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SAB 3233 C1

Lecture 4

Design of Compression Member – Column

Columns and struts carry load primarily in compression along their length,
and are found in most building structures.

Columns, sometimes referred to as stanchions, and struts are structural


elements which support compressive loads primarily along their
longitudinal axes.

Such members are present in the structure of almost all buildings.

Column generally referred to vertical compression member supporting


floors and/or roofs in structural frames. In many cases such members
are subjected to both axial and bending effects.

Columns are an essential part of modern framed buildings.


In some instances, these columns may additionally be required to carry
lateral wind load and bending due to eccentricity of the end reaction of
floor beams.
However, axial compression is normally the predominant effect

Loads to column

Axial load

Wind load

- Due to eccentricity
M - Lateral load
- Rigid frame

Types of cross-section
Dominant mode of failure to be considered is axial buckling. Buckling
normally expected to occur about the weakest axis.

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C2
Lecture 4

CHS

SHS

UC

UB

Other build-up sections.

Column Behaviour

Depend on whether Stocky or Slender.


Short and stocky column under axial load will experience bending stress
only, on further loading the column will reach its collapse load.

Axial compression resistance of the column N = fy x A

In practice, the failure load of steel columns is associated with buckling;


this is related to the column slenderness. Instead of just axially
shortening in length, it buckles and deforms perpendicular to its axis.
This value of load is called the buckling load. When a column has reached
its buckling load it has effectively failed as a structural element and is
incapable of sustaining the load.

In general the performance of column and its ultimate strength is based


upon the slenderness and design strength py.

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C3
Lecture 4

In practice, the failure load of steel columns is


associated with buckling; this is related to the
column slenderness. Instead of just axially
shortening in length, it buckles and deforms
perpendicular to its axis. This value of load is called
the buckling load. When a column has reached its
buckling load it has effectively failed as a structural
element and is incapable of sustaining the load.

In general the performance of column and its


ultimate strength is based upon the slenderness
and material strength fy.

Development of Column formulae

Column buckling was first investigated by Euler who established that the
buckling strength is inversely proportional to the square of the
slenderness ratio.

2
EI
Ncr
L2 (1)

where, Ncr = Euler collapse load.


E = Modulus of elasticity of the material of construction of the column.
I = Moment of inertia of the column section.
L = Length of the pin-ended column.

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C4
Lecture 4

Divide by cross-sectional area A,

Buckling Stress σe = Pe/A = π2EI/AL2

σe = π2E./(L/i)2

This relationship can be represented graphically as a graph of buckling


stress against (L/i). Clearly the value of (L/i) is of considerable
importance in determining the ability of a column to carry load without
buckling.

(Further reading
please!!!!!)

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C5
Lecture 4

Perry observed:
• All columns contain imperfections and will deflect laterally from
the onset of loading
• The maximum stress along the column length will occur at mid-
height and on the inner surface
• The maximum stress will comprise 2 components – axial stress and
bending stress
• Failure may be assumed when the maximum stress reaches yield

Robertson contribution:
• The bending stress component is a function of the lateral
deflection, which is, in turn, an amplification of the initial
imperfection e0,d
• Robertson determined suitable values for these initial
imperfections for a range of structural cross-sections
• Eurocode 3 uses the Perry-Robertson concept
• Five different imperfection amplitudes are included (through the
imperfection factor a), giving five buckling curves

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C6
Lecture 4

Design of Axially Loaded Column

Verification

NEd Nc ,Rd

NEd Nb,Rd

Cross-section resistance
Af y
N c , Rd for Class 1, 2 or 3 sections
M0

Aeff f y
N c , Rd for Class 4 sections
M0

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C7
Lecture 4

Compression buckling resistance Nb,Rd:

A fy
Nb,Rd For Class 1, 2 & 3
M1

A eff fy
Nb,Rd For Class 4
M1

Where Х is the reduction

1
2 2 0 ,5
1
( )
2
0,5 (1 ( 0.2) )

α is the imperfection factor

Non-dimensional Slenderness λ and Effective length (Lcr)

The non-dimensional slenderness used in EC3 is defined as:

E 1
fcr fcr fy Afy

1
E 1 fcr Ncr
fy fy

A fy
for Class1, 2 and3
Ncr

A eff fy
for Class 4
Ncr

Ncr is the elastic critical buckling load for the relevant buckling mode
based on the gross properties of the cross-section

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C8
Lecture 4

Buckling ao a b c d
curve
Imperfection 0.13 0.21 0.34 0.49 0.76
factor

2
EI
Ncr 2
L

Buckling
curve
Buckling
Cross-section Limits about S235
axis S275
S460
S355
S420
y–y a a0
b tf ≤ 40 mm
z-z b a0
z
h/b > 1.2
40 mm < tf y–y b a
tw ≤ 100 mm z-z c a
Rolled I-
sections h y
y
y–y b a
tf ≤ 100 mm
z-z c a
r h/b ≤ 1.2
tf
y–y d c
tf > 100 mm
z z-z d c
z
z y–y b b
Welded tf ≤ 40 mm
z-z c c
I- y y y y

sections tf tf
y–y c c
tf > 40 mm
z z z-z d d

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C9
Lecture 4

Generally the effective length always depends on the restraint at both


end of the column.

End restraint (in the plane under consideration) Buckling length Lcr

Effectively restrained in direction at


0.7 L
both ends
Partially restrained in direction at
Effectively held 0.85 L
both ends
in position at
both ends Restrained in direction at one end 0.85 L

Not restrained in direction at either


1.0 L
end

One end Other end

Effectively restrained in
1.2 L
direction
Effectively held
in position and Not held Partially restrained in
1.5 L
restrained in in position direction
direction
Not restrained in
2.0 L
direction

Pinned Pinned Fixed Partial Free in position Free

0.85L 0.7L 0.85L 1.2L 2.0L


1.0L

Pinned Fixed Fixed Partial Fixed Fixed

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C10
Lecture 4

Design of Axially Loaded Column

EXAMPLE

Column of pinned based is to resist


combined action from the reaction of
beams R1 and R2.

R1 = 225 kN, R2 = 155kN.

Check the adequacy of column


Lzz = 4300mm

Lyy= 4400mm 203x203x52UC of grade S275.

R1

R2

Solution

Total axial load NEd = 225+225+155+155 = 760 kN.

Note: If self load of column is to be considered, add the load as NEd

Classification

cf 40 mm therefore fy = 275 N/mm2 (Table 3.1)

Flange:

cf/tf = 87.75/12.5 = 7.02 ≤ 9ε Class 1

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C11
Lecture 4

Web
cw = 160.8
cw/tw = 160.8/8 = 20.1 ≤ 33ε Class 1

Therefore X-section is in Class 1

Assuming the critical length 0.85L

Verification

Compression resistance

NEd ≤ Nc,Rd cross section check

Buckling resistance

NEd ≤ Nb,Rd member buckling check

For minor axis z-z


Lcr = 0.85x4300 = 3655 mm
A fy
Nb,Rd Eq (6.47)
M1

1
2 2 0 ,5
1 Eq (6.49)
( )

2
0,5 (1 ( 0.2) )

A fy
for Class1, 2 and3
Ncr

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C12
Lecture 4

Therefore

Appropriate buckling curve depend on h/b:

h/b = 206.2/203.9 = 1.01 < 1.2 and tf ≤ 100mm

therefore use curve ‘c’

from buckling curve Fig 6.4

Or calculate from Eq. (6.49)

Therefore

FOR MAJOR AXIS y-y PLEASE TRY OUT YOURSELF

Discussion

(i) Effect of tie beam to column


(ii) Torsional and torsional-flexural buckling resistance…Cl
6.3.1.4(1)
(iii) Load from the upper floor

Design of axial compression column with moment (Cl )


Normally for column of rigid construction.
In this case two types of verification are required.

(1) Cross-sectional resistance (conservative) Cl 6.2.1(7)

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C13
Lecture 4

N Ed M y , Ed M z , Ed
1.0
N pl , Rd M c , y , Rd M c , z , Rd For Class 1, 2, and 3

(2) Buckling resistance Cl 6.3.3

The buckling verification given in 6.3.3 (Eq 6.61 and Eq 6.62) of


BS EN 1993-1-1 may be simplified to:

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C14
Lecture 4

Example (Column of Rigid Construction)

A braced column 4.5 m long is subjected to the factored end loads and
moments about y-y axis as shown in Figure 1. The column is held in
position but only partially restrained in direction at the ends. Check that
a 203x203x52UC in grade S275 is adequate.
880 kN
z
y
35kNm

y
z

12 kNm
kNm
880 kN
Section classification

Ag = 66.4cm2
t = 12.5 mm 40 mm , fy = 275N/mm2

= (235/275)0.5 = 0.92
Flange:
cf =

cf /tf = 88/12.5 = 7.04 ≤ 9ε Class 1

Web:

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C15
Lecture 4

cw = 160.8

cw / tw = 160.8/7.9 = 20.35

But
Therefore take
As

Class 1

Therefore cross section is Class 1

Verification:

(1)Cross-sectional resistance

N Ed M y , Ed M z , Ed
1.0
Nc, Rd M c, y , Rd M c, z , Rd

NEd = 880 kN

The design plastic moment resistance for major axis (y-y);

880 35
0 0.48 0.25 0.73 1.0 OK!!
1826 140.3

(2)Buckling resistance check

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C16
Lecture 4

AND

For Class 1 x-sextion,

NRk = Afy = 6630 x 275 x 10-3 = 1823.25 kN

My,Rk = Wpl,y,fy = 567 x 103 x 275 x 10-6 = 155.9

To be continued……by the student…..

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C17
Lecture 4

Exercise

S1 Satu struktur keluli di tunjukkan melalui Rajah S1. Sambungan di E dan D


adalah sambungan pin manakala di A terdiri daripada penyokong yang
tegar.

(a) Analisis struktur tersebut bagi menentukan momen di sambungan


dan juga beban paksi yang di alami oleh kerangka tersebut.
(b) Dapatkan saiz keratan rasuk UB yang sesuai digunakan sebagai
tiang dan rasuk bagi struktur tersebut.

20 kN/m
E
40kN

B C

6m 4m
5m

D
A

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C18
Lecture 4

Frame in Simple Construction

Simple frame – gravity load


only.

Bracing frame – takes all the


lateral loads.

Simple Frame Bracing Frame

Frame is fully braced for lateral deflection

Simple connections are used

Columns must be fully continuous

Pattern loading may be ignored

Beams are design as simply supported

The columns are designed for axial loads as well as nominal

moments from reaction shear of the beam, applied at appropriate

eccentricity.

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C19
Lecture 4

Design of Column in Simple Construction

(i) For simple construction the effect of loading pattern need


not to be considered. For design purpose, all beams
supported by column at any one level are assumed to be fully
loaded. i.e. 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk.

(ii) The bending moment in the column can be assume due to


beam reaction acted at a distance of 100 mm from the face
of the column.

(iii) Eccentricity (based upon UKs)

(a)
reaction
e

Cap packing
plate

(b)

For roof truss with simple connection


that cannot develop significant
moment, the eccentricity may be
neglected.

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C20
Lecture 4

(c)

Eccentricity of loading e
should be taken as 100 mm
from the face of column or
at the center of the length of
stiff bearing, = whichever
is greater

e =h/2 +100

e = t/2 + 100

e = b/2 +100

(iv) For multi-storey column, net moment at any one level should
be distributed between upper column and lower column of
that level in proportion of their bending stiffness I/L.

L1

L2

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C21
Lecture 4

For column in simple construction, the following relationship by “Acess-


steel document SN048 needs to be satisfied

when certain criteria are met:


i.e i) hot rolled I,H or RHS
ii) section class 1, 2, or 3 under compression
iii) BMD about each axis are linear
iv) The bending moment ratio ψi (as defined in Table B.3)…..

Example
Column subjected to axial load and moment (nominal) – Simple
Construction.
L = 4300 mm

Elevation

230kN

Column size
180kN 170kN
203x203x52UC
Grade S275
300kN

Plan

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C22
Lecture 4

Solution

Need to satisfy the following relationship,

Design compression force:

NEd = 300+230+180+170 = 880 kN

If column self load to be considered, add the self load to NEd

Cross-section classification:

cf 40 mm therefore fy = 275 N/mm2 (Table 3.1)

Flange:

cf/tf = 87.75/12.5 = 7.02 ≤ 9ε Class 1

Web:

cw = 160.8

cw / tw = 160.8/7.9 = 20.35

But
Therefore take
As

Class 1

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C23
Lecture 4

Therefore cross section is Class 1

Eccentricity:

h 206.2
e y
2
100
2
100 203.1mm

t w 7.9
e z
2
100
2
100 104 mm

Bending moment at concern level:

M1,y,Ed = (300-230)203.1 = 14.22 kNm

M1,z,Ed = (180-170)104 = 1.04 kNm

Note:
For multi-storey building the bending moment are distributed in
propotion to bending stiffness I/L of the upper and lower column!!!!!!!!!

My,Ed = 14.22 Mz,Ed = 1.04

ψyMy,Ed ψzMz,Ed

y-y axis z-z axis

Since the base of column is nominally pinned, ψ = 0


Axial force ratio:

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C24
Lecture 4

Flexural buckling reduction factor :

From Eq.(6.49)

Where :

From Eq.(6.50)

Buckling length major axis y-y Lcr = 4300 mm

Appropriate buckling curve depend on h/b:


From Table 6.2;
h/b = 206.2/204.3 = 1.0 < 1.2, and tf = 12.5 < 100 mm

therefore use curve ‘b’


From Table 6.1;

Therefore

Then

can also determined directly from Figure 6.4 of buckling cuves

ok!

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C25
Lecture 4

Determine Nz,b,Rd

Appropriate curve depend on h/b


From Table 6.2;
h/b = 206.2/204.3 = 1.0 < 1.2, and tf = 12.5 < 100 mm

therefore use curve ‘c’


From Table 6.1;

Therefore

Then

can also determined directly from Figure 6.4 of buckling cuves

Therefore

Determine My,b,Rd

From Cl 6.3.2.3 and Eq. (6.57);

Where and

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C26
Lecture 4

Appropriate buckling curve;


h/b = 206.2/204.3 = 1.0 < 2.0 Table 6.5
use curve ‘b’; Table 6.3

Cl 6.3.2.2(1)

EC3 not mentioned method to calculate Mcr

Recommendation by ‘Access-steel document SN003,

1.0 =………..kNm

TO BE CONTINUE BY STUDENTS

may also determine conservatively by using


recommendation by ‘Steel Building Design:Concise Eurocode’ pp
53.

and

Thus (4300⁄51.8)/96 0.86

Therefore refer buckling curve Figure 6.4


Thus

Determine Mz,cb,Rd

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316
SAB 3233 C27
Lecture 4

Verification:

Assignment 60
60
145
145 90
295

90
3.0 m

200 200
340
340 260
800
260
3.5 m

Column self weight 5


Total Load Fc = 1100kN

Assume 203x203x60UC(Grade S275)

Solution:

Classification:
Try out yourself!

Dr. A. Aziz Saim


C09-316