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Diunggah oleh Ediith' Moon

Cement is a fundamental commodity in any industrial
society. As a key ingredient in concrete, it is the
world’s most widely used building material.With applications
ranging from residential and commercial buildings
to key infrastructure elements such as roadways and bridges,
it is hard to imagine life without it.Worldwide cement production
totals some 1.5 billion tons annually. Such large volumes
place it among the top ten power consumers in many countries
and, along with the precision required for raw materials
blending, make it a prime candidate for automation.

- phd theses
- Automation Tips
- (IFAC Symposia Series) International Federation of Automatic Control, C. McGreavy-Dynamics and Control of Chemical Reactors and Distillation Columns. Selected Papers from the IFAC Symposium, Bournemou.pdf
- Faster is Better High-Speed ModelFree Adaptive Control
- W1 - Introduction of Control System
- Correction Algorithms in Computerized Power Control System for Induction Heating
- Control System Technology
- The International Journal of Applied Control, Electrical and Electronics Engineering
- lecture309-fall16-ch1
- Introduction to control systems
- Process Control Norma ISA
- Assignment 3
- IJACEEE
- The International Journal of Applied Control, Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IJACEEE)
- Steady State Error1 1
- Introduction to Control Systems-LEC1
- Lec01
- CEA Control Systems
- Control System 2
- 185711007-control-engineering.pdf

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By Cs. Bányász, L. Keviczky, and István Vajk

C

ement is a fundamental commodity in any industrial These materials are purchased or quarried and then

society. As a key ingredient in concrete, it is the transported to the cement factory by road, railway, or con-

world’s most widely used building material. With ap- veyor. The raw materials are crushed, usually in the quarry

plications ranging from residential and commercial buildings but sometimes in the factory, to a size that the machinery

to key infrastructure elements such as roadways and bridges, can handle or grind.

it is hard to imagine life without it. Worldwide cement produc- The prepared raw materials are stored in silos, ready for

tion totals some 1.5 billion tons annually. Such large volumes the next production step (i.e., the material grinding and

place it among the top ten power consumers in many coun- blending operation). In this step, which can be either a wet

tries and, along with the precision required for raw materials or a dry process, ball mills are used to crush and blend the

blending, make it a prime candidate for automation. materials in varying proportions according to the required

The techniques of cement production have been known quality of the final product. The materials are proportioned

for centuries and are discussed extensively in the literature. using a control system to ensure the desired chemical com-

The main problems with automation of cement production position of the final ground mix.

are also well known, as discussed in several survey papers Adding water to the raw materials makes them easier to

(e.g., [1]-[3]), and thus it is difficult to introduce new ideas. grind and mix (grinding can also be done separately), but a

We believe, however, that recent advances in computational major disadvantage of the wet process from an energy

power have considerably increased the possibility of apply- standpoint is that the water later evaporates. Thus, we will

ing certain modern control theory methods and algorithms

to the automation of cement production.

Quarrying

In this article, we discuss a new generic optimal control-

ler structure for raw material blending in the cement indus- Crushing

try. We focus on an important phase of the proportioning → Storage

burning → grinding operation triplet that essentially deter- Purchasing Crushing

mines the cement quality; namely, the composition control

Prehomogenization

of the raw mill system. We begin by describing the applica-

Storage

tion of the generic optimal controller structure introduced

in [1] to this important phase, followed by a discussion of

Raw Material

Raw Mill

the control engineering background and the design of the re-

Blending

Storage

alized controller. Finally, the control algorithm is discussed

Homogenization

in a technology-independent manner.

Storage

The main elements of cement production are shown in Fig- Preheater

Clinker

Kilning

Rotary Kiln

factory, but those denoted by thick lines are found in most

cases. Cooler

Storage

The raw materials for cement production are selected

based on their chemical composition. The primary compo-

Grinding

Cement

Cement Mill

nent is the calcium oxide (CaO) source, which is usually

Storage

limestone, but chalk, marl, dolomite, and oyster shells can

also be used. The next two components are silica (SiO2) and

Shipping

Shipping

alumina (Al2O3), obtainable from clay or shale. Quartz and

bauxite or other minerals can also be used. The fourth, and

last, component is ferric oxide (Fe2O3), which can be ob-

tained from iron ore, pyrite, or blast furnace slag. Figure 1. Typical basic technological operations for a cement

plant.

Keviczky (keviczky@sztaki.hu) and Bányász are with the Computer and Automation Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences,

H-1111 Budapest, Kende u 13-17, Hungary. Vajk is with the Department of Automation and Applied Informatics, Budapest University of

Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.

1053-5888/03/$17.00©2003IEEE

February 2003 IEEE Control Systems Magazine 87

concentrate on the dry process. In this process, cement is • silica modulus

made by baking (at about 1450 °C) and grinding the homoge-

neous raw materials mixture with a prescribed oxide con-

centration. The continuous process is divided into serially S

MS =

connected subprocesses by using large material storage ar- A+ F

eas and applying several parallel elements to increase pro- (3)

duction capacity. Together, these large material storage

areas and parallel working elements ensure the safe and eco- and their possible linear combinations. (Here, the oxide

nomic operation of the overall cement plant. contents are given in percentages.) The most difficult prob-

Control of the chemical composition of the raw meal is lem of composition control is the measurement of oxide

necessary because the relative amounts of dicalciumsili- compositions having a considerable time delay in the closed

cate (C2S), tricalciumsilicate (C3S), tricalciumaluminate control loop. Its value is so large (30 minutes to one hour)

(C3A), and tetracalcium-aluminoferrite (C4AF) formed in the that many experts expect greater improvements in the qual-

kiln strongly depend on the oxide composition of the ground ity of control due to decreasing the delay than to applying

mix. (For simplicity, the four most important oxides, CaO, the most sophisticated algorithms. Earlier, the chemical

SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, are denoted by C, S, A, and F, respec- analysis was made by laboratory tools using material sam-

tively.) The purpose of the control is to maintain the relative pled by hand. Recently, automatic sampling has been intro-

proportions of these oxides. The relative proportions can duced, and an X-ray fluorescence analyzer (RFA) typically

be expressed by their so-called modulus values. The most provides the oxide compositions.

widely used ones are: The complexity of the control problem of raw material

• lime standard (or modulus) proportioning depends on the number of materials neces-

sary to blend the desired chemical composition. In many ce-

100C ment factories, the most important three to five basic

ML =

2.8 S + 11

. A + 0.8 F (1) materials are used; however, there are cases where eight to

ten different materials are to be mixed. The achievable qual-

• aluminum modulus ity specifications of this control depend on changes in the

basic material compositions. In the best case, there is no

A need for control. In many cases, however, the makeup of the

MA =

F (2) raw materials is so variable that only computer control can

achieve the desired composition. It is no accident that the

Feeder Tanks first computer control appeared at this point in the process.

The simplified scheme of a raw material blending sys-

Component nof

Component 1

... often applied basic materials. The feeder silos contain raw

materials of different composition. The weigh feeders are

controlled by a computer. A conveyor belt feeds the rubble

... Weighs into the raw mill. Next, the ground mix of raw materials

(Feeders) (raw meal) enters the silo. Before the meal enters the silo, a

sample is analyzed by an RFA that provides the oxide com-

positions for the computer. The computer controls this au-

Ground Meal tomatic sampling, conveyance, preparation, and analysis

Raw Mill

process and computes the new set points (scale factors)

Sample for the weigh feeders using the modulus values as refer-

ences. Hereinafter, only the composition control itself will

be treated.

Silo

RFA

Control Engineering Model of the Process

Computer A simplified control engineering discrete-time model of the

mill-silo system is shown in Figure 3 (see the details in [5]),

where r ( t ), v( t ), and q ( t ) are the input feed, the mill outlet

Reference Values (silo inlet), and the silo content, respectively. The vectors ox

and M denote the oxides and modulus values; w stands for

Figure 2. Simplified technological scheme of a raw material the scale factors of the weighs (feeders), and C is the compo-

blending system. sition matrix. The linear noninteracting (diagonal) dynamics

gi z − di methods and algorithms published in the past decades. The

Gm ( z −1 ) = diag K , −1

,Kz − d

1 + (1 − g i )z large number of papers indicates that no unique or best

≈ diag{K , z − d i ,K}

method has been found. The solution depends on the

model, criteria, uncertainties, disturbances, etc. (some-

≈ z −dI times even on the designer’s preference).

(4)

A control system is internally stable if the bounded sig-

for the partial material flows is generally acceptable for the nals injected at any point of the closed loop generate

mill, and the first-order unity gain time lag approximation bounded responses at any point. Thus, a linear time-invari-

with delay has proved to be adequate in most practical ant, discrete-time control system is internally stable if the

cases. Because of the relatively large sampling interval transfer functions between any two points of the closed

( h = 20 - 30 min ) necessary for automatic material sam- loop are stable (i.e., have all poles within the open unit disc).

pling, conveying, and the RFA and the typically applied aver- The Youla- (Y or Q) parametrization is a classical method for

aging measurement technique, different time delays characterizing all realizable stabilizing (ARS) regulators by

without any lag effects can also be used, and the simplest ap-

Q

proximation is a common time delay block. Here, distinct R=

channel time delays z − d i will be used with additional dynam- 1 − QS (6)

ics caused by the noninteger discrete delays (modified

z-transform). for the open-loop stable plant S ∈ S, where S is the closed

The input and output vector variables rinp ′ of this

′ and rout set of all stable proper real-rational systems having all poles

noninteracting internal multivariable linear segment are the within the closed unit disc. The “parameter”

partial material flows (lime, clay, pyrite). Models for the ox-

R

ides are generally coupled because C is not diagonal. The Q= ; Q ∈S

dynamics of a batch silo can be easily derived and is given 1 + RS (7)

by a simple integrator

ranges over all proper (Q(ω = ∞ ) is finite), stable transfer

functions [6].

z −1

Gs ( z −1 ) = I, Using the K-B-parametrization [7], shown in Figure 4, the au-

1 − z −1 (5) thors introduced a generic two-degree-of-freedom (G2DF) con-

trol system, provided that it virtually opens the closed loop

where I is the unit matrix [5]. The vector rsilo′ represents the

integrated (accumulated) partial material flows. Gs is some- y = Qr Sy r − (1 − QS )n = y t + y d (8)

times called silo integration. The blocks denoted by NL refer

to the nonlinear computation of the modulus values. where the tracking properties y t = Qr Sy r can be designed in-

Based on the above model, it can be established that a dependent of the regulating behavior y d = (1 − QS )n by Qr .

multivariable coupled system has to be controlled. If the The G2DF control system is shown in Figure 5, where

problem can be formulated for the oxide variables, then we y r , u , y, and n are the reference, process input, output, and

have a linear system; if it can be done only for the modulus

values, then the system is nonlinear.

The purpose of the control is to proportion an entire silo Mill Silo

content with desired average compositions and to reach r(t) Dynamics Dynamics

minimal variances around these reference values. The task w(t) r′inp(t) r′out(t) r′silo(t) q(t)

× Gm(z−1) Gs(z−1) Σ

is to decrease the composition inhomogeneities of a silo

batch by mechanically homogenizing the silo content be-

C(t) Σ

fore it gets to the kiln.

C(t)

If the changes in the raw material compositions allow, v(t)

and the control operates accurately, a continuous silo can ÷

also be applied instead of the batch one. In such cases, the ÷

silo can be abandoned, affording considerable savings in oxout(t) oxsilo(t)

capital investment. Note that only the variables ox out are

NL NL

measured and the values ox silo , M out , and M silo are computed.

Mout(t) Msilo(t)

A Generic Optimal Controller Structure

The need to design high-performance control systems has

not diminished in importance despite the thousands of Figure 3. Model of the raw mill-silo system.

disturbance signals, respectively. The optimal ARS regula- optimal computation of the Gr and Gn filters. If Gr and Gn are

tor of the G2DF scheme [4], [7], [8] is given by optimally selected, then Ropt denotes the optimal ARS regu-

lator in (9). It is interesting to see what the transfer charac-

Pn K n Qo PnGn S −+1 teristics of this system look like:

Ropt = Ro = = = ,

1 − Pn K n S 1 − Qo S 1 − PnGn S − z − d (9)

y = Pr K r S y r − (1 − Pn K n S ) n

where = Pr Gr S − z − d y r − (1 − PnGn S − z − d ) n

= yt + yd .

Qo = Qn = Pn K n = PnGn S −1

+ (10) (13)

is the associated Y-parameter [8]; furthermore, Here, Pr and Pn are stable and proper transfer functions,

which are partly capable of placing the desired poles in

Qr = Pr K r = Pr Gr S −+1 , K w = Gw S −+1 , K r = Gr S −+1 , (11) the servo and the regulatory transfer functions; further-

more, they are usually referred to as reference signal and

assuming that the process is factorable as output disturbance predictors. They can even be called

reference models, so reasonably the gains Pr (ω = 0 ) = 1 and

S = S + S− = S + S− z − d , (12) Pn (ω = 0 ) = 1 are selected.

The G2DF control system has a specific form, shown in

where S + means the inverse stable (IS) and S − the inverse un- Figure 6, representing the so-called invariant model part

stable (IU) factors, respectively. z − d corresponds to the dis- S − z − d of the process, which cannot be canceled or elimi-

crete time delay, which is the integer multiple of the nated by any method. Only the influence of S − can be attenu-

sampling time. ated by the optimally selected embedded filters Gr and Gn .

It has been shown [8] that the optimization of the G2DF When Gr = 1and Gn = 1(which are optimal selections only for

scheme can be performed in H2 and H∞ norm spaces by an IS plant), the regulator is

proper selection of the serial K r and embedded K n filters

(compensators). These optimizations will be reduced to the Pn S −+1 Pn

R= −d

= R S −+1 ; R = ,

1 − Pn S − z 1 − Pn S − z − d

(14)

R n

yr + Q + + y

Qr S S which results in very simple closed-loop characteristics [8]

1−QS + +

−

Internal Linear Plant

Model y = Pr S − z − d y r − (1 − Pn S − z − d ) n = y t + y d . (15)

Figure 4. The general form of the K-B-parametrization. In control engineering practice, another interpretation of

the plant factorization (12) can be used when S − does not

contain only the IU factors but includes any part of the pro-

n cess model that is not desirable to cancel. Mostly poorly

+ +

yr + PnKn y damped zeros are considered here that could result in un-

Pr Kr S 1−PnKnS + S + wanted intersampling ripples.

−

Ro It is widely accepted that “all 2DF configurations have ba-

sically the same properties and potentials” [9]. However, it

Figure 5. The G2DF control system. has been shown that the above scheme is primus inter pares,

and therefore the term generic applies to more than just the

equivalent feedforward/feedback closed-loop control sys-

True n tems. The generalization of this scheme for general multi-

Process ple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems is not very

+

yr Pn G n y difficult, but it is a time-consuming and not obvious task (con-

PrGr S− z−d + S−1 S+S− z−d

1−PnGnS− z−d + + sider the noncommutativity of matrix products). In such spe-

−

Invariant Inverse S cial cases (see the following sections), when the decoupling

R

Model Part Model

of the MIMO system can be solved with some special (not al-

Controller ways linear) algebraic algorithm, the above generic scheme is

applicable for the decoupled “channels” and is the simplest

Figure 6. The G2DF control system for the IS plant. structure for reaching optimal control performance.

The Control Problem From a technological standpoint the moduli and oxides

The raw meal composition is controlled by adjusting the of the silo content are of interest, since these parameters de-

feed ratios of the raw material components. In the literature, termine the quality of the next technological step, the burn-

the applied multivariable controller is generally a fixed-pa- ing process.

rameter decoupled regulator utilizing the classical I, PI, or The complexity of the problem is increased by the fact

PID regulator structure. The advanced versions of these that the silo is not able to homogenize its entire contents,

controller classes use optimization techniques (e.g., as in even if a mixing silo is used. To take this effect into consider-

[10]). A practical control problem arises because the com- ation, a pseudosilo is introduced: beyond a given silo con-

position of raw materials varies from time to time and can- tent, continuous homogenization is calculated instead of a

not be measured directly. In this case, a proper adaptive batch one:

controller should be used. Several early attempts (see [11]

and [12]) are well known for having used adaptive tech-

q ( t ) = q ( t − 1) = q max (18)

niques for composition control. These applications con-

sider the plant as approximated by a black-box model and

implement multivariable self-tuning regulators.

Our present approach attempts to use the structural and

j

ox silo ( t − 1)(q max − v( t )) + ox out

j

( t )v( t )

j

ox silo = ,

parametric a priori information, so only the unknown plant q( t )

parameters are learned (adapted) continuously. Our ap- j = 1,K , nox ,

proach is based on the adaptive adjustment of the decoup- (19)

ling network by estimation of the composition matrix, using

flexibility in modulus definition and in assigning the moduli where q max is the limit size of the pseudosilo.

to be controlled, elimination of the silo effect and that of the As mentioned earlier, the objectives of the production are

feeder errors, the capability to use a priori information, and expressed by ratios: by moduli and oxide concentrations. It is

separation of silo and sample control. The controller struc- worthwhile to handle these ratios in a common way because

ture is based on the multivariable version of the special the ratios applied for control change from factory to factory.

G2DF scheme introduced by the authors. Also, this is the way to make the results applicable to mixing

In several cement plants, the sampling is based on the problems exhibited by different technologies. The general-

30-minute or one-hour (depending on the analysis process) ized moduli can be defined by the following expressions:

average of the mill product. The sample transport, the sam-

ple preparation, and the analysis require about 20 minutes. nox

The time delay and the time lag of the feeder-mill system may ∑α

j=1

kj ox j

be different for the different raw material components. The mk = nox

,

time delays are relatively constant and can be known a priori. γ k + ∑ β kjox j

j=1

These values are determined by the mechanical construc-

(20)

tion, the transportation method, the mill type, the capacity of

the mill, and the grinding property of the components. Since

whereα kj ,β kj , and γ k are constants characterizing the modu-

the time lag is relatively small compared to the total time de-

lus mk . Thus, the control objective can be expressed by a

lay, the mass flow of the components can be modeled by pure

unified formula.

time delay blocks. The content of the silo and its oxide con-

The ultimate control problem is as follows: determine the

centration cannot be measured. They are calculated from the

flow rates of the raw materials to fill the silos with the appro-

mill product. By applying the mass and concentration bal-

priate meal, taking into consideration that the oxide concen-

ances, the dynamics of the silo (see (5)) can be obtained:

tration of the raw material changes, the sampling is rela-

tively rare, the time delay is relatively large, the definition of

q ( t ) = q ( t − 1) + v( t ) (16) the moduli is given by nonlinear functions, the homogeniza-

tion of the silo is far from ideal, and the technological con-

straints must be satisfied.

q ( t − 1)ox silo

j

( t − 1) + v( t )ox out

j

(t ) Only quality control of the mill system was discussed

j

ox silo (t ) = , j = 1,K , nox, above. In this regard, the energy consumption for grinding is

q( t )

(17) very high and the efficiency of the process is very low, so

finding the maximum mill production that could result in the

j

where ox out ( t ) is the jth measured oxide concentration of lowest relative energy consumption is highly recom-

j

the mill product, ox silo ( t ) is the jth oxide concentration of mended. The usable set point for quantity control is deter-

the silo content, and nox is the number of oxides used. mined by the technological parameters of the mill system.

The Control Strategy • recalculation of controller state.

The realized adaptive controller for composition control The calculation of the feedback signal is as shown in Fig-

can be regarded as composed of two parts: an estimator and ure 9. The controller system actually performs sample con-

a feedback regulator. The structure of the controller is trol for a modified mill product value instead of control of

shown in Figure 7. The identification part estimates the ox- the silo content. The reason is that the silo control error may

ide concentration of the components from the input and drastically modify the mill product and move the state of the

output measurements of the mill. The controller system at- controllers to a point that is not optimal for the next control

tempts to eliminate the disturbances and to guide the pro- step. So the controlled variables are generated from the

cess (the feeder → mill → silo system) in such a way that the measured oxide concentration by elimination of the silo

mill → silo output would be close to the required reference control effect. The correcting signal depends on the opera-

values of the moduli. The feedback controller uses the mea- tion of the feeder servo system as well. Assume that for

sured values of the feeders, the measured quantity and ox- some technological reason one of the feeders is temporarily

ide concentration of the mill product, and those of the silo stopped for a few minutes while the others are still in opera-

content. tion. Due to the feeder error, there will be an error in the mill

The feedback controller system consists of four major product as well. This error can be measured some sampling

blocks (Figure 8): periods later. Because of this error, a controller without

• calculation of feedback signals these modifications would increase or decrease the set

• controller points of the feeders, but these adjustments would be incor-

• decoupling system rect, as the technological problem has already been solved.

The above structure guarantees that the silo control does

not disturb the mill control and eliminates the disturbances

caused by the feeder system.

Identification

As mentioned earlier, the feeder → mill → silo system is a

Process

multivariable nonlinear process where the process inputs

Controller Feeder are the set values for the feeders and the outputs are the

Mill Silo

System System measured oxide concentrations of the mill product. To elimi-

nate the nonlinearity introduced by the modulus definition,

its inverse is used in the nonlinear decoupling network. This

network guarantees that the transfer function from the

Figure 7. Adaptive composition control. moduli-type input of the decoupling system to the moduli of

the silo are pure time delay blocks if the technology permits

adjustment of the feeder reference values based on the de-

coupling network values. The decoupling requires the solu-

Recalculation

of

tion of the following programming problem:

Controller State • determining the reference values of the (weigh) feed-

C q oxsilo ersw rk ( k = 1,K , nof), where nof is the number of feed-

ers used for control

wr • minimizing the cost of the mill production

Decoupling

Controller

Mr System r′inp oxout r

Mreg nof

i=1

i

i

r

(21)

of

Feedback Signal

where ci is the cost of the ith component

• the sum of the feeder reference values w r is given by

Figure 8. Structure of the controller system.

nof

wr = ∑w

i=1

i

r

(22)

Mreg r r′inp oxout

− Mout

Decoupling

Feeder + Mill Modulus • technological constraints for the feeders must be sat-

Without

Model Model Calculation isfied:

Silo Effect

Figure 9. Calculation of the feedback signal. w ri, min ≤ w ri ≤ w ri, max i = 1,K , nof (23)

• moduli of the mill production are limited: G1i = S −i z −2 ; G1 = diag{K , ai + (1 − ai )z −1 ,K}z −2 (27)

nof

k

M min ≤ M k ∑ C jiw ri , j = 1,K , nox ≤ M max

k

1

i =1 G2i = ,

k = 1,K , nom, 1 − [ai + (1 − ai )z −1] z −2

(24)

1

G2 = diag K , −1 −2

,K

where nom is the number of moduli to be controlled 1 − [ai + (1 − ai ) z ] z (28)

and M k (K ) denotes the calculation rule of the kth

moduli from oxides

• the moduli of the mill production corrected by the silo G3i = 1 ; G3 = I. (29)

effect in a given prediction horizon must be equal or

as close as possible to the output of the controller Here, the reference models Pr = Pn = 1 were selected,

Mreg : which correspond to a deadbeat-type regulator with no

intersample ripples. (If the delay times for the different com-

∑ d |M |

nom

ponents are significantly different, the exact decoupling and

k

k

reg − M silo

k

.

k =1 (25) deadbeat effect can be reached only by the real MIMO ver-

sion of the optimal controller given by (15)). It is easy to ver-

k

Here, M silo depends on the oxide quantity in the silo, the ify that the resulting channel regulators Ri = G2i are integrat-

previous commands, the reference values of the moduli, the ing ones having a pole at z = 1.

prediction horizon to control, the estimated oxide concen- In the controller → decoupling → feeder → mill → sam-

tration of the components, the model parameters of the mill pling analysis → modulus calculation process, the order of

system, and the feeder ratios to be calculated (see Figure the linear and the nonlinear elements cannot be changed,

10). dk is a properly selected weighting factor. but we would like to eliminate a special fail-operation. This

The above problem can be solved using a two-step linear is why the control system recalculates the controller state

programming algorithm. in every control step. The effect of the estimation and the

The task of the controller is to eliminate the disturbances control can be separated, and the disturbances caused by

that cannot be predicted from the a priori information and the parameter adjustment due to the estimation can be

the a posteriori estimation. As the process can be decoup- eliminated. At the same time, the integrator wind-up can be

led, parallel working single-loop controllers can be applied neglected and the limit values of the feeders can be taken

for control. The block scheme of the “semi-MIMO” control- into consideration.

ler used in our application is shown in Figure 10. It is easy to

Identification Strategy

see a one-to-one correspondence with the G2DF scheme in-

In every adaptive control system, two major compromises

troduced in Figure 6. The saturation of the controller limits

must be made: one is related to the time horizon, and the

the error signal and reduces the fail-effect of the occasion-

other is related to the information available for estimation. It

ally incorrect analysis.

is usually assumed that the parameters of the system are

To demonstrate the controller adjustment, assume that

slowly varying and the measurements are noisy. The parame-

the feeder → mill → sampling analysis system can be mod-

ter tracking can be realized by forgetting old data. The speed

eled by the following transfer function:

of tracking and the precision of the parameter estimation im-

[ ]

S i = ai + (1 − ai )z −1 z −2

pose contradictory requirements. The effect of the noise can

be reduced by averaging, but the speed of parameter tracking

S i

= [ a + (1 − a )z ] z −1 −2

= S −i z − d , d =2 can be increased by rapid forgetting of old data or old mea-

i i (26)

surements. One has to distinguish between the effects of

for the ith channel, which corresponds to an IU time delay

process, where the delay is common for all channels. We as-

Feedforward

sumed that the time lag effect is not significant and the sys-

tem can be modeled by pure time delay. The reasons for two S− z−d Compensator Inverse Model

+ +

parameters in the transfer function are that the delay time is

G1 Limiter G2 G3

not a multiple of the sampling period and the sampling device Mr − + Mreg

works continuously. This transfer function does not differ Invariant Part R

of the Model Mout

from a first-order lag, but it is not worthwhile to compensate

this effect by a lead block. The application of the optimal

G2DF controller results in the following transfer functions: Figure 10. Structure of the controller.

noise and the effects of changes in parameters. The other and C ji ( t ) is the estimated jth oxide concentration of the ith

j

compromise is related to the information available for esti- component and ox out ( t ) is the jth measured oxide of the mill

mation by the excitation of the process. The requirement for product. There are components whose concentrations are

process input is different for control action and for parameter relatively stable and known, but some oxide concentrations

estimation. The identification requires significant variation of of certain materials are unknown and slowly varying. The es-

the process input. Effective control action reduces the con- timation process should determine these C ji values. Here,

trol error and does not ensure a good input signal for the esti- the identification algorithm for one oxide is presented, but

mation. In a mill control system, an additional excitation similar algorithms may be constructed for the other oxides

signal cannot be used. The identification must be realized on used as well.

the basis of the normal control operation. The parameter update of the often applied identification

′ ) relative to the

The quantity of the raw materials ( r ′ = rout methods leads to the matrix expression

actual measured oxide concentration of the raw meal can be

calculated based on the mill model using the measured val-

ues of the material flow. The identification process uses these

mass flow values and the measured oxide concentration to [

c j ( t + 1) = c j ( t ) + P( t ) r ( t ) ox out

j

]

( t ) − r T ( t )c j ( t ) , (32)

where the ith element of c j ( t ) isC ji ( t ), the ith element of r( t )

For the jth oxide, we can apply the following model:

is ri ( t ), and P( t ) is a weighting matrix. Here, c j is the trans-

pose of the jth row of C (i.e., a column vector). The identifica-

j

ox out ( t ) ≈ ∑ C ji ( t ) ri ( t ), (30)

tion processes differ in the choice of the weighting matrix

P( t ). This determines the convergence, the precision, and

where the partial material flow ratios can be calculated by

the learning capability of the estimation strategy.

r ′( t ) ri′( t ) It is well known that a least-squares-type choice of P( t ) may

ri ( t ) = nof

i

= and r = [r1 ,K , rnof]T guarantee good noise reduction, but it does not allow parame-

v( t )

∑ r ′( t )

i=1

i

(31)

ter tracking. For the estimation, however, the input signal must

excite the process sufficiently. The old data (old measure-

ments) are required to account for parameter tracking. Several

forgetting strategies can be found in the literature. A few at-

105 tempt to use variable forgetting factor algorithms that scale

Adaptive Control Switched on at t = 45

the covariance matrix and leave the search direction unal-

100 tered. In the search direction, scaling may result in smooth pa-

rameter tracking, but numeric problems may arise with ill

conditioning of the covariance matrix [13]. The directional for-

95

getting attempts to eliminate the persistent excitation prob-

lem [14], forgetting the collected information only in the

90 direction of the actual situation vector with constant factor.

ML Reference Value = 94 The forgetting strategy applied in adaptive composition

85 control combines directional forgetting with a variable for-

50 100 150 200 getting strategy. The application of a constant weighting ma-

Number of Samples [1 h = 3 Samples] trix P means that, in every step, as much of the collected

information is forgotten as is added by the new step. To in-

100

crease the robustness of the identification, the step size of

the parameter update is limited to the normal projection

90 step. A critical point is the choice of weight matrix. As the

size of the oxide concentration of various components can

50 100 150 200

be expected to fluctuate, the diagonal elements of the

Silo Filling Time = 45 weighting matrix can be chosen inversely proportional to

Average the expected variation. For example, if the oxide concentra-

tion of a component is known and does not change, the diag-

100

onal element of the weighting matrix corresponding to this

90 oxide can be chosen to be zero. In our experiment, the above

mixed-solution compromise provided the necessary adap-

50 100 150 200

tive estimation robustness with an acceptable learning

Figure 11. Recorded operating data of the lime standard. speed for abrupt changes.

Since the moving average of the observation vector is far 2

from zero, the adaptation speed can be increased by using Adaptive Control Switched on at t = 45

the continuously updated working point. So it is worthwhile 1.8

to apply P′ instead of P, where P′ is calculated by

1.6

[ ]

−1 −1

P′ ( t ) = P ( t ) + r ( t ) r ( t )

T

.

(33) 1.4

Here, r( t ) is the filtered values of the ratios of the raw ma- 1.2

terial flows by means of which the moving average of the ob- MA Reference Value = 1.5

servation vector is estimated. 1

50 100 150 200

Operational Records Number of Samples [1 h = 3 Samples]

The normal operational records given in Figures 11, 12, and

2

13 show the time curves of the three adaptively controlled

(lime, aluminum, and silica) modulus variables for filling five 1.5

homogenization silos. While filling the first silo, a conven-

tional (PI-like) regulator was operating, and at the start of 1

50 100 150 200

filling the second silo (at t = 45), the adaptive control system

was switched on. The sampling interval was 20 min. The ap- Silo Filling Time = 45

plied reference values are MLr = 94, MA r = 1.5, and MS r = 2.1 Average

2

index. The continuously updated average (pseudosilo) val-

ues are also presented. These results came from actual ex- 1.5

periments with the real blending system.

It is obvious that the variances of the three standards 1

50 100 150 200

with the PI regulator are considerably higher than with the

adaptive regulator. Because the adaptive controller started Figure 12. Recorded operating data of the aluminum modulus.

to learn during the normal operation, no additional long ad-

aptation period is visible. 3

Adaptive Control Switched on at t = 45

The physical explanation of the better performance of

the introduced adaptive controller is simple. The applied 2.5

strategy decomposed the original multivariable nonlinear

control paradigm to subproblems, which are much easier to

handle using the special decoupling approach presented. 2

Thus, the adaptation relates only to the parameter estima-

tion of the oxide models, which are basically static relation- 1.5

ships. The dynamics of the process is not continuously MS Reference Value = 2.1

adapted because it is not time varying and can be identified

1

to a good approximation a priori. At the same time, the ap- 50 100 150 200

plied G2DF controller scheme provides the best achievable Number of Samples [1 h = 3 Samples]

performance given the process dynamics. In this low-order

3

case, the final controller is a minimum-variance-type con-

troller ensuring H2 optimality.

2

Conclusion 1

50 100 150 200

This article described a simplified scheme for an adaptive

composition control algorithm. The applied control system Silo Filling Time = 45

is based on a new generic controller structure and has the Average

3

following main features:

• estimation of the raw material composition using an a 2

priori dynamic model of the mill

• adaptive adjustment of the decoupling network based 1

50 100 150 200

on the identified composition matrix

• flexibility in modulus definition Figure 13. Recorded operating data of the silica modulus.

• direct modulus control [16] F. Mellies and I. Vajk, “Adaptive mischungsregelung, ein baustein für das

laborautomationssystem POLAB,” Zement-Kalk-Gips, 1991.

• handling the sampling, continuous, and batch homog-

[17] I. Vajk, L. Keviczky, J. Hetthéssy, F.J. Adrian, M. Hilger, and J. Kolostori,

enization “Adaptive composition control,” in Proc. 9th IFAC/IFORS Symp. Identification

• taking the silo into consideration as the control strat- and System Parameter Estimation, Budapest, Hungary, 1991, pp. 511-515.

egy forecasts the future average composition in the silo

• separation of silo and sample control Cs. Bányász received the M.S. degree in electrical engineer-

• elimination of problems caused by local position con- ing in 1969 from the Budapest University of Technology and

trollers, if necessary Economics (BUTE) and the Ph.D. in identification from the

• optimal satisfaction of the technological requirements Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS) in 1976. Since 1969

• effective noise reduction and adjustable operation she has been with the Computer and Automation Institute

speed. (CARI) of HAS, currently working with the Systems and Con-

The adaptive composition controller presented is in op- trols Laboratory as senior research scientist. She is a mem-

eration in several cement plants (e.g., in the Vác Cement ber of the Hungarian Academy of Engineering. She was the

Work in Hungary). editor and one of the main organizers of major international

Acknowledgment scientific events in Hungary (IFAC SYSID 1991, IFAC ACASP

This work was supported by the U.S. Army Research Office, 1995, IFAC ROCOND 1997, and the International Conference

the Hungarian National Science Foundation (Országos on Women Engineers and Scientists in 1996). She is an active

Tudományos Kutatási Alap: OTKA), and the Control Engi- member of the IEEE Women-in-Engineering Group. She has

neering Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sci- published more than 110 papers and has more than 120 cita-

ences (MTA TKI). tions. Her research interests are system identification, pa-

rameter estimation, and systems engineering applications

References in various industrial problems.

[1] H. Hammer, “Computer controlled raw meal production in cement indus-

try,” Regelungstechnik und Prozessdatenverarbeitung, vol. 5, pp. 190-198, 1972.

[2] H. Hoenig, “Component control in a cement plant using a process com-

L. Keviczky graduated from the Electrical Engineering Fac-

puter,” Zement-Kalk-Gips, vol. 1, pp. 31-36, 1972. ulty of the TUB in 1968 and received the first doctoral degree

[3] L. Keviczky, “Control in cement production,” in Proc. IFAC Symp. MMM’83, in 1970. Since 1985 he has been a member of the Hungarian

Helsinki, Finland, 1983, pp. 1-13.

[4] L. Keviczky, “Combined identification and control: Another way,” in Proc.

Academy of Sciences and is a member of the Hungarian

ACASP’95: IFAC Symp. Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, Budapest, Hun- Academy of Engineering. In 1991 he was appointed a Foreign

gary, 1995, pp. 13-30. Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sci-

[5] L. Keviczky, M. Hilger, and J. Kolostori, Mathematics and Control Engi-

neering of Grinding Technology. Ball Mill Grinding. Boston, MA: Kluwer Aca-

ences. He was the director of the CARI from 1986 to 1993 and

demic, 1989. then elected secretary general of the HAS. He has been

[6] J.M. Maciejowski, Multivariable Feedback Design. Reading, MA: Addi- vice-president of the HAS since 1999. Since 1994 he has been

son-Wesley, 1989.

full professor of the Department of Automation and Applied

[7] L. Keviczky and Cs. Bányász, “Iterative identification and control design

using K-B parametrization,” in Control of Complex Systems, K.J. Åström, M. Informatics at the BUTE. He has held several positions

Blanke, A. Isidori, W. Schaufelberger, and R. Sanz, Eds. New York: Springer, within IFAC (council member, Application, Awards and Elec-

2000, p. 482.

tion Committee chairman). In 1999 he was elected

[8] L. Keviczky and Cs. Bányász, “Optimality of two-degree of freedom con-

trollers in H2 - and H∞ -norm space, their robustness and minimal sensitivity,” vice-chairman of the Policy Committee for the present trien-

in Proc. 14th IFAC World Congress, Beijing, PRC, vol. F, 1999, pp. 331-336. nial. His special fields of interest are system identification

[9] I.M. Horowitz, Synthesis of Feedback Systems. New York: Academic, 1963.

and parameter estimation, adaptive optimal control of in-

[10] A.K. Swain, “Material mix control in cement plant automation,” IEEE

Contr. Syst. Mag., vol. 15, pp. 23-27, 1995. dustrial processes, computer-controlled systems, simula-

[11] L. Keviczky, J. Hetthéssy, M. Hilger, and J. Kolostori, “Self-tuning adaptive tion and modeling, and intelligent and expert controls.

control of cement raw material blending,” Automatica, vol. 14, pp. 525-532, 1978.

[12] L. Keviczky and J. Hetthéssy, “Cement industry: Adaptive control,” in Sys-

István Vajk received the M.Sc. degree in electrical engineer-

tems and Control Encyclopedia: Theory, Technology, Applications, M.G. Singh,

Ed. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon, 1987, pp. 561-564. ing in 1975 and the Ph.D. degree in automatic control in 1977,

[13] T. Hagglund, “Recursive estimation of slowly time-varying parameters,” both from the BUTE. He was awarded the candidate of sci-

in Proc. IFAC Symp. Identification and System Parameter Estimation, York, U.K.,

ences degree in 1989 from the HAS. Since 1976 he has been at

1985, pp. 1137-1142.

[14] R. Kulhávy, “Restricted exponential forgetting in real-time identifica- the DAAI, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics,

tion,” in Proc. IFAC Symp. Identification and System Parameter Estimation, York, BUTE, where he is a professor, and he has been head of the

U.K., 1985, pp. 1143-1148. department since 1994. His main research interests are in

[15] A. Lundan and O. Mattila, “A system for the control of the homogeniza-

tion of the cement raw meal,” in Proc. 4th IFAC Symp. Digital Control Applica- the fields of system identification, adaptive control, and

tions for Process Control, Zürich, Switzerland, 1974. software engineering.

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