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Digital Assignment – 1

Network And Communication

Name – Harshit Mahajan

Register No. – 16BCI0154
1) Network Topology

Construct a Local network with n nodes (‘n’ should be atleast 5). You have to
design the network with four different network topology. The first network topology
is a star with a central designated station. The second one is a unidirectional ring.
The third one is a bidirectional ring. The fourth one is fully meshed. Analyse the
network topology based on cable cost, transmission time (Assume that the network
takes 2ms to travel between links). Calculate how many hops (i.e. cables between
two nodes) are passed in best, average, and worst case. Note: Assume a Source and a
destination from your network and do the analysis.
2) OSI Reference Model

Compare the TCP/IP stack with that of the OSI Reference Model. Also, suggest
some alternative models to that of the OSI Reference Model.
The TCP/IP Model was developed before OSI Model, and hence, the layers differ. Concerning
the diagram, it is clearly seen that TCP/IP Model has four layers namely, Network Interface,
Internet, Transport and Application Layer. Application Layer of TCP/IP is a combination of
Session, Presentation and Application Layer of the OSI Model.
Key Differences between TCP/IP and OSI Model

1. TCP/IP is a client-server model, i.e. when the client requests for service it is provided by
the server. Whereas, OSI is a conceptual model.
2. TCP/IP is a standard protocol used for every network including the Internet, whereas, OSI
is not a protocol but a reference model used for understanding and designing the system
3. TCP/IP is a four layered model, whereas, OSI has seven layers.
4. TCP/IP follows Vertical approach. On the other hand, OSI Model supports Horizontal
5. TCP/IP is Tangible, whereas, OSI is not.
6. TCP/IP follows top to bottom approach, whereas, OSI Model follows a bottom-up

The OSI model failed to become a universal global standard due to the adoption of TCP/IP.
Instead of following the OSI model directly, TCP/IP defined an alternative architecture based
on four layers instead of seven. From bottom to top:

 Network Access
 Transport
 Internetwork
 Application

The TCP/IP model subsequently was refined to split the Network Access layer into separate
Physical and Data Link layers, making a five layer model instead of four.

These Physical and Data Link layers roughly correspond to the same layers 1 and 2 of the OSI
model. The Internetwork and Transport layers also correspond respectively to the Network (layer
3) and Transport (layer 4) portions of OSI model.

The Application layer of TCP/IP, however, deviates much more significantly from the OSI
model. In TCP/IP, this one layer generally performs the functions of all three higher-level layers
in OSI (Session, Presentation, and Application).

Because the TCP/IP model was focused on a smaller subset of protocols to support than OSI, the
architecture is geared more specifically to its needs and its behaviors do not match exactly with
the OSI even for layers of the same name.

3) Delay Packet Switching

Consider the below network diagram. Assume that a 1 Mbit file is transmitted from
host 0 to host 3 over a data link operating at 64kbps. The links are connected via
fiber optic cables and the distance between any two links is 4800 kms (e.g host 0 to
router 0 is 4800 kms). Calculate the overall network delay for transmitting the file
from host 0 to host 3. (Note: Processing and Queuing delays are ignored)
4) Error Detection and Correction

Suppose the generator polynomial is x3 + x2 + 1 and the received message string is

11100011111, find out if there is any transmission error in the received string using
CRC error detection mechanism.