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# INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

## Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering

ECN-102 : Fundamental of Electronics
Tutorial Sheet 1
Semiconductors and PN Junction

## 1. The band gap of semiconductor is found to be 1.14 eV and 1.03 eV at temperature of

200º K and 500º K respectively. What is the band gap of the semiconductor at 0º K?
EG (T )  EGO  T
1.14  EGO   .200
1.03  EGO   .500
solving :
0.11
  3.67  10  4 eV / 0 K
300
thus EGO  1.21eV

2. At 300º K, the band gap and intrinsic carrier concentration of semiconductor are
1.1eV and 1.5 X 1016 m-3 respectively. The band gap decreases at the rate of 3.6 x 10-4
eV/ºK. Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration of the semiconductor at 500ºK.
2. EGO  1.1  3.67  10 4  300eV  1.21eV
1.211.61019

3  EGO / KT
n  A0T e
2
i , thu, att  300, n (300)  A0 (300) e
2
i
3 1.3810 23300

## i.e(1.5  1016 ) 2  1.33 A0 or A0  1.69  10 45

At , T  500
1.211.61019

k  1.38  10 

 28
n  1.69  10  (500) e
2
i
45 3 1.3810 23300
J /0 K
 ni  3.72  10 20 / m 3 500 0 K

3. (a) Determine the concentration of free electrons and holes in a sample of germanium
at 300ºK which has a concentrate of donor atoms equal to 2 X 1014 atoms/cm3. If this p or
n type germanium in other works, is the conductivity due primarily to holes or to
electrons.
(b) Repeat part (a) for equal donor and acceptor concentration of 1015 atoms/cm3. Is
this p or n type germanium.
(c) Repeat part (a) for donor concentration of 1016 atoms/cm3and acceptor
concentration 1014atoms/cm3.
(a) equations np  ni2 and NA  n  p  ND, we can obtain
( N d  N a )  ( N d  N a ) 2  4ni2
n
2
( N d  N a )  ( N d  N a ) 2  4ni2
and p
2
ni(3000K)=2.5X1019/m3 or ni2=6.25X1026/cm substituting numerical
values in the solutions found for n and p we have:
1
1
n    1014  (0.25  10 28  6.25  10 26 ) 2  0.058  1014 / cm 3
2
 n  5.8  10 28 / m 3
1
1
p   1014  (0.25  10 28  6.25  10 26 ) 2  1.058  1014 / cm 3
2
 p  10.58  10 28 / m 3
hence the sample is p  type
(b) sin ce NA  ND pn and n  p  ni
hence Ger min ium int ransic by compenasation.
(c ) Since N A  N D  n  10 / cm16 3

6.25  10 26
p  6.25  1010 / cm 3
1016
hence the sample is n  type
4. (a) Find the concentration of holes and electrons in p-type Silicon at 300ºK if the
conductivity is 100(Ω-cm)-1.
(b) Repeat part (a) for n type silicon if the conductivity is 0.1(Ω-cm)-1.
(a)

(b)
5. (a) Prove that resistivity of intrinsic germanium at 300K is 45 Ω-cm.

(b) If a donor type impurity is added to the extent of 1 atom per 108 germanium
atoms, prove that the receptivity drops to 3.7 Ω-cm.

6. The resistance of No. 18 copper wire (diameter= 1.03 mm) is 6.51Ω per 1000ft. The
concentration of free electrons in copper is 8.4 X 1028 electrons/m3. If the current is 2A.
Find the (a) drift velocity (b) mobility (c) conductivity.
d 2
(a)Thecross sec tion of the wire is A  0.835  10 6 m 2
4
I 2
J    2.4  10 6 A / m 2
A 0.835  10 6
J 2.4  10 6
u sin g equation v   1.78  10  4 m / s
ne 8.4  10 28  1.6  10 19
6.51
(b)Theresis tan ce per meter is  0.0214 / m
(10 ft )  (0.304m / ft )
3

## and   (0.0214 / m)  (2 A)  0.0428V / m

3
   v  4.16  10 m
2

 V S

7. The carrier mobility in a semiconductor is μ=2000 cm2/V-S at 0ºC. What is the carrier
diffusion constant at the same temperature?

## 8. Calculate the diffusion current in a block of germanium having a concentration

gradient of 1.5 X 1014 electrons/cm3. Dn =120cm2/sec.