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# EXAMPLE 2: TRUSS

## Determine internal forces in

4m the member. (AE constant)
2 kN

C B

3m

Solution
Numbering the nodes and members:

4
3
A
2
Node Coordinate

1 (0,0)
1
4 m
2 kN 6 2 (3,4)

5 3 (3,0)
2 C 2 B

1 Δ3 = Δ 4 = Δ 5 = Δ 6 = 0
1 3 m
F1 = 0, F2 = -2 kN
3

1
Stiffness matrix for members:

1 2
Member 1: , L = 32  42 = 5m

30
λx = cos θx = = 0.6
5

40
λy = cos θy = = 0.8
5

1 2 3 4

##  0.36 0.48  0.436  0.48 1

 0.48 0.64  0.48  0.64 2
EA 
K1 = 
L  0.36  0.48 0.36 0.48  3
 
  0.48  0.64 0.48 0.64 

4
4

1 2 3 4

##  0.072 0.096  0.072

4  0.096 1
 0.096 0.128  0.096  0.128 2
= EA  
 0.072  0.096 0.072 0.096  3
  0.096  0.128 0.096 0.128  4
  4

Member 2: 1 3 , L = 3m

30
λx = cos θx = = 1
3

00
λy = cos θy = = 0
3

λx2 = 1, λy2 = 0, λx λy = 0

2
1 2 5 6

 1 0 1 0 1
 0 2
EA  0 0 0
K2 = 
L  1 0 1 0 5
 
 0 0 0 0 6

1 2 5 6

 0.333 0  0.333 0  1
 0 0 0 0 2
= EA  
 0.333 0 0.333 0  5
 0 0 0 0  6
 

1 2 3 4 5 6

##  0.405 0.096  0.072  0.096  0.333 0 1

 0.096 0.128  0.096  0.128 0 0 2
 
 0.072  0.096 0.072 0.096 0 0 3
Ks = EA  
  0.096  0.128 0.096 0.128 0 0 4
  0.333 0 0 0 0.333 0 5
 
 0 0 0 0 0 0 6

Known variables:

0  3
0  4  0  1
Δk =   Fk = 
0  5  2 2
 
0 
  6
4 3
3

3
Then, F = KsΔ

##  0   0.405 0.096  0.072  0.096  0.333 0  1 

 2   0.096 0.128  0.096  0.128 0 0  
     2
 F3   0.072  0.096 0.072 0.096 0 0 0
 F  = EA   0
 4   0.096  0.128 0.096 0.128 0 0  
 F5    0.333 0 0 0 0.333 0 0
     
F
 6  
0 0 0 0 0 0

0
 

## Solve for Δ1 and Δ2,

 0  0.405 0.096  1 
 2  = EA  0.096 0.128  
     2

## Or, by simultaneous equations,

0 = EA (0.405Δ1 + 0.096Δ2)

-2 = EA (0.096Δ1 + 0.128Δ2)

Then,

4.505
Δ1 =
EA

19.003
Δ2 = 
EA

## Then solve for F3, F4, F5 and F6,

F 3   0.072  0.096
F    0.096  0.128
 4  = AE    4.505 EA 
F 5    0.333 0   19.003 EA 
     
F 6   0 0 

4
Then,

4.505 19.003
F3 = (-0.072AE) ( ) + (-0.096AE) (  )
EA EA

= 1.5 kN (→)

4.505 19.003
F4 = (-0.096AE) ( ) + (-0.128AE) (  )
EA EA

= 2.0 kN (↑)

4.505
F5 = (-0.333AE) ( )+0
EA

= -1.5 kN (←)

F6 = 0

Force in member 1,

 1 
 
EA
f 
2 1
=
L

 x  y x y   2
 3 
 

 4 

 4.505 EA 
 19.003 EA 
EA
=
5

 0.6  0.8 0.6 0.8 
 0

 
 0 

= 2.5 kN (tension) #

5
Force in member 2:

 4.505 AE 
 19.003 AE 
EA
f 
2 2
=
3

1 0 1 0 

 0

 
 0 

= -1.5 kN (compression) #

A
1.5 kN

2 kN
2.5 kN

2 kN

C 1.5 kN B
1.5 kN

Forces in members