam loop shall be installed around each
heater (to supply steam utility stations at grade) and on all working
platform levels . The number and locations of steam hose stations shall
be stated in the project specifications. Sootblowers, if installed, shall be
supplied with a block and bleed valve at the steam connection to the
blower.
• Header box drains (NPS 2, minimum) shall be piped to an oily water
sewer.

6.6. Relief Valve Piping


• Relief valve piping shall be in accordance with MP 70-P-06 and Section 5.7 of MP
16-P-01.
• Bellows type expansion joints shall not be used in pressure relief discharge piping or
flare lines.
• Sparing of relief valves and blocks for relief valves shall follow the requirements in
MP 70-P-06. When blocks are provided for relief valves, the block valves shall be
equipped with a padlock and chain or interlocking device.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

6.7. Utility Piping

• Utility stations (including hose requirements) for service water, steam, air and
nitrogen shall be in accordance with EPT 04-T-10. Each steam and nitrogen hose
outlet shall be provided with a steel gate valve. Air and water outlets shall have
bronze or aluminum-bronze ball valves.
• Steam piping systems shall meet the requirements of EPT 04-T-06. Condensate
collection systems shall meet the requirements of EPT 04-T-06.
• Utility stations shall remain in service at all times, except when isolated for repairs.
Steam shall be supplied by a source that will not be closed off during shutdowns.
• The steam supply for smothering, snuffing, space heating and protective heating shall
be connected to a source that will not be shut off during shutdowns or when the steam
to a piece of equipment is shut off.
• Whenever steam is exhausted to the atmosphere, the line shall be fitted with an
exhaust head with a drain to a sewer. The exhaust system shall be reviewed to ensure
that sound levels and flow induced vibration levels are within acceptable limits.
• The ends of steam mains and all low points in steam lines (except steam tracer lines)
shall be provided with drip legs. The maximum distance between drip legs shall be 90
m (300 ft).
• Steam traps shall be provided for the removal of condensate from collection points.
Each trap shall serve only one collection point. Whenever possible , the steam trap
shall be installed below and close to the equipment or piping.

• Hot oil and steam tracing systems shall conform to MP 00-P-04. Cooling water
systems shall conform to the requirements of EPT 04-T-09.
• All water piping shall be located or protected to prevent freezing. In cold climates,
headers and branches that are outdoors and in intermittent service (but not below the
frost line) shall be traced and/or insulated. Tracing and insulating water lines with
low continuous flowrates shall also be considered.

• Low point drains shall be provided so that any water line located above the frost line
can be drained when it is shut down. A vent shall be provided for each high point
between block valves on large water mains. These vents shall be protected from
mechanical damage and from freezing, as required.
• Provisions shall be made to ensure that water is available for sanitary facilities, safety
showers and eyewash fountains during unit shutdowns.

• Fuel gas systems shall conform to the requirements of EPT 04-T-13. Instrument air
and plant air systems shall conform to EPT 04-T-18.
• Plant air piping shall either slope downward toward dry drums and moisture traps or
shall be horizontal. Branch connections on all air headers shall be into the top of the
pipe. Block valves shall be provided in all branch lines from air headers.

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6.8. Exchanger Piping

6.8.1. Shell-and-Tube Exchanger Piping


• A backwash connection shall be provided in the cooling water inlet
piping to each exchanger or group of exchangers operating in series. The
connection shall be line size, but not greater than NPS 6. It shall be
equipped with a quick opening valve, e.g. butterfly valve and a blind
flange, and shall be located between the exchanger and the inlet block
valve. These connections shall not be installed on closed-loop systems
using tempered water.
• Flanged chemical cleaning connections shall be provided between the
block valve and the exchanger nozzles when indicated on the P&IDs.
These connections shall generally be NPS 3 for exchangers with an
inside diameter of 700 mm (28 in) and larger, and NPS 2 for smaller
exchangers. It is permissible to combine chemical cleaning and
backwash connections, provided the larger size is used.
• On any exchanger that will be taken out of service for cleaning or repair
while the unit is running, all piping connections shall be equipped with a
block valve and a blanking location. Process and water piping to shell-
and-tube units shall be arranged to permit easy removal of shell covers,
channel covers, channels and bundles. This shall be accomplished by
providing a removable section of piping (other than at the block valve
and blanking location).
• For single -shell heat exchangers, all vent and drain connections shall be
provided with valves equipped with plugs or blanks. Funnels and pipe
shall be provided to drain oil and chemicals to suitable sewers. For self-
draining stacked exchanger installations , drain valves shall be installed in
the piping below the lowest exchanger.
• Requirements for water lines are as follows:
− Piping shall be arranged, or check valves shall be properly located, to
permit water to remain in all units upon the loss of cooling water
supply.
− In areas where freezing can occur, provision shall be made for
draining all water from a blocked exchanger and an NPS 1 valved
bypass shall be installed to maintain flow in the water lines. The
distance from the freeze protection bypass to the exchanger block
valve shall be minimized. Drains shall be located to obtain
maximum drainage of the exchangers and piping.
• Symmetrical piping shall be used to keep the pressure drop equal in lines
to and from exchangers operating in parallel.
• All streams to be heated shall enter at the bottom of the exchanger and all
streams to be cooled shall enter at the top of the exchanger.

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• Condenser piping shall be sized to provide sufficient velocity to carry


condensate along with the vapors. Pockets shall be avoided in these
lines.
• A check valve shall be provided in the steam supply line to an exchanger
if the steam side has a lower pressure than the other side.

6.8.2. Air Cooled Heat Exchanger Piping


• Inlet and outlet headers shall not be located over or under the tube areas.
• Branch piping between the headers and the exchange header boxes shall
accommodate the thermal expansion of the headers. The centerline of
each bay shall be assumed to be an anchor point, unless the exchanger
manufacturer provides different information. The piping design shall be
coordinated with the exchanger design, so nozzle loads are minimized.
• The branches to exchanger bays that may be removed from service for
repair/cleaning while the unit is operating shall be provided with valves
and figure eight blanks. Access to these valves and blanking locations
shall be provided. The layout of headers and branches shall allow the
removal of any header bundle or cleaning in place.
• Piping connections to split header bundles shall incorporate enough
flexibility to accommodate the thermal expansion produced by
differential temperatures within the bundle .

6.8.3. Plate Heat Exchanger Piping


• If any connection to a plate exchanger is located on the removable cover
plate, flanged piping sections shall be provided to allow cleaning.
• Self-cleaning filters shall be provided in the inlet piping if the size of
solid particles cannot be accommodated by the plate heat exchanger.

6.9. Storage Tank Piping

6.9.1. Pressurized Storage Tank Piping


• Flanged joints shall be minimized under the storage tank. Atmospheric
vents and drains shall be located or piped so that, if they leak or ignite ,
the flames will not impinge on the storage vessel.
• Fill and suction lines shall be provided with remotely operated shutoff
valves, and these shutoffs shall have locally operated emergency
overrides.
• All butane and propane storage tanks shall be provided with a sufficient
number of relief valves so that, in the event of relief valve leakage, it will
be possible to shut off the defective valve and replace it while the vessel
is in service.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

− Each relief valve shall be provided with an upstream block valve


(Orbit or equal tight shutoff) and, if connected to a closed system, a
downstream block valve.
− Each block valve shall be equipped with a padlock and chain or
interlocking device.
• In areas where freezing is likely, water drawoff piping shall be provided
for storage spheres. All piping and valves shall be heat traced.

6.9.2. Atmospheric Storage Tank Piping


• All storage tank nozzles below the roof line shall be equipped with a
steel block valve.
• Storage tank piping shall be designed to accommodate any expected tank
settlement, thermal expansion and seismic load without overstressing the
tank or the piping.

6.10. Underground Piping


Generally, hydrocarbon and chemical piping shall be placed abovegrade. When they shall
be buried, their location shall be marked by signs spaced along the route of the line.
Additionally , local regulations such as secondary containment (if required) shall be
followed.

6.11. Manifold Piping


The purpose of a manifold is to allow a number of input lines to be routed to two or more
output lines (sometimes called "headers" or "logs"). The routing of input lines to output
lines is determined by the positions of a series of valves.

6.11.1. Velocities
Typically , the velocities in manifold piping are high and therefore erosional
flow can be a problem. For this reason target tees are usually installed, and
headers may be looped to reduce velocities. Each inlet source shall have a
check valve installed and the manifold shall be pressure rated for the shut-in
pressure of the source. Also, the inlet sources shall be spaced far enough
apart to allow the valves to be actuated without interference. For 51–102
mm (2–4 in) lines the spacing shall be 38–51 mm (11 /2 –2 in) center to center.
To minimize the length of the manifold , it is possible to arrange headers in a
vertical plane and enter from both sides on a staggered pattern.

6.11.2. Branch Connections


Any branch connections to the manifold shall follow the operating company's
pipe, valve and fitting specification. Often a header diameter of at least twice

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

the nominal diameter of the input lines is chosen because the operating
company's piping specifications will not allow weld-o-lets to be installed
where the inlet is more than half the diameter of the header. If there are any
plans for future expansion, weld-o-lets, flanges and blind flanges can be pre-
installed on the header.

6.11.3. Valves and Connections


The most common type of valves used for manifolds are ball or plug valves
since they minimize the interference between slots. Flanged connections are
the most common. Clamp-type connections also can be used, but they may
be more susceptible to leaks due to misalignment and tend to be more costly.
Flanged connections require all valves to be unbolted from the inlet to make
sufficient room to remove one valve .

Specially designed valves and connections may minimize the space required
and reduce costs. Figure 7 shows one such valve arrangement.

• Flow enters the inlet that contains a block valve and a check valve and is
directed either up to a test header or down to one or more group headers.
• A divert valve with an actuator can be used as shown in the figure for
automatic well test (AWT).
• Such valve arrangements have the drawback of having non-standard
dimensions , requiring the use of a single supplier for parts.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

Figure 7: Sectional View of a Manifold Valve (Courtesy of National Supply Co.)


Headers shall be equipped with a blind flange on the end for future additions and for
cleanout, and taps shall be provided for pressure gauges. If the header is for an offshore
platform, a drip pan is required. To reduce costs, it may be wise to consider a shop-
fabricated skidded unit.

6.12. Control Valve Stations


Whenever it is necessary to control the process level, pressure, temperature, etc., a control
station is installed. A control station may be as simple as a single control valve or it may
include several control valves, block valves, bypass valves, check valves and drain or vent
valves.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

• Where there is a control valve, block valves are often provided so the control valve
can be maintained without having to drain or bleed the pressure from the vessel and
downstream piping. Typically , a safety-systems analysis also would call for a check
valve at this point to prevent backflow. Drain or vent valves shall be installed to drain
liquid or bleed pressure out of the system so that the control valve can be maintained.
• Bypass valves are sometimes installed to allow the control valve to be repaired
without shutting in production. On large, important streams the bypass could be
another control valve station. Manual bypass valves are more common in smaller
facilities. The bypass valve could be a globe valve if it is anticipated that flow will be
throttled through the valve manually during the bypass operation, or it could be an
on/off valve such as a ball, plug or gate valve, if the flow is to be cycled. Because
globe valves do not provide positive shutoff, sometimes there is a ball or other on/off
valve piped in series with the globe bypass valve.
• The piping system for any facility, other than the straight pipe connecting the
equipment, is made up primarily of a series of control stations . Flow from one vessel
goes through a control station and into a piece of pipe that goes to another vessel. In
addition to considering the use of block valves, check valves, etc., all control stations
shall be designed so that the control valve can be removed.
• Any bypass valve shall be located above or on a level with the main control valve. If
the bypass is below the control valve, it provides a dead space for water accumulation
and corrosion.

7. Pipe Supports
• The layout and design of piping and its supporting elements shall meet the objectives of ASME
B31.3, Paragraph 321. Suggested pipe support spacing tables are listed in MP 16-P-01, Appendix
C. If the contractors' tables are used, they shall be reviewed and approved by Mobil.
• When it is anticipated that a line will deflect vertically as a result of thermal expansion or
contraction (which could thereby unload some supports and overload others), spring supports
shall be provided.
• Supports shall be designed so they will not be disengaged by movement of the supporting pipe or
structure. Unless approved otherwise by Mobil, all supports shall be designed to withstand the
added load resulting from testing, erection and shipping, if applicable . This is particularly
important for piping on offshore platforms that shall be shipped by water.
• Spacing of overhead pipe supports shall be based on the piping size mix to secure maximum
economy. Where support spacing exceeds allowable spans for small lines (NPS 2 and smaller),
the lines shall be grouped (when feasible ) to simplify supporting methods. To eliminate an
intermediate support for a small line, it may be economical to increase line sizes.
• Supports for piping near equipment shall be designed so that excessive forces and moments
caused by temperature changes shall not be transmitted to the equipment. Piping entering vessels
shall be supported from brackets attached to the vessel if vertic a l expansion of either the vessel or
the pipe will cause excessive loads on the vessel nozzle.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

• Piping sections requiring frequent dismantling for maintenance, such as for installation of blanks,
shall be provided with permanent supports for the dismantled condition to maintain proper
alignment.
• Process and auxiliary piping shall be arranged and supported so that a minimum number of joints
shall have to be disconnected (when removing equipment or components) and so that temporary
supports shall not be required. Areas of particular concern are:
− Auxiliary piping at pumps (arranged to facilitate removal of rotating elements)

− Burner piping
− Piping at control valves
− Exchanger channels
• MSS SP-58 support types 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 28, 29, 30, 41, 43 and 49
shall not be used. Guidance for selection and application of pipe hangers and supports can be
found in MSS SP-69.
• Pipe supports elements (for example , clamps, turnbuckles, U-bolts, saddles, etc.) are provided in
carbon steel, ductile iron or malleable iron. The following limitations apply to these materials:

Material Temperature Range

Carbon steel -29–343°C (-20–650°F)


Cast iron (see limitations below) -29–205°C (-20–400°F)
Ductile and malleable iron -29–205°C (-20–400°F)
21 /4 Cr – 1 Mo -29–650°C (-20–1200°F)
304 or 316 stainless steel -198–760°C (-325–1400°F)
• Cast iron shall not be used for pipe clamps, beam clamps , hanger flanges, clips , brackets and
swivel rings. Cast iron supporting elements are also not permitted for use in any piping system
that may be subjected to impact-type loading resulting from pulsation or vibration.
• Pipe support elements that are welded directly to the pipe (for example , pipe shoes, saddles,
trunnions, etc.) shall be of the same nominal material as the pipe.

8. Joints and Special Components (Including Blanks)


• The number of non-welded (flanged and threaded) joints shall be kept to a minimum. Use of
such joints shall be limited to those required for cleaning, maintenance, operation and inspection.
• Secondary piping shall be separated from primary piping with block valve(s) that have the same
specification as those valves used in the primary piping.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

• Piping requiring mechanical cleaning for removal of solids buildup shall employ flanged fittings
(such as tees and crosses) at changes in direction in lieu of pipe bends and buttwelding elbows. If
pipe bends are used, they shall be of a radius suitable for the cleaning tool. The run of pipe
between cleanout points shall be a maximum of 12 m (40 ft) if cleaned from one end, and 24 m
(80 ft) if cleaned from both ends. Flanged removable spools shall be provided at cleanout points
on long straight runs.
• Permanent blanks shall be in accordance with MP 16-P-01, Section 7.
• Thin plate blanks (maintenance isolation blanks) shall be used only for lines that are not under
pressure and which shall be sealed off to permit inspection or welding during shutdowns.

8.1. Flange Protectors


The full faces of flanges never really touch due to the gaskets or rings that cause the seal.
The space between the two flange faces is a very good spot for corrosion to develop, as
shown in Figure 8. Flange protectors made of closed-cell soft rubber are sometimes used
to exclude liquids from penetrating this area. Stainless-steel bands and grease fittings also
are used.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

Figure 8: Types of Flange Protectors (Courtesy of Paragon Engineering


Services, Inc.)
Closed-cell flange protectors are much less expensive than stainless bands. However, if
not installed properly they can actually accelerate corrosion if a path is created through the
material to allow moisture to enter.

Flange protectors shall not be used in H 2 S service. They may trap small leaks of sour gas
and keep them from being dispersed in the atmosphere. Also, many companies do not use
flange protectors on lines containing flammable liquids . Liquids from a leaking flange
can accumulate under the protective cover, producing a fire hazard.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

9. Valving
• Valve stems and handles shall not project into passageways or be installed with the stem inclined
below the horizontal. See MP 16-P-01 for clearance and accessibility requirements.
• Valves that are open to the atmosphere shall have their outboard connection either blinded or
plugged.
• Drain and bypass connections may be positioned in a valve body, where necessary, to simplify
piping or to ensure complete drainage. The connection type (flanged, threaded, etc.) shall be
consistent with those allowed by the governing piping line classification.

||Start E&P Only

9.1. Chokes
Fluid flows from a choke in a high-velocity jet. For this reason, it is desirable to have a
straight run of pipe of at least 10–15 pipe diameters downstream of any choke, so that the
jet does not impinge on the side of the pipe.

Often, on high-pressure wells, two chokes are installed in the flow line: one a positive
choke and the other an adjustable choke. The adjustable choke is used to control the flow
rate. If it were to erode (cut out), the positive choke then would act to restrict the flow out
of the well and keep the well from damaging itself. Where there are two chokes, it is good
piping practice to separate the chokes by 10 pipe diameters to keep the jet of flow formed
by the first choke from cutting out the second choke. In practice, this separation is not
often done because of the expense of separating two chokes by a spool of pipe rated for
well shut-in pressure. It is much less expensive to bolt the flanges of the two chokes
together. No data have been collected to prove whether the separation of chokes is
justified from maintenance and safety considerations.

Whenever a choke is installed, it is good piping practice to install block valves within a
reasonable distance upstream and downstream so that the choke bean or disc can be
changed without having to bleed down a long length of pipeline. A vent valve for
bleeding pressure off the segment of the line containing the choke is also needed. This is
particularly true in instances where a positive choke is installed at the wellhead and an
adjustable choke is installed hundreds of feet away in a line heater. If block valves are not
installed downstream of the positive choke and upstream of the adjustable choke, it would
be necessary to bleed the entire flow line to atmosphere to perform maintenance on either
choke .

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End of E&P Only||

10. Vents and Drains


• Vents that are provided for hydrostatic test purposes only do not require a valve and shall be
provided with a seal welded solid plug, except Category D service where a properly tightened
(threaded) solid plug is acceptable. Deletion of high point vent valves shall be approved by
Mobil and shall have operations concurrence that valves will not be required during startup,
operations and/or shutdown. Additionally , subject to approval by the local facility, hydrocarbon
lines in Class 300 and lower having design temperatures between ambient and 200°C (400°F),
may have properly tightened (threaded) solid plugs . The metallurgy of the plugs shall be the
same nominal materialas the pipe.
• As an alternative to high point vents with seal-welded plugs, particularly in corrosive service,
NPS 1 flanged connections may be used. Flanges shall have a minimum pressure class of 300.
• All vents and drains that are open to the atmosphere shall be blinded or plugged.

11. Branch Connections


• ASME B31.3 permits branch connections to be made by a variety of methods, including tees,
reducing tees, reinforced and unreinforced pipe-to-pipe fabricated connections , o-let fittings , etc.
Typical branch tables are included in the line classes in MP 16-P-30A (M&R) and MP 16-P-31A
(E&P). If the contractors' tables are used, they shall be submitted to Mobil for review and
approval.
• Care shall be exercised in the detail design of branch connections to prevent mechanic al damage
or breakage due to vibration or excessive force. Connections that may require bracing or special
types of connections include sample points, instrument takeoffs, relief valves, corrosion probes,
and vent and drain connections (particularly where two block valves are used).
• Flexibility shall be provided in branch connections , especially small connections such as drain
and trap lines, instrument lines, etc., where piping is subject to large thermal movements. The
preferred location for connections is near anchors or guides where the movements of the main
line are the lowest.

12. Models
• When a plastic modelis used for a project, it shall be built to a minimum scale of 3/8 in:1 ft or
1:33 metric. Before the model is built , a detailed model specification shall be prepared by the
contractor for Mobil approval.

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EPT 09-T-01 Facilities Piping July 1998 Draft

• When a 3D computer model is used for a project, the software to be used requires Mobil
approval. The system shall include clash/interference checking and walk-through capabilities.
• As a minimum, the following items shall be shown on the model:
− Piping NPS 2 and larger, with flanges and insulation as required. Piping shall be labeled with
the line number and specification.
− All valves, including handwheels or operators.
− Critical pipe supports, guides, restraints and anchors.
− Instrument support stanchions and all instruments, including transmitters labeled for ready
identification.
− Drain hubs, catch basins, manholes and cleanouts.
− Ladders, platforms and stairs.
− Lighting equipment and electrical boxes.
− Fixed hose reels.
− Fixed fire water spray systems.

− Fire fighting monitors.


− Utility stations and safety showers.
− All process equipment, properly labeled.
− All package units.
• Repetitive small piping assemblies, such as burner manifolds, pump utilities, steam trap
manifolds and similar arrangements shall be modeled separately only once. The scale of this
piping model shall be 3 /4 in:1 ft, or 1:15 metric .
• All specialty items shall be tagged.
• The surface of a plastic model base shall show routing of all underground piping systems
(including sewers) and all underground electric power and instrument signaltransmission line
banks. All underground piping shall be included in a 3D computer model.
• Mobil personnelshall conduct a model review at agreed stages of completion.

13. Piping Insulation


Pipe insulation is often required in piping systems that are either much cooler or much hotter than
ambient temperature. Insulation is necessary for personnel protection, to conserve energy or to guard
against ignition. For temperatures above approximately 65°C (150°F), most operators provide
insulation for personal protection. If the temperature exceeds 200°C (400°F), insulation is usually

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provided for protection against hydrocarbon spillage. If the temperature exceeds 480°C (900°F),
insulation is usually provided to protect against contact with combustible gas.

13.1. Insulating Materials


• Some commonly used insulating materials are calcium silicate, mineral slagwool,
glass fiber and cellular glass.
• Some insulating materials, such as magnesia , shall not be used since they can
deteriorate or cause corrosion of the insulated surface if it is wet.
• Certain heating fluids are incompatible with some insulating materials and auto-
ignition may occur. For these reasons, one shall exercise caution when selecting
materials.

13.2. Vapor Barrier


• In addition to the insulation, a vapor barrier may be necessary. A vapor barrier shall
be applied to the outer surface of the insulation on cold piping.
• The insulation itself shall be protected from weather, oil spillage , mechanical wear or
other damage by sheet metal jacketing.
• Normally , when the pipe temperature is below 120°C (250°F), the pipe is primed for
corrosion protection. Above this temperature it is difficult to maintain the primer, and
moisture shall not be a problem since any water reaching the pipe wall shall
evaporate.

13.3. H2S
In the presence of H2 S, flanges shall not be insulated. This is to prevent the H 2 S from
concentrating around the bolts and causing stress corrosion cracking of the bolt materials.

13.4. Thickness of Insulation


• When laying out lines, the piping designer shall keep in mind that the extra thickness
of insulation and weather barriers shall add to the pipe diameters. It also is wise to
provide additional projection for pressure taps, thermowells, etc.
• MP 33-P-13 and MP 33-P-23 shall be used as guides in selecting the thickness of
insulation required for specified temperatures.

© Mobil Oil,1998 59 of 59