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96 Alternating Current

circuit is decreased. So the bulb will give more


Critical Thinking Questions intense light.
7. (d) The instantaneous values of emf and current in
V 100
1. (a) For dc, R    100  inductive circuit are given by E  E 0 sint
i 1
V 100  
For ac, Z    200  and i  i0 sin t   respectively.
i 0.5  2

 Z R 2  (L)2   
So, Pinst  Ei  E 0 sint  i0 sin t  
 2
200  (100)2  4 2 (50)2 L2

 L  0.55 H   
 E 0i0 sint sint cos  cost sin 
 2 2
E0 i0 R
2. (c) P  E rmsirms cos   
2 2 Z  E 0i0 sint cost

E0 E0 R E 02 R 1
   E 0i0 sin2t

Z
 P 2
2 Z 2 2Z 2
(sin2t  2 sint cost)
E 02
Given X L  R so, Z  2R P  Hence, angular frequency of instantaneous
4R power is 2 .
P 60 8. (b)
3. (a) Current through the bulb i    6A
V 10 V  50 2 sin100t cos100t  50sin200t
60W,
10V L
i  V0  50Volts and   100Hz
10 V VL 9. (b) In RC series circuit voltage across the
i
capacitor leads the voltage across the


100V, 50Hz resistance by
2
V VR2  VL2
10. (d) The voltage VL and VC are equal and
(100)2  (10)2  VL2  VL  99.5 Volt opposite so voltmeter reading will be zero.

Also R  30, X L  X C  25


Also VL  iX L  i  (2L)

 99.5  6  2  3.14  50 L V V 240


So i  2 2

R

30
 8A
 L  0.052 H R  (X L  X C )

4. (c) V 2  VR2  (VL  VC )2 11. (d) V  120 sin100t cos100t


 V  60sin200t
Since VL  VC hence V  VR  200 V
Vmax  60V and   100Hz
5. (c) V 2  VR2  (VL  VC )2  VR  V  220 V
12. (d) Z  (R)2  (X L  X C )2 ;
220
Also i   2.2 A
100
6. (a) When a bulb and a capacitor are connected in R  10, X L  L  2000 5  103  10
series to an ac source, then on increasing the
frequency the current in the circuit is
increased, because the impedance of the 1 1
XC    10 i.e. Z  10
C 2000 50 106
97 Alternating Current
V0 20 Vrms
Maximum current i0    2A irms 
Z 10  1 
2
......(i)
R2   
2  C 
Hence irms   1.4 A
2 irms Vrms Vrms
 
2 2 9
and Vrms  4  1.41  5.64 V   R2 
Also  1   2C 2
2
R   
13. (a) Capacitance of wire  
 C
 3 
C  0.014 106  200 2.8  106 F  2.8F ......(ii)
From equation (i) and (ii) we get
For impedance of the circuit to be minimum
1
1
X L  X C  2L  5 3  XC  3
2C 3R2  2 2  C  R 5
 C R 5

X L XC X X
1 1 18. (d) tan    tan60o  L  C
L  R R R R
4 2 2C 4(3.14)2  (5  103)2  2.8  10 6
 X L  XC  3R
 0.35 103 H  0.35mH
i.e. Z  R 2  (X L  X C )2  R
2 4 4
 i dt 2 (4t)dt 42 t dt
14. (c) i2    V2 200 200
4
2 So average power P  =
 dt 2 dt R 100
400 W
4
 t2 
 2   t 2   4
2  12
19. (b) R 
P

240
 15
 2  2 2
irms 16

 irms  i2  12  2 3 A V 100
Z   25
x0 i 4
15. (b) 1. rms value =
2 Now X L  Z2  R 2  (25)2  (15)2  20
2. 20 1
 2L  20  L   Hz
x0 x 2  50 5
x0 sint cost  sin2t  rmsvalue 0
2 2 2 20. (b) X L  R, X C  R / 2
3.
R
R
X  XC 2 1
x  x 
2 2
 tan  L 
x0 sint  x0 cost  rmsvalue  0    0  R R 2
 2  2
   tan1(1 / 2)
 x02  x0
R2 5
16. (c) Given X L  X C  5, this is the condition of
Also Z  R 2  (X L  X C )2  R2   R
4 2
resonance. So VL  VC , so net voltage across 21. (d) At resonance net voltage across L and C is
L and C combination will be zero. zero.
17. (a) At angular frequency , the current in RC 90 90
circuit is given by 22. (c) iL   3 A, iC   4.5 A
30 20
Alternating Current 98
Net current through circuit and for fr to , Z increases. This is justified by
i  iC  iL  1.5 A graph c.
2. (b) At t = 0, phase of the voltage is zero, while
V 90
Z   60 
i 1.5 phase of the current is  i.e., voltage leads
2
1 T 2 T2
23. (c) irms  0 i dt  
T 5 by
2
24. (a) Yes, in AC if branch AB has R, BC has a
capacitor C, and BD has a pure inductance L 3. (c) At A : X C  X L
C
At B : X C  X L
15 A
At C : X C  X L
10 A B
A

4. (c) IL lags behind IR by a phase of , while IC
5A 2
D 
leads by a phase of .
25. (d) Current will be maximum in the condition of 2
V V 5. (d) As explained in solution (1) for frequency
resonance so imax   A
R 10 0  fr , Z decreases hence (i  V / Z),
1 2 increases and for frequency fr  , Z
Energy stored in the coil WL  Li max
2 increases hence i decrees.
2
1  E  1
 L  (a) Vrms 
T 2
2  10 6.
T
0 10 dt  10 V

1  E2  1 1
  10 3     10 5 E 2 joule 7. (b) For capacitive circuits X C 
2  C
 100 2

 Energy stored in the capacitor


i 
V
 VC  i  
1 1 XC
WC  CE 2   2  106 E 2  106 E 2 joule
2 2 T /2

WC 1 8. (c) I av 
 0
i dt

T /2
 t)dt
I0 sin(
  T /2  0

WL 5  0
dt T /2

T /2
Graphical Questions 2I 0   cos t 

2 T   
0
 1 
1. (c) Z  R 2   2fL  
 2 fC 
  T  
 cos  
From above equation at f = 0  z 2I0   2  cos0o 
  
T    
1  
f  
When (resonant frequency)
2 LC
2I0
 Z R  [ cos  cos0o ]
T
1
For f   Z starts increasing. 2I 0 2I
2 LC  [1  1]  0
2 
i.e., for frequency 0 – fr, Z decreases
9. (b) (1) For time interval 0 < t < T/2
99 Alternating Current
I  kt, where k is the slope 16. (b) For anti-resonant circuit current is minimum at
resonant frequency and at frequencies other
For inductor as we know, induced voltage than resonant frequency current rises with
frequency.
di
V  L 1
dt 17. (c) We have X C  and X L  L  2f
C  2f
 V1   KL
1
18. (d) Reactance X  X L  X C  2fL 
T 2fC
(2) For time interval  t T
2
1 1 1
19. (b) X C   i.e. X C 
I   Kt  V2  KL C 2fC f

 Assertion and Reason


10. (a) As the current i leads the voltage by , it is an
4
1. (a) At resonant frequency, X L  X C  Z  R
X
RC circuit, hence tan  C  (minimum) there for current in the circuit is
R maximum.

 1 2. (c) When ac flows through an inductor current


tan  lags behind the emf., by phase of /2,
4  CR
inductive reactance, X L  L   .2 f.L, so
  CR  1 as  = 100 rad/sec when frequency increases correspondingly
inductive reactance also increases.
1 3. (a) The capacitive reactance of capacitor is given
 CR  sec1 .
100 by
From all the given options only option (a) is 1 1
correct. XC  
C 2fC
11. (b) From the graph shown below. It is clear that
 So this is infinite for dc (f = 0) and has a very
phase lead of N over M is  . Since time small value for ac. Therefore a capacitor
2
period (i.e. taken to complete one cycle) = 0.4 blocks dc.
sec.
4. (b) The phase angle for the LCR circuit is given by
1
Hence frequency    2.5 Hz X L  XC L  1 / C
T tan  
R R
M N
/2 Where XL, XC are inductive reactance and
capacitive reactance respectively when XL >
XC then tan is positive i.e.  is positive
(between 0 and /2). Hence emf leads the
12. (d) In purely inductive circuit voltage leads the
current.
current by 90o.
5. (a) If resistor is used in controlling ac supply,
1 1
13. (c) X L  2fL  X L  f   electrical energy will be wasted in the form of
XL f heat energy across the resistance wire.
1 However, ac supply can be controlled with
i.e., graph between and f will be a choke without any wastage of energy. This is
XL
because, power factor (cos) for resistance is
hyperbola.
unity and is zero for an inductance. [P = EI
14. (c) From phasor diagram it is clear that current is cos].
lagging with respect to Erms. This may be
happen in LCR or LR circuit. 6. (a) When frequency of alternating current is
15. (c) At resonance X L  X C increased, the effective resistance of the
inductive coil increases. Current
(X L  L  2fL) in the circuit containing
Alternating Current 100

V V where cos is power factor and  is phase


inductor is given by I  . As angle. In case of circuit containing resistance
XL 2fL
only, phase angle is zero and power factor is
inductive resistance of the inductor increases,
equal to one. Therefore power is maximum in
current in the circuit decreases.
case of circuit containing resistor only.
7. (e) On introducing soft iron core, the bulb will glow
dimmer. This is because on introducing soft 1
14. (a) Capacitive reactance XC  . When
iron core in the solenoid, its inductance L C
increases, the inductive reactance, X L   L capacitance (C) increases, the capacitive
increases and hence the current through the reactance decreases. Due to decrease in its
bulb decreases. values, the current in the circuit will increases

8. (b) Like direct current, an alternating current also  


 E 
produces magnetic field. But the magnitude  I   and hence brightness of
 R2  XC2 
and direction of the field goes on changing
continuously with time. source (or electric lamp) will also increases.
9. (c) Both ac and dc produce heat, which is 15. (b) As both the inductance and resistance are
proportional to square of the current. The joined in series, V
L
reversal of direction of current in ac is hence current
immaterial so far as production of heat is through both will be V
concerned. same. But in case of
10. (a) The effect of ac on the body depends largely resistance, both the 
current and potential I
on the frequency. Low frequency currents of 50 VR
to 60 Hz (cycles/sec), which are commonly vary simultaneously,
used, are usually more dangerous than high hence they are in same phase. In case of an
frequency currents and are 3 to 5 times more inductance when current is zero, potential
dangerous than dc of same voltage and difference across it is maximum and when
amperage (current). The usual frequency of 50 current reaches maximum (at  t = /2),
cps (or 60 cps) is extremely dangerous as it potential difference across it becomes zero i.e.
corresponds to the fibrillation frequency of the potential difference leads the current by /2 or
myocardium. This results in ventricular current lags behind the potential difference by
fibrillation and instant death. /2, Phase angle in case of LR circuit is given

11. (b) The mean average value of alternating current 1 L



as   tan  .
(or emf) during a half, cycle is given by  R 
Im  0.636I0 (or Em  0.636E0)
16. (b) We can use a capacitor of suitable capacitance
During the next half cycle, the mean value of as a chock coil, because average power
ac will be equal in magnitude but opposite in consumed per cycle in an ideal capacitor is
zero. Therefore, like a choke coil, a condenser
direction.
can reduce ac without power dissipation.
For this reason the average value of ac over a
complete cycle is always zero. So the average
value is always defined over a half cycle of ac.

12. (d) An ac ammeter is constructed on the basics of


heating effect of the electric current. Since heat
produced varies as square of current
(H  I 2R) . Therefore the division marked on
the scale of ac ammeter are not equally spaced.

13. (d) The power of a ac circuit is given by


P  EI cos