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HydrocarbonZ Petroleum Engineering

FUEL AMAZING DREAMS GATE-2018

Contents
1. Petroleum Exploration 1
1.1 Classification and Description of Some Common
Rocks with Special Reference to Clastic and Non
Clastic Reservoir Rocks 2
1.1.1 Introduction 2
1.1.2 Igneous Rocks 2
1.1.3 Metamorphic Rocks 2
1.1.4 Sedimentary Rocks 3
1.1.5 Fundamental Classification of Sedimentary Rocks 3
1.1.6 Important Sedimentary Rocks for Hydrocarbon
Production 4
1.2 Origin, Migration and Accumulation Petroleum 5
1.2.1 Introduction 5
1.2.2 Origin of Petroleum 5
1.2.3 Stages of Petroleum Maturation 6
1.2.4 Petroleum Migration 8
1.2.5 Accumulation of Petroleum 8
1.3 Petroleum Exploration Methods 10
1.3.1 Introduction 10
1.3.2 Subsurface Mapping 11
1.3.3 Geophysical Surveys 11
1.3.4 Structural Contour Maps 12
1.3.5 Cross-sections 13
2 Oil and Gas Well Drilling Technology 15
2.1 Well planning 16
2.1.1 Introduction 16
2.1.2 Objective 16
2.1.3 Activities before start of drilling operation 17
2.1.4 Input data for well planning 18
2.1.5 Geo- technical order 18
2.1.6 Drilling programme preparation 19
2.1.7 Well-type classification 30
2.1.8 Formation pressure 31
2.1.9 Planning costs and their Importance 32
2.1.10 Drilling Programme for a well 33
2.2 Drilling method 35
2.2.1 Drilling Methods in Oil & Gas Industry 35
2.2.2 Cable Tool Drilling 35
2.2.3 Rotary Drilling System 36
2.2.4 Basic Principles of Rotary Drilling 36
2.3 Drilling Rigs 37
2.3.1 Land rigs 37
2.3.2 Rig classification 40
2.3.3 Offshore rigs 41
2.4 Rig operating systems 48
2.4.1 Introduction 48
2.4.2 Power system 49
2.4.3 Hoisting system 50
HydrocarbonZ EXPLORERTM |TarGATE TM |PetroGATETM | POWERPACKTM i
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HydrocarbonZ Petroleum Engineering
FUEL AMAZING DREAMS GATE-2018

2.4.4 Circulating System 54


2.4.5 Rotary System 58
2.4.6 Procedure for Adding Drill pipe when Drilling Ahead 60
2.4.7 Procedure for Pulling the Drill string from the Hole
(POOH) 61
2.4.8 Top Drive Systems 62
2.4.9 Well control system 63
2.4.10 Well monitoring system 66
2.5 Drilling fluids functions, properties & equipments 66
2.5.1 Introduction 66
2.5.2 Functions and Properties of a Drilling Fluid 67
2.5.3 Types of Drilling Fluid 69
2.5.4 Field tests on drilling fluids 72
2.5.5 Water Based Mud 78
2.5.6 Oil-Based Muds 86
2.5.7 Solids Control 90
2.5.8 Solids Control Equipment 91
2.5.9 Solids Control Systems 94
2.6 Oil & Gas wells cementing operations 95
2.6.1 Introduction 95
2.6.2 Functions of oil well cement 96
2.6.3 Classification of cement powders 99
2.6.4 Mixwater Requirements 100
2.6.5 Properties of cement 100
2.6.6 Cement additives 102
2.6.7 Primary cementing 104
2.6.8 Downhole cementing equipment 105
2.6.9 Surface cementing equipment 107
2.6.10 Single Stage Cementing Operation 108
2.6.11 Multi - Stage Cementing Operation 109
2.6.12 Inner string cementing 111
2.6.13 Liner cementing 112
2.6.14 Recommendations for a good cement job 114
2.6.15 Squeeze cementing 115
2.6.16 Cement plugs 119
2.6.17 Evaluation of cement jobs 120
2.6.18 Cementing Calculations 123
2.7 Drilling Bits – Types & Applications 126
2.7.1 Introduction 126
2.7.2 Types of drilling bit 127
2.7.3 Bit Design 130
2.7.4 Bit Selection 139
2.7.5 Rock Bit Evaluation 144
2.7.6 Bit Performance 146
2.8 Drill string function, operations, selection & design 150
2.8.1 Introduction 150
2.8.2 Drill Pipe 151
2.8.3 Heavy Wall Drillpipe (HWDP) 157
2.8.4 Drill Collars 159
2.8.5 Other Drillstring Components 160
2.8.6 Drill String Design 162
ii
HydrocarbonZ EXPLORERTM |TarGATE TM |PetroGATETM | POWERPACKTM
FUEL AMAZING DREAMS All rights reserved by HydrocarbonZ Educational Services
No part of this booklet may be produced or utilized in any form without written permission
HydrocarbonZ Petroleum Engineering
FUEL AMAZING DREAMS GATE-2018

2.8.7 Design of a Stabilised String 162


2.8.8 Bending Moments in String Design 164
2.8.9 Length of Drillcollars 165
2.8.10 Drill Pipe Selection 166
2.8.11 Design Procedure 167
2.9 Casing string function, operations, selection & design 168
2.9.1 Introduction 168
2.9.2 Component Parts of a Casing String 169
2.9.3 Casing Terminology 169
2.9.4 Properties of Casing 171
2.9.5 Wellheads and Casing Hangers 176
2.9.6 Rig-Site Operations 178
2.9.7 Casing Design 181
2.10 Drilling problems, their control & remedies 194
2.10.1 Drilling problems 194
2.10.2 Types of drilling problems 195
2.11 Directional Drilling 213
2.11.1 Introduction 213
2.11.2 Applications 213
2.11.3 Depth Reference and Geographical Reference Systems 214
2.11.4 Depth Reference Systems 215
2.11.5 Geographical Reference Systems 216
2.11.6 Planning the profile of the well 216
2.11.7 Parameters Defining the Wellpath 216
2.11.8 Defining the Points on the Wellpath 218
2.11.9 Scaled Diagrams 219
2.11.10 Geometrical Calculation Technique 219
2.11.11 Considerations When Planning The Directional Well
Path 220
2.11.12 Deflection Tools 222
2.11.13 Positive Displacement Motors (PDM’s) and
Turbodrills 231
2.12 Directional Survey 232
2.12.1 Introduction 232
2.12.2 Surveying Calculations & Principles of Surveying 233
2.12.3 Wellbore Surveying 234
2.12.4 Mathematical Models of the Wellbore Trajectory 236
2.12.5 Survey Calculations and Plotting Results 238
2.12.6 Photographic Surveying Tools 239
2.12.7 Magnetic Single Shot 239
2.12.8 Magnetic Multi-shot 240
2.12.9 Gyro Single Shot 241
2.12.10 Downhole Telemetry Tools 243
2.12.11 Inertial Navigation Systems 244
2.12.12 Steering Tools 245
2.12.13 Average Angle Method 246
2.13 Application of horizontal, multilateral & extended
reach wells 248
2.13.1 Introduction 248
2.13.2 Horizontal Wells 248
2.13.3 Well Profile Design Considerations 250
2.13.4 Torque And Drag 253
HydrocarbonZ EXPLORERTM |TarGATE TM |PetroGATETM | POWERPACKTM iii
FUEL AMAZING DREAMS All rights reserved by HydrocarbonZ Educational Services
No part of this booklet may be produced or utilized in any form without written permission
HydrocarbonZ Petroleum Engineering
FUEL AMAZING DREAMS GATE-2018

2.13.5 Horizontal Borehole Stability 255


2.13.6 Extended Reach Wells 256
2.13.7 Multilateral Wells 256
2.13.8 Multilateral well planning considerations 257
2.13.9 Drilling planning issues 258
2.13.10 Kick off methods 258
3 Reservoir Engineering 263
3.1 Coring and Core Analysis & Petrophysical Properties 264
3.1.1 Introduction 264
3.1.2 Porosity 266
3.1.3 Saturation 268
3.1.4 Permeability 268
3.1.5 Capillary Pressure 271
3.1.6 Relative Permeability 276
3.2 Reservoir Pressure and Temperature Measurements 279
3.2.1 Introduction 279
3.2.2 Reservoir Pressure 279
3.2.3 Reservoir Temperature 280
3.3 Reservoir Fluid Properties & Phase Behaviour of
Hydrocarbon System 281
3.3.1 Introduction 281
3.3.2 Fluid Properties 282
3.3.3 Equation of State Modelling 285
3.3.4 Reservoir Fluid Classification 287
3.4 Water and Gas Coning 295
3.4.1 Introduction 295
3.4.2 Mechanism 296
3.4.3 Correlations 296
3.4.4 Immiscible Displacement Theory 297
3.5 Reservoir Drives, Mechanics and Recovery Factors 300
3.5.1 Introduction 300
3.5.2 Mechanism 301
3.6 Reserves Estimation Techniques 303
3.6.1 Introduction 303
3.6.2 Reserves Estimation Techniques 304

iv
HydrocarbonZ EXPLORERTM |TarGATE TM |PetroGATETM | POWERPACKTM
FUEL AMAZING DREAMS All rights reserved by HydrocarbonZ Educational Services
No part of this booklet may be produced or utilized in any form without written permission