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Solar Energy 85 (2011) 1992–2002


www.elsevier.com/locate/solener

Battery-integrated boost converter utilizing distributed


MPPT configuration for photovoltaic systems
Yang Du ⇑, Dylan Dah-Chuan Lu
School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, Australia

Received 9 April 2011; accepted 10 May 2011


Available online 2 June 2011

Communicated by: Associate Editor Takhir Razykov

Abstract

In this paper, a battery-integrated boost converter utilizing the distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) configuration
for a photovoltaic (PV) system is studied. Each PV module has its own battery and DC/DC converter. Due to the proposed topology and
use of battery, the MPPT function is not affected by the load demand and input power from PV. Application of the proposed converter
to DMPPT configuration can save the voltage amplification stage and maintain PV voltage during partial shading. Steady-state analysis
of the converter to determine the power flow equations is presented. Comparison with the series-connected conventional boost converter
is reported in this paper. Simulation and experiment results of a laboratory prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the pro-
posed approach. System design considerations are also discussed.
Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Battery-integrated; Boost converter; Distributed maximum power point tracking; Photovoltaic systems

1. Introduction system efficiency becomes more economically important


when utilizing this subsidy. High efficiency inverters can
Harnessing solar energy has been considered as a way to lower the cost by using fewer modules for a certain amount
solve the problems of the energy crisis and global warming of energy demand. Simplified topology and integrated
(Razykov et al., in press). The PV industry is growing rap- functionality can also decrease the inverter cost and reduce
idly, the annual growth rate has been more than 40% for the rate of e-waste production.
the last decade (Kroposki et al., 2009). In order to generate The output power of PV systems can vary drastically in
AC power from the PV modules to the grid, which is at seconds. At high levels of PV penetration, this intermit-
220–240Vrms in most countries, a power electronics inter- tency can cause problems with utility operations and on
face is needed. This interface has two main functions: con- load-side equipment due to fluctuations in grid voltage
version of DC voltage to an appropriate AC current for the and power factor. In the future power system, fluctuations
grid or load and tracking the maximum power point of the on this scale will not be allowed (Hanley et al., 2009). Inte-
PV module for maximum power output. grated PV and energy storage systems provide a combina-
Although the price of the PV system is decreasing, it is tion of financial, operational, and environmental benefits
still expensive compared to conventional energy sources. to the system’s owner and to the utility through peak shav-
Feed-in tariff has already been proven as a successful ing and reliability applications (Manz et al., 2008).
example to improve the PV system penetration, and high The configuration of the PV modules influences the
obtainable energy yield. There are three widely used PV
⇑ Corresponding author. system configurations (Kjaer et al., 2005): the centralized
E-mail address: yang.du@sydney.edu.au (Y. Du). inverter system, the string based inverter system and the

0038-092X/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.solener.2011.05.008
Y. Du, D.Dah-Chuan Lu / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 1992–2002 1993

AC module or the module integrated converter (MIC) sys-


tem. In the present market, the power electronics system is
mainly designed for centralized two-stage inverter configu-
ration. This centralized inverter achieves the function of
MPPT, DC/AC inversion and an AC interface to the grid.
The power losses are normally high in this configuration,
mainly due to mismatch losses between the modules
(Picault et al., 2010). If any of the PV modules in the string
fail, the whole string or even the whole system has to be
shut down. Those problems limit the development of the
PV industry (Petrone et al., 2008). The string based inverter Fig. 1. Proposed battery-integrated boost converter.
can save the voltage amplification stage when compared
with the MIC system, but the mismatch loss among the
switching cycle under two different scenarios, whereas
modules in the string is the major shortcoming (Sadok
Fig. 3 shows the power-stage key waveforms.
and Mehdaoui, 2008). The AC module or MIC offers a
Assuming no conversion loss, the instantaneous input
“plug and play” concept and greatly increases system
power from the PV module hPini is equal to the output
flexibility (Kjaer et al., 2005; Carrasco et al., 2006; Sahan
power hPouti plus the power delivered to the battery hPBi
et al., 2008; Choi and Lai, 2010). This is considered as
which can be either positive or negative.
the trend for future PV system development (Kjaer et al.,
2005), (Li and Wolfs, 2008). However there are still some hP in i ¼ hP out i þ hP B i ð1Þ
challenges such as cost, reliability and stability for grid
connection (Liserre et al., 2006), and the required high step As shown in Fig. 1, the input current from the PV mod-
up ratio usually causes low efficiency or additional power ule hIini, inductor current hILi and battery current hIBi of
processing stage. There is a configuration, referred to as the converter is governed by:
DMPPT, which combines the merit of the string inverter hI in i ¼ hI L i þ hI B i ð2Þ
and the MIC inverter configuration. Analysis on DMPPT
will be reported in Section 3. The output voltage Vout is equal to the sum of input
In (Du and Lu, 2010), a battery-integrated boost con- voltage Vin and battery voltage VB
verter proposed in (Lu and Agelidis, 2009), is studied for V out ¼ V in þ V B ð3Þ
DMPPT configuration. This paper extends the analysis,
presenting a detailed comparison with the series-connected There are three possible scenarios:
conventional boost converter and additional experiment
results using close-loop control. The paper is organized (1) When input power is smaller than output power, the
as follows: The operation principle and analysis are dis- current flow diagram is as indicated in Fig. 2a and b.
cussed in Section 2. Comparison of the proposed system iB is positive, which means it is flowing in the same
with the series-connected conventional boost converter is direction as defined in Fig. 1. The battery is discharg-
presented in Section 3. Simulation and experiment results ing to provide the power in series with the PV module
are shown in Section 4. Some design issues are discussed to the load.
in Section 5. Discussion and conclusion are given in Section (2) When input power is larger than output power, the
6 and 7. current flow diagram is shown in Fig. 2c and d. iB
is negative, which means it is flowing in the opposite
2. Operating principle and analysis direction as defined in Fig. 1. The battery is charging
to store extra power from the PV module.
The circuit diagram of the battery-integrated boost con- (3) When the input power is equal to the output power,
verter is shown in Fig. 1. The boost converter, which con- the battery will charge and discharge the same
sists of an inductor L, a power switch S, a diode D and a amount of energy during two switching stages in
capacitor C, works both as a battery charger/discharger one cycle. The power directly flows from the PV mod-
and MPPT. A battery is connected in series with the PV ule to the load without store the energy in the battery.
module to provide a path for direct power transfer and
assistance to MPPT. The battery power flows in the same direction as iB in all
In order to simplify the analysis of operation, it is scenarios respectively. They can be either positive, negative
assumed that during the on-state, semiconductors exhibit or zero; however, the voltage relationship of the three sce-
zero resistance as they are short-circuited. The input volt- narios, described by equations, are the same. The operation
age and current from the PV module are both variable, principle under the first scenario is depicted in detail as
and the internal resistance of the battery is neglected. follows:
To aid the explanation of the converter operation, Fig. 2
shows the topological stages of the circuit in Fig. 1 during a Stage A (switch ‘on’; Fig. 2a); t0 6 t 6 t1
1994 Y. Du, D.Dah-Chuan Lu / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 1992–2002

Fig. 2. Two stages equivalent circuit operating in CCM: (a and c) is Stage A; (b and d) is Stage B.

Fig. 3. Gate voltage and inductor current waveforms (CCM).

At time t0, S is turned on, L is charged up by Vin, and D power application, CCM operation of L is preferred as it
is reverse-biased, as shown in Fig. 2a). The duration of on- reduces the input current ripple and filtering requirement.
time of S is controlled by the MPPT controller to maintain At time t2, S is turned on again to repeat the next switching
the input voltage constant for MPPT (Kjaer et al., 2005). cycle.
As shown in the waveform in Fig. 3, the inductor current It can be observed that the PV module shares the load
increases linearly, whereas battery current decreases at demand with the battery and charges the battery through
the same rate. the converter simultaneously.

Stage B (switch ‘off’; Fig. 2b); t1 6 t 6 t2 2.1. Continuous current mode (CCM)

At time t1, S is turned off, the energy stored in L is cou- According to the equivalent circuit, when the converter
pled to the battery VB, diode D starts conducting, as shown works in CCM, the inductor current increases linearly at
in Fig. 2b. The inductor current decreases linearly, whereas time ton
battery current increases at the same rate. L can work in
either discontinuous current conduction mode (DCM) or DI
V in ¼ L ð4Þ
continuous current conduction mode (CCM). For high- ton
Y. Du, D.Dah-Chuan Lu / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 1992–2002 1995

At time toff, the battery voltage VB is 1 LDI LDI LDIðV in þ V B Þ


T ¼ ¼ ton þ toff ¼ þ ¼ ð10Þ
DI f V in VB V in V B
V B ¼ V out  V in ¼L ð5Þ
toff The current ripple in the inductor DI can be found by
Eqs. (4) and (5) gives substituting (10) into (7):
1 V in V B T ð1  DÞV B
V out ¼ V in ð6Þ DI ¼ ¼ ð11Þ
1D LðV in þ V B Þ fs L
The converter has a similar voltage conversion ratio as
In order to have a continuous current in the inductor,
the boost converter.
the minimum value of inductance is defined as the critical
However, substituting (6) into (5) gives
inductance Lc. When this happens, the stored energy in
D 1D the inductor is completely expended just prior to the begin-
VB ¼ V in ) V in ¼ VB ð7Þ
1D D ning of the next switching cycle. The peak inductor current
Regarding VB as the output voltage, the converter serves ILp, is twice the average inductor current IL
as a buck-boost converter. Since the battery voltage has a 1 1 ð1  DÞV B
roughly constant value, changing duty cycle D can control I L ¼ I Lp ¼ DI ¼ ð12Þ
2 2 2f s Lc
the input voltage Vin as indicated in (7). Hence the battery
voltage can be used to achieve MPPT via the fractional The critical inductance Lc can be found by assuming
open circuit voltage method or other algorithms without there is no power loss during the switch cycle. The power
taking into consideration other factors, such as load flows though the converter can be expressed as:
demand, input power etc.
P in ¼ V in I in ð13Þ
2.2. Critical inductance (L)
P B ¼ V BI B ð14Þ
When the converter works in CCM, the turn-on and ðV in þ V B Þ2
turn-off time are given by: P out ¼ ð15Þ
R
LDI
ton ¼ ð8Þ According to (2):
V in
LDI I B ¼ I in  I L ð16Þ
toff ¼ ð9Þ
VB
Then, substitute (13)–(16) into (1):
The switching period T is the sum of ton and toff:

Fig. 4. Stage B equivalent circuit operating in the DCM.


1996 Y. Du, D.Dah-Chuan Lu / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 1992–2002

2
ðV in þ V B Þ V in ton fs  V B ðt2  t1 Þfs ¼ 0 ) ðV in þ V B ÞD  V B t2 fs ¼ 0
V in I in þ V B ðI in  I L Þ ¼ )
R ð20Þ
ðV in þ V B Þ2 V in I in
I L ¼ I in  þ ð17Þ The average inductor current IL is
V BR VB
I LP t2 fs 2I L
By substituting (7) into (17), IL is found to be: IL ¼ ) t2 fs ¼ ð21Þ
2 I LP
I in VB
IL ¼  ð18Þ Substituting (21) into (20) gives
D D2 R
ðV in þ V B ÞDI LP  2V B I L ¼ 0 ð22Þ
Substitute (18) into (12):
where ILP is the peak current of the inductor. The voltage
ð1  DÞV B
Lc ¼ ð19Þ across the inductor is related to the rate of increase of its
2f s ðIDin  DV2BRÞ current
I LP L V in ton V in DT
V in ¼ ) I LP ¼ ¼ ð23Þ
2.3. Discontinuous current mode (DCM) ton L L
The battery current IB is
It is necessary to modify the equivalent circuit of Stage
2
B (S turns off) to account for the energy in the inductor P out  P in ðV In þ V B Þ V in I in
IB ¼ ¼  ð24Þ
that has been expended before the start of the next switch- VB RV B VB
ing cycle, as shown in Fig. 4 and the corresponding wave-
By substituting (24) into (2), the inductor current IL is
form in Fig. 5. Fig. 4 shows the current flow of stage B
when input power is less than output power (scenario ðV In þ V B Þ2 V in I in
1), Fig. 4c and d shows the same stage under the second I L ¼ I in  I B ¼ I in  þ ð25Þ
RV B VB
scenario.
Define t2, which is less than the switching period T, as Substituting (23) and (25) into (22) gives (26) then solv-
the time at which the inductor current iL(t) goes to zero ing Eq. (26) for Vin gives (27), which is the relationship
(see Fig. 7). According to the constant volt-second require- between the PV voltage and battery voltage.
ment, the average inductor voltage per cycle for the buck- V 2in ðD2 TR þ 2LÞ þ V in ðV B D2 TR  2LRI in þ 4LV B Þ
boost converter operating in the DCM is zero.
þ 2LV B ðV B  RI in Þ ¼ 0 ð26Þ

qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ðV B D2 TR  2LRI in þ LV B Þ  ðV B D2 TR  2LRI in þ LV B Þ2  4  ðD2 TR þ 2LÞ  2LV B ðV B  RI in Þ
V in ¼ ð27Þ
2  ðD2 TR þ 2LÞ

Fig. 5. Gate voltage and inductor current waveforms (DCM).


Y. Du, D.Dah-Chuan Lu / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 1992–2002 1997

limitations. Due to the series connection of distributed con-


verter output ports, the output current must be the same,
output string voltage (Vstring) is fixed, the output voltage
of a specific converter is related to the ratio between its out-
put power and total output power. Hence, the output volt-
age of each converter may vary in a wide range, and the
power electronic components have to be overdesigned to
accommodate the high stress and thus increase the cost.
In addition, the output voltage of the converter can even
decrease below the reference voltage (Vref) which is the
maximum power point (MPP) voltage. This means that is
not possible for the boost converter to control the PV volt-
Fig. 6. Block diagram of series connected distributed DC–DC converter age at MPP in this scenario. Care must be taken when
PV System with energy backup.
choosing the DC/DC converter topology and components,
as well as of the string size and inverter’s operating voltage,
in the design of a PV system with DMPPT (Femia et al.,
2008). Although in (Femia et al., 2008) the two limitations
are mentioned, there is no experimental verification. In Sec-
tion 4 two series connected boost converters are built to
verify this analysis.
In (Bratcu et al.), the authors also mention this voltage
sharing limitation. A supervisor algorithm is proposed
which then attempts to establish the best suboptimal power
regime. A comparison of series DMPPT configuration and
parallel configuration has also been reported. Experimental
verification however has not been provided.
The operation condition of the non-shaded PV module
can be affected by the shaded module in the same string.
The output voltage of each converter depends on the ratio
between power output of the corresponding PV module
and total power output, the PV voltage of non-shaded
Fig. 7. Block diagram of proposed battery-integrated boost converter in modules will be drawn away from MPP before the control
module-based series connected PV system.
system adjusts the PV voltage back to the MPP. This pro-
cess will cause unwanted MPPT losses, since the non-
3. Comparison to series connected conventional boost shaded PV modules cannot work at MPPT all the time
converter and generate maximum power continuously.
The battery-integrated boost converter, applied to the
Some researchers have proposed several new connection module-based series-connected PV system as shown in
methods referred to as “DMPPT” or “distributed power Fig. 7, is therefore proposed to alleviate the aforemen-
electronics”, as shown in Fig. 6 (Shimizu et al., 2001; tioned problems. It has some advantages compared to the
Walker and Sernia, 2004; Femia et al., 2008; Gao et al., series-connected conventional boost converter.
2009; Kim et al., 2009; Linares et al., 2009). In order to Firstly, as shown in Fig. 1, the PV module has to share
overcome the mismatch problems, each module has its the load with the battery and charge the battery simulta-
own converter and it performs the individual MPPT func- neously (Lu and Agelidis, 2009). A portion of the energy
tion. The DMPPT concept was also presented in (Shimizu generated from the PV module is transferred directly to
et al., 2001), although it is referred to as Generation Con- the output without being stored into the battery first and
trol Circuit. In (Walker and Sernia, 2004), several basic then processed at a later time. The lesser the amount of
DC/DC converter topologies for PV applications are pre- power being processed repeatedly, the smaller switching
sented. The efficiency comparison between buck, boost loss the system will suffer. It has been experimentally pro-
and buck-boost converters is reported. In (Linares et al., ven effective in AC/DC conversion (Lu et al., 2003).
2009), a ‘smart distributed power electronics’ is proposed Secondly, with integrated energy storage, in a certain
to improve the energy capture in a PV series string. A range of insolation variation, the converter can maintain
DC and small-signal AC model is derived to analyze steady a stable PV input voltage. According to (7), the input volt-
state behavior (dynamics and stability) of the DMPPT sys- age can only be affected by battery voltage and the duty
tem in (Femia et al., 2008). cycle when the converter works in CCM. Hence, the con-
Although the DMPPT configuration achieves better per- verter output voltage is relatively stable; the component
formance, when partial shading occurs, there are still some voltage stress requirement can be lowered. Compared to
1998 Y. Du, D.Dah-Chuan Lu / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 1992–2002

the series-connected conventional boost converter, the pro- be found in Fig. 9. Module 1 uses the same component
posed converter offers a “multiple-port” concept, which as Module 2. The parameter of the PV module used in
can help to stabilize the PV voltage, because the energy the experiment can be found in (BP_Solar, 2009).
storage can extract the extra power from PV or provide Single module open-loop voltage control experiment
the shortage power to the load. was carried out to verify (4). Module 1 (VOC = 15.4 V,
For battery-integrated converters connecting in series, ISC = 0.46 A) in Fig. 9 is used and it operates under artifi-
there are no such limitations compared to the conventional cial light. A 800 X resistive load is connected to the output.
boost converter system mentioned above. Any number of The battery voltage is 12.8 V initially. The results are re-
PV modules and converter units can be connected in series, ported in Table 1. Fig. 11 shows the comparison between
the output voltage variation will be controlled in a rela- experiment results, simulation results and theoretical calcu-
tively small range. Because the PV voltage can remain con- lations (operation in CCM only). In this case, when the
stant under most insolation variation, this system has more duty cycle is above 45% the theoretical calculation result
chance to achieve MPP and has fewer MPPT losses. follows (7). When D is less than 45%, the converter is oper-
ating in DCM, and the input voltage to output voltage
relationship is governed by (27).
4. Simulation and experiment results In order to verify the improvement in the system perfor-
mance by integrating a battery into the converter, two
The converter is simulated using Switcher-CADIII/ types of systems have been simulated and compared.
LTSpice from Linear Technology; the circuit diagram is Fig. 12 shows two conventional boost converters con-
shown in Figs. 8 and 9. Researchers have proposed a lot nected in series, and close-loop feedback control being
of models to simulate the PV modules. The model in (Vil- applied to the converters. A boost converter topology is
lalva et al., 2009) is used in this paper, because this model is selected to perform this comparison, because it is one of
simple, fast, accurate, and easy-to-use. One controllable the most reliable and widely used topologies; in (Lu and
current source and two (series and parallel) resistors are Agelidis, 2009) a boost converter is also proven to be the
used to simulate the performance of the PV module. The most efficient topology. The simulation result shows that
two resistors are adjusted based on the commercial product before the insolation condition changes, input voltage from
datasheet (BP_Solar, 2009) at three points: the open circuit, a PV module and output voltage from a boost converter
maximum power, and short circuit to simulate that maxi- for both Module 1 and Module 2 are equal. After the mis-
mum power of the real module. Two battery-integrated match occurs, the short circuit current of the lower PV
boost converters are modeled to verify the series-connected module (blue line) drops to around 20%, the output volt-
system functionality. Two series connected conventional ages of the two converters start to split. The green line
boost converters are also simulated for comparison under shows that the converter output voltage (Vout2) with the
varying insolation levels. shaded PV module, is continuously decreasing. When this
A hardware laboratory prototype, as shown in Fig. 10, voltage becomes smaller than the MPP voltage, the global
operating at 20 kHz was built and tested to verify the anal- MPP voltage cannot be achieved. The input voltage of
ysis in previous sections. The components parameters can

Fig. 8. Series connected boost converter PV system.


Y. Du, D.Dah-Chuan Lu / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 1992–2002 1999

Fig. 9. Series connected battery-integrated converter PV system.

Fig. 11. Comparison of calculation, simulation and experimental results.

The laboratory prototypes of the series-connected boost


converter and the battery-integrated boost converter, as
Fig. 10. Laboratory prototype battery integrated converter.
shown in Figs. 8 and 9, are tested under different insolation
levels respectively. Module 1 is under varying insolation.
Table 1 Different insolation levels are simulated by covering part
PV module voltage regulation experimental result. of the PV module and defined by the different value short
Duty ratio Vin Iin pin circuit current. Experiment results are shown in Tables 2
0.75 5.4 0.44 2.4 and 3. The experiment results show in good agreement with
0.70 6.7 0.43 2.9 the analysis and simulation results. The series-connected
0.65 8.2 0.43 3.6 boost converter will fail tracking MPP at a certain level
0.60 10.1 0.42 4.2
of shading and the battery integrated converter has a better
0.55 12.0 0.40 4.8
0.50 14.2 0.20 2.8 performance on tracking MPP. It is worth noting that, the
0.45 15.0 0.07 1.0 proposed battery-integrated converter fails to track MPP
0.40 15.0 0.06 0.9 at around 20% insolation level, the input voltage of Mod-
0.35 15.0 0.06 0.8 ule 1 is Vin2 = 11.5 V This is caused by the converter oper-
ation mode which was changed from CCM to DCM.
Module 2 (Vin2) starts to decrease. The previous analysis
has been verified by this simulation.
In comparison, because of the distributed energy stor- 5. System design considerations
age, the series connected battery-integrated boost converter
maintains constant input and output voltage all the time, as This paper focuses on the explanation of the battery
shown in Fig. 13. integrated boost converter operation principle, verifying
2000 Y. Du, D.Dah-Chuan Lu / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 1992–2002

Fig. 12. Output voltage simulation result of series connected conventional boost converter under different insolation levels.

Fig. 13. Output voltage simulation result of series connected battery integrated converter under different insolation levels.

Table 2 Table 3
Conventional boost converter under varying insolation. Battery-integrated boost converter under varying insolation.
Insolation level Vin1 Vin2 Vout1 Vout2 Insolation level Vin1 Vin2 Vout1 Vout2
100% Isc = 0.6A 12.4 11.9 24.7 25.8 100% Isc = 0.6A 12.4 11.9 25.0 24.5
90% Isc 12.4 12.1 25.1 25.5 90% Isc 12.4 11.9 25.0 24.5
80% Isc 12.5 12.2 20.7 29.8 80% Isc 12.4 11.9 25.0 24.5
70% Isc 12.4 11.8 17.2 33.3 70% Isc 12.4 11.9 25.0 24.5
60% Isc 11.7 11.6 14.1 36.4 60% Isc 12.4 11.9 25.0 24.5
50% Isc 8.5 11.6 9.9 40.6 50% Isc 12.4 11.9 25.0 24.5
40% Isc 5.3 11.6 5.9 44.6 40% Isc 12.4 11.9 25.0 24.5
30% Isc 2.9 11.6 3.0 47.5 30% Isc 12.2 11.9 24.8 24.5
20% Isc 0.2 11.9 0.5 50.7 20% Isc 11.5 12.0 24.1 24.6

the feasibility and comparing with the conventional system,


however, for the sake of the interest of readers, the system  When there is no shading. The PV module output is at
design considerations are briefly explained as follows: maximum power. The power generated from the PV
module directly flows to the next stage without store
5.1. System operation the energy in the battery.
 When partial shading happens as at one specific PV
As a complete grid connected system the second stage module, its integrated battery will be discharged, output
DC/AC inverter is required. The ideal operation mode is: voltage and power remaining stable.
Y. Du, D.Dah-Chuan Lu / Solar Energy 85 (2011) 1992–2002 2001

 After the peak load time, the PV system starts to charge As shown in the paper, the proposed converter can
the battery and outputs less power to the grid. increase the power output from the PV module. The cus-
tomer can enjoy the financial benefits from this increase
from both the saving of peak load time, high electricity
5.2. Control method charges and solar energy feed-in tariff. By minimizing the
aforementioned two limitations of a conventional con-
As shown by the analysis in section two, the switching of verter, the cost can be decreased.
the operation mode to charging and discharging depends Although the cost of a battery is still large, part of the
on the input and output power of the converter. The input cost can be offset by using the proposed system. Local stor-
power to the converter is designed to be the maximum age solutions can be used for many new applications like
power output from PV, which is uncontrollable. According omitting over-voltage of the line and bridging periods dur-
to (7), in order to make sure the PV operate at MPP the ing power-line black-outs (Braun and Stetz, 2008). Since
duty cycle is approximately fixed. The only controllable 2009 using self-consumption of PV energy is publicly
parameter is the DC/DC output equivalent resistance. encouraged in Germany (Ministry of Environment,
Since the DC string voltage Vstring is fixed, the output 2008). This can be realized by electric storage. The rapid
power from the converter can be controlled by adjusting development of battery technology also can help to mini-
this equivalent resistance. Specific devices may be used, mize this limitation.
such as active charge equalization, to allocate the power
to the battery at a low state of charge (SOC) in the string. 7. Conclusion

5.3. Over-charge/discharge protection A steady state analysis of the battery-integrated boost


converter has been presented in this paper. Some advanta-
Over-charge/discharge protection can be achieved by ges have been found by utilizing DMPPT configuration, in
controlling the power feed into the grid or disconnecting comparison with series-connected conventional boost con-
the battery from the converter. Without the battery the verters. Simulation and experiment results have shown that
converter works as a conventional boost converter. The the energy storage integrated converter can increase the PV
operating conditions of other PV modules will not be system power output. System design considerations and the
affected. trade-off of using batteries have also been briefly discussed.

5.4. Inductor selection References

The inductor should be designed to work in CCM since BP_Solar, 2009. BP Solar SX 310M Datasheet. <http://www.bp.com/
the converters can control the input voltage under a wide liveassets/bp_internet/solar/bp_solar_australia/STAGING/local_as-
sets/downloads_pdfs/s/SX_310_datasheet.pdf>.
range of insolation. The experiment shows that when the Bratcu, A., Munteanu, I., Bacha, S., Picault, D., Raison, B. Cascaded
converter works in DCM, the control system will adjust DC–DC converter photovoltaic systems: power optimization issues.
the duty cycle to its limit, i.e., 20% in this case, and yet IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. PP(99), 1–1.
MPP is not achieved. Braun, M., Stetz, T., 2008. Multifunctional photovoltaic inverters
economic potential of grid-connected multifunctional PV-batterysys-
In order to calculate the appropriate inductance, one
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