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3. 3. Therapeutic methods• Ways to treat diseases.• Most diseases requires a combination of
therapeutic methods for successful treatment.1. Drug therapy – Txt with drugs2. Diet therapy
– Tx by diet – Low salt diet for cardio diseases3. Physiotherapy – Tx with natural physical
forces (water, light & heat)4. Psychological therapy – Identification of stressors and methods
to reduce or eliminate stress/use of drugs 3
5. 5. Definition of Terms 5
6. 6. Pharmacology• Greek word pharmakon = “drugs”• Is the scientific study of the origin,
nature, chemistry, effects, and uses of drugs• deals with how drugs interact within biological
systems to affect function• a branch of knowledge that has to do with the chemicals that
have biological effect 6
7. 7. Pharmacologist – is a scientist who specializes in the study ofpharmacodynamics,
employing all kinds of biochemical, physiological,and other techniques. 7
8. 8. Pharmacy – is a medical science concerned with the safe and effective use of medicines.
– the study of techniques involved in the preparation, compounding, dispensing, preservation
and storage of the drugs for medical use. 8
9. 9. Pharmacist – who is qualified and licensed – Functions: • to prepare and dispense drugs; •
responsible for the manufacture of the dosage form of drugs (e.g. tablets, capsules, etc) 9
10. 10. WHAT IS A DRUG?a.k.a. medications – any chemical substance which affects living
systems – Dutch word “droog” means dry – used for treatment of disease, for the prevention
of illness of pathologic states and for diagnosing disease condition.
11. 11. What is Clinical Pharmacology? – study of drugs in humans (patient and volunteers) 11
12. 12. Subdivisions/ Branches of PharmacologyWhat is Pharmacognosy ?• the branch of
pharmacology dealing with the economic, biological and chemical aspects of natural drugs
and their constituents.• study of the sources of drugs and the physical characteristics of
crude or unrefined drugs.• study of drugs derived from herbal and other natural sources and
how the body reacts to them.• Simply… – the study of natural (plant and animal) drug
13. 13. Sources of Drugs Pharmacocognosy Animals Plants Minerals Synthetic Microbes 13
14. 14. Sources of Drugs PharmacocognosyAnimals Products 1. Insulin =Cow and pig pancreas
tissue Use to replace human chemicals not produced caused by disease/genetic problem 2.
Thyroid drugs & growth hormones = animal thyroid/hypothalamus tissues 14
15. 15. Sources of Drugs Pharmacocognosy Plants Important source of chemicals developed
into drugs Digitalis (tx cardiac disorders) Opiates (for sedation) Marijuana •Has no
legal/accepted medical use •Synthetic formed dronabinol (Marinol) active form of delta-9-
tetrahydrocannabinol found in marijuana •Prevent nausea & vomiting in cancer patient but
with less effect than the leaf is smoked 15
16. 16. Sources of Drugs PharmacocognosyMineral/Inorganic Products Elements with
therapeutic effects in human body Aluminum •Antacids gastric acidity •Mgt
hyperphosphatemia •Prevent formation of phosphate urinary stones Fluoride Prevention of
dental cavities Prevention of osteoporosis Iron Treatment of IDA Gold Tx of rheumatoid
arthritis 16
17. 17. Sources of Drugs Pharmacocognosy Synthetic Products Artificially produced or
duplicated substances using different compounds used to be found in
plants/animals/environment Benefits: 1. Drugs from the sources are produce to eliminate
side effects 2. Increase potency of the drug Examples: Barbiturates, amphetamines,
sulfonamides, aspirin 17
18. 18. Sources of Drugs PharmacocognosyMicrobial Products •Thru genetic engineering
(altering DNA) •Permits the production of human insulin by altering E.coli = less impurities
than animal products 18
19. 19. What is Pharmacokinetics?• The study of what the body does to the drug: 1. Absorption •
movement of drug particles from the GI tract to body fluids by passive absorption, active
absorption. • Movement of drug from its site of administration into the blood stream 19
20. 20. What is Pharmacokinetics?• The study of what the body does to the drug: 2. Distribution
• Drug molecules from BLOOD TO TISSUES 20
21. 21. Pharmacokinetics• The study of what the body does to the drug: 3.
Metabolism/biotransformation • drugs are inactivated by liver enzymes • Then are converted
or transformed by hepatic enzymes to inactive metabolites or water-soluble substance for
excretion. • Process of energy and transformation in all living cells. • Liver is the major site of
drug metabolism
22. 22. What is Pharmacokinetics?• The study of what the body does to the drug: 4. Excretion •
elimination of drugs or its chemical byproducts • bile, feces, lungs, saliva, sweat, breast milk
• Primary organ responsible for excretion is the kidney. 22
23. 23. What is Pharmacodynamics ? – study of the biochemical and physiological effects of
drugs as well as their mechanism of action. – Simply… • The study of what the drug does to
the body – The mechanism of drug actions in living tissues 23
24. 24. What is Pharmacotherapeutics ? – study of how drug may be used in the treatment of
disease – which among the drugs would be most effective or appropriate for a specific
disorder or what dose would be required. – Use of drugs and clinical indications of drugs to
prevent and treat disease 24
25. 25. What is Pharmacogenetics? – the study of genetically-determined reactions of drugs in
the human body.
26. 26. What is Toxicology? – study of poisonous effects of drugs 26
27. 27. • Drug therapy – the proper administration of drugs used to treat disease 27
28. 28. Pharmacokinetics PharmacodynamicsWhat the body does to drug What the drug does to
body Pharmacology Pharmacotherapeutics PharmacocognosyThe study of the use of drugs
Identifying crude materials as drugs Toxicology 28
29. 29. • Mechanism of Action – Pharmacodynamics• Indication – the use of that drug for
treating a particular disease – example: • diabetes is an indication for insulin • insulin is
indicated for the treatment of diabetes• Side effect – All drugs have the potential to affect
more than 1 body system simultaneously
30. 30. • Adverse effect – Undesired effects that may be unpleasant or even dangerous – may
occur as: 1. May have other effects on the body besides the therapeutic effect 2. Pt is
sensitive to the drug given 3. Drug’s action on the body causes other responses that are
undesirable/unpleasant 4. Pt taking too much/too little of the drug 30
31. 31. • Tolerance – When a person begins to require higher doses to produce the same effects
that lower doses once provided – Ex. Heroin addiction • Body metabolize the drug more
rapidly than before 31
32. 32. • Dependence – a.k.a addiction or habituation – Occurs when a person is unable to
control the ingestion of drugs – Common on scheduled/controlled medications such as
opiates & benzodiazepines – May be: • physical = withdrawal symptoms • Psychologic =
emotionally attached to drug 32
33. 33. • Cumulative effect – A drug may accumulate in the body if the next doses are
administered before previously administered doses have been metabolized/excreted. – May
lead to drug toxicity 33
34. 34. • Over-the-counter(OTC) – Nonprescription drugs sold without a prescription in a
pharmacy.• Placebo – Drug dosage form such as a tablet/capsule that has no pharmacologic
activity because the dosage form has no active ingredients 34
35. 35. • Half- life – The time it takes for one half of the original amount of a drug in the body to
be removed – determine how often a drug needs to be given to remain in a therapeutic range
36. 36. • First-pass effect – absorbed into the mesenteric blood system and go to the liver for
biotransformation before traveling on to the general systemic circulation. – Therefore, some
of the drug is inactivated and not all will be available for use at its intended site of action. 36
37. 37. Brief History of Pharmacology 37
38. 38. Primitive Period– Primitive people uses drugs for mystical or magic powers rather than
their physiologic effect– They believed that evil spirits caused diseases– Alcohol and opium
were one of the first medicinal plants 38
39. 39. Ancient Period• Egypt- cradle of civilization oldest phase of medicine• Ebers Papyrus-
written 3,000 years ago – an Egyptian medical source – listed 700 different remedies to treat
specific ailments. – covers different prayers in driving away diseases and specific recipes for
drugs (e.g. aloe, oil, opium, peppermint, and vinegar) 39
40. 40. • Greece- pharmaceutical history begins with legends of gods and goddesses •
Aesculapius- god of healing • Hippocrates- father of medicine • Dioscorides- – Greek
physician who wrote the Materia Medica » described 600 different plants and classified them
by substance rather than by the disease they intend to treat. » became the main source of
pharmaceutical knowledge up to the 16th century 40
41. 41. • Rome- after the Roman conquest of Greece, Greek medicine migrates to Rome Galen-
a Greek physician who established a system of medicine and pharmacy -first to prepare the
cold cream and rose water ointment 41
42. 42. Medieval Period• Dark Age – a period of about 600 years – characterized by the
destruction of old civilization and little progress in learning• There was a spread in
Christianity• the establishment of the Venerable Bede – a medieval monastery where monks
preserved their works on pharmacy and medicine on manuscripts 42
43. 43. Medieval Period• Arabian Influence- – Establishment of schools and hospitals and
discovery of many new drugs. – Arabs are the originator of syrups, alcohol, and aromatic
water. – Produced the first pharmaceutical formula or set of standards (Apothecary System)•
Geber – the first great Mohammedan and reputed discoverer of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and
nitrohydrochloric acid 43
44. 44. Geber“Father of Arab Chemistry” 44
45. 45. 16th Century• Paracelsus- “Father of Pharmacology” » Swiss scientist that first
advocated the use of a single drug rather than mixtures and potions » (advantage: the
dosage of a single dose can be regulated more precisely than that of complex mixtures »
Improved pharmacy and therapeutics, introducing new remedies and compounds and
reducing overdosing 45
46. 46. 17th Century• Great interest was displayed in chemistry and pharmacy and many
preparations are in use.• Ex. Cinchona bark – discovered by the Indians; used in treating and
preventing malaria.• Syrup of ipecac – discovered by the natives of Brazil; used for amoebic
dysentery • William Harvey – explained how drugs exert beneficial or harmful effects. – also
demonstrated the circulation of blood in the body and introduced a new way of administering
drug – Intravenously 46
47. 47. 18th Century• Edward Jenner – an English physician who made the first public
inoculation of smallpox vaccine in 1756 William Withering – an Englishman who introduced
the infusion digitalis for thetreatment of heart disease. 47
48. 48. 19th Century• Friedrich Serturner – a German pharmacist who discovered alkaloid
morphine substance.• Francois Magendie & Claude Bernard – with the use of purified drug,
they demonstrated that certain drugs work at specific sites of action within the body.• The
French Codex was the first important pharmacology book to be produced in 1818.• Ether and
Chloroform were first used as general anesthesia in the 1840s.
49. 49. 20th Century• Important legislation was instituted to control the manufacture and sales of
drugs. – Food and Drug Act of 1906 & 1938 and – the Harrison Narcotic Drug Act of 1914 &
– Controlled Substance Act of 1970.• Lister & Semmelweis – introduced the use of
antiseptics to prevent infection during surgery• Two early landmarks in the 20th century: –
Ehrlich – introduced Salvarsan for treating syphilis and responsible for the introduction of
antibiotics – Banting & Best’s discovery of insulin in treating diabetes.