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Solar-Wind Hybrid Inverter

Suraj Panigrahi, [2]Ashutosh Gupta, [3]Ajay More, [4] Shubadha Deshpande
B.E. Electronic, [2]B.E. Electronic, [3]B.E. Electronic, [4]Associate Professor
[1], [2], [3],

Abstract— The advancement in technology is increasing the electrical and electronic appliances usage which, in turn is
increasing the power demand. Thus, to meet the load demand, different techniques are used for electric power generation. In the
recent times, to avoid pollution and to conserve non-renewable energy resources like coal, petroleum renewable energy sources like
solar, wind are being preferred for power generation. The combination of renewable energy sources can also be used for generating
power called as hybrid power system. This paper deals with the generation of electricity by using two sources combined which leads
to generate electricity with affordable cost. We can calculate the electricity units required per day by inserting KWH meter without
damaging the natural balance.

Index Terms—Electricity Energy, Hybrid Grid, Solar Power, Wind energy, Avr Atmega328.



At today’s technological world power consumption is

increasing day by day for advance devices. So whole world
will face energy crisis soon, since per capita energy
consumption is increasing day by day. And it is very likely
that conventional energy resources will not be able to fulfill
the need of increasing demand of energy[1]. The
conventional energy resources are depleting day by day.
Soon it will be completely vanishes from the earth so we
have to find another way to generate electricity. The new
source should be reliable, pollution free and economical.
The non-conventional energy resources should be good
alternative energy resources for the conventional energy
resources. In our system, we tried to use the unconventional
resources effectively by smart supply switching and real
time signal level monitoring. Main sources are sun light,
wind energy. With the wide advancements in the field of
wireless sensor networks, some applications require the
sensor nodes to have a long lifetime. Using conventional
batteries is not always advantageous since they require Fig 1: Solar-Wind Hybrid Inverter Block Diagram
human intervention to replace them. Hence, acquiring the
electrical power needed to operate these devices is a major 1) Solar Panel
concern. An alternative type of energy source to Solar panel is use to convert solar radiation to the
conventional batteries must be considered [6]. The electrical electrical energy. The physical of PV cell is very similar
energy required to run these devices can be obtained by to that of the classical diode with a PN junction formed
tapping the thermal, light, or mechanical energies available by semiconductor material. When the junction absorbs
in the ambient environment. This process helps in light, the energy of absorbed photon is transferred to the
providing unlimited energy for the lifespan of the electronic electron proton system of the material, creating charge
device. Therefore, the process of extracting energy from the carriers that are separated at the junction [4]. The charge
ambient environment and converting it into consumable carriers in the junction region create a potential gradient,
electrical energy is known as energy harvesting or power get accelerated under the electric field, and circulate as
scavenging [3].The forms of typical ambient energies are current through an external circuit. Solar array or panel
sunlight, mechanical energy and thermal energy etc. The is a group of a several modules electrically connected in
energy harvesting sources can be used to increase the series or parallel combination to generate the required
lifetime and capability of the devices by either replacing or current and voltage. Solar panels are the medium to
augmenting the battery usage. convert solar power into the electrical power [2].

2) Wind Turbine
A Wind turbine is that system which extracts energy
from wind by rotation of the blades of the wind turbine. The
Energy which is generated from wind is dependent upon
the rotation of blades per minute. Basically wind turbine is

of two types, one is in vertical and another one is in
horizontal direction [6]. As the wind speed increases power
generation is also increased. The power generated from
wind is not continuous its fluctuating. For obtaining the
non-fluctuating power we have to store it in battery and
then provide it to inverter to convert in to AC and then
supply to the load.

3) Battery Bank
We have to choose the Lead acid battery bank size as
per the load requirement for which we need to find
following data.
1) Find total daily use in Ampere-Hour (AH) [1].
2) Find total back up time of the battery [6].
If we want to increase the battery bank size we need to
connect the battery bank in series so that we can get the
larger battery bank size.
Fig 2: Circuit Diagram
4) Inverter
We have to choose greater rating inverter than the
desired rating .The quasi square wave inverter is
recommended in order to prolong the lifespan of the
inverter. Inverter is needed to convert DC power into AC
power. As our load working on the AC supply so we need to
convert DC power. The input voltage, Output voltage and
frequency of operation, and overall power handling
requirement decides the design of the inverter [5].

5) Atmega328
An Arduino UNO board consists of an Atmel 8-bit
AVR microcontroller with complementary components that
facilitate programming and incorporation into other
circuits.Arduino UNO have used the mega AVR series of
chips, specifically the ATmega328. An Arduino UNO
microcontroller is also pre-programmed with a boot loader
that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip flash
memory .It is used for showing the status of the battery[7].

6) KWH METER Fig 2: Output Waveform

An energy meter is a device that measures the amount
of electric energy consumed by a. Electric utilities use DC supply. In these, rectifier prevents reverse polarity that
electric meters installed at customers' premises to measure could take place in the circuit. The capacitor C1 is used to
electric energy delivered to their customers for billing filter the DC supply and remove noise if present. Then it is
purposes[5]. They are typically calibrated in billing units, the applied to the voltage regulator. The voltage regulator
most common one being the kilowatt hour [kWh]. By LM7805 can take the input in the range from 1 to 24 volts
installing it, we can usually read once, each billing period. as a input variable and give the fixed output voltage as a 5
Volts 1 Ampere. The C2 capacitance which is 1/10 of the
7) LCD DISPLAY C1 capacitance. The C2 capacitance is used to filter out the
An LCD is an electronic display module which uses noise which is coming from the voltage regulator. The LED
liquid crystal to produce a visible image. The 16x2 LCD is used to know that the circuit is working properly. The
display is a very basic module commonly used in Do it voltmeter is used across the R1 to measure the output
Yourself (DIY) and circuits. The 16x2 translates, display 16 voltage and the output voltage 5V is applied to AVR
characters per line in 2 such lines. In this LCD each Atmega328.
character is displayed in a 5x7 pixel matrix [4].
In Fig.3 the waveform is shown in which the Channel B
III. SIMULATION OF POWER SUPPLY TO ATMEGA328 indicate the output voltage with blue color is 5V Constant
THROUGH THE BATTERY and simultaneously Channel A indicate the input voltage at
voltage regulator which is 11.3V with red colour.The
A. WORKING rectifier output introduces some voltage drop of 0.7V.
In the below Fig.2 the 12V DC voltage applied from a
battery to a rectifier. But the rectifier is used to convert AC
supply into IV. ADVANTAGES
If the system gets damaged in case, no need of changing
entire system or subsystem. Just replacing a damage
component will work out.

1) Constant output voltage. [4] Raid Chedid and Safur Rahman, ”Unit Sizing and
2) Output characteristics does not get affected by Control of Hybrid Wind Solar Power Systems”, IEEE
system voltage fluctuation. Transaction of Energy Con version, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp.
181-195, March 1997.
[5] Rajesh Gopinath, Sangsun Kim, Jae-Hong Hahn,
V. DISADVANTAGES Prasad No. Enjeti, Mark B. Yeary and Jo
There’s no system without having a disadvantage. So as, the W.Howze,”Development of a Low Cost Fuel Cell
system have disadvantages as follow. Inverter System with DSP Control”, IEEE Transaction
on Power Electronic Vol 19, No. 5 pp.654-854,Sept.
1) The first time installation cost is huge in terms of 2004.
finance. [6] Jin Wang, Fang Z. Peng, Joel Anderson, Alan Joseph
2) The circuit designing complexity is more as there and Ryan Buffen Barger, IEEE Transaction on Power
in no micro-computer for controlling action. Electronics, pp.660-687, Vo. 19, No. 5, Sept2009.
[7] Sunny W. Y. Tam and Tom Chang, ”Kinetic Evolution
VI. APPLICATION and Acceleration of the Solar Wind ”, Geophysica l
1) The system is used for domestic purpose. research letter, Vol. 26, No. 20, pp. 3189-3192, October
2) Street lighting, Traffic signals 1999.
3) Various monitoring systems.
4) Powering up for communication system.
5) Pump irrigation Systems.
6) Small Boats like yatch.
7) As per requirement of electrical energy the system
can be either designed or updated for higher
energy requirement.
8) When ac mains supply is not available, the
proposed system can be used as emergency system
with only few changes.
9) So, it can be used for almost every electronic,
mechanical system needing/ require electric energy
to work on.


This Integration of renewal Energy source will be highly

effective in all places, especially in commercial areas where
need of electricity is more. It causes no effect on nature i.e.
pollution free, at the same time not proneness any kind of
accident due to lightning. It is also useful to minimize load
power supply i.e. cut short power charge. By using this
system, we can save electricity charge because very less
maintenance charge to this equipment is required [6]. The
designing of this equipment is done in such a way that it is
very compact and acts as user friendly. When it is
manufactured in a large scale, cost of this integrated natural
resources power generation system is affordable. Moreover
there is no power failure or load shedding situation at any
times. Therefore, it is the most reliable renewable power or
electricity resources with less expenditure.

[1] J. Bhagwan Reddey, D.N. Reddy, ”Probablistic
Performance Assessment of a Roof Top Wind, Solar
Photo Voltaic Hybrid Energy System ”, Engineering
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298, February 2008.
[2] Stanley R. Bull, ”Renewable Energy Today and
Tomorrow”, Proceed-ings of the IEEE, vol. 89, no. 8,
pp. 316-381, August 2001.
[3] R.Chedid and H. Akiki, ”decision Support Technique
for the Design of Hybrid Solar -Wind Power System ”,
IEEE Transaction of Energy Conversion, Vol. 13,
No.1,pp. 154-176, March 1998.