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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

2014 SC B1 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT

(INSULATED CABLES)

by A. GILLE, Secretary of the Study Committee

March 2015

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 Overview .................................................................................................................... 4
2 SC organization ......................................................................................................... 4
3 Publications ............................................................................................................... 5
4 2014 main events ....................................................................................................... 6
5 2015 main events ....................................................................................................... 7
6 2016 main events . ..................................................................................................... 7
7 Administrative report ............................................................................................... 8
7.1 SC Meeting ............................................................................................................... 8
7.2 TC Award.................................................................................................................. 9
7.3 Web site ..................................................................................................................... 9
8 Technical report ............................................................................................................. 9
8.1 Advisory Groups ....................................................................................................... 9
8.1.1 Strategic Advisory Group ............................................................................... 9
8.1.2 Customer Advisory Group .............................................................................. 9
8.1.3 Tutorial and Publication Advisory Group .................................................. 11
8.1.4 Prospective Advisory Group ......................................................................... 13
8.2 Working Groups ..................................................................................................... 14
8.2.1 WG B1.11 Upgrading and Uprating of Underground Cable Systems ...... 14
8.2.2 WG B1.28 On-site Partial Discharge Assessment of HV and EHV cable
systems ..................................................................................................................... 15
8.2.3 JWG B1/B3.33 Feasibility of a common, dry type interface for GIS and
Power cables of 52 kV and above .......................................................................... 15
8.2.4 WG B1.34 Mechanical forces in large cross section cable systems ........... 16
8.2.5 WG B1.35 Guide for rating calculations of HV cables ............................... 17
8.2.6 WG B1.36 Life cycle assessment and environmental impact of
underground cable systems .................................................................................... 18
8.2.7 WG B1.37 Guide operation of fluid filled cable systems ............................ 19
8.2.8 WG B1.38 After laying tests on AC and DC cable systems with new
techniques ................................................................................................................ 20
8.2.9 WG B1.39 On shore generation cable connections ..................................... 21
8.2.10 WG B1.40 Off shore generation cable connections................................... 22
8.2.11 WG B1.41 Issues regarding soil thermal characteristics ......................... 23
8.2.12 WG B1.42 Testing of Transition Joints between HVDC Cables with
Lapped and Extruded Insulation up to 500 kV.................................................... 24
8.2.13 WG B1.43 Recommendations for mechanical testing of submarine cables
................................................................................................................................... 25
8.2.14 WG B1.44 Work under Induced Voltages and Induced Currents + Link
Boxes......................................................................................................................... 26
8.2.15 WG B1.45 Thermal monitoring of cable circuits and grid operators’ use
of dynamic rating systems ...................................................................................... 26
8.2.16 WG B1.46 Conductor Connectors: Mechanical and Electrical Tests ..... 27
8.2.17 WG B1.47 Implementation of Long AC HV & EHV Cable Systems ...... 28
8.2.18 WG B1.48 Trenchless Technologies ........................................................... 29
8.2.19 JWG B1/B3.49 Standard design of a common, dry type plug-in interface
for GIS and power cables up to 145 kV ................................................................ 30

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8.2.20 WG B1.50 SVL and bonding systems (design, testing, operation and
monitoring) .............................................................................................................. 31
8.2.21 WG B1.51 Fire issues for cable installed in air ......................................... 31
8.2.22 WG B1.52 Fault location on land and submarine links (AC and DC) .... 32
8.3 Task Forces ............................................................................................................ 33
8.3.1 TF B1.54 Behavior of cable systems under large disturbances
(earthquake, storm, flood, fire, landslide, climate change) ................................. 33
8.3.2 JTF SC B1/ICC Interactions between CIGRE SC B1 and IEEE/PES
Insulated Conductors Committee .......................................................................... 34
8.4 Relations with other CIGRE Study Committees ................................................... 34
8.5 B1 Asia-Oceania Regional Council of Cigre (AORC) ......................................... 35
8.6 IEC .......................................................................................................................... 36

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

1 Overview
The main highlights of 2014 are:

 SC B1 launched 3 Working Groups and 1 Task Force. 1 Working Group and 4 Task Forces
were disbanded.
 More than 332 different experts are working in SC B1 leading to more than 460
contributions in the various working bodies including SC membership.
 Excellent progress was made on tutorials and many of them were delivered.
 The Chairman decided to devote each SAG Member to a specific SC or organization to
have the best possible relations with the other SCs. Each SAG Member will have to liaise
and to disseminate the information and collect the needs of the other SC or organization.
 Two B1 Working Groups (WG) published important technical brochures " Feasibility of a
common, dry type interface for GIS and Power cables of 52 kV and above " (TB 606) and
“Upgrading and uprating of existing cable systems” (TB 606). Moreover, other WGs
finished their work that will be published in 2015.
 The cooperation with IEC TC 20 and IEEE/ICC continues to be very good.
 The B1 AORC organization meets regularly with an increasing success This event is now
more than a simple panel meeting and is not far from being a WG meeting, and this
organization is strongly supported by the regional SC B1 representatives.

2 SC organization
The activities of CIGRE Study Committee B1 concern all types of AC and DC insulated cable
systems for land and submarine power connections and are focused mainly on high voltage and
extra high voltage applications. Whenever appropriate, however, lower voltage applications are
also considered.

Within this field, the scope of work of the Study Committee covers theory, design, applications,
manufacture, installation, testing, operation, maintenance and diagnostic techniques of insulated
cables.

The main goals of the SC B1 are the following:

 to contribute effectively to the progress in insulated cable systems technology,


 to facilitate the integration of insulated cable systems in electric power networks and in the
environment, covering the complete life cycle of cables,
 to maintain its leading position in the field of power cables by providing and actively
presenting unbiased and neutral information on all essential cable aspects,
 to be recognised by the Electric Power Industry (EPI) as a leading and reliable partner with
competence in all engineering issues related to insulated cable systems, i.e. technical,
economical, ecological and social,
 to monitor and assess current trends in cable technology,
 to promote advancements in cable technology.
 to detect at the earliest stage the signals from the EPI regarding topics that could affect the
work of SC B1.

4 Strategic Directions were defined in April 2010 by the Technical Committee for the period 2010-
2020 (Electra 249)

 Technical Direction 1: The electrical power system of the future,


 Technical Direction 2: Making best use of the existing power system,

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 Technical Direction 3: Focus on environment and sustainability,


 Technical Direction 4: Communication on power system issues for decision-makers.

The SC B1 is on very good track as it already covers correctly some of them through its past and
present WGs. Improvements have been made in TD 3 and TD4 with the launch of the latest
WGs/TFs (WG B1.51 and TF B1.54) and a significant number of tutorial sessions.

The basic operating structures of the SC are its Working Groups. Their effective performances are
based on a clear definition of their Terms of Reference (ToR) and on work plans with specific time
limits (typically three years).

In order to achieve this, it is the normal practice of SC B1 to set up a Task Force (TF) to define the
Terms of Reference of a new WG prior to its establishment. The duration of this type of TF must
not exceed one year.

By the end of 2014, the SC is composed of 24 Regular Members, 14 Observer Members, a


Secretary and a Chairman (40), 15 coming from Manufacturers, 19 from Utilities, 2 from
Consultants, 2 from Institutes and 2 from Universities.

The SC B1 has its web site at the following address: http://b1.cigre.org and is currently looking for
a new webmaster.

3 Publications
Published in 2014 and 2015

WG Name of the Publication Publication date Electra issue and


number number of Technical
Brochure
JWG Feasibility of a common, dry type Available on Electra 279 (April
B1/B3.33 interface for GIS and Power cables eCigre 2015)
of 52 kV and above January 2015 Technical Brochure
605
WG B1.11 Upgrading and uprating of existing Available on Electra 279 (April
cable systems eCigre 2015)
January 2015 Technical Brochure
606
WG B1.40 Off shore generation cable Available on Technical Brochure
connections eCigre 610
February 2015

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To come

WG number Name of the Publication Publication date Electra issue and


number of Technical
Brochure
WG B1.42 Testing of transition joints Expected Availability
between HVDC cables with on eCigre
lapped and extruded April 2015
insulation up to 500 kV
WG B1.28 On-site Partial Discharge Expected Availability
Assessment of HV and EHV on eCigre June 2015
cable systems
WG B1.35 Guide for rating calculations of Expected Availability
HV cables on eCigre
June 2015
WG B1.43 Recommendations for Expected Availability
mechanical testing of on eCigre
submarine cables November 2015
WG B1.37 Guide for the operation of fluid Expected Availability
filled cable systems on eCigre
November 2015
WG B1.34 Mechanical forces in large Expected Availability
cross section cable systems on eCigre
November 2015

4 2014 main events


As usual, CIGRE held a session on August 25 – 29 in Paris.The SC B1 Discussion Group
Meeting was held on Thursday, August 27th, 2014 during which 33 published papers were
discussed.

This event was well attended with more than 300 experts and proposed a fruitful discussion with
50 prepared contributions, 58 spontaneous ones. Moreover SC B1 invited 2 long presentations
from IEEE/ICC and SC D1. The different IEEE/ICC activities were presented highlighting the many
possible interactions with the work of the SC B1. Activities of SC D1 were also presented, paying
attention to all those working bodies which are of interest for insulated cables, both about materials
and testing methods.

The Poster Session which attracted around 325 visitors was also a great success (27 authors).
Some WGs close to the publication presented their work and CAG was present as usual to
introduce the SC B1.

Some trends:
 There is a wide development that is going on in new cable installations around the world in
order to increase the power transmission capability, to improve the reliability and to
introduce new designs and installation methods to e.g. mitigate the environmental impact
or enable installation in confined spaces.
 The technology of extruded DC cable systems has now been used commercially for up to
15 years and the voltage is increasing and service experience is collected. During this
development e.g. additional tests or other concerns are addressed such as experience
from wind farm connections or lightning impulse levels.
 Additional tests in order to increase the confidence of the HV cable systems are now
specified by different utilities.

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 The use of longer cables becomes an opportunity to mitigate environmental impact and/or
reduce costs during installation of cable systems the use of longer cables.
 Installation of cables in urban areas addresses several challenges : new designs of joints
and terminations are required for example to cope with installation in confined spaces or
to enable new connections or transitions or installation in congested roads in the city with
many other services involved and with a lack of detailed information such as drawings
during the excavation process.
 Monitoring and diagnostics of cable systems seem to attract more and more a lot of
attention (partial discharge, monitoring of temperatures and screen currents, …).
 The main topics about the future cable networks are higher ratings, improved mechanical
properties, new materials, new designs, new installation features and improved modelling
and calculations of cable systems. For higher ratings the hottest topics are the introduction
of High Temperature Superconducting AC cables for higher current and increased voltage
for HVDC cable systems.
 Mechanical properties of submarine cable systems are also becoming more important
mainly in order to cope with larger sea laying depths but also for new applications such as
connection of floating platforms.
 New materials in order to challenge non-filled XLPE compounds for extruded cables are
promoted in different applications.

SC B1 also offered tutorials during the year:


- New Delhi (India),
- Kansas City (US),
- Trondheim (NO),
- VIenna (AT).

5 2015 main events


The 2015 SC B1 meeting will be hosted by Norway. The meeting will take place in Kristiansand on
August 31 and September 1-2 with 1.5 days of SC meeting, one half day tutorial, one day technical
visit.

6 2016 main events .


In 2016, SC B1 will hold its Discussion Group Meeting during the CIGRE Session.

The Preferential Subjects that will be discussed are :

PS 1 : Feedback from newly installed or upgraded underground and submarine AC


and DC cable systems
 Design, installation techniques, improved safety and operation
 Advances in testing and relevant experience
 Environmental issues and mitigation
 Lessons learnt from permitting, consent and implementation

PS 2: Best use of existing T&D cable systems


 Condition assessment and Diagnostic testing of cable systems
 Trends in monitoring cables and accessories
 Upgrading methodologies and related experiences
 Trends in maintenance strategies, remaining life and asset management

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PS 3: Insulated cables in the Network of the Future.


 New functionalities expected from cable systems
 Advances in modelling
 Innovative Cables, accessories and Systems
 Environmental challenges for future cable systems
 Higher voltage levels for AC and DC Cables
 Longer lengths for AC and DC Cables.

7 Administrative report
7.1 SC Meeting

Four WGs and four preparatory TFs finished their work. The WGs kept an editorial team to finalize
the documents to be published as Technical Brochure and Executive summary in Electra. The TFs
were disbanded during the SC meeting and the WGs will be disbanded as well after their report
is officially sent to the Central Office and their tutorial is sent to the TAG.

 WG B1.11 “Upgrading and uprating of existing cable systems (Disbanded)”


 WG B1.28 “On-site Partial Discharge Assessment of HV and EHV cable systems”
 JWG B1/B3.33 “Feasibility of a common, dry type interface for GIS and Power cables of 52 kV
and above”
 WG B1.40 “Off shore generation cable connections”

and

 TF B1.50 "SVL and bonding systems (design, testing, operation and monitoring)"
 TF B1.51 "Fire issues for cable installed in air"
 TF B1.52 "Fault location on land and submarine links (AC and DC)"
 TF B1.53 " Preventing installation related cables damages"

SC B1 launched three new Working Groups and one preparatory Task Force :

 WG B1.50 "SVL and bonding systems (design, testing, operation and monitoring)" (convener :
Tiebin Zhao from US)
 WG B1.51 "Fire issues for cable installed in air" (convener : Paolo Maioli from Italy)
 WG B1.52 "Fault location on land and submarine links (AC and DC)" (convener : Robert
Donaghy from Ireland)

and

 TF B1.54 "Behavior of cable systems under large disturbances (earthquake, storm, flood, fire,
landslide, climate change)" which term of office is 2015 (convener : Harry Orton from Canada).

By the end of 2014, SC B1 currently has four Advisory Groups, nineteen WGs, two JWGs and one
TF and participates in several WGs or JWGs led by other SCs and in one JTF with another
organization.

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7.2 TC Award

Johan Karlstrand from Sweden was honored with the CIGRE Technical Committee Award 2014 for
his contribution to the work of the Study Committee.

7.3 Web site

The new SC B1 web site is on line since June 15, 2005 (now http://b1.cigre.org). It offers an open
space to the public and private pages to SC Members. Each Working body has private pages where
documents can be exchanged among members. The increasing number of visits, over 1000 per
month, confirms that Internet is a very important tool for internal and external communication.
Following some issues reported by users, Improvements are scheduled by Central Office. For a
better efficiency, the SC B1 is looking for a new webmaster.

8 Technical report
8.1 Advisory Groups

Four Advisory Groups have been launched in 2011 by the incoming SC Chairman. Following the
Cigre rules, these advisory Groups will be disbanded at the next change of SC Chairman in 2016.

8.1.1 Strategic Advisory Group

Convener: Pierre Argaut (France)

A permanent Strategic Advisory Group (SAG) was set up in 2011 which terms of reference are to
assist the Chairman in the definition of the strategic directions that should be followed by SC B1.
The SAG is composed of a limited number of members: the Chairman, who will convene, the SC
Secretary, and a few other SC Members or experts, all chosen by the Chairman.
The Conveners of the other SC B1 Advisory Groups are permanent members of the SAG.
The SAG will consider, if needed, the setup of other specialized Advisory Groups.
The SAG will initiate, whenever appropriate, the setup of new TFs or WGs.
The SAG will meet at least once a year, but will communicate as required.

All the items discussed during the 2014 SAG meeting were covered in the 2014 SC B1 meeting
agenda.

8.1.2 Customer Advisory Group

Convener: Eugene Bergin (Ireland)

A permanent Customer Advisory Group was installed in 2011 in SC B1 with the Scope to implement
CIGRE TC’s suggestion that “Study Committees have to ensure that the needs of their Target
Groups are fulfilled.” The B1-CAG is the Reference Body within SC B1 to co-ordinate all activities
in this field. It works in close contact with the SC Chairman and the Strategic Advisory Group B1
(SAG) and involves all SC B1 members as contacts and interfaces to their national or local
customers.

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The Terms of Reference (ToR) of the B1-CAG are as follows:

1. Identification of Target Group

 systematically identify SC B1’s Target Groups in different countries


 listing of respective organizations, persons, social groups, etc.
 analyzing of organizational levels and hierarchies
 identifying of most important and influential addressees

2. Communication means with TGs

 develop systematic and effective concepts for active contacts and communication
 consider how to implement sustainable communication links to organizations and persons
 consider how to disseminate most effectively B1’s activities and outcomes to TGs
 propose appropriate presentations (Paris Session, Tutorials, Symposia, etc.) in
accordance with the TAG

3. Collection and mapping of TG’s needs

 identify problems and map systematically needs of TGs


 propose review/revision of current SC B1 activities with regard to needs of TGs

4. Collection and evaluation of feed-back from TGs

 collect and map the degree of TG’s satisfaction


 evaluate the findings and derive, if necessary, measures for improvements and new
actions
 identify opportunities to increase TG’s satisfaction
 coordinate activities at national level where appropriate

The mission of this Advisory Group is a difficult one as there is not a CAG in each SC and each of
them does not have the same target groups. Nevertheless, it is important to collect their needs and
to feed them back with our reports. The principle for their representation is to have one
representative per continent or sub-continent.
It is of evidence that a SC could not communicate directly to all the target groups and should
preferentially do it through the National SC members.

CAG has now completed the collation of SC B1 information published since 1968 (Technical
Brochures, Electra articles, Tutorials and Session Papers). Jicable papers officially produced by
CIGRE WGs are also included. The majority of these documents are already available on e-Cigre.
All the documents have been posted on the B1 Website : collation of SC B1 documents
(http://b1.cigre.org/Publications) and Jicable papers (http://b1.cigre.org/Publications/SC-Library).
The questionnaire circulated during the 2014 Session is available on the website:
http://b1.cigre.org/Events/Session. The replies to this questionnaire will be available on the
website after analysis.
A newsletter is also available on the SC B1 website : http://b1.cigre.org/What-is-SC-B1.

The CAG also :

 Prepares the Session Questionnaire and collates SC Members’ Annual Reports


 Discusses the above with SAG regarding future plans and inputs to existing WGs
 Feeds inputs to WGs

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 Ensures CAG is representative of continents and customers


 Participates and advises SC about TG’s concerns.

Individual SC Members shall be responsible for identifying and communicating with the individual
Target Groups in their country.

8.1.3 Tutorial and Publication Advisory Group

Convener: Wim Boone (Netherlands)

Johan Karlstrand (Sweden), the convener of this Advisory Group has to retire in 2014. He was
granted the TC Award 2014 for the excellent work in achieving especially the tasks of TAG. He has
been replaced by Wim Boone (Netherlands).

A permanent Tutorial and Publication Advisory Group was installed in 2011 in SC B1 with the Scope
to implement CIGRE TC’s suggestion that “Study Committees have to deal with education,
continuous training, tutorials and publications”. The B1-TAG is the working body within SC B1 to
co-ordinate all activities in this field. It works in close contact with the EPEE, the SC Chairman, the
Strategic Advisory Group B1-SAG and the Customer Advisory Group B1-CAG. It involves all SC
B1 Members and Conveners as contacts.

The Terms of Reference (ToR) of the B1-TAG are as follows:

1. Identification of the potential groups interested in education, continuous training, tutorials or


technical presentations

 identify SC B1’s Tutorial Target Groups in different countries,


 listing of respective organizations: students, young or older engineers, universities, etc…,
 identification of the respective expected topics to be taught and training levels,
 identification of other learned societies, IEE, IEEE, …

2. Identification of the means to disseminate the SC B1 knowledge

 prepare the structure of appropriate presentations (Paris Session, Tutorials, Symposia,


events organized by other learned societies, etc.) in accordance with the CAG

3. Checking of final reports before submission to SC Chairman for approval

 reading of documents,
 opinion to the Convener,
 proposal of editorial comments, rewording of sentences

4. Collection of SC presentations with the following goals:

 establish an education and training procedure


 prepare a standard presentation (template),
 issue the official Tutorial starting from a deliverable produced by each WG :or more
generally each SC working body which will prepare a full presentation (up to 30 slides),
 prepare a synthetic presentation (up to 4 slides) to introduce each tutorial

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5. Coordination of activities with EPEE and with other SCs

6. Participation in the validation of the documents before publication

To compensate the lack of expertise, one solution is to propose technical education and training
through tutorials that could be addressed from basic to advanced experts, from students and
teachers to managers and public.
The TAG offers a common tutorial structure that could be easily managed according to the “depth”
needed by the public.
Each WG has in its terms of reference the production of a tutorial as deliverable. For the past WGs,
some SC B1 experts are preparing the relevant tutorials when necessary, and update past tutorials
similarly.

By the end of 2014, the list of validated tutorials is:

 Thermal Environment of Underground Links


 Thermal Monitoring of Underground Cables
 Dynamic Rating of Underground Cables
 Environmental Impact Assessment
 Technical and Environmental Issues regarding the integration of a new cable system in the
Network
 Special Bonding of High Voltage Power Cables
 Large Cross-sections design
 Composite Screens design
 Maintenance for HV Cables and Accessories
 Accessories for HV / EHV Extruded Cables
 Earth Potential Rises
 Lightning Impulse Transients on Long Cables
 Statistics of AC underground cables in power networks
 Up-Dating of Service Experience of HV Underground and Submarine Cable Systems
 Remaining Life Management and Replacement Program for HV Cables
 Test procedures for HV transition joints
 Third Party Damage
 Advanced Design of Metal laminated Coverings
 Construction, laying and installation techniques for cable systems
 Cable Accessory Workmanship
 Recommendations for testing of long AC submarine cables for extruded insulation for
system voltage above 30 (36) to 500 (550) kV
 Recommendations for testing DC extruded cable systems for power transmission at a rated
voltage up to 500 kV
 Mitigation Techniques of Power Frequency Magnetic Fields Originated from Electric Power
Systems
 Cable systems electrical characteristics
 Recommendations for Testing of Superconducting Cables
 On site PD Assessments
 Impact of EMF on Current ratings and Cable systems
 Guidelines for maintaining the integrity of XLPE cable accessories

There is no direct access to tutorials on the website for the moment. The TAG convener may
distribute tutorials only if:
 The copyright is clearly mentioned,
 There is no commercialism around,
 There is no major change from anybody from the Group to the Tutorial except the first page
(Date, location of use),
 TAG is informed about the use of the tutorial: Date, location, audience.

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Tutorials to come:

 Upgrading and uprating of existing cable systems


 Feasibility of a common, dry type interface for GIS and power cables of 52kV and above
 Off shore generating cable connections (final approval process)
 Testing of transition joints between HVDC cables with lapped and with extruded insulation
up to 500 kV (final approval process)
 Recommendations for mechanical testing of submarine cables (awaiting TB approval)

The next targets are:

 Cables for the future


 Submarine cables. This tutorial will not deal with critical points which could be part of
manufacturers Know How
 History of cable industry

The total number of events since 2006 up to December 2014 has been 34. 4 tutorials (4 events)
have been presented in 2014:

 January - New Delhi (India) – One tutorial


 May - Kansas City (US) – One tutorial
 May – Trondheim (Norway) – One tutorial
 December – Vienna (Austria) – One tutorial

8.1.4 Prospective Advisory Group

Convener: Marco Marelli (Italy)

A permanent Prospective Advisory Group was installed in 2011 in SC B1 with the Scope to pay
attention at the earliest stage to any change related to the Power Networks of the Future, which
may have consequences in the domain of Power Cables.
In particular,
 New enabling technologies to explore
 New strategic orientations
 New needs for standardization
will be considered.

PAG will have a long term view, as compared to CAG which is working on short term needs from
Target Groups. This will be done by:
 Detecting in TOR of WB of other SCs of CIGRE any future involvement of SC B1
 Detecting in Publications, Call for papers, Proceedings of workshops and Colloquia
organized in the EPI any items that could affect the steering of SC B1
 Informing CAG in order to obtain more formal information to confirm the collected
information
 Preparing SC B1 to face new challenges (resources recruiting, planning, installation of
preliminary TF, preparation of special reports in CIGRE Sessions, …).

Based on the work done at the early stages by PAG, it was considered necessary to redefine the
main missions of PAG as follows:
 To analyze the work done outside the enlarged CIGRE community, and relevant to cable
systems. This external view would include institutions, interest groups, existing
standardization bodies without established relations with CIGRE, new standardization
bodies (or “new for cable industry”)
 Through above analysis, to detect the activities that could affect the steering of SC B1

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 To inform CAG in order to obtain more formal information to confirm the collected
information
 To prepare SC B1 to face new challenges (resources recruiting, planning, installation of
preliminary TF; preparation of special reports in CIGRE Sessions…).

Within this frame, five sub-Groups have been established:

 sG1: Wind Energy


 sG2: Solar Energy
 sG3: Interconnectors
 sG4: Wave and Tidal Energy
 sG5: New ideas for Power Transmission

Sub-Groups will analyze the available information, will select the information that are relevant to
the cable industry and will report them in a “deliverable” that primarily consists in a report to be
prepared annually and sent to SAG.
There is clearly a need to involve experts from Universities, as they are believed to play an
important role in the observation and in the guidance of the evolution of the transmission systems.

8.2 Working Groups

8.2.1 WG B1.11 Upgrading and Uprating of Underground Cable Systems

Convener: Frederic Lesur (France)

WG B1.11 was set up in 2004 and was due to present its final report in 2007.

After publication on eCigre in January 2015 (Electra 279 – TB 606), the WG was officially
disbanded.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

 To review the literature on similar subjects (IEC, CIGRE, IEEE publication),


 To establish the appropriate terminology,
 To inventory the possible technical solutions for increasing the transmitted power in an
existing cable system, or extending the life duration of the cable system
 To gather available utility experience in such cases,
 To list the technical and environmental issues to be addressed in such cases,
 To propose a step by step approach.

Scope of work :

 AC and DC cables
 Extruded and lapped cables
 Land and submarine cables
 Cooling systems.

The study will be limited cable systems seen as a whole, not considering the components
themselves.

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8.2.2 WG B1.28 On-site Partial Discharge Assessment of HV and EHV cable systems

Convener: Mark Fenger (Canada)

WG B1.28 was set up in 2008 and was due to present its final report in 2011. Following a change
of Convener, two additional years were agreed

The last comments from the SC has been received. The final document is under review by the
Strategic Advisory Group and will be sent very soon to the Central Office. The final report will be
delivered in 2015.

Terms of Reference:

The work should be limited to HV and EHV extruded AC cables, but addressing both commissioning
and diagnostic testing,

The WG shall:

 collect experience with PD testing, with respect to methods/equipment and results


 evaluate the added value of the PD testing at site for commissioning and diagnostic
testing
 evaluate the applied technology, taking into account what previous CIGRE and ICC WG’s
have done so far
 recommend the protocol, to validate the on-site measurement results (calibration,
sensitivity assessment)
 recommend guidelines for PD test procedures at site (voltage level, measuring time,
measuring conditions
 identify widely acceptable requirements for commissioning and diagnostic testing. .

8.2.3 JWG B1/B3.33 Feasibility of a common, dry type interface for GIS and Power
cables of 52 kV and above

Convener: Pierre Mirebeau (France)

JWG B1/B3.33 was set up in 2010 and was due to present its final report in 2013.

The Technical Brochure has been published on eCigre in January 2015 (Electra 279 – TB 605).
The WG will be officially disbanded after the tutorial has been be sent to the TAG.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

The scope shall be limited to GIS connections for extruded cable systems for AC of 52 kV and
above

The JWG shall:

 Examine the conditions around the switchgear and the installations issues, including
supporting system (also called site issues)
 Consider the impact of large cross sections
 Consider safety during works

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

 Consider the testing procedures for GIS/ Terminations and cables at factory and on site
(overlapping or missing items).
 Propose measures to reduce the potential consequences of the GIS insulation failure.
 Propose measures to reduce the potential consequences of the cable termination
insulation failure
 Review the existing standards ruling the qualifications and extension of qualification
procedures applicable to GIS terminations.
 Define the relevant qualification procedures needed if any.
 Identify the limit of suppliers’ responsibility to be considered
 Estimate the overall technical and practical feasibility of the common design definition
and qualification, insulator manufacturers' qualification and the cable manufacturers'
qualification and the cost involved.
 Once the feasibility window has been determined, survey the market (manufacturers and
end users)
 Recommend or not to go to a second step with the launching of a new WG B1.XX to go
in detail in the design of the standard components (shape, dimensions, properties, ...)
 Develop recommendations to IEC SC 17C for requirements to be covered by the
standard

8.2.4 WG B1.34 Mechanical forces in large cross section cable systems

Convener: Johannes Kaumanns (Germany)

WG B1.34 was set up in 2010 and was due to present its final report in 2013.

There are no special “bad” experiences with “large conductors”, but the trend is going to larger and
larger cross sections. It was identified through SC B1 target groups that a technical guide could
reduce risk of poor design and installation.

A draft document is presently available. Each section of this report describes the individual
complexity, explains the background and gives a guidance how to handle the individual topics. The
state of art design rules are given and examples for installation with good experiences related to
thermo-mechanical issues are shown.
The general basics of the design principles in the CIGRE TB 194 are followed, but a deeper
background is given in the draft of the brochure. Where ever needed, deviation to the CIGRE TB
194 is explained as most of the experiences was formerly based on paper isolated cable systems,
which may behave differently from XLPE isolated cable systems.
Overall, this brochure is a guidance how to handle this topic and gives a broad overview of the best
practices around the world.

The final report is expected for the end of 2015.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

The WG should identify the forces that interact with the cable system, the internal design of the
cable or the accessories being out of the scope. The interaction with all types of joints should be
addressed, including transition joints.

The work will be limited to polymeric cables, but should study all types of sheaths and the different
installation arrangement such as rigid, flexible, transition from ducts to rigid installations, installation
in tunnels, …

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The WG should address:

 Develop recommendations to IEC SC 17C for requirements to be covered by the standard,


 short circuit forces,
 those derived from temperature
 cables in vertical laying

8.2.5 WG B1.35 Guide for rating calculations of HV cables

Convener: Frank De Wild (Netherlands)

WG B1.35 was set up in 2010 and was due to present its final report in 2013.

Cable ratings are generally determined by using IEC standards such as IEC 60287 and IEC 60853,
but these documents do not cover all situations. As examples, HVDC cables, deep burial, horizontal
drilling, multiple circuits are presently not included in these standards though these situations are
more and more faced. Then, it is clear that in accordance with IEC TC 20, CIGRE SC B1 should
address missing calculations and send the results to IEC for further consideration.

The final report has received the comments of the SC B1 members and is presently being
finalized.

The main recommendations of the WG towards are as follows.

Information on how to improve the definition of starting points can be found in this document, but
the WG also identified that an overall document on practical ways to determine the thermal
resistivity of soils (which strongly vary in multiple aspects over the world) or the dry out behavior
of soils is currently not available in international literature. The WG recommends CIGRE SC B1 to
consider drafting such an overall document.

The calculation methods presented in this TB cover the vast majority of cables and installation
methods, and provide a constructive procedure towards an answer. But it is not possible to
provide a detailed method in every situation. Sometimes, there is simply too little international
experience available to come to a good solution. In those cases, the WG has provided more
abstract guidance and hints on the way to come to a proper calculation as much as possible.

But, in some situations, it is believed that there is an important need to develop better calculation
methods. Experts are encouraged to publish their methods regarding those situations in
international literature, so that in some years from now, the cable community can come to more
precise calculations. The following situations are believed to be calling more strongly for the
attention of experts, although this TB contains significant wording on each of them: HVDC cables,
corrugated sheaths, armor losses of three core submarine cables, current rating of
joints/terminations, cables in inclined water filled ducts, dry out of multiple cable circuits, analytical
solutions to different cables in tunnels. As it is rather difficult to verify calculations of calculation
tools, especially when these tools provide transient or dynamic ratings, or real life situations
which are not precisely covered by IEC, the WG considers helping the cable community by
setting up a uniform calculation verification protocol, which can be used to ensure a correctly
working software within a certain (limited) domain.

The final report ready for publication is expected for June 2015.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

 To collect experiences and information from different countries


 To assess and interpret the results from the inquiries and to make conclusions and
recommendations on how to make a cable rating study
 To set up a general framework to guide the user to calculate the current rating of a cable
circuit in any situation
 To report potential difficulties and problems with the methods, as well as to report recent
developments in the methods.

Scope:

All AC and DC cables with emphasis on HV and EHV cables, when possible extended to MV as
well.

The WG will also take into account:

 the crossings between cables and other heat sources


 the temporary ratings

8.2.6 WG B1.36 Life cycle assessment and environmental impact of underground


cable systems

Convener: Aude Laurens (France)

WG B1.36 was set up in 2011 and is due to present its final report in 2014.

Different HV cable types as well as their associated civil works and installation techniques do not
impact the environment in the same way. In order to minimize such impact, it is important to develop
the necessary tools that would enable the engineers and the decision makers to compare the
Global Environmental Impact of different HV underground cable systems over their life cycle. A few
methods have been devised by electric utilities, particularly in Scandinavian countries and Japan,
to assess the environmental impact of underground HV systems over their life cycle.

Studies, publications, existing methodologies and tools to evaluate the environmental impact of HV
underground cable have already been gathered and analysed.
In order to
 test the existing methodologies and evaluate their relevance,
 help identify the main impacts and opportunities to reduce them,
 help write relevant recommendations on how to perform LCA for cables,
one case study (LCA of HV underground cables) has been done with different sofwares.
A questionnaire has been elaborated in order to collect the necessary data to establish hypothesis
for a case study (type of cable used, type of installation, load profile, maintenance…). It will be
integrated to the technical brochure in order to guide anyone who wants to undertake a life cycle
assessment of underground cable.

Finally, the progress is good but the writing of the report will require an additional year.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

 To analyze methodology and existing tools and to ascertain their range of application for
HV underground cable systems
 To develop methodologies as appropriate for life cycle assessment of underground HV
cable systems
 To provide a picture of the interaction of an underground HV cable system with the
environment
 To provide the engineers and the decision makers with information which identifies
opportunities for reducing the Global Environmental Impact of underground HV systems.

The WG will not cover environmental or biological effects of EMF associated with underground HV
cable systems.

Scope of work:

The work shall focus on HV, AC and DC underground land cable systems utilizing lapped and
extruded dielectric insulation.

8.2.7 WG B1.37 Guide operation of fluid filled cable systems

Convener: Colin Peacock (Australia)

WG B1.37 was set up in 2010 and is due to present its final report in 2014.

The paper cables are very reliable and should continue their service as long as possible. The
present risk is to see the cable suppliers leaving the field, without anybody able to repair the existing
cable circuits.

The technical aspects of the brochure include:

 recommended maintenance,
 testing (routine and before/after repair),
 fault repairs,
 refurbishment and modifications for continued an improved performance,
 operational availability and constraints,
 oil system capacity reviews,
 fluid monitoring and analysis,
 leak location techniques,
 life and length extension strategies,
 cable and accessories suppliers and if time permits: extension of service life, extension
strategies including use of transition joints.

The report is nearly completed and the final report for publication is therefore expected for the
end of 2015.

Scope of work:

The scope will exclude pipe type cables. It will cover AC and DC land and submarine cables which
have in principle the same problems. The voltage range is from EHV to distribution levels.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

 To establish the appropriate terminology


 To collect information and experience on the operation of fluid filled cable systems, using
a questionnaire developed by the WG. The WG should consider refurbishment strategies
for the continued operation of self-contained fluid filled cable systems.
 To collate, summarize and review the information
 To produce a working group report as a brochure recommending guidelines on the best
practices for the continued operation of self-contained fluid filled cable systems. The WG
will address the technical aspects on the continued operation of these cables such as:
recommended maintenance, testing (routine and after repair), refurbishment and
modifications for improved performance, operational availability and constraints, fault
repairs, oil system capacity reviews, fluid monitoring and analysis, leak location
techniques and a cable and accessories suppliers list.

Some items were raised such as: extension of service life, extension strategies including use of
transition joints, cable cooling systems, but they will be addressed only if the WG has time. If not,
a new WG will be necessary.

8.2.8 WG B1.38 After laying tests on AC and DC cable systems with new techniques

Convener: Mark Fenger (Canada)

WG B1.38 was set up in 2011 and is due to present its final report in 2014.

Extruded (XLPE) insulation is rapidly becoming the insulation of choice in both new and
replacement transmission class cable circuits. While the cable and accessories are tested in the
factory, the workmanship to install the accessories can only be tested after the installation has been
completed and before the cable system is put into service. As DC testing, commonly used for FF
cables, is not applicable for XLPE cables for AC transmission systems, attention has to be focussed
on AC testing methods. The testing of DC cable systems will also be addressed. In the past test
equipment capable of testing long lengths of cables were not available so that a soak test at
operating voltage for 24 hours was carried out by connecting the cable to the power system. In the
last ten years different power sources have been developed that have the power rating to test long
cable lengths. These include AC resonant power supplies, damped AC (DAC) and, more recently,
very low frequency (VLF). In addition, there have been significant improvements in diagnostic tools
such as off-line PD and dissipation factor measurement to assess the condition of a cable system.
However, as there are presently only withstand test levels given in IEC 60840 and 62067 for AC
resonant test voltages, there is a need to establish test voltage levels for other voltage sources and
also establish suitable diagnostic tests.

The main tasks of the WG have been divided into three separate TFs :
 “Industry Survey” : to develop and distribute a survey to utilities and industry for existing
practices, experiences and, most importantly, outcomes with field-testing of HV & EHV
cable systems.
 “Equipment Survey” : to develop and distribute a survey for existing and upcoming
equipment for field-testing of cables.
 “Existing Standards & Knowledge” : to identify knowledge gabs with respect to various test
methodologies and their impact on cable insulation systems.

The progress is good but due to the finalization of the Technical Brochure of WG B1.28 (same
convener), this WG started with a delay of one year and the final report is only expected for June
2016.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

The WG will:

 Examine the present status, including limitations, of available voltage sources capable of
testing HV and EHV AC and DC transmission cable systems.
 Investigate the practical implications, risks and test burden related to the different test
methods.
 Examine the technical considerations involved to establish test parameters for AC and DC
cable systems such as voltage levels, test durations (number of shots for damped AC) and
frequency ranges for the different voltage sources
 Recommend what work needs to be done to establish these parameters if the technical
background is not available
 If the technical data are available, test parameters will be discussed and recommended for
use
 Address the merits of different diagnostic tests.

8.2.9 WG B1.39 On shore generation cable connections

Convener: Olivier Moreau (France)

WG B1.39 was set up in 2011 and is due to present its final report in 2014.

Today a lot of onshore generation plants have been built or are under construction being connected
through underground cables and even more are already planned. The power ranges is from tens
of MW for small solar or wind farms up to two thousands of MVA for huge nuclear power plants.
There is already a lot of experience about cables installed on the transmission network, but there
far less when considering generation connections.
As the way to operate cable systems in case of on shore generation connections is different from
the links on the grid, a full WG is needed to address the potential gaps in standards.

A more comprehensive approach is needed for the WG and inputs from other Study Committees
of CIGRE are absolutely necessary. The scope of work and, therefore, the ToR should be reviewed.
A new JWG has to be launched and SC B1 will contact other SCs to address this issue.

Terms of Reference to be adapted:

The WG should address :

 Export cables, inter array cables and interconnections


 HV but also MV and even LV AC cables should be addressed as long as they are part of
the connection scheme,
 HVDC export cables.
 The cable thermo-mechanical behaviour under normal operation taking into account
specific load conditions associated with the different types of generation that can be
connected., overload such as during cooling fault, and short circuit,
 The thermo-mechanical behaviour at the interface between cable and accessories in the
different configurations, GIS, transformer terminations under vibration, in flexible and rigid
installation
 The possible need to qualify the cable system under reactive power
 The cable system stresses under grid fault
 The need to change voltage test values to reach the expected availability by generation
companies

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

 The typical load conditions associated with the different types of generation to be
connected
o need to use specific load cycles for qualification and/or testing process(es),
o need to determine typical load factors F to optimise cable ratings
 The preferred installation methods taking into account power ratings, availability and all
kind of maintenance.

8.2.10 WG B1.40 Off shore generation cable connections

Convener: Christian Jensen (Denmark)

WG B1.40 was set up in 2011 and wass due to present its final report in 2014. This was done in
due time and the report has been now published and is available on ecigre under Technical
Brochure 610.

Today a lot of offshore wind farms have been built or are under construction - and even more farms
are already planned. Wind farms have got the main focus, but also cable connections to other types
of offshore generations will come. So at this moment there are already gathered a lot of experiences
about the cables for grid connection, and a lot of that experience could in a Cigre Brochure be
shared to the common benefit of the entire industry.

For a good part of the offshore project the companies responsible for the grid connection (TSOs,
turnkey park builders, etc.) are first time buyers and do not have experience in purchasing
submarine cable, let alone submarine cables for offshore generation, and some guidance should
therefore be appreciated.
Also for the manufacturers mistakes could be avoided with a common knowledge base, and the
benefit of having a well-informed customer is always evident.

There is a need for guidance for asset owners, TSOs, turnkey park builders, cable manufacturers
etc. about relevant studies and surveys to get permission from the authorities, the choices between
technological solutions, the cable design and installation methods for cable connections to offshore
generations.

The final report has been finalized and will be published very soon.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

To give guidance to asset owners, TSOs, turnkey park builders, cable manufacturers etc. for:
 relevant studies and surveys to get permission from the authorities,
 the choices between technological solutions,
 the cable design,
 the installation methods for cable connections to offshore generations.

Scope:

All topics shall be treated so the document can be a comprehensive guide to cables for offshore
generation and interconnection. A lot of subject can be covered by references to other works, but
shall be mentioned, given the very different nature of the readers.
 Initial studies for permission, choice of technology, submarine cable characteristics, cable
rating, installation, service and maintenance.
 Export cables, inter array cables and interconnections
 Medium and high voltage AC cables
 HVDC cables for export cables.
 Dynamic cables for floating generation or platforms shall be mentioned.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

8.2.11 WG B1.41 Issues regarding soil thermal characteristics

Convener: Walter Zenger (United States)

WG B1.41 was set up in 2012 and is due to present its final report in 2015.

Existing and up-rated cable systems are loaded increasingly higher. This can be driven particularly
by real time rating systems and by re-conductored systems with new high stress dielectrics
permitting larger conductor sizes within the same duct or pipe. In all cases the higher loads result
in higher operating temperatures for the backfill even if the rated operating temperatures remain
the same. The higher loads will increase the cable / duct to soil interface temperatures that will
impact the external thermal environment of the backfill and native soil. Depending on the aged
backfill and soil condition, this can severely limit the potential capability of the technological
advances.

Many of the existing circuits have been in service for 40 or more years when engineered backfills
were in their infancy. Limited knowledge is available of past backfill design and how it will change
over time. Recent work showed that properties have changed, such as degree of compaction and
stratification of backfill components. Reason for the changed physical backfill conditions could be
road vibration, ground water movement or settling.
Of particular interest is how high load conditions, change in physical properties and environmental
changes will impact aged backfill and soil conditions.
Collaboration with IEEE / ICC would be possible to develop a better critical temperature gradient
test.

The WG has decided to limit the scope for submarine cable installations to beach crossings and
cable landings as well general terms as environment of individual submarine cable routes is very
site specific and fully evaluated with individual surveys.
Very little data or reports are available on specific subject of aging/change over time of soils and
backfill. Review of methods to measure thermal, mechanical and chemical soil/backfill properties
and stability is largely completed. Review of methods to measure the aging and long-term stability
of soil and backfill properties is in progress.

The convener reported that the progress is good.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

 To review the literature (experience, history) on the subject


 To establish the appropriate terminology and characterization parameters.
 To review methods to measure the thermal, mechanical and chemical soil / backfill
properties and stability.
 To review methods to measure the aging and long-term stability of soil and backfill
properties over system life
 To review technical methods how to mitigate deterioration of soil and backfill
conditions including moisture depletion by vegetation or other utilities
 To evaluate the consequences, if no action is taken, such as loss of ampacity,
including cost and overheating of the cable system.
 To integrate the information in a practical users guide.
 To apply to extruded, paper, and paper-laminate cable systems
 To apply to HV AC and DC land cable systems including direct buried, direct buried
ducts or pipe, duct bank / manhole systems, and Horizontal Directional Drill (HDD)
installations
 To apply to HV AC and DC submarine cable systems including ploughing, jetting,
trenching and HDD installations

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

 To apply to MV AC cable systems of high importance

8.2.12 WG B1.42 Testing of Transition Joints between HVDC Cables with Lapped
and Extruded Insulation up to 500 kV

Convener: Gunnar Evenset (Norway)

WG B1.42 was set up in 2012 and was due to present its final report in 2014. The report is at its
final stage after review by SAG and will be available on ecigre in April 2015.

Although the extruded HVDC cable technology is developing very fast, lapped HVDC cables will
still be on the market for many years. There are projects that consider mass-impregnated cables
for the submarine part of the route and extruded cables for the land part of the route. There is a
need to define test specifications for how to qualify transition joints between these two technologies .

The main issues of the report are:


 How to type test transition joints between cables with very different maximum conductor
temperature
 Harmonization of test voltage levels
 Type test for lapped cables
o Load cycling one polarity: 1.8 Uo
o Load cycling polarity reversals: 1.4 Uo
Type test for extruded cables
o Load cycling one polarity: 1.85 Uo
o Load cycling polarity reversals: 1.45 Uo
 Minimum requirements based on 1.8/1.4 Uo as for lapped cables
 Definition of requirements for type test
 Complicated to have 4 thermal requirements to be fulfilled in one test loop
 Recommendation to type test the transition joint at the maximum conductor temperature
for the cable with the lowest Tcmax, and at ΔTmax
 Prequalification test of transition joint according to requirements in TB 496
 Recommendation to perform prequalification test of the transition joint at Tcmax and at
ΔTmax on the extruded side of the joint
 If the temperature cannot be reached due to limitations on the lapped cable  thermal
conditions as in expected thermal conditions

The final report has been finalized and the publication is therefore expected for April 2015.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

 Review relevant test recommendations for testing of HVDC cables


 Review relevant test recommendations for testing of transition joints for AC cables
 Prepare a Technical Brochure on testing of transition joints between lapped and
 extruded HVDC cable

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8.2.13 WG B1.43 Recommendations for mechanical testing of submarine cables

Convener: Marc Jeroense (Sweden)

WG B1.43 was set up in 2011 and was due to present its final report in 2014. The report is now
being circulated among SCB1 to receive comments from SCB1 members.

Update of mechanical tests for submarine cables is needed since submarine cable installations are
growing for higher powers and new applications (wind farm connections, dynamic power cables
and deeper sea installations etc.).

The existing recommendation from 1997 (Electra 171) needs to be updated in the light of the
experience gained during the last 15 years.

The group has been working with 4 Work Packages (WP):

 WP 1: Review cable installation and protection methods. Assess risk of damage during and
after installation.
 WP 2: Examine relevant standards. Including review relevant (parts of) umbilical standards.
 WP 3: Review of calculation means. Evaluation and comparison with current Electra 171
method.
 WP 4: To ensure that all possible damage situations (during laying, operation and recovery)
have been covered and will result in a possible test in the TB.

WP1, 2 and 4 have been finalized and closed.

The report for circulation among SC members has been sent and the final report is expected at the
end of 2015.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

 Cover both impregnated paper cables and extruded cables (AC and DC) including a review
of cable installation methods and cable protection for submarine cables
 Examination of relevant IEC standards, CIGRE recommendations and standards from the
offshore industry (e.g. umbilical testing)
 Assess the risk for mechanical damage during installation and cable protection
 Assess the risk for mechanical damage after installation (anchoring, drag-net fishing, pile
driving)
 Calculation of tensile tests to be updated and a more detailed background to be described
to the selected factors (security factors and torsion as well as dynamic forces)
 Propose test methods to cover:
 Dynamic cable system installations
 Very deep sea installations (including extruded cables)
 Impact tests
 Consider the heat cycling influence on the metallic sheath and evaluate possible test
methods
 Update/introduce mechanical tests for rigid joint
 Consider tests with for free-spans, strumming
 Consider tests for the cable interaction with e.g. J-tubes, bend restrictors etc.
The WG should not consider umbilicals in general but follow the development of umbilical power
cables.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

8.2.14 WG B1.44 Work under Induced Voltages and Induced Currents + Link Boxes

Convener: Caroline Bradley (United Kingdom)

WG B1.44 was set up in 2012 and is due to present its final report in 2015.

During several phases of a cable system life


(installation/maintenance/testing/upgrading/removal), it can be necessary to work under induced
voltages or induced currents:

 During the pulling or the laying of a cable in the vicinity of an energized system:
underground cable or overhead line
 During the jointing operations in the installation process
 When checking maintaining link boxes
 During the repair of the cable after fault
 When removing the cable for disposal at the end of its life.

As hazardous conditions could occur, it is important to provide Target Groups (utilities,


manufacturers,…) with guidelines for safe work on cable systems.
The progress is good and an outline of the TB has been produced with chapters and sections
identified. It was agreed that EMFs would be out of the scope of this TB as it is a topic in itself.

As the WG began work with a delay of one year, an extension to 2016 have been requested and
accepted by the SC.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference :

The WG should address :


 Extruded or lapped cable systems
 HV but also MV and even LV AC when they are part of the connection scheme,
 Permanent or fault conditions (Cable system stresses under grid fault)
 Methods to calculate induced voltages and/or currents in various possible configurations
 (including EMF or Magnetic effect from cables installed in the vicinity)
 Protecting equipments (gloves, earthing systems....)
 Jointing, Terminating and work on Link Boxes.

8.2.15 WG B1.45 Thermal monitoring of cable circuits and grid operators’ use of
dynamic rating systems

Convener: Blandine Hennuy (Belgium)

WG B1.45 was set up in 2013 and is due to present its final report in 2016.

Nowadays, due to a more variable situation and increasing loads in the power grids, a dynamic
rating system and other measurement values aid the asset manager in making optimal decisions
in planning investments in the High Voltage grid. Based on measurement a grid operator can on
the one hand decide if a hotspot in network should be taken away to increase the capacity or if the
hotspot should be managed with the dynamic rating system and on the other hand will know the
load and overload possibilities in real time and for the coming hours.

The progress is good.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

Two questionnaires have been issued: one for the users and one for the manufacturers.
It was agreed that retrofit has to be included.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

 To review the literature (experience, history) on the subject


 To establish the appropriate terminology and characterization parameters
 To collect the present experience with thermal measurements on cable systems by
means of a questionnaire
 To define the needs of the grid operator
 To determine which data should be collected in order to assess the transmission capacity
of the link
 To collect information about the technology
 To examine the points of attention during installation
 To describe the necessary maintenance operations and the time intervals between those
operations
 The WG will take into account system complexity, effectiveness, ease of operation,
maintenance, history, experience of workers, practicality of retrofitting (if required) to
existing circuits and cost.
 The following assets will be managed: EHV, HV and MV cable systems,
Underground and submarine cable systems and HVDC cable systems
 The following points are considered as out of the scope: Integration with a temperature
monitoring system of overhead lines, Systems that do not involve temperature
measurements, Type, sample and routine tests of the systems and thermal model of the
cable system

8.2.16 WG B1.46 Conductor Connectors: Mechanical and Electrical Tests

Convener: Milan Uzelac (United States)

WG B1.46 was set up in 2013 and is due to present its final report in 2016.

Current IEC 61238-1 standard applies to connectors for medium voltage cables. There is no IEC
standard for connectors for HV cables. The procedures from IEC 61238-1 along with manufacturer
and user specifications have been used to type test HV cable connectors. The thermal, mechanical
and resistance stability tests specified in current standard are applicable to HV but some
requirements are specific to high voltage applications. These include dimensional and functional
requirements of connectors within HV cable accessories, typically larger cable sizes, versatility of
the conductor constructions as well as different circuit load patterns, short circuit levels and
mechanical stresses due to tensile and thrust loads.

The IEC WG16 of the TC20 commenced work on revision of current IEC61238-1 standard. During
this work, some members of WG16, expressed interest that the scope of this standard is extended
to high voltage cable application. The TF in charge of the revision believes this work needs to be
done by a dedicated group of high voltage experts.

At the Study Committee B1 meeting held in Paris on August 28 and 29 2012 it was agreed that a
task force be established to consider if further guidance was needed on the testing of connectors
for HV cable accessories. It was also decided during the meeting that the topics should be
expended to cover mechanical loads (not only thermal), to include all connectors (mechanical and
other types) and to include termination and joints connectors.

The progress is good and the convener confirmed that the impact of the moving of the different
water-blocked types has been considered.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

 To review
o The range and types of connectors currently available.
o Existing international standards and the extent to which they cover the testing of
connectors.
o Any work been done by CIGRE, CIRED, JICABLE…
o Extent of service experience so far for different connector types.
o Customer needs.
 To analyse
o Operation on high loaded systems where conductors are approaching or
temporarily exceeding maximum conductor operating temperature.
o Thermo-mechanical performance of connectors under cycling loads.
o Performance of connectors in short circuit conditions, taking into account thermal
and dynamic forces and actual network ratings.
o Performance of connectors installed in cable joints and terminations

 To propose thermal and mechanical test regimes for connectors for HV and EHV cables
with special attention be given to connectors for large size cables.
o Type, routine and sample tests including mechanical, cycling and resistance
stability tests.
o Consider practicality of the short circuit test for large-size conductors and test
loop arrangement.
o WG should be free to consider mechanical tests (e.g. tensile, thrust forces…) in
order to evaluate mechanical strength of connection and physical properties of
connector itself.
o WG should be free to consider separate or integral test sequences combining
mechanical, cycling, short-circuit and resistance stability (assessment) acting on
the same samples.
o Extent of connector type test experience so far (for different connector types).
o Evaluate necessity of performing type tests on connectors that already
successfully passed qualification tests per IEC 60840.
o WG should consider range of type test approval
 The WG should consider the tests that reflect mutual impact between connectors, cable
conductors and accessories.
 The conductor connectors for HV and EHV applications are to be considered. The WG
will make recommendation to include or not connectors for MV applications.

8.2.17 WG B1.47 Implementation of Long AC HV & EHV Cable Systems

Convener: Ken Barber (Australia)

WG B1.47 was set up in 2013 and is due to present its final report in 2016.

The power transmission network has been developed during the last decades based on the use of
overhead lines. EHV underground cables systems have been available since a long time, but their
development has been limited by large capacitance and dielectric losses as well as relatively low
current rating compared to OHL. However with the use of new materials and processing technology
the situation has changed significantly, so that the constraints on maximum length and power
transfer have been largely overcome.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

The difficulties in installing new overhead lines are making it essential to consider the use of longer
underground cables links, as demonstrated by the increasing number of long underground projects.
There are still however technical challenges to consider whilst planning new cable installations.
The most sensitive topics are those concerning reliability, impact on the transmission grid and
installation.

The WG proposes the following definition of long length of HVAC cables for this topic:

“A long length of insulated cable is one where the load due to the capacitive current (at power
frequencies cables behave as capacitors therefore they generate reactive power) needs to be
taken into account in the system design. Typically this would be 40 km for voltages less than 220
kV and 20 km for 220 kV or greater”.

The progress is good and the final report is expected for June 2016.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

The aim of the new WG is to create a Technical Brochure which covers the practical issues relating
to system design, installation and monitoring of long HVAC cables. A particular focus will be made
on:
 Current state development (SCFF cable vs. XLPE cable, Surge arrestors, Reactive
compensation)
 Challenges for implementation (Matching power rating by hybrid circuits, controlling EMF)
 System design (Amount of reactive compensation, Losses, Sheath bonding for long
length)
 Installation (Construction, Horizontal directional Drilling, Right of Way)
 Monitoring (Temperature monitoring, control of route condition)
 Maintenance (Fault location, access to route information)
 Practical experience (Table of significant projects).

8.2.18 WG B1.48 Trenchless Technologies

Convener: Eugene Bergin (Ireland)

WG B1.48 was set up in 2013 and is due to present its final report in 2016.

In October 2001 Technical Brochure 194 was published, describing “Construction, laying and
installation techniques for extruded and self-contained fluid filled cable systems”. The Technical
Brochure included a brief description of innovative techniques including horizontal drilling, pipe
jacking and micro-tunneling. TB 194 describes the techniques, their limitations and the changes in
cable design necessary to make use of each technique (for example, the changes needed in order
to match the ampacity of a shallow, direct buried installation).

Although much of the information on trenchless cable installation in TB 194 is still valid, it is
relatively brief and few practical examples are given.

There is increasing pressure to underground transmission circuits and it is becoming more common
for a length of underground cable to be introduced into an overhead line circuit. There is also
increasing pressure to reduce the cost of undergrounding and reduce the disruption (e.g. to traffic
flow) caused when underground circuits are installed.

A number of significant technical changes to underground cable circuits have been seen since TB
194 was written; for example, extruded cable has almost completely superseded fluid filled cable

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for new installations, delivery lengths for land cable have increased and there is a trend towards
larger conductor sizes.
There has been a large increase in the use of cable in sensitive habitats (e.g. shore landings for
AC cable from offshore wind farms and DC cable interconnectors). In some cases the landing sites
of submarine cables have been contaminated by prior use. Trenchless technologies do not disturb
such sensitive areas and have been used in these applications.

In addition to changes in cable technology and attitudes to undergrounding, there have been
technical advances in the methods used for trenchless installation since TB 194 was written.

The progress is good and four TFs have been established : ploughing, HDD, pipe jacking and
microtunnel.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

 To review the range of trenchless technologies currently available for cable installation
( HDD, pipe jacking and micro tunnels, …)
 To review the technical constraints (thermal, mechanical, civil, geotechnical and
environmental) relating to the trenchless installation of HV cable systems.
 To provide examples of where trenchless techniques have been used in the installation of
HV cable systems, highlighting the benefits and adverse experiences in each case.
Full cable tunnels should be excluded because they have their specific issues like fire, smoke,
access, sharing with other services, etc. to be addressed and this topic has already been dealt in
the TB 403 “Cable Systems in Multi-purpose or Shared Structures” by WG B1.08.

8.2.19 JWG B1/B3.49 Standard design of a common, dry type plug-in interface for
GIS and power cables up to 145 kV

Convener: Pierre Mirebeau (France)

Based on the recommendations of the JWG B1/B3.33, JWG B1/B3.49 was set up in 2013 and is
due to present its final report in 2016.

The convener reported that the work will start as soon as he will receive the appointments from
the SC B3.

Reminder of the Terms of Reference:

The goal of the JWG is to recommend a functional design of an insulator with a common
interface.
 Current is ≤ 1000A, short circuit ≤ 40 kA 1 sec. Cross sections are ≤ 1000mm² Cu or
1600mm² Al
 Technology has to be defined (inner or outer cone), with a detailed evaluation of technical
advantages/disadvantages of the two technologies.
 The number of sizes has to be defined; the short circuit current can be altered for the
smallest sizes. Dimensions of insulator components have to be defined (current
connection, electric design and properties, mechanical design and properties). The type
and dimension of the main current connection have to be defined.
 Consideration to be given to the consequence of a termination failure, the upgrading of
the cable link for higher current loads and installation constraints, with a special focus on
the basement dimensions.
 The design has to meet the requirements of IEC 62271-209 and IEC 60840 and there is
a need to define the initial and cross qualification processes.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

 The stress cone design and material, the lubricant and the design of the compression
device should be left to the discretion of the accessory manufacturer within the limits of
the standardized insulator properties.

8.2.20 WG B1.50 SVL and bonding systems (design, testing, operation and
monitoring)

Convener: Tiebin Zhao (United States)

The basic information needed to design a bonding system is included in several documents such
as Electra 128-1990, TB 283-2005, and TB 347-2008. Some of these documents need to be
updated. In addition it is noted that cable bonding components and related national regulations
have changed in recent years. The WG plans to address related issues with sheath voltage
limiters (SVLs) and bonding systems.

Terms of Reference:

 Basic information
o Provide an overview of the functions of the bonding systems.
o Review existing documents and other engineering information related to bonding
systems.
o Review service experience depending on bonding schematics, standing voltage
and withstand levels.
 Bonding system design
o Consider different bonding designs: single point, multiple point (solid), cross-
bonding, and point out different challenges regarding screen protection of cable
systems, including joints, terminations and link boxes.
o Provide basic knowledge (voltages, current rating, and energy absorption) for
selection and implementation of bonding leads, link boxes and SVLs depending
on cable system parameters and bonding designs.
o Provide recommendations for screen insulation coordination.
o Provide guidance on cable system models for overvoltage calculation using
computer software. May work with liaison members nominated by SC C4 if such
interests arise from C4 side on modeling aspects of this task.
 Testing of bonding system
o Provide guidance on testing of bonding system components.
o Provide guidance on testing of bonding systems after installation.
 Maintenance
o Provide recommendations on maintenance of bonding systems including SVLs.
o Provide testing criteria while considering interference with implemented
monitoring systems.
o Consider monitoring of bonding systems

8.2.21 WG B1.51 Fire issues for cable installed in air

Convener: Paolo Maioli (Italy)

A significant concern is the fire safety of insulated cables installed in air, since it is often not
practical for fire protection services to give a rapid response in case of fire. This subject has been
raised in the Technical Brochure 403 “Cables Systems in multipurpose or shared structures”.
Whilst it is possible to bury some of the more hazardous cables in the floor of the tunnel, provide
protection barriers or install fire protection systems such as water sprays or other devices, these
systems are all expensive. It was therefore important to establish if more suitable cable designs

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

could provide an adequate level of fire protection without the need for separate protection
systems.
Quite often tunnels are “ventilated” with certain airflow, having an incremental effect on some of
the typical fire behavior of cables, including fire propagation, development of smoke and to a
lesser extend development of corrosive fumes
Standardizing work was done by IEC, but in terms of fire behavior these standards, at present,
are mainly applicable to low voltage cables. More recent developments of new designs and
requirements of power cable systems in terms of flame retardant properties are not yet
considered; for this reason it is difficult to apply the above mentioned standards to transmission
and distribution.

Terms of Reference:

 To review:
o All existing international and national standard, any work done by CIGRE, CIRED,
IEC, IEEE.
o Extent of service experience, customer needs; so far for different connector types.
o Papers presented at Conferences (e.g. Jicable).
o Customer needs.
 To analyze:
o Type of Installation: single purpose (tunnel, substations) or multi-purpose (bridges,
shared tunnels and other shared civil works)
o Ancillary components like fire monitoring, sprinkler protection, barriers, and other
control measures could be the object of a list of general rules/suggestions and civil
works (improvements, arrangements) as well.
o In addition, the effect of certain mitigation measures on the performances of cable
(i.e.: current rating) should be considered.
o As a final contribution, the WG could provide for a ranking of cables types/design
in relation to fire risk.
 To propose:
o Suitable cable designs
o Additional methods
o Development Tests, Type Tests including Fire Tests.
o To consider the whole range of cables from MV to EHV, mainly with extruded
insulation, excluding joints;
o To prepare only general rules for joints installation.

8.2.22 WG B1.52 Fault location on land and submarine links (AC and DC)

Convener: Robert Donaghy (Ireland)

The increasing number of land and submarine cable assets globally has created a focus on cable
fault location capabilities. All faults in cable systems are different and cable fault location depends
to a great extent on applying the appropriate technique or combination of techniques. The
methods for locating power cable faults require competent engineers and service providers.
Guidance is therefore required for engineers on the correct application of the various techniques
available.

Terms of Reference:

 To cover fault location on the following installed cable types: MV/HV/EHV; AC/DC; land
and submarine cable systems; single core, 3-core and pipe type cables.
 To focus on main insulation & sheath faults
 To provide overview of existing fault location techniques and underlying principles

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

 For land and submarine cable systems, to provide guidance and strategies for effective
fault location for a variety of installation types including but not limited to:
o Direct buried cable systems
o Ducted land cable systems
o Cables between GIS bays
o Cables installed in horizontal directional drills and tunnels
o Cables at large burial depths
o Cable systems with different bonding types
o Very long cables
o …
 To examine the different methods of pre-location and pinpointing from an accuracy and
suitability viewpoint
 To prepare a flowchart to assist in selecting appropriate methods according to fault type
and cable type
 To examine design factors (cable design and installation method) affecting fault location
capability
 To examine safety considerations
 To examine marine vessel and support requirements for finding submarine cable faults
 To collect case studies of fault location experiences
 To examine training requirements for fault location personnel
 To examine assess applicability of on-line methods to support fault location
 To review new and innovative fault location techniques & future developments
 The WG should not cover:
o Leak location in fluid filled cables
o Gas leak location on gas compression cables
o Diagnostic testing
o Defects in cathodic protection systems

8.3 Task Forces

The TFs are launched by the Study Committee to define the terms of reference of a new WG prior
to its establishment. The duration of this type of TF must not exceed one year. Task Forces do not
publish any report in Electra.

8.3.1 TF B1.54 Behavior of cable systems under large disturbances (earthquake,


storm, flood, fire, landslide, climate change)

Convener: Harry Orton (Canada)

This topic is extremely important since in the recent past, several large disturbances occurred in
various countries. Everybody remembers for example the Earthquake in Christchurch, New
Zealand in 2010. More than 500 cable faults requiring repair were counted. In the closing session
of the Auckland Symposium, in September 2013, the General Report outlined the need of further
work in this area regarding cable design and/or installation design for seismic areas.

The TF is due to discuss and conclude in 2014 on whether or not to install a full WG to address this
topic.

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

8.3.2 JTF SC B1/ICC Interactions between CIGRE SC B1 and IEEE/PES Insulated


Conductors Committee

Convener: Walter Zenger (United States)

The CIGRE/ICC JTF was launched in 2000 and the evaluation made in 2010 concluded that the
cooperation should continue. A new evaluation will be done in 2015.

The JTF CIGRE/ICC is now composed of 7 B1 Members.

SC B1 regularly presents the update of CIGRE work, some tutorials and exchanges views with
WGs dealing with common issues.
The future activities are the:
 Intensification in exchange of technical information
 Increase of coordination between SC B1 and ICC WG and DG
 Presentation of new Cigre Tutorials as part of the ICC Educational Program
 Continue cooperation/coordination between similar WG in SC B1 and ICC
 Exchange of information on how to motivate utility participation in technical organizations

The Chairman underlined the good cooperation between both organizations and considered there
is a big interest for both organizations to cooperate. He encouraged the Conveners to attend the
ICC meeting.

8.4 Relations with other CIGRE Study Committees

Cables are more and more involved in the networks and there is a need to communicate with other
SCs.

The Chairman decided to devote each SAG Member to a specific SC or organization to have the
best possible relations with the other SCs. Each SAG Member will have to liaise and to disseminate
the information and collect the needs of the other SC or organization. In some cases, it could be
an exchange of mails and/or an annual report, in others, it could go up to an attendance in the
meeting of the other party. The following nominations were presented:

 SC B2: Steve Swingler


 SC B3: Pierre Argaut
 SC B4: Christian Jensen
 SC C3: Eugene Bergin
 SC C4: Johan Karlstrand
 SC C6: Marco Marelli
 SC D1: Wim Boone
 AORC: Ken Barber
 ICC: Walter Zenger
 IEC: Pierre Mirebeau
 Jicable: Alain Gille

The Chairman identified the need to have more common formal exchanges between SCs to better
understand each other. It could be done through Symposium, Colloquium, tutorials, panels, …

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2014 SC B1 Progress report March 2015

SC B1 is involved in several WGs where B1 experts are among the WG members to provide their
expertise in the cable systems. These WGs are:

 WG B4.55 “HVDC connection of offshore wind power plants”


 JWG C3/B2/B1/13 “Environmental issues of HV transmission lines for rural and urban
areas”
 WG C4.207 "EMC of communication circuits, low voltage systems and metallic structures
in the vicinity of power systems”
 WG D1.23 "Diagnostics and accelerated life endurance testing of polymeric materials for
HVDC application"
 JWG D1/B1.49 “Harmonized test for the measurement of residual inflammable gases in
insulating materials by gas chromatography”
 WG D1.54 “Basic principles and practical methods to measure the AC and DC resistance
of conductors of power cables and overhead lines”
 WG D1.55 “Partial Discharge detection under DC stress”.

8.5 B1 Asia-Oceania Regional Council of Cigre (AORC)

The aim of the AORC is to promote Cigre in the Asia-Oceania region and foster technical
cooperation among (member) countries in this region.

This Yearly Meeting is now more than a panel and is not far from working as a WG, and this
organization is strongly supported by the regional SC B1 representatives.

The 10th meeting has been held in Japan (Tokyo) on May 26, 2014. The Chairman of SC B1, the
SC B1 representative for Japan and the AORC convener gave reports on the previous 2013
meetings, the current status of WGs, CAG, Tutorials, up-date on CIGRE publications and the
Symposium in Auckland. Members were informed about plans for new work and program for the
SC B1 meeting in Paris.
Presentations from representatives of all the attending countries (Australia, China, Hong Kong,
India, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand and Japan) regarding current HV cable projects have been
done. Another session on “New designs of cables and accessories, installation and assembly
methods for cable systems and others” and on “Deterioration, diagnostic and maintenance methods
for cable systems” delivered respectively 6 and 7 presentations. There were suggestions that it
might be appropriate to form a TF (Hong Kong, Thailand and Malaysia) to review MV cable joint
failures and associated on-line fault location systems.

AORC B1 members were also invited to attend a Technical meeting on “Interconnections and
connecting new power sources to the Grid”. There were more than 200 delegates and there were
a number of different sessions with representation from Study Committees B1, B2, B4, C4 and C5.
One of these sessions focused on issues relative to SC B1. There were 8 presentations on HVAC
Cables and Systems and 7 presentations on HVDC Cables and Electrical fields.
Finally a Technical tour was arranged to see the operation of the High Temperature
Superconducting cable project at the Asahi Substation in Yokohama and the 500 kV Shin-Toyosu
Substation which is the termination point for the 40 km of double circuit 500 kV XLPE cable link to
Shin-Keiyo Substation.

The 11th meeting will be held in Malaysia (Sabah) on August 19th, 2015.

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8.6 IEC

During the SC B1 meeting in Paris, Pierre Mirebeau (FR), the new liaise officer with IEC, introduced
IEC TC 20, its 4 WGs, Project Team and Maintenance Team:
 WG 16 : High voltage cables
 WG 17 : Low voltage cables
 WG 18 : Burning characteristics of electric cables
 WG 19 : Current rating and short-circuit limits of cables
 PT 62895 : High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) power cables with extruded 0insulation
and their accessories for rated voltages up to 320 kV for land applications – Test methods
and requirements
 MT 20 : Revision of TR 621125: Environmental statement specific to TC20

WG16
Submarine cables
TC20 decided not to launch new work on medium voltage and high voltage submarine cables until
the relevant work in Cigre is completed, especially the work of the WG B1.43.
HV connectors
TC20 is waiting the conclusions of the WG B1.46 to complete the standard with connector for high
voltage cables systems. The MV part of the standard " IEC 61238 Compression and mechanical
connectors for power cables for rated voltages up to 30 kV (Um = 36kV)" is now sent as a CD. A
first Committee Draft will be available in Fall 2014 for circulation to the National Committees
Laminated coverings
The new release of the Technical Report TR 61901 "Tests recommended on cables with a
longitudinally applied metal foil for rated voltages above 30 kV (um = 36 kV)", has been performed
according to TB 446. It is ready for publication.

WG 17
The IEC Technical Committee confirmed the development of a new standard for halogen free
sheathing materials, but with no smoke requirements. The Committee draft is under pre
WG B1.46).

WG 18
The IEC Technical Committee confirmed to start new work on ion chromatography testing to detect
low levels of halogens and other species in the gas during fire performance testing.

WG 19
Armor losses in 3-core cables: WG 19 has included a note in a new amendment to IEC 60287-1-1
saying that armor losses may be overestimated. WG 19 considers that this should be further
considered by Cigre. A good cooperation between Cigre WG B1.35 and IEC WG19 is secured
through common participants.

The PT 62895 based his work, which is almost completed now, on Cigre TB 496
(Recommendations for Testing DC Extruded Cable Systems for Power Transmission at a Rated
Voltage up to 500 kV). For obvious standardization reason, the higher voltage limit was set at 320
kV (there is no practical experience over 320 kV). A first Committee Draft will be available in Fall
2014 for circulation to the National Committees.

Finally, he reported that a joint task force TC 90 and TC 20, led by TC 20 has been launched. It
acts as a think tank, and includes participation of the TC20 and TC90 officers, plus a few volunteers.
It considers the TB 538 "Recommendations for testing of superconducting cables" as an input.

Helmut Myland (DE), The TC20 Secretary, thanked the Cigre SC B1 for all its technical support to
date and considers it highly advisable that the close liaison is continued in the future.

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